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TYPES OF RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH The research which is done for knowledge enhancement is the research which does not have immediate commercial potential. The research which is done for human welfare, animal welfare and plant kingdom welfare. It is called basic, pure, fundamental research. The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge, not to create or invent something. There is no obvious commercial value to the discoveries that result from basic research. Basic research lay down the foundation for the applied research. Dr.G.Smoot says people cannot foresee the future well enough to predict what is going to develop from the basic research E.g.:-how did the universe begin? APPLIED RESEARCH Applied research is designed to solve practical problem of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledges sake. The goal of applied research is to improve the human condition. It focuses on analysis and solving social and real life problems. This research is generally conducted on large scale basis, it is expensive. As such, it often conducted with the support of some financing agency like government, public corporation, World Bank, UNICEF, UGC, Etc. According to hunt, applied research is an investigation for ways of using scientific knowledge to solve practical problems for example:- improve agriculture crop production, treat or cure a specific disease, improve the energy efficiency homes, offices, how can communication among workers in large companies be improved? Applied research can be further classified as problem oriented and problem solving research. I. Problem oriented research: - research is done by industry apex body for sorting out problems faced by all the companies. E.g.:- WTO does problem oriented research for developing countries, in India agriculture and processed food export development authority (APEDA) conduct regular research for the benefit of agri -industry. II. Problem solving:-this type of research is done by an individual company for the problem faced by it. Marketing research and market research are the applied research. For e.g.: - Videocon international conducts research to study customer satisfaction level, it will be problem solving research. In short, the main aim of applied research is to discover some solution for some pressing practical problem.

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Quantitative research aims to measure the quantity or amount and compares it with past records and tries to project for future period. In social sciences, quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. The objective of qualitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories or hypothesis pertaining to phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. Statistics is the most widely used branch of mathematics in quantitative research. Statistical methods are used extensively with in fields such as economics and commerce. Quantitative research involving the use of structured questions, where the response options have been Pre-determined and large number of respondents is involved. eg:-total sales of soap industry in terms of rupees cores and or quantity in terms of lakhs tones for particular year, say 2008, could be researched, compared with past 5 years and then projection for 2009 could be made. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Qualitative research presents non-qualitative type of analysis. Qualitative research is collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by observing what people do and say. Qualitative research refers to the meanings, definitions, characteristics, symbols, metaphors, and description of things. Qualitative research is much more subjective and uses very different methods of collecting information, mainly individual, in-depth interviews and focus groups. The nature of this type of research is exploratory and open ended. Small number of people is interviewed in depth and or a relatively small number of focus groups are conducted. Qualitative research can be further classified in the following types: I. Phenomenology:-a form of research in which the researcher attempts to understand how one or more individuals experience a phenomenon. E.g.:-we might interview 20 victims of Bhopal tragedy. Ethnography: - this type of research focuses on describing the culture of a group of people. A culture is the shared attributes, values, norms, practices, language, and material things of a group of people. E.g.:-the researcher might decide to go and live with the tribal in Andaman island and study the culture and the educational practices. Case study:-is a form of qualitative research that is focused on providing a detailed account of one or more cases



THE 10 THINGS THAT BOTHERS ME: 1. Lack of bicycle lanes on our neighborhood I have been living in our neighborhood for almost my whole existence that only just a few weeks ago had I taken notice on how our place lacked bike lanes. It occurred to me when I went out for a short ride around the neighborhood but was scared to be in the middle of the street. What I did was I tried to go over the elevated sidewalks instead for safety. Upon doing so, I tripped and had a painful scrape instead. On my way home, I cursed the missing bike lanes every thump of the pain on my knee. As a resident, I believe that safety for bikers, especially on a neighborhood populated by bikers, must be given an improvement. Also, upon observation, majority of the bikers of the neighborhood are children. I would not blame the pain I endured and the scar I received on the missing item solely, I admit that it was also of my lack of thought. Still, my observation stands uncorrected. 2. Lack of sidewalks on the inner streets of our neighborhood Sidewalks are present on our neighborhood but only on the main streets. I have observed that sidewalks are absent on the inner streets and I have been bothered by it. As a resident, I often walk home and around, during that mileage I always receive honks of cars and other vehicles as they try to pass thru. We also give honks on pedestrians behind the wheels because some are on the middle of the streets, sometimes even with children. The cause of the lack of provisions for sidewalks here is not because of the subdivisions deficiency solely but also because of the residents over use of their property. We are guilty with this. But also the provisions given by the neighborhood is not of the standards. Corrections might be too late for it already has a full population and adjustment might be impossible without casualties on the residents properties. But lessons will always be present amidst mistakes. 3. The Philippine government today Everyone is aware of the anomalies behind the Philippine government today. We are ranked as the 38th most corrupted countries in the world with sources from ranker.com. It bothers me as I am also a resident of the Philippines and what happens on the government will reflect on the people. But since corruption is a very well debated topic, solution to it would be more complicated and possibly vague.

4. The diminishing Filipino Values Filipino values are a treasure we must maintain, it does not only helps us keep our morals intact it also gives distinction to us from the other races. Today, due to unaccountable reasons, these treasures are beginning to diminish. Upon the modern era, it has believed that the modernization of the country led us to great information and communication; we were opened to the world of other cultures. These links made us adapt to other cultures and therefore losing our own. Children these days are a great representation of these. Etiquettes, manners, conservation, and family oriented Filipinos are slowly diminishing. Acceptance is one way for the issue, but given the choice, I would rather have the Filipinos be as a native again as it was from before the modern era than it is now, sure it is less convenient, but is also worth living for. 5. The ending life of our nature The current condition of the nature today is as clear as crystals, you can see the effect of the end of nature without even stepping out of your house. I believe that human activities are the culprit to the crime. And we are all guilty of it. Pollution is evident everywhere you glance. The only compensation an individual can attain is to help propagate the life of the dying. 6. The lack of discipline on Filipinos today The deficiency of discipline on our country is very evident on our way of living, surroundings, and on our very self. I believe that once discipline is strictly enforced on our country, it will be the start of the progress of our country and everything else follows. 7. Racism Racism has been long debated and considered an ill manner to have. But still, racism still exists. Racism is many things, it is bullying and a deprivation of self education. Your culture reflects on your being, if being racist is a norm for an individual, sociology suggests that he is being ethnocentric. 8. The distinction of the poor & and the rich Many of the upper class society believe that they belong on the white society and therefore the lower class to be of the black society. They say that black & white must not and cannot be mixed. It bothers me that such beliefs exist. Distinction of the said issue creates imbalance and destroys the selfconfidence of the latter.

9. The TIP fees allotment TIP considers and creates transparency on what we are paying for, but what we know and what we see are different. I believe that the TIP campus is a small representation of the government today. We pay for the development of the structures within but is required to pay for the use of it. We pay the internet but is locked and for faculty use only. There is corruption, or so to say, within the system of the school. I suggest that they be honest on their service as they gain true respect for it. 10. The mistreatment of the pets Pets have feelings too, it has been a viral protest recently to be against animal-cruelty. People should not have the thought of our being as higher than those of the animals. Each one of us is created by God. No exemptions, not the animals as well. For those people who take enjoyment on cruelty for animals, it bothers me that they have their foot on the edge with what theyre doing. For the issue, I suggest that we must keep campaigning and round up the people behind these.