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MBODHI
IRTERIY)

APRIL H83 JANUARY

1984

Nos,

CONTENTS
- Ah Ram Muni Sharma
Analysis and Critical Appraisal
J

The Advaita and I-Sense

Ram Muni

Mtui-nia

The Advaitic Sat

17

Ram Mwti Sharma


The Rejection of
Indian
Sitii

in

'R3mffyrm~lU<iecl Plavs

23

Music in Us Sources Ndrayana M. fcansara

in the

Hymns
'

bn Ustri

in ilie

Aiharvaveda

35

Unique,

jftritl

limagt from OiniJhSrx

DRSTISRSTFVADA AN ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL


i
i

* *

APPRAISAL
Ram
(A study
:i

Murti Sharma

vei v

^L-11

Advailic viewpoint rcgaidmg the dual worldly creation, d.iboraled concept of post-Sankaia period) the
ill'

significantly

views to be taken
(i)
I

in id

considciaLion are
a
is

:-

hat

PraLis.lmmdu,
that cieution

post-Sankara

Advaitin,
perception.

understands

by

aila,

dependent

to

(n)

Hut
la
is

seholais like S

Das Gupta
it

&

not

;in

old concept and that

has

Hiriyanna find that Dranever been admitted

by ftui'ikaru

ted

fm) That it is much sunilai to the Vijfianavada Buddhism enunciabv Viisuhandliu and Darmaknti and that it is a solipcist's view.
(iv)

the fact

That theie is a font uidicl ion in Sankara's philosophy regarding Unit at one place, in the Mandukyakarika bhasya, Saiikara
he fxpi'iicnucs
pt.uc
in

likens
at

ol

the

waking

state to that

of

dream

state

and

Brahmasutrabhasya he maintains that the experiences of the waking svorld can ncvei be parallel to the experiences of
anothi'i
the dteani suite

his

(v)
e.ir>;t,

That Oi-htisthUvadu
a

is

parallel to the

Abhasavada of

SureSvara-

prominent pupil of
let

fiurikai'acsrya

Now

us liist pondci

our attention on

the

meaning and

philo,

sophical Hifnificanct! of the concept Drstisrsfivada.

To speak ahoul the background of the concept, "Brahman is the ultini ite leality and the world is
main diesis and advocacy of
the scholars

it

can be

said
is

that
the

an

illusion",

of Advaita Veda"nta. To prove further thcit thesis and. to explain the status of world appearance, the Avacchedavada, Pratibimbava'da, Adhyasav5da, tenets like Abh-fsuVruln, DrstisrhEiv.lda and Spfidr^ivada have been taken in view by the Advaitic

sehohtrs. The basic sliucture of

Df s

isrsfivffda

is

as old as the Upani-

Sanihoiihi Vol

XH-

Ram
and Sankaracsrya
as

Mi/rti Shartna

sads

we

will

consider

latei.

The
upon

DrstjsrsJtvada

means
This

that ihe existence of woild objects dispends

perception and

as soon, as
is

muktavall

nothingness accoidmg to PrakaSananda, the author of the Vedamasiddhanta To elaborate farther it can be said that ci cation is the
1

we cease

to perceive

them,

they

dissolve into

result of subjective perception

So, foi a Drstisr?tivadin, there


this

tence of woildly things prior to

perception
its

is no exis Foi example, for the

perceiver of lose, there

and after the perception ceases, the rose is no more Thus propounder of to danies the independent totally Dr^isrstivada, PrakssSananda existence Therefore in his of the world objects without peiception
is

no rose before

percepti jn the chief

view,

the

congmzed objects are not different. He believes that the which appears m consciousness, is nothing Thus it is the main thesis of Praka^ananda but cognition that the exte rnal objects do not exist when they are not perceived So in the
cogiution and the
universe, animate or inanimate,

absence

of perception, there is no difference between the cognition and the cognized. In this state, the existence of worldly objects is mere mental Prakateuanda argues 2 that In support of this thesis, perception as a pr.oo-f is not competent to establish a difference between itself and its
objects,

He

observes that awaieness

is

not competent to

(the

difference

between

awareness

grasp the quality


in

and

the

objects)

objects

its

awareness.
Q an

It

be.

further added in this regard that

the

the awareness

and

its

objects

is

a quality of awaieness.

difference between

Prak^nanda
nce
the

says that if one thinks that the

apprehended
1
)

differe-

is complex (difference between awareness and its objects and ,f complex is taken, a qua 1ity existent in the object, then lt will be assumed that it must decidedly depend upon itself being a constituent in the complex .difference between awareness and its objects) whl8 fc b^g out the fast that awareness becomes aware of itself by of itself This will be the nature of awareness. But the D

thinks that this will be the logical fallacy of self-dependenc ' if one argues that the co mp ex qualitv di ff and its objects) is of peL.ptlS when the senses come into contact with the objects, in that case b* understood that U ali ty stccil in the

say, that

^ ^
]

Tthe

tJi^oinple^q

X.

V.S.M
V.S.M.

^j

object

26,

26,

Artier Venis edition, Varanast, 1975 Tadftvam tfrsfHnatuStmaJtarn jagat,

Prakasananda, Commentary
2,

Ibid (Pandit, 1889, pp. 247-249).

Drstisrsfivada-an Analysis and Critical Appraisal


the

awareness came into being Thus, if the peiception of awareness is not competent to become proof i'oi establishing the diffeiense between the awareness and its obj cts, there is no possibility of an inference to
prove the difference. This position of inference may be like this "The is different from its awaieness, because the object has different
qualities

object

and characteustics". But

this will

object can nevei have diffeient qualities from

not be proper, because an its awaieness. Tr>e Drsti

srstivadm fuithei argues that on the basis of Imphcition (Arthapatti), it is said that awareness involves the acceptance of something which is
diffeient fiom the awaieness of which the awareness affiimed
is

and

this

because any knowledge is impossible without a corresponding o u ject. Reluing the above arguement, Piakasananda says that foi the inferential knowledge of an object, it is not necessary that the external object must be existent or peiceived. In this way, the wholesome character of

Drstisrstivada

is
is

that leally, the awaieness

is

not diffeient from


is

its

object

and the woild

mere awareness

Theiefoie perception

the cause of

making a
the

diffeience between the awaieness

and

its

objects

In his

view

awareness of yellow and the yellow

are not different

In this way, the existence of world reality depends

upon perception.

As a matter of
in

fact, it is nothing more than the awaieness This is why Vedanta, the world has been described as the creation of Avidya and

thus false.

Now a question further arises that if Avidya is the Creator of the world, then who is the creator of Avidya ? The answer is that 'Atman with its adjunct (Avidyopadhi) creates the posture of Avidya on account of prior impressions of Avidya and actually it is in this manner
that

Atman
is

name and form Some of


the jiva

with the adjunct of Avidya is the creator of the world of the 'cholars hold that the mental creation of
it

not justified in anadi Avidys and


*

can only be

admitted in
with the

the objective woild

It

can

further

be

argued that

Atman

adjunct of Avidya, can imagine a peiceptive thing but it can never imagine about the Akate, Vayu, fire etc. and their order, which has been but automatically described by the scriptuie- ('Atmana akssa sambhuta

akasad vayuh'

Taitti. 2-1-1)

No

doubt, theie can be no imagination of Aka^a etc and their order

and so far as the scriptural statement-"Atmauaakaa sambhutah" is concerned, it maintains that Atman and Akasa etc are non-dual and one. It
is

the superimpostion (Adhyasa) which pioves the duality of


1, 2.

Atman and

V.S.M.

p.

18.

Siddhantalesa sangiaha, Pai'iccheda-2, Acyuta, K3si, 2017

Drstisrstivada-an Analysis and Ciiticat Appraisal


the

awaieness came into being Thus, if the peiception of awareness is not competent to become pi oof tor establishing the differense between the awareness and its obj cts, there is no possibility of an inference to
prove the diffeience. This position of inference may be like this "The is different from its awareness, because the object has different
qualities

object

and charactenstics"

object can never have diffeient qualities from

But this will not be piopei, because an its awaieness. Tr<e DrsJi

srbtivadm fuithei atgues that on the basis of Implication (Arthapatti), is it is said that awareness involves the acceptance of something which
diffeient from the awareness of
is

which the awaieness affirmed

and

this

impossible without a coriespondmg object. Retuing the above arguement, Prakasananda says that foi the inferenan tial knowledge of object, it is not necessary that the external object

because any knowledge

is

must be existent or peiceived


Dr^Jisrshvada and the world
is
is

In this way, the wholesome


is

character of
its object the cause of

that ically, the awaieness

not different from


is

mete awareness

Thetefoie perception
its

making

a diffetence

between the awareness and

objects. In his

view

the awareness of yellow

and the yellow

ate not different.

In this way, the existence of world reality depends

upon perception.

As
in

it is nothing more than the awaieness This is why Vedanta, the world has been described as the creation of Avidya and

a matter of fact,

thus false.

Now

of the world, then

a question further arises that if Avidya is the creator who is the creator of Avidya ? The answer is that

'Atman with its adjunct (Avidyopadhi) creates the posture of Avidya on account of prioi impressions of Avidya and actually it is in this manner that Atman with the adjunct of Avidya is the creator of the World of name and foim Some of the 'cholars hold that the mental creation of
the jiva is not justified in anadi

Avidya and
be

the objective woild.

It

can

furthet

adjunct of Avidya, can

imagine a imagine about the Aka3a, Vayu, fire etc. and their order, which has been but automatically described by the sciiptme- ('Atmana ska^a sambhuta

it can only be admitted in argued that Atman with the can never perceptive thing but it

akasad vayuh' Taitti 2-1-1)

No
cerned,
is

doubt, there can be no imagination of Akafo etc and their order


as the scriptural

and so far
it

maintains that

Atman and Akasa

statement-"Atmanaaka3a sambhutah" is conetc. are non-dual and one. It


"

the stiperimpostion (Adhyasa) which proves the duality of


1,

Atman ~~~~

arid

V.SM

18.

Siddhantales'a sangraha, Panccheda-2, Acyuta, Kail, 2017.

foam Murti Shaimd


etc.

Apavada which negates the name and. form and Even in ths scriptures, the ci cation and justifies the non-duality in all been mentioned from the viewpoint of Vivarta have dissolution the
Aks^a and
it

\s

the

and not fiom the final view point. Thus Drstisrstivadm's view that the existence of objective world is just like a dream and theie appears to be drean a difference between the cognition and the objects cognized in
state,

but in rcility, there is no object spart fiom its cognition and that the worldly objects of waking expciience aie not diffcicnt from the

* is on the line cognition and they can be said as meie consciousness of the philosophical thought of Sankaiacarya, who exemplified the exis of existence the of the drean objects tence of worldly objects with

state 2

Appayadi^sita, the author of Siddhantaleiasanguiha, mentions anothe


that tlu cieation is mere imainterpretation of DrsfisrsJivada and says the objects of waking stale which an ginative and so the experience of

similar to the experiences of the objects of

dream

state
3

are

based 01

imagination and are never the subject of peiception

There

is

another view of scholars who

maintain that

the

world

nothing different from the self illumined knowledge. In this icgaid, the following verso has been quoted by Appayadiksita in bis Siddhan ale
sasangraha.
"Jftanasvarflpamev a"hur jagadetadvicak?ana,

Arthasvaiupam bhramyantah pasyantyanye kuJrstayah"

Now,

let

us examine the abov

views

So

fai the

view of the Advaitin Praka&tnanda that

cieation

due to perception (D r sti) is concerned, it is not propei because th above view indicates that in the state of liberation, when iheie is nc thing except Brahmanhood, there is no question of creation etc. There fore in that state, there would not be any scope for perception. But is not correct and possible This is because even in the state of hbere
separate from Brahman. 4 f Sankaracarya's statement that a person, who has realize Brahman does not see any duality the state like
tion the jlvanmukta perceives the objective things as such, but he them as false and for him they are not
see

this context,

waking the soun sleep (Susupth, even if he sees duality, pio ves that even in the state
1. 2.
3.

S,

M.

19

&

'

22~

~~

4.

Gautjapadakatika 2-4, Vani Vilasa-Press, KSj>i SiddhSntale&sangraha, Paneceda-2 S, L. Pariccheda-2,

Sankarabhajya

'

brstisrstiviula-an Analysis and Critical Appiaisal

liberation, perception can not be denied. Therefore, Piaka&nanda's view due to peiception is not piopei, because in the state of liberation, peiception is always possible, but the dual ueation has that state, it is all Biahman and got no place at all Because
that cieation is

nothing

else

(Sarvam khalvidam Brahma) Chh. Up,

14

1)

As regaids the views that creation is mere imagination and that creation is nothing different from the self illumined knowledge, the two views have no place foi phenomenal leahty of the world, which is very much
a fact,

it appeals that dual view (Dvaita drsti) is the cause of manifold creation. It would amount that aftei the ieahzation of Biahman

To me,

the dual knowledge of world would be itself negated 1 From an advaitm it does not need any pioof that in the state of Braimanjftaiia, theie is no scope for the dual existence for worldly object That state is puiely the state of Biahman This interpolation seems to be different fiom
the previously

mentioned interpietation of Prakas"ananda, in the sense that according 'o the former, the existence of woildly objects depends upon perception, while accoiding to the present interpietation, the woilcl is the creation of dual view of the ignorant As earliei also stated peiception
as

can not be said as the cause of dual creation,


Needless to say that whateve
the

Prakasananda

says.

inleipretaUve approach may be, in viewpoints are not against the Advaitic view. Hence spirit, the above theie seems to be no scope to think otherwise as Das Gupta and other
scholars do.

That DrstisrB^ivada is not an old concept and that it has nevei been admitted by Satifcaia2. Scholars like Das Gupta & otheis *vho find DrsUsrstivada in separate line from that of Sankara's, aigue that the foimer does not admit the existence of the objective world, apait from Us peiception and thus
perception
is

in his

opinion, the woildly

things

aie real as far as

there, otherwise the

world

is

nothing

moie

than the ima

while Sankaracarya, the advaitin supposing the ginaticm and the dream, approves the existence of phenomenal point of phenomenal icality,
world.

They further argue and advocate that S an k ara has, refuted the phiBbuddhist and sq how his line losophy of subjectivist, the Vijnanavadin of philosophical thought can be similat to that of Drshsrs^ivadin Here
,

1.
2,

JnSte dvaitam na vidyate,

GamUpada-Kanka,

1-18.

Das Gupta, Indian Philosophy.

f>

kam
uould b; propei
to say

AJitrti

Sh

it

that in the eyes of

believes In the external charactei

Sankaia, who veiy nuiclv of the wot Id, the woild is meie illu(2.4),

sion and not only this,

his

commentary of the Mandukyakanka

he says that the experiences of the


riences of the
ill

earn

bhasya that after the for the operation of other means of knowledge like pciception
is

waking state are similar to the expeBrahmasutrastate He has also mentioned in his realization of Brahman, there remains no scope

The

fact

soon as the state of light knowledge comes, the feeling of icniains duality ends and theiefore, in this state of non dualism, there no reason, foi the functioning of perception etc. Here one can nise d
that as

how Sankara can vouchsafe his position to say that in the of right knowledge, the knowledge of Brahman, the functioning of perception comes to an end No body can deny the fact that even in
question that
state

the state of
t>ertsc

jWahmuHi,

the

existence
is

of

the external objects

and the
snys
etc

of contact with

them

quite

natuial

Then how

Sankaia
perception
will

that in thj state

of right knowledge the functioning of

corner to in end'. Here the follower of that no

^ankara Vedanta

answci

doubt the worldly objects remain as such in the state of icul there knowledge, but this fact is to be kept in mmd that in that state no feeling like 'this is mine' or 'this is yours' and it is in this spun that the operation of function etc. comes to an end the state of real
is

knowledge

Actually by

Sarikara,

the

expeiiences

of

empirical
to

state

are likend to the experiences of the dream state, real prior to the waking The saT C way, the
state

which seem

be quite experiences of waking

seem

to be quite

real prior to the

state of final

after the right knowledge, the experiences


at all.

of waking slate

knowledge. But find no place

C -Comme
place, in
the

,ting

on the above Advaitic


philosophy of

thinking,

scholars

feai

to

find a controversy in the

Sankara,

Mandflkyakankabhasya,
state to that of

Sankara
state

waking

dream

and say that at one hkens the experiences ot and at another place, in his

bhSsya of the aphorism "vaidharmyocca na s-.apnacltvm" maintains thm the experiences of the waking world can never be parallel to the exo enences of the dream state 2 Really speaking this is not the case of scjf contradiction. Sankara his karika bhssya, when he describes the experiences of the waking state as similar to the experiences of dream state

stresses

on the point

that in the

waking
false

state,

the
the

dream

experience
experiences

state are

proved completely

and thus

jream
1.

state are

of the of the
alone

negated^
H,
S

the

_e*perience,
K. 2-4.

of the

wakmg

slate

Jayad

bhavavaditi d^ntali,
2.

d^yansm

bhSvSnSm vaitathyamiti pr
B. G.

Na

svapnadipratyayavajjagratpratyaya bhavitumarhanU B.S.S.B

2-2-23

an Anal} sis and Critical Appraisal

and not by another tiling Likewise m the state of real knowledge the state come to an end. So far as Ankara's bhssya experiences of waking is concerned, the on the aphorism "vaidharmyacca na svapnadivat"
of the two states-the waking Acarya justifies the fact that the experiences and the dream, can never b2 the subject of parallelism as the experiences all at phenomenally of the dream state are mere imaginative and not
rear.

But

this idea

does not come in the


real'

way

of

admitting
like the

the

fact

that in the state of


rinces of

knowledge, the knowledge of ultimate,


to be entirely unreal
there is

the expe

waking

state,

seem

of dream' state.

And

thus

no justification in

finding

experiences contradi

ction in Sarikara's philosophy.

srfivida
it

is

ora

different line

Thus it becomes clear that neither Dr?tifrom the philosophy of Sahara and nor

is

self-contradictory.
It

Sananda are not subjectivist

can further be added that Sarikara and his followers like Prakabecause they also belie.ve in the idealists

objective reality of the world.

But they, are also not purely objectiivists> because they, support subjectivism in the state of the knowledge of Brahmere mental' like the city of ai mirarr.l In man in which the world isthat Saiikarsearya and fate folioway, it can be easily established wens likt Praka&inandat, the propounded of Dr^tJs^Hvada are both subas well as objectivists. Sankara's statement in the Upodghdta of jecfeivtsts visayavisayiwtl his Brahmasutra bhasya-' Yusmadasmatprat) ayagocapya^ov
thus,

tamab-praktlSavad

viruddhasiabhuvctyoritatetm'abh&v&nupapaitih
ctftttmake
etc. also

ityatos

matpratyavagoeare visayini

taddharmanzm

cadhynscrli"

yufmatpratyayagocafasya vfsayvsyu support the above statement.


of the
doctrine
is

Thus Dasgupta's doubt about

the oldness

not

a Vedantic concept, it is as oldj as the Upanisads. proper^ because being the Upantsa-dic statenrenit like 'Sarvain It can not be doubted that
kiflcana' (Br. khalvidan ftrahma' (Chha up 3-14-1)' and 'Neha nanssti themselves a clear background of Dfsfepsti 4^4-19) etc. contain in llp by name It is a different matter, if it does or dbes not occur
.

thinking'.

literature. The* oldness of the doctrine in pre-tfraksianand'a philosophical' is availa" can be by the fact that trie basic idea of Drstisr-stivSda

judged

2 ble in the Sambandhavartika of Sure^vaia,

where

it lias

been> mentioned)

that as prince,

been earlier brought up in the family of a herds man forgets himself as a son of herds man after knowing his princeliness so a Brabmajnamn forgets about the external reality rf the world after the knowledge of the Paramsiman. Also Jivanajida Vidya S&GAR, the

who

has,

1. 2,

Joad, Introduction to

Modern Philosophy

pp, 7-8, Oxford, 1'925.

SambandhavSrtnca-223.

Ram

Mtirti
to

Sharma

commentatoi of Muktavah, refers


the idea of Drstisfstiv^da

MandanaV
this,

view

which

reflects

Not only

in later

period,

Amalananda,

who

D, also suppoits the Drstisr^ivada view, when the cieation are not from the lie says that the scuptures which suppoi viewpoint of final reality, but they are meant to justify non-duality
t

flourished in 1300

between the individual soul and Biahman. 2

>-Fuither mote,
klrti, 01

it

becomes

clear

that

the

Drstisr^uvada

is

not

similar to that of Vijnanavada. enunciated by


it is

Vasubandhu and Dharma-

not solipcism as scholars like Hiriyanna3 and Das Gupta argue 4 Those scholais who find the Buddhistic Vijftsnavada parallel to make an effort to prove the Vedantic doctrine of Drshsrstivada, also

But to those allegators a simple crypto-Buddhist. answer of the Advaitm is substiatum (Adh.istb.ana) which is Brahman
Sankaracarya as a

and which
world
in

is

Sankara's philosophy

never admitted by the Vijnanavadin. Apart from this, the is phenomenally real and not merely an

idea (Vijfiana) as the Vijfianavadm supports. Therefoie neither Sankaraconcept-Drsfisrjfivada is related c^rya is a ciypto-Buddhist nor the
to
,

Vijflanavada

and

hence

we

can say that Drsksrstivada

is

a Vedantic concept. It can be further maintained that


his followers like

Sarikaracarya

purely or

Prakasdnanda are not purely subjectivists like Berkeley. s or solipcists, what meant s\ person who believes that mental states are the only things which can be shown to exist in the universe 6 They are
.

also not purely objectivists.

E But the Drstisrstivada is different from the Abhasavada of Sure gvara in the sense -that according to ths former, the existence of worldly perception while the Abhasavadin takes the objects is dependent to worldly things as real, till the realization of Brahman. Further, the is not tenet Dttstisrstivada supporter of the Buddhistic subjectivism or
the subjeclivistic idealism of Berkeley and Hume in West. It is purely a Vedantic thinking and as old as the Upanisadic Vedanta, in its basic nature.

The scriptural statement-"Ekam sad vipra bahudha vedanti" also can not be delinked from the eaily history of Drstisrstivada, because it
clearly states the final reality as one and one only. Some posterior Vedantic scholais to Praka^ananda like Madhusudana Saraswati, Appaya Dik?ita, and Nana-Djkjita also have adopted the above line of thought in the

treatment of this doctrine.


1.

See, JivSnanda's i y j <j


i

commentary on Vedantasiddhantamuktaval!,

p.

g,

Calcutta

2. 3 4.
5.

Sastradarparia, 14,4, Srlrangam, 1913 Hinyanna, OutHnes of Indian Philosophy, p. 362, Allen S N. Das Gupta, History of Philosophy vol II, p 19,

& Unwin, London

1932

Cambridge, 1973.

See Framer's selection from Bejkeley, Oxford, 1899


load, ntlroduction to

6.

Modern Philosophy p

7 (Oxford, 1925).

THE ADVA1TA AND I-SENSE


Ram
The
Advaita
as
it

Alurtl
is is

Shanna
philosophy

means
which
All

the

mainly

based on the

tenet of ultimate leahty,

self illumined

pure being, consciousness

and

the supreme bliss anstman and therefoie


states like
'I

else

experienced apait

fiom

Biahman,

is

unreal.

Nevertheless at the empirical level, the


indicate
it

see' aie

experienced, which
is

the slate

of I-sense.

Befoie the state of 'I-sense'


sider the following points
:

adjudicated,

would be

disuable to con-

What
fiom

is

the state of I-sense


(3tf*0

("*!?;

Rgfl^)

and how

it

distinguishes

I-hood

,3n-fli)

and the ego


Is
it

(^'w)
a

(ii)

In what sense,
it

it

is

'I-sense

really

sense

If not,

why

is

called as I-sense ?

( iii )

Where does

the state of I-sense exist ? in Atmata, or

Anstman

or the internal organ

(iv)

What

is

the force behind the state of experience


it

of

'I-sense

and how does

function

Now

let

us opine

it

one by one

Firstly,

the state of I-sense

(a^ngj^)

is

based on the Atman limited


'

I by Ajflana and it is in relation to vanous types of perception like or I do not see see Thus where the AjfLana exists without any
(
'

peiception,

it

is

'I', but '!', the egoistic feeling is there


is

which

is

based

on
or

last
e

impiessions, the Samskaras, but there do not see' and in this state of it is

no sensing

like 'I see*

merely

The

feeling

of 'I' is called

theiefore

it

is

I-hood (Ahamta). The Ahamkara includes activity and diffeient from 'I' 1-hoocl and also I- sense, because in
is

these states, the activity

not there.

The reason

is

that action involves

another thing which

is

possible only with

Ahamkaia and

not

'

I-sense

'

which

is

the state of sensing or experiencing

and not activity.

It

may

be

mentioned heie that the Vedanta does not admit any activity in Atman. Fuither, the Aharhkaia, is a mode of Antahkaraiia. The state of "T-sense',
is

the combination of

"

and peiception.

Sambodhi Vol

XII-2

JQ

Ram

Murti Sharma

is that if Secondly the pioblem outer as a sense like other

the state
it

of
is

I-scnse'
so, is
it

does ^Ct
(I)

senses. If
the

acts

'

'

in real sense.

perceive itself the objects. The senses are to convey about

Nay, not so. I I and its modifications,,

form

of

vrttis directly, but

Antahkaiana* it is not a
a sense

Thus
is

the

not a media like the outer senses


say
it,

and

so it

not
it

Anlahkarti,ut and s o

is

to

as the eleventh sense, is

not pioper. If

were a sense, it

c ovilcl

above. It not have direct perception as said


the

may
is

furthei be

emphasized- tlaul

Antahkarana

is

no

called,

because

it

the seat of the

function

of
is

the sense as distinct

fiom the outer organ.


the

Thirdly, as far as

question

of

the

substtate

of

'

I-sei^se*

concerned,

it

is

tae 'I-sense'
in

is

Antahkaiana, wheie the 'I-sense' exists It is ''dependent on the state of mind, the Vrtti, which

becau seexists

bered that

Antahkarana,! But as the UpadeSasahasri says, this must be it is .Atman, who is the illuminator and it is also by
that!

of the same

the internal organ is able

to perceive.

Thus them

rememmeans the power


does

to reflect the objects


:

and

to

become

conscious
but
is

of

not
it is

exist originally

n the internal organ,


Jlva,
is

relation to

Atman. Why the

which has
adjunct of

its

acquird by it nature as intelligence


it is

with

not able to reflect the objects,


here that being limited due to

natural to querry. But

to

be

noted.

its

Avidya,

it

is

dently competent to reflect the objects, but

through the
by
its

indepeninternal organ.
not

As

the author of the Siddhsntale^a says, the Jiva


l

nature

Is

not
of
to

directly related to

he objects, but through the Antah-Kaiana.

Fourthly,

it

is

ttie

the state of

"

I-sense '" But

power of Ajftana which is the primary base where does the Ajfiana rest, is further

be known, because w.hile the pure cit is itself illuminated and real
ledge,
it

know-

cannot be this substrate of the organs because both are

ojpposil

to each other.

But the
is

Avaitin solves

the

problem

in

his

own

way and

no opposition in pure cit and Ajfisna and thus tlie opposition can be observed only, while the cit becomes opposit to the Ajfiana and distroys it only when it is reflected though the Vrtti.
says that there

Originally, the Ajfiana 'rests in the

pure

cit

and

theie

is

no

or opposition as said ab ove. In this regard, Vacaspati's opinion rent who says that the Mjftana does not test on the
the Jiva,

contradiction is diffe-

The author

oP Vivaranaprameya
Ajftana
t

leconciles the

pure cit, above

but on view of

Vscaspati and finds that


individiual soul, in this

may

be

regarded
abstraction

as

resting

on

tlie
i

espect that the

of the

pure

c it

1.

Upadda

Sshasri, XVIII,

53-54, Taitt.

Up. n.

1.

The Advaita and 1-Sense

ll

with

reference

to

Jiva

"cmmatrasntam

ajMnam

jXvagritam ucyate"

Vivaianaprameya sariigraha (p of fact, the feeling I-do not undei stand' or 'I seems to indicate that the Ajfiana is with reference
'

jfvapiaksSapatitvat a matter 48). As

do
to
'

not
the

know

knowclose

ing self in association with

its

feeling

as

ego or

'

But

this .s not
the;

correct, because such an appearance is caused on account of

association of Ajfiaua with Antahkarana, which


as

is

essentially

th*s

same

Vidyaranya

in the

Vivaianaprameyasaragraha (p
is

48) propounds.

it

is

The action of Ajfiana because of the same


is

seen on the light of reality,

BiahmAn, and
to

that the objects remain

unknown

us

till

the

abstruction

not dissolved by the states of

consciousness.

The
the

action

of Ajfiana is not only with regard to the


infinite bliss

limitless

consciousness,

but

also with regaid to the infinite bliss. The abstruction is justified by the fact that though the

of

pure and

are experienced even

when

there

is

the
so

influence

worldly pleasures of Ajnana but the


is

supreme

bliss,

remains inexperienced,
states

long as the ajnana


constitute

there.

The Ajfiana has many

which

various

individual

to the diverse individual objects of experience. experiences with refeience These states are called tulsjfiana 01 the Avasthajfiana. Thus the state of a manifestation of the Ajfiana as tulajremoves, consciousness or Vj-tti

ftana

and

reveals itself as the knowledge of an object.

The
it

Jiva has the ego of experiencing the particular experience,

but

through the experience of the Antahkarana. It must be kept in view that the Jiva and Antahkarana are not two separate entities, but of consciousness, while it is in association they are just the two states in association with Antahwith Ajfiana when the pure cit shines forth which experiences the is the Antahkarana, karana, it becomes Jiva. It and it is the Jiva who has the egoistic feeling of that experience.
is

objects

It

may

reflects itself, in the

self-luminous self furthei be added that the Antahkarana being I-sense' 3 cit. Therefore, in Advaita, in the state of
'

the two elements of the

self, the

consciousness
state

and
'

the

Antahkarana
the state of

are in a fused position. Again union of the real and unreal

the

of

I-sense', is

W^ WfW
gamkara,
state of

stfiw fl&sftia ^ffi^sq slfHROT.

(B.S.S. B.I. 1.1.)

has explained the above the great exponent of Advaita " I-sense" through his exposition of the theory of AdhySsa. As of the association of last and present the Antahkarana has the blending

/_;

Ram
U,.

Murti ^

;^.

.upn-miposition

of

zeal

on

um.J

^u

meal on
of
the

leal

takes

place. HLMO again an.es the

of Anfiiman,

lud

01 Atman Anuhkarana can

pioblem of the substratum or As some schokis obseive, is it Antahkammi


not be the substialum of

Adhyasa
it

Anatman because
I

us

Sankaia explains hat Pitityiion which the atliibutc-f, of lie iniciioi self is the substialum g:iiin.i, aon* oigans and the internal otgan and other anStmnn objects arc
itwlf Anaiman. Theieioie, the Advaitm,
i

supe imposed
i

(B.S.S.B Inlioduction)

Theu-Ibic
objects
is

it

becomes
'

cleai

that

the

substiatum
It

of

the

Anatman

Atman and

not the Anlahkaiana.

also proves thai the subject

of the Adhyasa of

I-sense"

is

JJva a ad
y;

not the Autahkaiami.


)
i

According to the Vedantic view, thu knowledge ol supeumposccl ih unieal and only the knowledge of the absolute is ieal and peunanunt,

Thus the
icai

*'

I-scuse," being superimposed,

is

the erroneous knowledge of silver

supei imposed
different

not the ieal knowledge, like on conchshell i,s nut

fjom peimanent ieal and permanent unreal (Ahka) both Here it is notewoithy that the oAampIe of cotinchshcll-silver is not proper to be the example of illusoiy iculity,
and
it

is

timrvacaniya, being

the Pratibhasika satta, as scholais genet ally take

it.

To

my

conch shell

silver

example appeals
If

to

be

the

example

mind, I!K of phenomenal


;

we go thiongh leality ('-7I^lfe aw). ledge of conch-shell silvei, we find that


experiLMice
'this
is

the process of

enoneous knowthe

the peiciever of
'

crioneum
silvei

the silver

(^

^f)J^

takes the conch shell

as

phenomenal silver of which ornaments like ring or eat-iiag can ha made of. But when the peiciever proceeds on to pick tip that silvei, hefinds that the silver is not there, and he sees mere conch shell
the

there

and thus he says that


nika one. So, in
tins

''this

is

conch

shell

and not

siJver," the

Vyavaln-

of real knowledge of conch shell, the existence of the phenomenal silver is negated. In this analysis, there remains
state

no

scope for illusory


silver

01

pratibhasika

satta

at

all.

It

Js

the

phenomenal

mistakenly perceived and so it is negated by him aftci the right knowledge of conch shell To support this view, Vnmiktatnian be can quoted, who says
is
.
I

which

(Masiddhi)

The Advarta and I-Sense


Theiefoie, thcie
as such
is

13

no necessity of accepting the


also
i">

In

this

way, the ''I-scnsc'

negated as soon at, the light knowledge is '' take into account, while dealing with the state of I-sense" in Mnkti, It is to be fuithcr taken into account that the state of " I-sense"
is

Vyavahanka satta a phenomenal jeahty which is This acquiied. point, we will

based on the concept


a mattei of fact,
it
it

of
is

Vriti,

the

mode or the modification of mind.

As
of

the chaiactcastic of oui object of


itself apait

conscious-

ness that
cit

cannot leveal

through a mental

state, the Vrtti.

fiom being manifested as an object Theiefoie, although the VedSnta

takes all objects as meie impositional, yet then

expedience is possible llnough specific sense contact and a paiticular mental state, (he Vrtti As the Vedanta-paribhaba propounds, the Vrtti is the modification of

mind, the Antahkarana


basis

It

is

the puie

consciousness

which

and essence

foi

the

appeal ance

of

all

the

objects

makes the and also the


Thus

consciousness which manifesto thiongh the vaiious mental


the puie -consciousness
js

states

the

baMs

loi

the

intetprets the objects by Us icflection tin o ugh the vrtti

whole phenomena and it also Thus it is to be


said to
shed, its

undeistood that though the inlemtil oigan


the objects
it.

is

lusUe on

and

to icflect them,
is

it

is

actually the
to

Here

the Vedanlic view

similar

Atman that reflects in Samkhya which accepts that


and
they
derive

Buckihi and
the

Manas
of

aie in

themsilvcis

unintelligent

power

intelligence

fiom

the illuminator and by

Vedan'a, the Atman has taken the means of


all

Puiusa. In pnximity to place of Puiusa In fact, Atman is the Antahkarana becomes the it,
their
is

pcrceiver of " 1
state ol

the objects,
is

Thus

it

thiough the mental state that the


stated,

sense"

experienced.
all

As eaihci

Atman

is

the ulti

peivadmg. But the determinate knowledge presupposes the modification of the puie and ultimate consciousness into Pramatr cailanya. (a subject who knows), Piamana caittanya (the process
of knowledge),
caitunya (the
vrtti (the

mate consciousness and

modification

of internal oigan)
the

and the Visaya

consciousness

determined by

objects.

Antahkaiana undergoes changes, when it Thus the modification which leveals an object

The cognized) object comes into contact of the


is

called

Vrtti.

As
is

mattei of

fact,
it
is

nothing

is

within

the leach

of

it

tattva,

the light

of reality, but

not perceived by

it

on account of the view ot Avidya, and it is the Vrtti which is able

that
to

an object icmove the

are obscuring veil and it is through the piocess of Vrtti that the objects self-illumined cit perceived as such But it is ne?dless to say that the a icflcclion is the base of the phenom:na as well as the mteipielei by
1.

SRi^OTR Tl'TOPi^

!r%:

Vedan la-par jbhSsa

I,

Ram
t

Mum

Sharma
,n

hrouB h the mental

states

Thus

Vidyranya,
snift

his

PaHcadaft lightly

*" r: l^

PaficadaSi,

VU.
jt,

91.

(Both the intellect


contact with the
jar.

and the consciousness underlying


Intellect destioys the ignoianc'e

come

into

The

and the nudci-

manifests the jar.) lying consciousness


So,

now

it

becomes clear that

it

is

due

to

Adhyasa and the


'

piocos.s

of

Vrtti that a

person experiences the state of

I-sense"

It

is

enced

in the
''31,3

" I sense" js expcnout that the state of again to be pointed waking and the dream state and also the state of spniliml
3Sirf^l
;
'

mode

but

its

fuither observed
is quite clear,

The

state

experience in Su?upti and MukU is to be of I-sense in the waking and dieain state
these
in slates In

because of the existence of Vrtti in


materially,
it

the

waking
'

state, the objects exist


is

while,

the diciun state-,

their existence

no moie.

Now

is

to be seen, if

the

expeiience

of

I-sense" exists in Susupti or not.

The post-susupti cxpiession-' g^ffg-

RFira 3 frfN^farq" (I had a sound sleep, but I do not know any thing) the seems to prove the expeiience of I-sensing, state of Simupti because the post-sound sleep experience of happiness, can not be JUMJ! I-sense' in Susupti. If the fied without admitting the state of

'

of 'I*

is

not admitted

Susupti, then

who can

enccr of the happiness (S^R). This makes experience of "I-sense" in Susupti. But if it problem of the existence of I' in Susupti arises.
'

existun be said as the expcj-' evident to behove ih* is not then

'

admitted,

[J

It is very well underthe Antahkaraua, which expnenccs the pJcasuic and p-iin of the waking or the dream state aud it is after the experience' that ' 'the Antahkarana expresses, its I-sensing in various

stood that

it

is

while

is Susupti, the Antahkarana is dissolved into Ajfiana, which rests in Atman, there, in the absence of Antahkarana, how the t-sensine c-i be proved, Susupti, without the modification of

away, accoidingly

But"

mind

stated, the process of Vrtti is necessary for the experience The same way, while in Susupti, the

As
I

of "

S e nsc
'

wT" ^
into

Ajfiana, there
at
all

is

no scope of
the

Vrtti

and also

Antahkaiana is dissolved and thus the I-sensin is not


like

post

who

sleep- are disproved maintains the experience of "I-sense"

Su,upti experiences, This antithesis cieats a

^V

problem for
I

the

Ved
,

'

above querry by explaining that the expression

The Vcdflnlm,

quiten

had a sound sleep'

The Advaita ond I-Sense


based on the
to the

15
of Susupti aiid

a^Rffa

of that state,

the

state

it

is

due

samskara that one expresses

the post-susupti negstive

fofsi^fiwO
sleep (i^ffT).

is

"I had a sound sleep". So far as experience,"! did not know any thing" ( ^ concerned, it is based on the 3^Hff% o f the sound

in Susupti, the expeiience of "I-sense" is of the dissolution of the Antahkarana into of " I-sense" is possible, in the state of in Susupti With regard to the presence of Vrtti in Simipti, the following statement of Sadananda deserves consideration

Therefore,

not

possible,

because

Atman. Thus the experience waking and dream, but not

Vedantassra, 8
This statement of Sadananda seems to be contradicted with his
while differentiating between the
says
:

own

Nirvikalpaka and Susupti, he further

1
:
I

^ft^FITfa^Hlfafa: appears to be in contradiction A fine with the prior statement which reads siSTRffafa: aqRF^g^cI: commentator of the Vedantic thought, Jacob also noted this contradichere in text and "The statement tion veiy caiefully, when he said commentary as the non-existence of the Vrtti in sound sleep, seems to

Here the

text

be in opposition to that in (section) eight, where

it

is

said that

ISvara

and Prajna expeiience pleasure during sound sleep." In my opinion, the above contradiction does not seem to be proper on the ground that the
'

text

"ajfcfq^Rif^lFraiixifcr:

indicates

impression

OfcwS) and

this

we understand by
if in

the expression BlRft&'Pnfa:

diction between the

and thus there is no contraabove two statements The question further arises that
is

sound

sleep, the Vrtti

not

BteerFflu

comes

after

sound

sleep.

the experience there, how ^^51^ Because the absence of Vrtti in sound

pleasure

the absence of Antahkarana, the enjoyer of pleasure sleep also proves and pain, which merges into Atman. Here it can be mentioned that the felt after the Susupti in the expiession "I had a sound sleep,

and again the pleasure is based on the impressions (4^1*5) come of the non-existence of pain in that state.
Vrtti
is
< '

is

the out-

How "Aham

the state of "I-sense"

is

experienced in the state

of spiritual

Brahmastnl

"

further deserves

how

the nameless and formless

Brahman

our account. can become

The problem
the object of

as it is expressed in the Mahavakya "Aharp Brahmssmi." It is to I " which indicates be further stated that the state of "Aham Brahmasmi
1.

Vedantasara. 62

16
the state of
' '

Ram Mwtt
1

Sha/'nta

as

Biahmau
is

is

questionable,
'

because

in the state

of

Bmhnmnhood,

there

no scope for dual sensing like ''Ahaqi Biahmasrai."

Now

let

us examine the stale of

Aham Btahmasmi"
icgaids
the

in the light of the

above problematic discussion As absolute Brahman can become

the

problem
'
'

that

how
is

the

object of

is

answeul by the
not

Vedantm

to say that the object of the Vrtti 01

"Aham
in

Biahmasmi"
the state of

pure Biahman

the absolute, but

Biahman with
" T-sense"

adjunct of Ajfiana.

As regards

the

expeiience

of

"Aham

Brahma smi", in it the Vitti illumined by the reflection ousness makes the supieme Brahman identical with the
its

of pine consciindividual self,

object and dcstioys the ignorance


the
state

pertaining

to

Brahman
the
is

and

this

he comes

of
the

Brahmajnana.
base of
this, the

What

becomes
after

of the

Vrtti-

"Aham
is
is

Brahmasmi".

" I-sense"

Biahmajflana,
as a cloth

obvious to query. To

Vedantm's answei
are

that

but, when the threads containing it, burnt, so all the effects of the ignoiance is destroyed. ignorance are dislioyed, when theii cause, So after the state of mind, the Vrtti Aham Biahmasmi" is ended and
f

it

remains Brahman only,


is

the end, just like as


itself,

the

image of a face
the looking glass of a lamp cannot

in looking glass
is

resolved in to the face


it

when
light

removed. Again

can be

said

that

as

the

reflected in that state of mind,

overpowered by it, so consciousness unable to illumine the supreme Brahman, which is self effulgent and identical with the individual self and is overpowered by it So, the above state of 'Aham Brahmasmi" can be said as the state of experience of "I-sense" in Advaitic system. But
is
L

illumine the lustre of the sun,

biit is

" in the final state, the state of hbeiation, the state of Iexpeiiencc of sense" is to be further examined. If there is scope for in
I-sensing,

that state or not ? In fact the state of I-sense indicates the experience of Anatman. But in the state of liberation,

duality and
all

duality

comes

one with Brahman In this state of non-duality the dealing with material objects is entiicly cannot be said, But, it can be emphasized here that in the state stopped,

to

an end

for the liberated

and he

becomes

of jivanmukti,

the jivanmukta peicievc.s the woildly objects, but is not involved in them, he does live in the dual world; but for him there is

nothing meaningful, except the non-dual Branman and it becomes the state of AclvaitSnubhuti and not the state of 'I-sense' The scriptural statements like <sa caksuracalcsuriva' explain the same view point Also Saihkara in Ins UpadeSasahusn Susuptavajjagiati yo na paiyati dvay:

anca

tatha

pasyanuapi cadvayatvatali ca kurvannapi niskiiya^ca yah sa Stmavmnanya itiha mscayah.

THE ADVA1TIC SAT


Ram
The
Mutii Sharma

Sat admitted by the Advaitins,


is

is

the

prime
for

base of the tenet

of non-dual ieality of Brahman. As


extent, the

generally mentioned, to a certain

woid
is

'real'

or 'existent'

is

not

proper

the Advaitic sat,

because

it

not teal like the leality of worldly objects or existent like

them. By the Vedantins, Sat has been specially propounded, according to their frame work of Advaita philosophy. The Vedantins like Sarfikara

had

laid a great stress to

them, the

Buddhists had tried to

propound the concept of Sat, because prior to condemn the philosophy of being,
main
contribution of
Sat,

enunciated by the Upanisadic Vedanta. Thus the


the Vedanta
is,

to

propound the philosophy of


the Brahmnas,*

with the aid of the

doctrine of

MSya,

contraiy to the Buddhists. Although the


,

word

sat'

has
the

1 been mentioned in the Vedas

the

Aranyakas3

&

Upanisads,4 the Gita, the Puranas, the Tantra


texts like the Yogava:5itha 3

&

the earlier philosophical

the conceptual propounding

&

the treatment
alone. In the

of the tenet of Sat has

been

accomplished

by Sarnkara

Rgveda, the woid Sat has been used in the sense


the Satapatha
tion,
is

of basic reality
the

&

in

&

Taittiriya

Brahmana, Brahman

the source of

whole crea-

said as Sat. Sayanacarya, while

commenting

upon

Rgveda

says that neither the Allka asat like here's horn nor the existent sat like the worldly objects, can be said as the source of creation.5 This comment

of Sayana also indicates to believe the


the cause of the whole
as the

eternal

and anirvacaniya

Sat, as

creation,

The

Aitareyaranyaka also
the Sat, Cit

describes

and Ananda, are the Brahman chief characteristics of the same. The Upanisads which are the foremost and basic texts of Philosophy, mention about sat at various places in a
variant manner. In the Chsndogyopani^ad, sat has been described as the
as an eternal truth. The basic reality BrhadSranyaka uses the word sat for Brahman & also for eternal truth The Maitrl-Upanisad mentions
1

cause of the world

&

&

RV.

i.

164.

46
xi.
2. 3.
1.

^atapatha BrSlmiana,
Taittiriya

BrShmapa, ii, 8. 9. 6. Mangal Deva Shastri, AitareySranyakaparyalocanam,


Br. Upa. n.
3.

p.

15

4
5

I,

SSyanabhSaya, Ilgveda,

x.

129.

1,

18

Ram

Muiti Shatma

sat as
sat

an adjective of Brahman and the Pia^na uses the word foi existent In the Bhagavad-gita, the word sat has been used for both, the

eternal tiuth

&

for a noble action

the existent reality The Glta, also uses the So far as the Puranas are concerned, they

word

sat

use the

word

for various senses like

Paramatman, Sakti

&

the existent Sat.

In

the Saivagamas, the

while in the

word has been used for Siva, the Supreme reality, Saktagamas it has the sense of Sakti. The Yogava&stha, a

most

significant text of Indian

eternal. 1

philosophy describes the truth (ef^) as But the author of the Yogava^iatha has found the Sunya of the

Buddhi-t

& Brahman

of the

Vedantms

parallel.

Therefore the philosois

phy of the Yogava&stha, which has crypto-Buddhistic tendency, Advaitin. to the philosophy of sat or Brahmavada of the
Fiona the viewpoint
of the

contrary

Advaitic

sat,
it

the

sat

Tattva of the

Upanisads,

is

very

much

relevant, because

has

given

clear back-

gro\ind for, the sat of the Advaitin. Among the prominent Advaitins, it was, Sapjkaracarya, who elaborated the idea of the Upanisadic sat, in the

form of

doctrine.

Ac^irya,
slip

But prior to Sarfikara, Gaudapadacarya, being a prominent Vedantjc made an exposition of the Advaitjc thought though in a Buddhi njanner. As the Upanisadic philosophy enunciates, .Gaudap^da also

propounded the concept ^hat the creation is originated fiorn s.at through Maya, Thus jn his Karika (lii. 27) the word sat means the suprerne reality or Bramnau. ft may also be pointed out, tljat jn the above referred Karika., sat
in

may

also carry

the

meaning of
both
the

his

commentary,

has

referred to

existent saf. Sapikara, senses.

Nevertheless,

view the context an,d doctrinal appropriateness the fprmej: keep^pg in sene of Brahjnan or causal reality is jusji^ablp and prpper. In th^ way, GaudapSda's view regarcjing the philosophy of sat, is qujte simijar to

Sajn^f^' 5 ijnderstandmg,
of
|:he

but
does

Gaudapada's
not

thinjcjng
fit

of the fals,ehpod
the

wor}4

(^^ffflK^Fifsr)

completely
of
etc.

in

net-work of

Sa$Jsarite Advaita, because

pf the similics

Gandharvangara3 ,drearn

(svapnp)
his

p,F

tfie

son, ,of a

barren

woman

Karika

to

prove the
is

falsehood

of the

given by Gaudapada, world. This notion of the


|s

falsehood of the world,


aq;

not acceptable to Samkaia as


i

clear by

his,

^ftifo

Yogav^stha
I

v.

5.

9,

^^?q^lM
fasiffl5f

^'
&$
?S

W Wfotf ^1
fi^f^ir?' qrr
I

Yogav2Si ?t: ha

v. 87.

18,

3 ^c^qj^ isn

^1%

f^^^J

if

GaudapSda KSrika,

ii.

31.

The Advailic Sat

19

commentaiy on the Brahraasutra


says that the experiences of the

(5f<7**rNr 3

t^nifs^)

in

which he clearly
to

the experiences of the


it

dream

state,

waking woild can uevei be parallel Here Samkaia's commentary makes


is

evident that the waking world


or hare's horn etc.
real,

not

umcal
the

like the son of a


level,
it

banen
is

woman
much

&

that at

empirical

veiy

Sarhkaracarya, the

main propounder and an advocate


as

of the concept
2 It
is

of

sat

has admitted

it

an absolute

and ultimate

reality

non-

dual as well as supreme. There is nothing apart from Because it is eternal, dLfferent from the reality of material
objects

this sat, the reality.

&

worldly

For
is

it

is all

m all, therefore, no object


As
is

lias

This sat

the substratum (Adhtsmana) of


in

all

independent status. the worldly and sensuous


its

supeiimpositions, which are asat,

the
is

example of Sukti Rajata,

the Sukti

is

the substratum
the world,

&

the Rajata

sat unreal, so in the case of

Brahman
In

&

Brahman

the only reality

&the woild
world and

is

unieal.

this regard,

one can object


But

&

say that in the example of Suicti Rajata,


its

the silver does not exist at

all in the Sukti, while the

Objects

very much

exist.

it

is

not proper to argue,


reality

because

in the state

of

Brahma-jftana, the

non-dual

the

duahstic

This is objective world is completely negated. the state of truth arid knowledge called the state of Brahman, Mukti of Paramarthathat the state this context, it must be mentioned

knowledge of the why, the above state is

&

In

iftsna or

objects;

mean annihilation of the material non-dual reality does are not apart from the Adhiefhana or only means that they is the philosophy of Brahman. In this manner, Samkara's philosophy
not
it

in non-duality in duality. Accordingly

his Upadeiasshasri, he says

*ft

ft***?:

10.13

it

also

becomes clear

that the

phenomenality

of

the

world

is

because the indeterminate Brahman determinate t^vara,


1.

gamkara

of Brahmajnsna only. admitted by the Vedantm. prior to the state While taking note of the concept of sat, it must be kept in view that has used the woid sat for indeterminate Brahman & not the
is

the substratum

Brahman sutra,

ii.

2.

qflsfol Sflfarat

2 29
:

^^
T

'

Brahmansutra

&3nkarabh5sya

ii

20
of the universe and not the
karite definition of sat
is

Ram

Murti Sharwd

determinate
it

Brahman.

As

fai as the
:

6am-

concerned,

has been

defined to say

In

his

Taittiriyopanisadbhasya also
while he explains

Sarii'taiScarya

has

like-wise

defined the truth,

2
I

ulti Thus the final truth or sat in Sarikara's view is unquestionable mate & supreme. It is non-dual Brahman and substratum. Sankaracarya, to justify his viewpoint regarding sat, further says that every thing

apart from Here,


is

sat or reality is

unreal (flalS'^SSaRR. B.S S.B.,

ii.

1.

13)

this is to

be

particulaily
reality,

mentioned

that

while

Biahman

said
it

as

the

ultimate
in

world,

must be kept

view

that,

the unreality of the to explain evsn in the state of Rrahmajnanu.,

or Jivanmukti, the worldly objects


is

reamm

as they are, but the difference

that unlike the state of

ajfiana,

in the

above

state, the

Jnanin does

not have the dual view


in every thing.

&

for him, there is the realisation of

Brahman

The

very cautiously
er sat-asat
sts

&

of world has been explained by the Vedantms minutely, to say that it is neither sat nor asat, neith
state
It is

nor different from sadasat.


it

not

sat,

because

it

exi-

phenomenally,

is

not

sad-asat, for nothing can be both, sat


it

and

asat. It is also sadasat, because

is

unreal fiom the view point of per

manent

reality

and

real

katvst). It otherwise proves that

from the view point of complete unreality (All it is very much sat from the viewpoint

of empirical reality. One may further question, that if it is taken a^ of the woild. The sat, then where remains the scope for the falsehood

answer would be
the world
is

that it is through the concept of gfjifjSqteflfef that not taken as unreal hare's horn or as real as Brahman.

Some of the Vdantins like Madhusudana Saraswati, who arc posterior toSaAkara, propounded the theory of falsehood of falsehood to maintain the tenet of ultimate Advaitic sat.3 Madhusudana's argument is that if merely the falsehood of the world is justified, then it indirectly proves the real state of the world, which is proved as false by the Vedsntins like Sankara and so it will prove the duality of Brahman and the
woild
1

S. B. Gita, h. 16.

2
3

B, Taitti.

Upa.

ii.

1.

Advaitasiddhij P. 407, 413. (Nirnayasagar)

The Advaiiic Sat


Therefore Madhusudaua, is his Advaita siddhi, says that the falsehood of falsehood :s very much necessary to negate the reality of the world. No
doubt, one side of Madhusudana's argument seems
to

ground

that if the falsehood of falsehood

is

admitted,

it

be improper on the will, on the other

hand, justify the reality of the world & thus the tenet of Advaita can not be proved. In this manner, it seems to be convincing and proper, if the falsehood of world according to Sankara, is admitted. Regarding the
logic of falsehood of falsehood,
it

may

further be emphasized that after

Brahman, the falsehood of world, is automatically proved for the jftania and then there remains no scope for arguing the
the realisation of

falsehood of

falsehood.

Therefore

the logic put forth by

Madhusfldana

Saraswatl can not be said valid.

So for, mainly two types of sat have been taken in view, i. e. the Paramarthika and the Vyavaharika. In relative terms, the Vedanta has
also referred to the
third

type of sat

the

Pratibhasika. The erroreous

appearence of silver superimposed on the conch shell, is the example of Pratibhasika sat. It is called sat, because it appears as real, but as a
matter of fact
tibhasika
sat,
it

is

not real at

all.

It

is

noteworthy that even the Praits

illusory reality, can not be experienced without


is

subst-

ratum, which

conch shell in

the example

of conch-shell-silver.

The

and Brahman in the case of the experience of world. Thus the concept of sat is the mam thesis of the Vedantm. The sat Brahman has cit and Ananda, as its main characteristics. It is surprising
substratum
is

sat

that over-looking

the

above chaiacteristics,

of

Brahman

S.N.

Das

Gupta, a noted scholar of Indian philosophy, has found the Brahman parallel to ths Sunya of Nagarjuua. He says "His Brahman is very much
like the

the

Sunya of Nagarjuna".! As the Yogava&sJha has also mentioned Brahman of the Vedsnta, which is sat etc. can not be described as

Sunya or the Vijflana


Sankara, the propounder and advocate of
the idea
sat,

Brahman has

refuted

of unreality regarding Braiman,

saying

In this way, the Paramlrtha sat of the Vedantian, is consciousness, of knower and known, lupreme bliss, absolute, without the distinction is >eyond the approach of senses, eteinal and one. Neither there
luality

and nor
it.

the

approach of

the Sastras.

It is

only

known by

these

vho intute
1
7,

History of Indian Philosophy, vo],


PrSstSvika, S.

1.

493.

Ch. Upa.

viii.

1, 1,

THE REJECTION OF SITA

IN

RAMA YANA BASED PLATS

(up to 17th Century;

Chitra

Sftukla

Vglmiki was

contemporary of

Rama and

he depicted the

life

of

Rama

he interpreted. Though the fjoim selected by Yahnlki was a narrative epic, Rama's life proved very effective for a drama, because
as

conflict,

external or internal,

is

the

essence of drama.

Sanskrit

drama demands

that the plot should be well

The concept of known and the hero


life

should be noble. The conflict between love and duty in Rama's


well

was

gave a sweet and pathetic dignity to Rama. Ramacarita provided plots for the sentiments of V!ra and SpgSra to Sanskrit

known, and

it

dramatists.

We

will

examine

Sita's tyaga.

Sits, is

rejected thrice in the


all the

Ramayana
at the

in

Lanka,

in the

presence of

people

time of the

in Ayodhya and Horse Sacrifice.


first

Rama, though very

anxious,

rejects Sits,

when

she is seen for the

time after his victory over Lanka

He

of joy, experiences mixed feelings


:

nervousness and anger.

Rsma

is

very harsh towards her and says

31*193*1* Hffoslft

ft

SRI

JJ
-

6-103
character open
is

p.

767-768)
to

You
Lislike

with your

for criticism,

have come

me.

you

just as a lamp

disease. disliked by a person with eye

So,

Critical

EditoMVbl.

VI)

YuddhakSh^a, Oriental

Institute,

Beroda (India) 1971

Chltra

P Shukla
,o

O n* 11E ,uc,

or

a**.

aUo W ,cu

So

*K-

you wan,.

have stayed in his own heavenly, attractive beauty.

hou

sur

not spare

you

SU5

is

shocked by these words and says

^
^ifS
?EI

U<Ul

nfcnl%

^S?

6.104

p.

769-770)
which,

O
I

Brave one,

why do you

tell

me

these

unbecoming words

cannot tolerate to here, like any ordinary man to an ordinary woman? am not as you think of me. Be assured, I swear by my character. You doubt women by their behaviour - if you know me, give up this dou t.
I

my limbs touched him when I was helpness, it was not The fault was with Fate. My heart, which was under fixed on you only. What could I do when some other was my command, of If master with, was the all our life long my body? person company and contact, you have not known me, I am undone for, ever.

Lord

if

due to

my

wish.

Her arguments are very pointed. If you did not love me, why did you send a message with Hanumanl I would have put an end to my life if I had known this reaction of yours. She again says
:

The Vsimiki - RSmayaria Baroda (India) 1971

Critical Edition (Vol,

VI)Yddhaka P4 B
'

Oriental

The Rejection of Sltd

in

Raymavana-based Plays

25

cl

s'Sff

6-104 p.771)
ordinary

[O Brave one
account the
thought of
character.]

ovcrpoweied by anger only,


like an

you, like an

man, have tieated me

family of Janaka or

my

character

oidmary woman. You have not taken into my birth from Earth - you have not You have discarded my hand which you had

accepted in our childhood. You have overlooked my devotion,

my

pure

Laksmana to kindle fire, undergoes the fire ordeal Rama's consent, and comes out puie The Fire-God comes in carnate and imploies Rama to accept Stta. Rama accepts Slta and says
Slta then asks

with

though he was sure of Sita's puuty the fire ordeal was arranged only for convincing the people After Rama's coronation, Rama hears the scandal and rejects Slta, Though he does not doubt Sita's character, he has to abandon Slta Sita does not aigue. She understands Rama and believes
that

that

Destiny
people

is

all

powerful
is

Aftei the

union with

Rarna says
if

that if Sita declaies her purity in the persence of people

Lava and Kus'a, and


herself

the

appiove, he

ready to accept Sita. Slta presents

md

the people approve but she descends into Earth.

Valmlki was a
he fact that

realist

and hence his


drama.

Rama

is

human

being.

But

RSma
in

doubted

Sita's chaiacter

does not befit the concepts

f an
lariy

ideal hero

Sanskrit

The dramatists have

introduced

changes

in their stories.

he hough introducing many dramatic changes, the rejection ijection incident. He depicts only
lie

Bhasa's two plays, PratimS and Abhi?eka are based on Ramsyana. follows Valmlki in the
at Lanka. His

Rama

uses

ts.

for words Rajamcaigvamarfejatakalmarfi and Ikdvakukulasyarikabhfita of SUii will be au improper act. He bids Vibhlsana

The acceptance
~-"Rg

The Valmiki
Baroda

m~ayanu
4

Critical Edition (Vol

VI)YoddhakSnda Oriental

Institute

(India) 1971

nbodhi Vol. XII

Cfiitra P.

Shukla
however, Slta
enters
fire,

half of Sits.

When,

he

"^rh/Iiad
KiliJ.t-.il

the people. her only for convincing rejected


treated
the

has

the

incident

of

Sita's

abandonment

Unl,l
Sirs

For him beauty is supreme, and lo; ihipTrhibie and grand personalities. Rsma's harsh treatment did not bef ^ he harmonized with beauty. for Slta. Rama's speech after victory ove m'dcfptnd sublime love hushed up. Again, whe omitted and the whole incident is
*
v
,

R |hut!rnli
5

From

rough or rather

human

prototypes, Kalidasa ca

i<.

was abandoned from Ayodhya,


His anguish
is

Rama

expressed
:

his firm faith in he

Awitv

simile expressed in a pointed

si^sni

TOfom

of Sits's husband melted like hot iro SlrNFWt?*^" f*R3 (The heart iUtwk bv hammer). Slta is shocked by her abandonment. She is a bi wcamc in the beginning but she, like her husband, is an idealisl not commit suicide because she is bearing the progen; Sfie will
? fc*j(hu tn her

pen*ce so
;i

that she

womb. She will not cease loving Ra"ma, but will perforn may not be separated from Rama in the next birth
and clearly
says
:

takes Sits with him

am

angry with

Rgma

fcU

led

speech on hei with an immortal theme, foi drama, Uttararamacarita. In Mahaviracarita the fire ordeal is riarra ty Lanka and Alaka in a Viskaqibhaka. Like
wJoBtnent

Kalidlsa's

silence over the fire

ordeal

and

Sita's

have provided

Bhavabhuti

Kalidasa, BhavabhflL

also

discards

anything
he

that

is

incongruous
;

with

Rama's
fiiq^f:

love.

In
1

IHurarltnaearita
Tte

firmly

says

3fqf%qficrcfrzn:

qj^jfy^T.

cosfiict in

Om
Rft

by

Slta.

In Uttararamacarita

Ramsyana and Abhiaeka was undergone more by Rama


the
conflict
is

wbo

undergone
the
t.

we u

uoderstands her abandonment but tbaadancd. The conflict comeq tn an

more, bv
in

objects
nri

way

which

,!,

fiMTLtT-^^^^
i-

In Raghuvams'a

sr

purity

but

Slta

obvious and shows


in re.tt.fa es

.~-.u

of ui

objectively

** ^ve
reject history.
i

aesthetic experin ce He thinks Ute technique of ChaySsita * **^j**3JtLl d.Tll anH rho*j-. i,
.

important than rules and nf ^l.-.of


.

^ :n^^r f ^T'
To
a

craouan and nassion rather th u

A
-

i cla ssicist

thinks

and

VQly

KaHdaSa toduc6S

-ron^l

Bm

d 6S M0t
_

aad
I

e lii-US.

fw

-r

Bhavabh ti imagination is Jo him R?ma TJa-mo oj o.,-. 3nd SltS are the
,

subJectively. He *j,w
*

'

he has changed

The Rejection of

Sita in R&ytnayana-based Plays

27

the end, he has to manage Acts IV to VII where he plans for the happy end of the drama.

In Dingnaga's Kundamala, Sita is abandoned by Rama but they are united again by the consent of the people. Sits loved Rama, but disliked' the way in which she was abandoned. Heie also, the conflict is undergone

more by
witnesses

Sita

than

by

Rama

Slta's

anger

melts

when

she unseen,

Rama's

sufferings.

later

The HanumannStaka, is supposed to be on was edited by Damodaramis'ra in


and most of
it is

wiitten
llth

by HanumSn but
This

century.

drama"

consists of 14 Acts

in verse. It is full of

bombast and
very firm in

exaggerations. It depicts Sits's rejection at Lanka. believing Sits's chastity but at the same time he
will

Rama

is

have to attest her

purity for

is very clear that Sita convincing the people. The second

rejection at

hurriedly

Ayodhya resulting in to abandonment and the drama abruptly ends with it.

is

described

rather

The
ascetics.

different way.

As'caryacudamarii of S'aktlbhadra depicts Rama and Sits are given a ring and a
the touch of these two the
derives
to Sita.
its

incidents

in

crest jewel' by the in

By

demons could be recognized

their

real forms. The drama AnasuyS had granted a boon

name from this- or,est Due to this boonj $Jt>

adorned with sandal pa&ie and ornaments whenever Rgma looked When Sita comes befoie Rama in Lanka, she does not look a. bhairtrka. This arouses doubts in Rama and Laksmana, Rama Puaicali. opines that she should be driven away, and;,

Sugnva

advises to punish her. Sits proposes the fire ordeal and coines- out Karada comes and informs about Anasuy?'s boon. Rsma lepem
ruthless, behaviour.

was treated in Ramayana and therefore


this invention is

open

S'aktlbhadra perhaps disliked the way in which Sit* invented AnasuyS's boon; could not Ana.sfiys realise th to criticism;
it

boon
by

will cause

trouble to Ssta? Is

possible that

Rgma

cannot fcacw
7

of a boon

Rama

conflict is undergone more granted to his wife? Anyway, thp she is ilHreatfedi> in this drama. Sits is quite composed when

The AnarghaiSghava of Murari


advent to Rama's coronation. The

depicts the incidents,


fire

from

VU'vJUfttaais-

ordeal

is

described fron* Nepa-thya^


sorrow,,

When

Sita

came

in

anger and

shame.

He

Rama's presence, Rama was o&numbed with does not rebuke Sita. When he gpes tq

with Sjt?, Pu?pakavimSna he talks cheerfully fire ordeal is mentioned, only aim is to depict the heroic sentiment; in order to follow the outlines of Ramayana. in described Nepathja. is In Bslarsmayana. the fire ordeal
with Sits in
'

requests

Alaka

to witness this ordeal but Alaka, through

0g

Chitra P. Shukla

and describes the oideal. Alaka describes that Sit possesses divine sight and Arundhati prayed for Sita' had worn a garland given by Anasuya from Sltssvayamvara t The Balaramayana coveis the incidents
sake.

Rama's
event -it

coronation and the fire oideal nor is is neither in the centie

is
it

described only as a historic* an important event Neithe

Rama's nor Slta's reactions are depicted here. The Ullagharaghava of Somadeva describes the incidents froi Balakanda to Yuddhakanda. The incident of fire ordeal is described i and Kaipatika. SJta was afrai a conversation between Vrkamukha of Rama's displeasure. She therefore, pioposed the fire ordeal hersel

Rama

signs the

monkeys

to bring

wood
is

for the ordeal.

on behalf of

Sita to burn her if she

impure

Laksmana pleac Vrkamukha and Karpatik

are the spies of the demon Lavana. Rama asks Ssta to foigive him. Bt Sita says that the fault belonged to destiny, and that she could stan
the ordeal only
ness.
Slta's rejection is

because of Rama's love. Rama appreciates Slta's grea described here because it is an important evei

but

it is

not the centre of conflict.

The Prasannaraghava of Jayadeva depicts the incidents from Rama return to Ayodhya. The dramatis stay in Vigvamitra's hermitage to his has introduced many changes iu the stoiy. Ssta was given a pair c anklets by Arundhati, with a boon that this pair shall not separate Ram and Sjta. But as one of the anklets fell down when Ravana carried h< away, Slt5 was separated from Rama. In Act VI Rama is full of anxiel
for SltS.

A Vidyadhara named RatnaSekhara shows the incidents whic took place at Lanka to his friend Campakspida by a magic show, whic is witnessed by Rama and Laksmana also Rsma is convinced of
Sita
chastity.
Sitfi's

The magic show


ordeal
is

saves

Rama from

harshness

towards Sit

described in only one verse by the Vidyadhara. Di SltS herself propose the fire ordeal ? Or was it suggested by Rama ? Jaya deva is silent on this point. The i ejection ef Sita is a main incident bi the dramatist has given a new turn. Jayadeva has

fire

connected
ordeal
far

Rama
does
the

wil

the

depiction of

many Rasas
does not

like

Vira,

Jayadeva's
place.

Rsma

Sfngara,
the
fire

Vipralambha^gsr
tal

reject Sita but

Jayadeva
is

may

be

called

romanticist

so

as

show

concerned.

maa

Adbhutadarpana of Mahadeva, depicts the incidents fro incident Rama's coronation. The drama is full of mistake due to the tricks of the demons> Due g miraculous gem fell down from Ravana >s crown. Sampsti 'took Tar to- Vibhi an a who in his turn gave it to R ama The ? pve-rt gem enabl
Arigada
s

The

identities

The Rejection of

Sitil

in

Ram&yana-based Plays
at

J9

Rama

to

sco the

incidents

happening
Rliviina

Lanka.
because

In a scene at
to

Lanka"

Mahodara,
Rcivaua
woiu.iu.

the ftk'iul of
ih.it

advises

Ravaim

cheat

Sita

and

says

lh<s
it,

is

nol possible

Sila is a veiy

chaste

Rama

heais

and says

that in .spite of this Sita will

have to

give a proof of hei Uiaslity. ananye a u>nspnaey Maya

When

Ravana

died,

Maya and Surpaaakha


rejects
Sita.
heis>clf in

Lakes the form of

Rama, and

He thinks
ocean.
saves
trick

thai
iire

SiU

will
is

ciilici cntei

The

oideal

slighted

diown fiom Nepathya. The


rue or will

the

tiick of

Maya

R HIM fiom

being

unfair lo SiU,

Rama

is

ignorant
fot

of Maya's

(he

and (hinks that Sil.i undenvent the I'ue oideal only The diamalist has taken up a very thin pi-oplc.
sti

convincing

outline

from

Ra'nwyurn. H' s ^nly aim is to depict of Sil.i is mil acenlial incident hoie
(Ire

iking

incidents,
his

The

ejection

Rama

delays

meeting after the


the

01

deal

hut the diuinutisl

does

riot

show any reason for

delay.

The drama does


is

no! give rise to any profound sentiment


I'toni

The dramatist

imaginative and differs far called a romanticist.

the oiiginal

story hence he

may be

The Jtuiaklharana of R'unabhadia


due
to
t

is

also full of mistaken identities


is

ricks.

The

fire

ordeal
aiul

of

Situ

Viskambhaku between Samp.ui


Ratua but R;ima
utlei led

Suipunaklu.

made known by the Mitfra Sita was eager to meet


mentioned

harsh \vord.s-thcscwordsare not

by

Ramabhadra.
caritu,

This discussion shows that Piatima, Abhiseka, Mahavira-

As!c*uycu^,{iuani,

AnaigharaghiWd, Hanuman, Balaramayana, Ulla-

and Jdiiakiparinaya depict ghar.ighava, Prasannar.igliava, AdbhiUadarpana in all these dramas Slla'.s rejection and iire oideul at Lanka. The conflict,
is

undei^one

by

Rama
is

In

Abhiseka,

Rsma

js

rather harsh,

but his

anyer
In

nu-lts wlu-ii Su.l entets

Ore and he asks lo stop her. In A&aryaeu-

dainuui, An.isuy.i's boon


UlI.igharriglKiva

made

responsible foi the harshness of

Rama.

Rama
liaush.

nsks Sita to lorgive him

magic show and Rama from being

Muh.ldcviu the

miraculous gem.
id'

Jayadeva has invented These techniques save


with
this incident

Some

the dramatists deal


in

either in Viftkainblutlia en Jrom

Nepathya or

one or two verses.

The

authors of these dramas slick

to the outlines

of Rsmsyana.

To

a certain

cists so Tar u>

extent dramatists like Sttktibhadra and Mdia'deva may be called romantillieir nicks arc conueincd. These dramas, however, do not

arouse any piot'outul aesthetic experience.

Bhavabhati

.uul

DitigniTga,

depict a conflict

in

Sita's

mind

The

mental agonies havepioved techniques of Slu, unseen, witnessing Rama's are veiy optimistic about true love very ell'cctive. These two dramatisb

and have rejected Valmiki's tragic end. Though differing from Ramayana, and profound aesthetic experience. their dramas urou^c a vciy sublime

j0

Chitra

care to are very logical and take every Though romanucists, they us for the reunion. and dramatists and has provided Ramayana has inspired poets and dramas. Valmiki was a leahst and sources for many beautiful poems tends to also sorrow of an idealist. Modern age depicted the sublime human' life as it is. Rama, though a greatrealism and tries to depict her in human being Though he loved Sits, he rejected person, was a or because of possessiveness which Lanka either for convincing the people
is

natural for a
fire

man-and

by

ordeal.

He abandoned

her chastity was proved again accepted her when her on healing the scandals, but is ready

to accept her if

and Ramayana gives

of beauty by depicting

Rama is a human being approved by the people. Valmiki's rise to a profound aesthetic experience, an experience a human being with all his gieatness and weakness.

concepts

towards beauty underwent a great change when the drama were theorized. Bharata, Dhanafijaya, Ramacadra-Gunacandra held that Drama should give rise to an aesthete

The approach
of

Sanskrit

experience

but at the

same time
and

it

should

demanded that

the hero

heroine

also pieach. This tendency should be full of many virtues.

This theory governed

Sanskrit dramas.

The heroes of Sanskrit

dramas,

of virtues and not human beings consequently are ideal persons full who are bundles of virtues and vices. This tendency reached its climax where Rama was the hero. The harshness of Rama in. in the
plays
rejecting Sits

deprives

Rama

of his perfection. In dramas

depicting the

rejection of Sit,

Rama from
a

his

some dramatists have invented othei reasons for saving harshness, others have hushed up the incident either in
or in one or two verses.

Viskambhaka

Most of

the dramatists

have

not touched the incident of abandonment and those who have touched have reunited them. Rama's early life is capable o giving rise to the Heroic sentiment while his later l;fe is capable of givitig rise to senti-

ments of Pathos or Love in separation. Most of the dramatists, have preferred the heroic sentiment and they depict the incidents of. war.

The Erotic sentiment becomes subordinate and the rejection^ of Sjta becomes a minor incident in such dramas Uttararamacarita and Kundamsla depict profound and sublime
the sentiment of pathos as
its

love.

principle sentiment,
the

source of

many dramas some with

The Ramayana was an epic with and it became a heroic, some with the lave jin
its

separation and

some with the wonder as

principle sentiment.

And

yfct

poets of Modern Ipdian Languages still, tajce inspiration from RamSyarja for dramas, poems, epics and other fo:rri},s, of literature.
the source is inexhaustible

THE INDIAN MUSIC IN ITS SOURCES IN THE SAMA VEDA


Narayan M, Kansara
beautifully delineate the
as

The Vedic Res


in
its

charms of the Nature, both

macrocosrmc
of

well as

the miorocosmic aspects. Tliey form the

basis

the

Sama-'gitis.

The

DevatadhySya-brahmana
as

regards

S.c

as

the

mother
as

(mata),

Saman

the father
is

(pita)

and

'the

tune

(svara)

the Creator (prajapati).


is

Tune
the
as

the main rock-pillar of the

Samagana, which founded oh the


text

rightly

called

Creator.
the basic

The

Sama-tune
text.

is

Re,

which
with

serves

verbal

This

when

modified

'necessary

lengthening of
syllables
for

various
singing,

vowels,

and additions of some extra

musical

becomes

It is on this the Saman, hitlierto designated 'metaphorically as the father, Saman text that the actual Samagana is based. The Sanmina proper

consists of the actual singing

of these Ssma-texts with various Alapas to wit the and Tinas in accoi dance with the patterns of musical notes, times. And .it -is this tradition of the Ragas in modern parlance, >of the that should properly be known as the of 'the Sama
actual singing
texts,

Ssma-veda, the
efforts of

lore of

musical prayers

to various deities,

fhe

futile

some of the modern


its

orientalists to dig out rare


.their

references to
-for
is

music or

terminology, and

failure to find jusification


is

the

traditional belief that the

Sama veda

the source of Indian music,

due

the SSma-veda-sariihita text as to their fundamental mistake <Jf regarding lore. The samhitl is a mere verbal the real Sama-veda^the Vedic musical of various. classical pieces in the Kramikatext,

much

like the collection

pustakamSlikas of

Pandit Bhatakhande

The Ssma-songs ace sung with becomes perfectly melodious, with modulated and accomplished, the song
to in the basic Res are duly propitithe result that the gods addressed diviIt is, thus, a sure means to ated and become favourably disposed. in the micrososm too. ne worship and its fulfilment. This applies equally the intellect and the soul enjoy the The v/h"ole body along with the mind, the tunes sung .rhythmically. In melodious the of wonderful -harmony in the but too evident The birds sing is the phenomenon macrososm, food. The for the day's routine of finding early .morning and -get .ready work on their grinding stones sing as they the

vaiious tunes.

If the

tune

is

properly

woman-folk

in

villages

32
flour from

Narayan M. Kaniara
wheat, millet or

for preparing

laboureis sing the rythmic tunes to


force during tiring tasks,
estic

syncronise their

maize for daily bread. The effort and manual

aud

it

serves to minimise the fatigue.

The dom-

workers -the Rama's- gather together in a corner of some house, and to the rhythm of the Dhokika, Manjiras or sing Bhajans in a chorus Kamsi-doublets. In all these types, the microcosmic gods, viz., the organs of actions, of knowledge, the mind, the intellect and the ego, along
with the soul, experience a joy and
quite logical and consistent

on

the

consequent peace- It was, therefore, part of the ancient Rsis to believe


that
is

that the metaphorically personified forces of Nature,

the

Vedic

gods, too must necessarily get rejoiced by their

sama -songs

set to nrmsip

and meant

to extol them.

the pattern of the

In the actual Sama-ga'ua, it is seen that the woids may change while music remains the same, and vice versa. At times the
is

words and the meaning are forgotten altogether, and the attention

con-

centrated on the tunes only. This is adduced to in the Chandogya Upanisad where Silaka Salavatya asks Caikitayana Dalbhya as to the way (gati)

of the Saman, and the Rsi replies that it is the tune abara (svara). The " Arthaikatvad vikalpah syad rksgrnayos bhasya on the Jaimmiya-sutra " tadarthatvst (IX. ii, 29) says that in the Samaveda there are the ways of singing a Re in a thousand ways, And the Sama-gana is essentially the internal vibration of the speech. To take an instance, three songs " are based on the first Re of the Sama-veda-satfihita', viz.,

Agna ayshi

vitaya." The nature of these songs


sainhita;

is

and the details regarding the name,

elaboiated in the Grema-geya-ganathe Rsi and etc., of each

of these songs are given in the Arseya-brahmana. Barhisya and Parka, and their Rsis are Gautama,
respectively. In the
first

The names are Parka,

KaSyapa and Gautama,


as "O'gnSi",

song the
in

word "Agna"

is

lengthened

much

as would

happen

an Alapa.

takes into account the unit of the vowels as it maintain the rhythm, while the metre takes the syllable as the both are thus unit, preserved in the song since the musical lengthening of the syllables of the text is not supposed to affect the metre. Perhaps the metre of the basic text may not be at times relevant so far as the singing proper is concerned. The Sama-singer is called a Chandoga while the lore of the Sffltna-songs is called Chanda-arcika ', and the literature about
helps to
'

The Sama-gSna proper

'

'

Ssman

the

is

called

Chsndogya
th

'.

It

is

interesting
is

to note

here that the

And

AT/would ?/
it

hriStian SCr

* tures

not be off the

mark

if

Ued 'Psalm', pronounced we Sllggest that the basic

The Indian Music

in

its

sources

in

the Samciveda

33

harmony of
tunes called
c

the ancient
Sa',
i.

e.,

Vcdic music was founded on the two constant sadja, and 'Ma', e., Madhyama, icspectively
i

And
first

it

is

specifically

noted

in the

Bishmanas of the Samaveda

that the

musical note of the Sanaa singer corresponds to the


flute.

Madhyama

note

of the

Each Sama-song
viz.,

is

usually divided into five or seven parts (bhakti),

Pratihaia, Upadrava Nidhana. And the songs words like Him, Ohavs, Oha, fiau, etc., for the purpose of Alapa and Tana procedures during the singing.

Prastsva,

Udgitha,

utilise the

As regards the relation of the musical notes with the Vedic accents, the Naradiya-Siksa mentions that !?adja, Mahyama and Pancama have
originated
accent.

from Svaiita accent; Rsabha and Dhaivata have oiiginated from Anudatta,, and Gandhara and Ntsada have oiiginated from Udsita The real significance of this statement cannot be until
grasped
are in a position to analyse the musical

we

songs proper

recorded from

Sama

recitations

compositions of the SamaPandit Satavalekar had


Ri,

tried to equate the three accents with the notes Sa,


ctively,

which

pei haps contiadicts the Narada's statement,

and Ga, respeand may not

.stand the scrutiny of the analysis of the actual

traditional recitation of

the Sama-songs prevalent currently. But Pandit Satavalekar deserves to be credited for his bold attempt to give the notations of the five Sama-

gSnas, viz., Gayatra-ssma, Mahavarnadevya, Jyesthasama, Gautamiyaparka and Tarksya, with the help of Pandit Anant Manohar, the royal musician of the then Aundh 'tate. Recently, Pandit Mahadev Shastri of

Surat has attempted to reduce the Sama-songs to notations with the help

of

lute. We would suggest that a comparison of the analysis of Christian Psalm recitations and of the Zoroastiian religious lecitations of Avestan

Gathas too might yield


ancient musical modes.

fruitful results

towards getting

a glimpse of the

But, there is another useful line of investigation too. Our folk songs, Bhajans, Kirtaiis, Padas, wherein the meaning enjoys prominence seems to be the first stage of musical evolution In them the words themselves

have a euphony of their own. When groups of people gather in their temples, residences or street squaies and sing or listen lo them to the tune of TamborS, their body vibiates with the tunes. At the same time
they also enjoy the philosophical moods expressed in the songs the Padas, Bhajans and Kirtans of poet saints like Mira,
XII
5

Thus

in

Narsimha, Surdas,

34
Haridas, and others,

Narayan M. Kansas

we

find devotional

poetry

set to

the rhythmic tunes

of music expressive of devotional fervour and philosophical mood. Heie the meaning of the words of the song is never lost sight of, nor sacrificed
for the sake of tonal artistry
in rural

This

is

the

way of singing more prevalent

and popular amongst the masses. But when the words begin to serve as a mere hook to hang the melody on to it, and to exhibit tonal variety, richness of vocal training and artistic creativity, the further
areas,

type of music,
their

known

as classical one, comes into being. The words and

meaning here recedes to the background progressivly to the extent of almost insignificance, and the tune prevails and predominates. Perhaps
both these
recitations,

types of developments

had

evolved

with

regaids to
of
it

Satna

and

the direct development from

have evolved into our Dhrupada.

some variety further evolution from


ages
is

them might at the hands

of maestros
Originally the

of middle

and early modern


variety

not

unimaginable.
to,

Dhrupada

must have been very near

and

the

direct discendent of, the

Sama-gana.
the

The gradual evolution of music with


emphasis

corresponding

shift of

from words and meaning

evolution from emotional to

presupposes a progressive intellectul approach to music. And it would


in

to tunes

not be too rash


the

to
is

hazard a guess that the thousand recensions


traditionally

which
in
the

Samaveda

believed to have been

prevalent

ancient

times, were based on the thousand

ways of the recitation of the

Simi-songs. These recensions must have come into existence due to the
difference
in the
style

of the

recitations,

and

to

some

extent

in

the

variant readings of the basic Res as also the difference

and

social

and

religious

customs
lived

different

ways of living parts of India where the

followers of the Sakhas

It is

furthei

possible to guess that

some

of the recensions

laid

emphasis on the words,

while the others

tended

to emphasize the tunes,


classical

And

the roots of the basic division of the Indian

music into

North-Indian

and

South Indian

possibly

lie

here

rather than

on

the fundamental difference in the interpretation or under-

standing of Bharata's system of tabulation (saram-paddhati) of the Sptis and fixation of the Suddha and Vikrta Svaras on them, as has been

proposed by Pandit Omkarnatb.

in his

Pranava-bhsrati,

HYMNS ON RAFRI
R

IN
D

THE ATHARVAVEDA

Hegde

The
to its

Atharvaveda has a unique place among the four Vedas owing and sincere attempts to understand the variety of contents
of the
the

mystery
surpasses

universe

As

a literary

composition, the Atharvaveda

Rgveda,

emerging

with

realistic

and down-tn-earth

approach.

In most of the hymns,

the Atharvaveda deals with the riddles

presents and problems associated with the contemporary society, of the Atharvaveda adds an amicable explanation for them. This quality itself from the vast much to its literary meut and helps to distinguish

and

Rgvedic literatwe.

Here

is

cluster

of four
poet's

Atharvanic

hymns

Av.

XIX 47-50)
the
deity of

bettaying the

Atharvanic

compromise

with Ratn,
like a

darkness.

Though

for the first glance the


it

hymns look
to

description
tries

of nature in night,
to negotiate with

cannot be ruled out that the poet Gopatha


her wishes.

best

Ratn submitting himself


part of Nature,

Ratri,

being

a regularly

appreanng

creates in

Gopatha

awes and

apprehensions
are exclusively

as also appreciation of her moonlit beauty.

Tliese

devoted to Ratn,

enriched by her live

description

hymns and
are

by an account
vie with these

of her varied

activities

In the Rgveda also,

there

her different dimensions, but they cannot several references to Ratri with

hymns of

the Atharvaveda for spirit

and

sagacity.

The poet
activities

Ratri

with bright

Gopatha has perceived. The view of and phases of brightness which he scene. The poet stars is described as an enchanting
her brilliant
starry night

in his

hymns on

Ratri,

describes her

different

and

calls her a goddess.

Stars

are

personifies

the

innumerable

eyes of Ratri

with

which she

keeps

her

twinkling

watch

on the

earth.

The

of the poet fancies that capture the attention


to evolve her
different

woman, and sometimes like a young maiden Ratri appears like a lovely the horses become of her family. At her behest, devoted to the services of their natural during night, in spite incapable of seeing anything All splendours are heaped on her to clearly. power, to behold things kind towards the poet and ,he beauty. She is very ,make her> tempting
has blessed him.

are interesting

and they help

forms

to the

full.

H*

form,

aic too a

many
she

to

desenbe.

She

may be beheld inth*


she ha.

hcuutv of a lion,

^,

a tiger

and a leopud

wft

ho ses

unh ; pW d.
Hc.c

ihcrefoic,
virility to

may

She hds rifted

the' poet sceni, to attribute

lumun
t

bc.ngs to

tomis uits cold incessantly, hence she

of animals and cveiy prominent feature innumerable Rsin The poet wonders how she can assume she jjenc\ulc~AV. XIX 49-) piiriuupani krnuse). During night,
is

men,

^sed horses. the be observed in the speed of roar of men hence. she is reflected in the

the mothei

of cold

Her merest

in

assuming many names

may

be testified by

himasya mala). her different

Her wonderftil forms are inexplicable Gopatha epithets and nomenclature. because both the king and Ratri fully enjoy a king, compares Rstn to It is much more interesting to the r>ra\eis and pnuses offeied to them. a cow (AV. XIX 49. 6>; mile tluit the poet finds in her the beautiful foim of
here Gopatlu

Rdln
XIX.

Where

else

imagines that the cow derives charming can such a spotless perfect beauty be

appearance from

found

(CP AV.

-W.6; 'vjsvam

gorflpam yuva'ih bibhaisi)

hi:i\e

The poet L'mploys in the hymns seveial similes and metaphors which as evidence to the poet's fertile imagination. Praying to her, the
sajs that
1

*'

poU

the malicious beings should go


s>eed

away
"

poet like

Samyaka
J.

blown
1

and

is

not found

at night from the (Vide, 'Kavi and

by N.

Shende, P.

55, also

Cp.

AV

XIX.

50.4),

The poet

leaves us in embarrassment by

stating that

the

stars are

the eyes of Ratri;

and

seven.

and they are ninety and nine, eighty and eight, seventy His assumption of the number of her eyes docs not stop

with these numbers


fifty

untl fivv,

iasiN

cte\en

regarding cannot be

and six, and two, and had in his mind 47.3-5) poet ihese myriad numbers and what exactly he wanted to express, guessed easily, even then, this much may be assumed that the
finther imagines that rer eyes are sixty
thirty

He

foity

and four,

and

thiee,

twenty

AV XIX

What

the

poet takes fancy to count stars like a child and finally becomes weary in his attempt. e,\clanning that she has countless eyes. Thus the poet confesses his defeat frankly.
This is only one dimension of Ratri. She has other forms also. Rstti, growing into deep dark, envelops the entire worJd and even 'beyond she Mretche* her dark empire. Thick darkness descends on earth. She

occu-

pies the cntiie space from heaven to earth. She closes all her twinkling bright eyes. The poet expresses terror about her clandestine power v/ith which she overpowers the woild and isolates all

poet', vision. Thus,

when
start

the things

she spreads everywheie, all

cease to

move and

beings

from the and men

taking rest. (See Av.

XIX

47.2),

Hymns
The
is

on Ratn in th? Athatvaveda


is

37

piiiyci

ot

the poet

leplete with

is

capaciously icmmisceni of hei acls in bound to sin up affection and devotion in the poet, because despite her terrible looks in the nigh I, she has ai\va>s heeded to the poet's supplication, The prayer speaks of poet's awe about Ratri and his en-

glowing tubules to Ralu, and the daik hours. Hei generosity

deavours to win benevolent piolection by hei. To establish his affinity with Rfitu, the poet alludes io hei lineage and mentions that Ratri is the daughter of Dyuus, the heaven, and, Rain and Usas me sih
It

is

not difficult Io iraee

"tit

the pool's

submission to

Ratii

when
has

out bis need foi help and enlightenment. After desciiptioii of Ralii in a lomantic style, the poet divulges

ho

.spells

an
that

elaborate

he

ai

lived til an iigi cement with the invincible prowess of Ratii. The first slan/a of the foitysevcnlh hymn reveals how afiaid the poet is of the encircling gloom. He thinks he may tiy to discover and reach the other

end of Ratri, but he is terribly afiaid of any such imagination, ThcieHe thinks foic, his only work has been to count her watchful eyes.
Ratri possesses probably ninctyninc eyes; bu( as he becomes seiious about
his hypothetical conclusion, he suspects his

own

efficiency
his

in

handling

such calculations lets fear become

Daikncss withdraws fiom him


life
1,1

powci of sight and

his

mind

that

happen

to

him

01

io his

hcid of cattle.
his interest.

anything causing danger may Rain's grace alone cun protect


Ratri angrily
shuts

his cattle

and safeguard

When

her

iu-

nimieuiblc eyes, robbers and burglers might assail the poet arid his house, and he might have to succumb to injuries and sizable losses of his pio-

wolves

are not pleasant to him. The terrible jaws of the perty. Such incidents (he venomous scipenls and so many other wild animals keep the

poet worried during nighi. They deny him ihe comfort of sleeping.
all

For

this,

the poet finds solution in submitting

to

Ratri

and reaching a

humble compionmc with her


The worries co
v

him

down

so

greatly

that

he readily admits his

ignorance about the form and might of Rain; but he says that Bhiiradof the sixth Book of the Rgveda alone vnju, poet of many of the hymns
well

knows her accomplishments and prowess. That BhKradvH)a knows her is the only fad known to (he poet, (vide Av, XIX 48.6). The final requesi of the poet is that may Ratri hand him over lo
her sister Usas, the Auiora, safely
kith and kin, (Av.
If
to see his

son,

brothcis and all

his

XIX

4K,2>,

viewed

critically,

hymns on
1

Ratii

may
in

be found to imitate

A thai 1

hymn

of the oaith (Av XII.

hymn)

many

aspects.

But at the

R. D,

Mine time,
bihvccn the

skip

contrast

may be
ilie

noticed despite of similarities plenty

Ipns

on Rstri and

hymn on
about

the Earth, In Ins

song

on

tie Eaith, Atliaivan

speaks eloqiently

his

memoirs

associated

with

Biimi and

strengthens

with his

eloquence

the

ground of

his

pleas

to mother earth

Atharvan has with him a history of brave deeds of

ancestors,

but here in the

Ratn hymns, Gopalha


a

icveals

no such clue of

brave deeds of his forefathers and quite embaii


cowardice, The

singly, he confesses his

expiessions

of

Gopatlia

aie in

appealing

words and rich

in the

variety

of contents,

He

unfolds Rain's attnbutes one after one and

admires her choice of names, Thus, the

Ipn

on Ratn stands out

as an

expression

of confession and introspection,

A UNIQUE

HARHI IMAGE FROM G/NDHARA


Uslut

Jain

Harili, the

'Rapacious one the 'Thief, the


is

dcstroyci

as well

the

prolectress
dcily.

of children
to the

one of the important


Buddhist
lore
in

minor Buddhist
as
1

female
671
),

Accioding

and

[-sting

AD

mentioned
devoiii

Hifn'ti as

an

evil

Yaksini

the previous birth,

who

used to
lived
the

the children of Riijagnhu.

She with a brood of 500 sons

lavishly

on the

flesh

of small

children,

Buddha

in

oidci

lo

tame

'mother of the demons' kidnapped one of her favourite baby Priyanfoira


in

his

alms-bowl us recorded
the child,

in

the Samyutta-iiikaya. text.

He

refused

to

retuin

until

and unless she piomiscd

faithfully to

change

her

mode

of

life,

Ogressc became

Realizing the sin she had so long been committing, the a bestowei of fertility, protective goddess of children,
a

a guardian of prosperity as slated in

passage from Maha-Maya-Sutra,

Haiti's account was mentioned


in

in the

Saddharma--punclarlka-sutra*

Mahiwamsa and
Harili

in the

chapter 31,

Samyukta Vastu. According to Samyukia Vaslu, was the daughter of Yaksa Sala of Rajagriha, who
one of the twenty-eight general in the

was married to Pafichika,


of Vais'ravana,

army

Pafichika

was the son of Pafichala,

the

Yaksa king of

Gandhara,
of Swat, tt part of the CanHarili was mylhologically an inhabitant dhura country. She enjoyed wide popularity in that region, as the cult of
Harili originated

somewhere
in

in the

north-west frontier area. Hiuen-tsang

and I-sting
the

mentioned
in

their travel accounts about her images

under

porch or

the corners of the refectories

of Buddhists monasteries.

The common folk of


worshipped her
from the
to

the land of Udyitna, a site near

modern
is

Peshawar

sock descendants.

Her popularity

evident not only

number of soulpUues

depicting her and her spouse,


in

but also

fiom the temple discovered at Sksrah Dhcri

Peshawar

testify the fact,

Moreover,
griha as

the

Mahabhssrulbitf

mentioned of a Ynksini

shrine

itt

Rajiv-

"World renowned".
one of the tmdition
alt

According

to

Hiiriti

was

also the personification

of the most dreaded of


In the

the infantile diseases, small to be

pox and

cholera,

Hindu pantheon, she seems

one of

the folk
etc.

Goddess known

asM

sri,

Mm,

B"di Mai, Silals-devi, OUbibi

Usha Jain

woik
f and

MQla-Kalj*

a, a

Mate

V^uu

Panch to

^^.a

Sel *pnt,S

the

lU>

.cprcseivwd
at

a* the

chlWKn and
lrtl

tnnes

-- do

Godde ss

of ftcuna y only the symbol

^
as
.

^
The

m ^^^ ^
Goddcss Wlth

^^ ^j,

wealh and foUime*


-

SpaU

T
,m,K

tw P-Kuvera-Vais-ravana
vho v.as
second half of the 6th
c.

of his atlnbute. with the benevolence the money bag the &od of wealth by holding extremely cbc to the
likewise regaided as a

proctor

.rittin in the

D AD
with
a
child
in

refers to

Knvera and Hariti as tutelary


is

deities of Peisia?

Hsriti

her Jap

who

usually represented standing her breast and is suckling

or seated
childishly

playing

with

her

wcklace

some playing and wrestling. Several others surround her, to accompany as the spouse of Pancluka she is m*dt Being considered and seated varieties of the images. Very her husband in certain standing without any child, but in that case she is cirlicr is shown
inrely

she

of plenty and carrjing the horn


There
cohort
in
is

may be

in the

company of her hushanti.


and
hoi'

a variety of sculptural

representations of Haiiti

Gandhara, To mention only A few, there is a figuio of Hsriti from Takht"i~Bshi8. now in Peshawar Musei/m, standing on a vase under a canopy of leaves, she carries the youngest of her many children
on her
falh
left hip.

On

her hfad

is

a chaplet of leaves
is

from which

a veil

down her back. The

figure of the goddess


in the

full

of mothciline.sv.
seated,

Another figure of Hariti,


between her^feet, three at each

British

Museum^ shows her

her favourite child clinging to her breast. She has

one of the many sons-

the left are wrestlingside, recalling the expression mentioned in the Ratna-K,<Ha~Sfltr& that each oT her children possessed the strength of a great wrestler.

of

whom two on

Hariti looks quite different in different pieces as For example, the no.

Museum shows her differently from she wears shoes and stands in emphatic contrapposto.
J625 in Chandigarh

No.

865 where

Unique

ftarili

Image from Gandhara

4J

There are several figures of Hanti, in which she


her husband Pafichika, One such sculptuie in Indian

is

accompanied by
Calcutta,
in

Museum,

hailing from Jamalgarhi'O represents the couple standing undei a tree

blossom,

the male occupying a place to the right of the female.

Hanti

stretches out hei light

carries an object looking like a noose,

hand towards her husband, while in the left, she A naked child is shown standing
is

between them and another

seen in the upper background.

group Hanlill holds by hei right hand the handle of a pan-shaped vessel, evidently containing eatables. A naked child stands between the couple anothei is seated to the left of Paflchika
still

In

another

the finest and largest reliefs was excavated by Spooner in from Sahn-Bahloi, represents Hsriti and Pafichika seated side by the lance in his right hand and in his left, the moneybag, whereas Hanti instead of carrying the child holds the symbol of

One of

190712,

side.

The male holds

fertility,

the Cornucopiae,

At Taklit-i-Bahil3, Hariti
only cairies the

still

holds

the

Nidhi-s'riiiga

whereas

Pafichika has put aside the lance, his symbol of being a Warrior, he

now

money

bag.

In a bas-relief
figured

found by Hackin at Paitava, Afghanistan, Hanti

is

holding a Cornucopiae in a niche at the left of the Buddha, while in the corresponding niche at the right is Vajtapani instead of

Panchikai4.

Hariti

in

general

is

represented
her

with

two arms

rare

example
feet

from
image

Sahri-BahlollS shows
is

with

four arms
it

This four

high
of

iconogiaphically very important as

holds trigula in

one

the hands. The trident, a symbol of Siva, the Brahmanical pantheon has

an obvious iclevancc

to the destructive effects

of smallpox.

The

other

common

attributes of
fish,

Hal ill are water-vessel, horn of plenty,

children,

pomegranate,

wine or skull cup.


to a very unusual sculptural representation of

Now we come
housed
vince
is

Harm,

Chandigaih Museum, the Accession trumber is 94. The pro unknown of this 3rd c. A.D. image which has neithei children
does
she

around her nor


Sambodhi Vol

hold

the

horn of plenty.

She

is

not

even

XII-6

42

Usha Jain

alone in bhadrasana on a enjoying the company of her consoit. She sits elaborate armless throne, which has its high bac'c decoiated with pearl roundels. At the sides of the thione are two jackals looking up at the
goddess,

who holds
is

in her right

hand a bowl or a cup.

Representation
instances

of the vessel

significant as there are a

number of reported

of the habitual offering of different types of food to tutelary Yaksas and Nagas within Buddhist monasteries. BalMxhog was placed before
the icons of Hsriti ard her hungry the monasteries. 16 As Buddha had
offering of

brood each day

in the refectories of

promised

'the ogresse foi the

regular

Satapatha-Brahmana and the daily Law bali-bhog Mahabharata mentioned service of eatables in the Yaksini shrine at Rajagnha. Even today the monks of the Viharas of Annarn make offerings of food to the 'Mother
of

Manu

food from pious also mention

Buddhists.

of

Demon

Sons'. Hiuen-tsang 1 ? an his records

refeis to a stiipa

which
that

marked
before

the place of Sis'umSra's (Hariti)

conversion
to

and

informs
childien.

The it common people made offerings bowl in hand thus indicates that she is ready to receive her share. She
the

obtain

carries an indistinct object in the left hand.

The deity

is

fully

draped

in a pleated cloak which covers her entire body. She is decked up with the necklaces, ear-rings, anklets and bangles. The hair is tied in a loose

bow on
structure

the top
is

of the head in a

sophisticated manner.

Her

physical

eyes

and

stunted and heavy. The rounded face, half- open, heavy lidded a hint of a smile make this nimbate female a pleasant

countenance.

attributes

The presence of Jackals and the deity without any of her make this grey schist sculpture of 31.7 cms by 22.7
piece

common
cms
an
the

exceptional
after

seen in the art of Gandhaia.

What

strikes us most,

jackals

examining this uncommon representation of Hariti is, were connected with the goddess of fertility ? This further poses a

question, were jackals

worshipped in India
c.

Sana's Kadambari, the 7th

A. D. prose testifies that the

women of

ancient India, desirous of becoming mothers, worshipped the Jackals. It further states that queen Vilasavati, wife of king TaTaptda of Ujjayim, in order to be blessed with a son used to place during the night, offerings

of flesh to the She -Jackals and


the

JacJfals in the court-yards to propitiate

God

Siva.

the

This custom of propitiating the Jackal also appears to be current in Bengal even today. Offerings are district of Faridpur in Eastern

presented to Jackals on certain festival days during the month of Chaitra ("March- April) by the residents of Faridpur.

Unique

Ililnli

linage from Cantihdra

42

In Hindus
of

north Bihai,
of Biha'i
still

siinihu

ollerings ate piescnted to tins

beast.

The

pcrfoim a curious ceteraonial worship in the course

which

they present Ibocl offerings to the kites (Milvus

Govinda) and
these

Jackals ( Cams aureus )- a Tact which nuses the piesumption that birds and mammals might once have been theii totem animals.

The
is

curious
as the

Bihfui
Jjuliy.'i

known

eeicmonuil worship of totcinistic oiigin, which is peifoimed on the eighth day in the light

fortnight

of the Hindi
(

month of Bhildo
is

Saptuwi
the

day

the seventh day in the light foitnight of the

Bihari woman, who


at

celebrating this

August-September ). On the same month) worship, pai takes of a meal,

and,

the first streak of

dawn,

puts some eatables as offerings to the

Kites
those

peiformance confers the blessings of sons on \vomen who peifonn ii and causes theii sons to live long.
Jackals.

and

This

instance of the Jackal's being has


(in

treated as a deity or totem

tteen
tine

recorded

from North

Bihar

where the

district of Saran) presents food-offerings to this

Maharaja of Hathwa mammal on the of


the

Ranmnavmm Day (or the month day montl* of Chaitia (March April).
llxe
were
it

in the light foitnight)

above

cited
i

examples

aie

-worshipped
is

ancient
that Sivu

India.

enough to show that the Jackals The answci to the qiierry why was

worshipped,

women
Jackals
were,
their

to possess the

are belived to he the attendants of the


therefore,
propitiated with

was God and was believed by power of giving children to them. Therefore, the God Siva. These animals
the Phallic
offerings of flesh in oider
to

please

patron

deity

and he may
can say
this

in return bless

them with children.

To
of
Siva.

sum up,

vvc

Chandigarh Museum, which


Harili.
It

unique Gamlharan sculpture in collection has no parallel departs from the traditional
it

representation of
Hsriti,
grant

suggests that

had coherent

relations*

with

Jackal

and

Siva were held in high esteem as they


oil-springs.

could

the

worshippers

with

Brahiiianical

was
art.

fully

assimilated

The cult, whether folk or within the frame-work of Buddhist


iconography

orthodoxy, of Ganclharun

bringing to the foregiound the 'ambiguity' in the

Foot-Notes
1.

rvlajunidar N.

Gunk2.

to the Sculptures in the Indian

Museum.

Part

1937.

PP

98-100,

Gandlifiran A^t in Pakistan, 1957,

PP

J45-46.

44

Usha

Jaiti

2
3

fCcrn and Nanjio

Saddhaimapundiaiika
3.

P. 400,

Malubluiatha
Bapat - P V
*"
:

83

23

4
, 5.

2500 yeais of Buddhism. 1956, P. 362.


P. 17; 20.

Arya Manjusn
Stein

Mula Kalpa

1,

Parivaita

6.

'Zoioastnan Deities oa Indo-Seythian Coins' Indian

Antiquary
7

Vol. 17, April 1888. P. 97.


1'

Levi, S

Notes Chinoises sur


1

Inde, Bulletin dc
5.

1'

E* cole

Francaise d

Extre'me-Onent. Vol.

1905, P. 2C7,

No.
8,

33.

Marshall.

The Buddhist Art of Gandhara


The Beginnings of Buddhist

I960. P. 84

fig.

112

9 10
11.
12.

Fouchei.

Ait. 1914. P. 283, PI. 17.1.


12. d

Majumdar

N G G

Op

Cit

P. 100,

No
113

110, PI

Majumdar N,
Getty

Ibid. P. 101.

No

A
A

The Gods of Northern Buddhism. 1928

P. 87,
I

Fouchei'.

L
J

Ait Gre'co-Boddhique du GandhSrii. Vol.2 Part


fig

905-3 922,
Cit
Cit.

387

13.

Getty,
Getty.

A A

Op
Op,

87.

14.

87,

f.

n. 3
I'J.

Hackin
J5,
16.

Sculptures Gre'co- Bouddhiqiie dc Hackin


.

,-j

Ingholt

Op
.

Cit

P 146-47;

PI.

341,

Pan.

Harm, La Me're-de-Demons.

Bulletin du

'

Cole
17

Fiancaise d' Extse'me - Orient.

(BtiFEO)
the

Vol

i,
17,

1917. PP. 11-12

(based

0,1

SamyuktaVasiu

Cliaptei 31),

Beal

Buddhist Records ot the Western wo, Id. Vol


PP. 110-111.

I-

for

Foucher

Notes Sur
Bulletin de

la
1'

Geographic

Anclcnno du Oflod iar8i


j

E' cole Frenca.se d'

Vol

1901.

me . 0fj

341,

Foucher

L'. Art Gre'co-

.Bouddhique

du GandhSra.

Vol

'

Part

-> "

1.

P, 134.

II, ii

id wiih

her

chiWrcii

p.

40

Four-armed Hnriti

p. 41

Jl'rili

and hei husliiiad

p,

41

Unique Hariti Image

p.

42

Ksrtikeya

p.

54

SRNGARE VIPRALAMBHAKHYE
R. S. Betai

Bhavabhuti
'Poetiy
is

the

outcome of

the desire to see with the

mind what
2

the

eye sees and with the eye what the mind imagines ".

Rabmdranath.
ICalidasa

commences

his depiction of 'Ajavilapa' in the

Raghuvamsa

with

this veiy

impiessive stanza-

*ra

"W
(*f

840)
deeply

"
Setting

aside

his

natural
eyes,).

steadiness,

he

lamented

with

uncontrolled tears (in the

Even (hard and

stuffy) iron gets softened

(and melts) when

heated.

What

then to talk of the hearts of the humans?"

Young
deprived

Aja experiences all of a sudden the deep shock of being of the nectai of love, and his heart melts into soirow that
that

life-like picture of love in separation that leads to pathos. gives to us a

The deep
even
is

suffering of pathos,

is

in the best

words

in best order,

not likely to find full expression, of a poet of Kalidasa"s stature,

iron

mainly

of hard and stuffy subslancelike hinted at by the very fine example heated. Human iclations, based as they are melting down when on emotional attachments, that stir up the very vitals of the

of hcait, are the very basis

no love
Katyapa,

in life,

it

is

not

life,

human life and hence of poetry. If much less human life. The heait

there

is

of sage

a celibate

by birth,

to control,

when he has

to send his

meltes into deep sorrow that he struggles fostei- daughter S'akuntala to the

ever exprience of love in separation, due house of hei husband. His fust to his Vatsalya in his case, surprises him and his heait in all sympathy

concedes the very depth and intensity of the feelings of

men and women

of the woild when they are separated from their kith and kin. Without one stroke of his pen, the poet speaks out volumes uttering a word, by just

about human

life in this

famous stanza--

R.

&

Betai

4.5)

"To-day S'akuntala

will leave".

With

deeply touched and shaken by anxiety, of tears that I try to control, my vision
forester were to suffer
this

thought my heart is ray tin oat goes sore by the flow


this very
is

the

sorrow through suffering of worldly men and women


their daughters

blimed by worues. If I, a Jove, what must indeed be


at the

very

first

separation

from

?"

This

brings us to the fine expression that Anandavardhana gives to

one basic reality of human life, for the first time in Sanskrit poetics. There is a unique excess of sweetness and delicacy as we may add, in the exprieuce of love in separation and pathos which dominate the

human

heart, so much so that Vipralmbha S'rngara and Karuna become the most dominant of all human emotions, and they are the most delicate,

the sweetest and the most appealing of


tant statements of

alt

human

emotions.

The impor:

Anandvardhana

in the matter are as follows

301;

n^^f.
ft

Srngdre Vipralambhnkhye Let

47

us

understand

these

statements

of

Anandvardhana

in

th*

translation of

Di

K. Krishnamoorthy.
sweetest and most delighindeed, sentiments^" The quality of sweetness is
is t}ie

"

The Erotic

ting of all

grounded
sentiment

securely
", (2. 7)

on poetry

which

is

full

of this

The Etotic
sentiments.

shines as sweeter
is

and more
which
sentiment

delecatable
relates
)

than

all

other

'Sweetness'
(

quality
this
is
)

towards

meaning
sound-

of compositions

imbued with

and not to mere


in forcefullness too

harmony For,
is

sound-harmony
sentiments

found alike

(and

not a differentia of sweetness.

"In

viz.,

love -in separation

and the
It
is

pathetic,

sweetness
the

will
is

be

uppermost

so

because

mind
(2.

moved very much


alone
is
it

in

such

instances ".

8)

The quality of sweetness

uppermost in the sentiments of


causes great delectation in the

love-in-separation and the Pathetic, as minds of refined critics

" In

none of the varieties of the principal


does alliteration
shine
forth

poetic
since
(2.
it

sentiment

involves great effort at achieving similarity".

14)

In none of the varieties mentioned above, of the principal erotic sentiments does alliteration become a partaker of suggestion, because it will proceed with the exclusive purpose of achieving similarity (in sound).

The employment of
out that

the

adjective

when

the erotic sentiment


is

is

use of such alliterations

left to

'principal' in the text serves to point only secondary in importance, the the option of the writer.

" Even
which

if a poet be an expert in ressonance, his employment of them

the
in

use
the

of

figures like

erotic

sentiment

is

of the nature of suggestion, and

particularly in that of

love-in-aeparation, would

amount

to a lapse

on

his part the

"
(2.15)

"In instances where we find the erotic sentiment as of

nature

of suggestion, i.e. as that which is principally suggested by both sound and sense, it would be a lapse indeed on the part of the poet if he were to employ various kinds of rassonace and difficult verbal puns
involving the splitting of words in different

ways,
/

however

skillful he

might be in devising these,

(Trans, by K.

Krishanamoorthy.)

R. S. Beta;

Let us now understand the truth of this view about the sweetness and delicacy of love in separation and pathos with

extieme
the

help

of some concrete examples We have the famous story of Savitn in the Matsyapurana.3 Savitn knows the moment of the death of hei young husband Satyavan, but Satyavan does not. Once, in a gay mood, the young couple is roaming through the forest As the two are learning through the woods, young Satyavan, romantically mad, happy husband in gay mood tbat he is, describes the channs and beauties of the
groves, the flowers, animals and all. The description reveals the vision of a youthful lover, in company of his sweetheart. He describes the forest groves, the birds, and animals from the vision, the point of

view of deep love and

passion of a young lover that he

is

He

sees only

pairs, in moods of love-making in the forest. The charm of the Vanasthall are also similar to those of a youthful, charming, smait beautiful lady
full

of passion

Even

the

lions

and

tigeis

are

in pairs

and in and

love,

The forest has put on The description, full of strokes of Dhvani now
coming
full

the
so

charm

and

garb of a
pictures

lovers, garden,

many
again,

life-like
is

several

and
life

no

doubt
of

picturesque, bethis

with

love

and
it

But the

poetry

description

of nature

and

all love that


the

deeply poetic because of

the whole description. This is very near to death. With every

becomes more charming, more image of sorrow of pathos, that envelopes because Savitn knows that her husband is
offers,

ienced, artful, painter, he sweet minute is lost from

is

picture that he paints as a swift, expergoing nearer and nearei to death; one fine

his life-span with every

word

that he

utters.

The shadow of pathos that_evelopes the description makes it all the more chaiming and delicate and poetic for us. hi her case, heie, her silence, her flfa speaks out volumes of her mental affiction, tensions, strifes, agony and conflicts. The picture becomes more appealing and more lift* like for us due to the curtain of pathos that the poet has drawn on the atmosphere. This adds a unique charm to the description and places the
pictures of Satyavan and Savitn in full; they dance in full view before our eyes it seems. The reader therefore experiences the chaims of the
forest
strifes

Savitn and also the overshadowing vicinity of approching death of youthful Satyavan, Here, it seems that Samyoga Srngara, Vipralamblm Srngara and Kanma
youthful

and its groves described; he also has and tensions of the heart of silent

a glimpse in

the suffering,

have come together


the authority

and they are sweet, sweeter and the sweetest as per

of one

experience of the Sahrdayas, The poem is an example overshadowing the other and the total effect being that of Karuna
the three Rasas are in identily

of the

ruling supreme even though

Sfngare VipralambhSkhye

third

On more example will be from the 'Uttararamacarita'. For its Act one scholar of old states ''one who does not weep on viewdrama on
the stage, "should be either a god or

ing the third act of this

an animal"-"sa nu devo athava pauh".Here, Sits is invisible and experiences now the very presence of Sits and then her absence. For

Rama Rama

now and again, there is an illusion of her very presence and her smooth, soft, warm and soothing touch followed by the feeling of her absence. It seems as if he smells her presence all round. When again, he just thinks as to what should have happened to her when Laxmana left her in the forest,
he takes her
for dead.

The illusory joys and


that

real sorrws of

Rama

change

hands

and

we

see

he

is

experiencing Samyoga Srngara as also


is

Karuna,

all at a time,

in the act. Surely this picture

unique in

its

own

way, it is sweet and delicate both. Here again, the Sahrdaya experiences and deciphers the sweet, sweeter and the sweetest of Rsma, with Rgma. In the case of Sita the three sentiments are equally inter-related and interhave led to her Karuna merged. Several years of sorrow of separation she because she saw no end to her separation; she knew that to Rsma, was dead. Now she deeply feels the grave injustice of being discarded and on her after all love and warmth that he was showering that too
secretly,

of pregnancy and hence a very delicate physical and sons by destiny, a state mental condition. She is separated from her two
in the last days

most unbearable
She
is

for any

woman, more

so to

Sita

who

is

all

lonely.

where Rama cannot reach expected to stay at her mother's place her aseven if he desires, That is the reason why the poet depicts

"

Karunasya moorti rathava Sanrinl Virahavyatha".

one consolation. All as compared to Rama, Sita has atleast reconciled, 8 he rest. Her mind is misunderstandings have been set at and only hers as ever. But at the end, is convinced that Rama is hers dark realm of pathos, they d. Q both Sita and Rama have to enter the it will ever end. All this is {hi? not know how long it will last or whether and it is Vipralambha charm of the lofty poetry of the third act, Kftru^a in which Dhvani e a.t with all its sweetness and following that, delicacy tensions, excitement the for suffering, volumes its unique heights. It speaks whose attachments of the hearts and the consequent experie-

But

of lovers,

words. When the lovers, be they attached nces can hardly be described in from eachother, their suffering and strifes by any relation, are separated has a world of its own Jn are again dificult to describe. Poetry are objectivised,, which this attachment and the resultant experience
3

XIJ

ju

K, b

universalised.

When
is

Sahrdaya readers
feelings, the

feel

sort
to

of
the

identity with the status of Rasa.

depiction of

human

feelings

come

The

subjective

objectivised,
to

univeisalised, The

thud

act of the
intensity.

drama

has the capacity to yield

us the experience
stated

in all its

One poet

has philoshophically

"Sceptte and crown must tumble down,

And

with the dust be equal made.

"

A similar thing has happed in the Mahabhaiata battle when, it has devoured lakhs of men, the brother cutting throat of brother and relation irrespective of whethei he is elder and worth honour and worship or
younger and deserving love and blessing. On this setting, we have the Striparva in which the most heart-breaking, the most pathatic is the scene laid in the setting of Gatidhari aski n g Bhima, Ytidhisthiia and Vasudeva, questions that they cannot convincingly answer. She, with her 100 sons

unbearable sorrow
this,

slaughtered and all her kith and kin gone, represents womanhood that suffers at the loss of husband, father, son and what not ? In

her sorrow,

all

differences
all

aie gone. She weeps over the struggles,

screams, and sorrows of

women

including even Subhadra and Uttarg,


is

Death has wiped out


death has laid
the
its

all

enmities.

All enmity

lost

m common

sorrow;

icy

hand

on both the defeated

and

the Victoi.

The

unbearable sorrow that follows, can break


here,

poet

attains

the

highest

the heart even of vajra. And height of pathos that is most

delicate

unique height of Madhurya because all become one in common sorrow and suffering. The poet Vyasa takes scrupulous care to bring out in expression all that women and men suffer due to

and

attains those

this stunning

and stormy death that has overtaken


its

all;

it

is

destruction
these

that will have

evil effects for centuries


?

to

come.

What were

kings and

They were incarnations of unparalleled strength, power, confidence, pride, and when they he on the battle-ground scattered hither and thither, with their limbs broken and in complete
princes
disarray, they exhibit a picture of deep sorrow

and pathos. And then women of all ages, women of noble families whom even gods cannot see, now being seen by ordinary men also (11.9.9). They were women whom even winds dared not touch. s Now they come in one cloth,
follow

with ornaments thrown away and

hairs

in

perfect

disorder

(11.9.10).

They come

to the battle-ground in search of their near ones

and

dear

ones, in search of their bodies and limbs, to caress them and to scream and weep over them. They bewail and weep, they run hither and thither;

naw

.,(11.9.16).

they fall down (11.9., 14.15); they even All living beings left behind, deeply

try to
feel

console

eachothei
created

the

vacuum

VipralambhEkhye

51

foi

u whole

disliess that

Yuga (11.9.20). G.Tiidlirtn complains in a lone of utter Blum a should have spaicd allcast one of the hundred
suppoil
the

sons to act as a slick to

patents

tottering

due

to extr-

eme old age (11.1421) All have become one in loss, suffering including Subluidia and Draupadi (1115.16"). Fiom these scenes of utter destruction and soi row, even death incainatc would run away. Eagles and all cormvorous biids ;uc eating of the flesh from the hands, feel, mouths
all

and eyes of the tlcad heiocs. Then GandhSil asks Vasudeva to look at curse on Krisfma. this, (11.18 onvvaids.), and U culminates in her

What could be moie soirowful than

this ? For,

daughters and daughters-

in-law aie widowed (11.22.5); Krishna could have stopped this terrible dance of death. But he did not, he disregarded it. Gandhari curses Krishana lo see the nltei annihilation of his Yadavas and meet death
alone,
6 unwept and unsung, in a lonely place in the jungle (11. 25. 39. 42). The ctuse of G;itulhari represents the curse of all suffering women. They
!

have come lo this sad plight lor no fault of theirs but in this extremely realistic and at the same time

Terror

stiikes,

extremely poetic pictine, pathos, reigns supreme. U is a picture of Karuna that once read would never be forgotten. I'alhos is not only objectrvised but universaliscd in this

Paiva.

The ultimate

effect

is

that

of

utter

delicacy

and

sweetness because, we weep and would like lo weep again .and again, with all women who ure depicted with such picture-sequences that the
limits

of time are thrown

off;

they are before our

identify ourselves peifectly in

sonow

with them.''

We

very eyes and too feel that

we we

aic a part

and parcel of

the
is

whole scene.
iherefoie right
there
lies

No

othei

Rasa
states

can have

greater appeal. VibvaniUha

when he

"liven in

Kuuma

etc.,

an expciience of
experience

the Here Ananda. unpaiullelled of the Sardaya.s, is the only proof."

(Sahityadiapana 3.4)

No
of the

othei

and Anandavurclhanu,

Rasa could be more sofl and sweeter than the Karuna with his wondeiful insight into the utter depths
heart, lightly
slates that
fiju-b

human

urya when he
sweeter and

San.yoga

Madhup the order of experience of is Srngara is sweet, Vipralambha

Karuna

the swcjiest.

This can vciy well be delineated us a truth of life, as the reality of human life and human civotious. In most of the poetry of the world,
the best

mohUy

depicts Jjve which

is

sweeter,

more touching

in separation

and
was,

the
all

pate
the

that brings to

life,

to

reality
loss

more

realistic than

It

Mir

ones and dear ones


heart,

vtoe

leaves

an

indelible

'magic

m Ae human

Foot-Notes

1,

Uttfflarfimacarita-3,

2,

Reminiscences, p. 240
1.

3.

Adhyayas 86 to
Adh,
87,

92, Calcutta Edition,

4.

For a similar idea vide in 'Hamlet', the words of

Hamlet about

his

father.

"So loving fb
visit

my mother

that he

might beteem the winds of heaven,

not to

her face so roughly !"

Actually fo'the description of the end of Krsna, the very

words of Vyasa aie


a

weeping; the descriptibn, extremely pathetic that

it

is,

has

unique

poetic

charm oT
7

its

dwn,

In this conne'otlon, vide the

words of

Wintermtz about the Stiiparva


is

"Here

follows the lament


thfij

of GSndhari, which

one

of the most beautiful parts of


as well

whole epic, as a masterpiece of elegiac poetry,

as

for

the clear

descriptions of the battle-field,


impressive, owing

The

whole scene becomes so much the


tell

more

to

the

fact

that the poet does not himself

the story,

but

lets

the

aged

mother
1

of heroes recount what she sees

with her

own

eyes." "History of Indian Literature" ft, one,

370. Oriental

Books

Reprint

Corporation,

Kew

Delhi-55,

A NOTE ON SANMUKHA KARTT1KEYA


Lalit

Kumar

commander- in-chief of gods' army (Sendm na maharri) is known by various names, One of them is Sanmu"kha (six faced); which again refers to circumstantial birth of this god.
the

The son of Siva and Parvati,

The story of his birth is mentioned in detail in Vona-Parvan Mahdbharatal and in the Rumafasambhava of 'Kalidasa.2
First iconographic reference to

of the

anmukha
five'

is

found

in the

armottara PurSna* where 'Kumara'


is

is

described as

Sanmukha
his

Further, he

said to be

"adorned with three or

lock arrangement of hair (ikha-

ndaka), dressed in red garment, riding a noble

peacock;

two

right

hands should hold a cock (Kukkuta) and a bell (ghanfa); and a victory flag (Vaijctyanti pamka) and a kind of spear or javelin should be placed
in his left

hand". Curiously enough

this text also entails that the other

three forms of this god

known

represented like

Kumara

Skanda, Kiimara and Guha should be but should never be shown six-faced or with
as

peacock.
In Samaraiigatia Siitradhara,* Karttikeya
faces,
is

said to have one or

six

(Sanmukha) and should always hold spear, the indispensible weapon of the god. He should have two, six or twelve arms, and accordingly
,

auspicious god or cantonements) and two -armed in a village. In case of twelve'- armed the god should hold spear, image the Samarangaqa SStradhard says that hands whereas the sixth should arrow, sword, hammer, in his five right The left hands should hold bow, flag of victory, be shown
spreading.
bell, shield

that twelve different places are assigned for his worship. It is prescribed in town, six-armed in khefaka (hunting around is armed

and cock but

the sixth is mentioned in Satimmttuotamthla.

or six~faces In the Agni PurSna' also he is described to have one also and should hold spear and cock in his hands. The RUpamntfena* his arms and described variations of this god on the multiplicity of
Sttradhlra. various places for his worship as mentioned in Satnan&gaqa

The iconography of $anmuka


iconographic texts such
etc.

is

also

described

South

Indian

as

AMtbhed&gama

Kitmaratanlra

bntattvcmidhi

44

Lalit

Kumar

Eailiest representation of Jjanmukha can be leckoned with 2nd century coins of Yaudheyas,'7 On the obveisc of these coins the god is represented six-faced two armed and a long spear in his right hand. The

Yaudheyas were great devotees of


various epigraphs.
la sculpture,

Kaittikeya as

it

is

also evident

from

Sarmmkha appear
god
is

for the

first

time

on

thz

relief

carving of a lintel at Pawaya. 8

On

this relief the


relief,

The relief is datable to 4th century A.D. shown standing, having three faces (since carbe

ved in

the other three could not

shown)

and

twelve

arms,

spieading aiound

though there
In

is

peihaps accompanied with his consort Sasthi no mention to her in the Silpa texts mentioned above.
is

He

Gupta

period, Karttikeya
is

becomes
one

fairly

popular

in

northern

India. But

Sanmukha form
Pawaya

suiely a rare

phenomena

to observe dur-

ing this period,

relief is

example.

Other lepresentations of Sanmukha known to us belong to posthails from Bairat (Rajasthan). The sculpture is carved in bold relief, thus, shows three heads He is sitting on lotus, his mount peacock is shown below. The god is six-armed but many of them are damaged. Of the remaining hands some attributes aie discernable such as shield, cock and spear. The head canopied with

Gupta period. One of them

serpent-

hood,

is

an interesting

feature.

here. It

Post-Gupta period, an example of anmukha can be added Lalbhai Dalpatbhai Institute of Indology, Ahnaedabad. Sculpture is caived in bold relief. it has
the
is

Of

in the collection of

Unfortunately,

received severe damages, only bust has been recovered.

The god 'is shown

with three heads and six arms. (Fig. 1) All the arms are broken The bust represents a youthful body with placid faces, characterized with juvenile beauty. He wears a small bejewelled crown. Three hair mesh

(&khan-

on his shoulder on

daka) are arranged on the top of the htad, Some hair locks also dangle either side. He wears a necklace, Yajnopavita kundala and armlets. The sculpture is carved in buff colour
sandstone'

The modelling of the body and physiognomy of the figure shows late Gupta characteristics and thus it is datable to c. 650 A.D. It appears to hail from Bundelakhand region of Central India.
-*

These limited notices of the Sanmukha show


of Ksrttikeya in northern India.

the rarity of this

form

A Ate

on

Sanmkk Kwttikw

55

Foot-Notes

1,

Rao, T, A, Gopinatli, Elements of


pp, 417-420,

Mi

konopof^

Delhi

1968,

2,

Ibid.,

p 421-422,

3,

Banerji, J,N M The


364,

Dmlofmnl

of

Hindu

howpaph),

(Calcutta, 1956

p,

4,

SmrantiM

SilradhttQ (Baroda, 1925), 77, 23-31,

5,

Mm

//wflgas,

p,

26

6,

Srivastava, Balararaa,

Mpmonlm

(Varanasi, 1964), p, 80

7,

Saran,

M,

K,,

TrM Coins

o///w, (New

Delhi, 1972), p, 118

8,

Williams, Joanna, 'Art of Gupta

IM
in

1982, p. 54, pi 52-5;,

9,

Agrawal, R, C,, ''Skanda-Karttilceya

Sculpture

from Rajastlian*

fi/t No,

3-4, p

110 and

112,

TRIPURA TANTRMSRl VIDYA)

ITS

PHILOSOPHY

AND PATH OF SADHANA*


Y.

Shastri

It is

ation or self realisation

a wellknown fact in the history of Indian thought that liberis the highest aim of life for all the systems of

Indian Philosophy, barring the Materialist (CSrvSka). Different systems in


the field of philosophical heritage have shown the various achieve the same goal in accordance with difference
paths
to

and spiritual idiosyncrasy, as well as intellectual is one of the important branches of Indian thought people, Tantra &3stra which truely represents, quintessence of Upanisadic Philosophy. It is
It prescribes the means by which mainly practical scripture of Vedanta. the highest aim of life is fulfilled in an easy way by all, without any 1 discrimination of caste, creed and sex.

temparament, advancement of the

The word

'Tantra' has various meanings.

More

than twentyfive

me-

to this word. 2 In reality this word is originanings have been ascribed the root 'tan'-to extend or spread out and usually ally derived from which pertains to the development of man's power, applied to Tantra system both material and spiritual. This Sastra is also known as Agama and

Nigama

It

is

said that an

Agama

is

so called because

it

proceeds
Vasudeva

the mouth of Siva and goes to Girija, being approved by from the mouth Nigama is so called because it emanates
enter the ears of Smz, being approved by Vasudeva.^

from and
to
>

of

GlnJS

The word
its

Agama

which stands

indiffeiently for the


is

Veda and Tantra, shows


fifth

authorita-

tive tradition. Tantra S<3s/ra

considered as the

Veda* and called Sruti.

Kullukabhatta, clearly states in his commentary on Manusmrti that &rutl and Tantriki. 5 There are mainly three kinds of is of two kinds- PW/fo
Saiva and Sakta. The Vaisnava Agamas mainly Agatnai namely Vaisnava, deal with idolatry, rules of temple architecture, worship of Tula si plant and lay emphasis on the path of devotion, thus suited even

(holy basil) and his consoit Laksmi, are the to the lowest intellectual capacity. Visnu 108 woiks with various comdeities of these Agamas. More than

mam

this sect show mentaries, belonging to

its

popularity in olden days.


Congress for
1986,

Phi^
and

* A
Sambodhi

paper

presented to the

XXXII

International

Asian

North African

studies, at

Hambuig, F. R.

August

XH-?

58

Y.

S. Shastrl

losophical height of the Upauisadic idea of realising the unity of individual soul (ftvatman) and Univeisal soul (Paramatman) is hardly recognised in these scriptuies The Safw Agamas are also idolatious and litualistic
like the former.

But Philosophically they ate more advanced than the former. There are 28 &aiva Agamas with various commentaiies. These
unity

the teachings of the Upanisads viz., Jivatman and Paramatman; and the details of piocess of Yaga development of Kundalini Sakti is found in these Agamas

Agamas incoiporated

of
the

and

The gioup of Sakta Agamas really repiesents the finest Philosophy inherited by the Upanisadic thought The Sakta Tantnc study is mostly confined to the conventional details of external woiship. Its hidden side of the esoteric culture is not ttuely presented to the learned world.
This literature actually
represents

quintessence of
unity
of

mysticism which
soul

is

based on the mystic doctrine

of the

individual

and

Supreme Reality, (Brahman], proclaimed in the oldest Upanisads. 6 Sakta Tamra has touched the keynote of the Advaita philosophy by accepting Tantra repeatedly states in this unity of Jiva and Para Brahman. This
clear terms that the highest

form of

Yoga

(Union)

is

the

attainment

of unity of Jiva with supreme soul,''

The entire Safoa literature is in the form of Lord Siva and P&rvati (Uma). It is believed that the
Tantra
is Siva

dialogue

between
&kta

revealer of the
fiist

himself

01 Devi herself.

Now

it is

the

and second who


L

listens.

Now,

again, the latter assumes the role of


S/Vfl,

who teaches Guru

and answers the questions of

for, the

two are one, 8


the

The unfoitunate part of

akta Tantra

is

that,

it

is

most

misun-

derstood and misrepiesented system in the history of philosophy and considered as an ocult science, cieation of some sex religion It is

dominated people, purely materialistic and an immoral philosophy. Such kind of misconception and ignorance, still prevails among the people. This is due to excesses committed by some of the misguided followers
of Sflfcffl Tantra, namely, Vdmamdrgins It is their Hteial interpretation 9 and practice of Pancamak&ras viz wine (Madya), meat (Mam so), Fish and copulation (Maithuna\ brought illname to (Matsya), grain (Mudra)

are technical terms of this secret this system Really speaking these taken literally. These words cany theii own deep system and cannot be as Paficamakai esoterically symbolise different elements meanings. These

and

principles.

They generally mean the

five great elements (Paflcamahft-

bhutas) taken collectively, viz, ether,

air, fire,

water and

earth.

These

words are

also interpreted keeping the real spirit of Tantra as,

wine

jg

Tiipurti Jantra (irz

Vidya)

Its

Philosophy and Path

of sadhana
is

59

the lunar ambiosia flowing

from

the

Soma cakra which


limited
'I

in

the
to
is

cerethe

brum

(Sahasrara)

Meat

is

the sunender of the


the annihilation of
is

human

unlimited Divine. Fish

is

and Mine'. Grain


of
the

cess-

ation from evils Union (Maithuna)

the union

KundciUni-Sakti

which

is

sleeping in the
l

the head
is

If

MulMiSra, with Siva in Sahasrara in the top of Pancanakaras are taken in this true spirit of Fantra there

no scope foi misconception of this great system. It is neither an immoral nor a materialistic system. In this system woman is never considered as an object of animal passion and pleasure, but she is adored
as, Universal

Mother or ParSMil It doss not advocate Materialism. No doubt inatenalistic elements are found heie and theie in ceitam Tantric
these should not be taken as final

woiks.^but
because
it

woids of Tantra

Sastra

mam

aims at both woildly enjoyment and spiritual freedom .1 2 The object of Sakta Tantra is to awaken the latent dynamism in all

the planes of consciousness

and divinise every element in man and woman, by adopting short-cut method. It is fully acceptable to Vaidikafold.ia Bh&skararaya, a well-known authority on Qakta Tantra, clearly Veda talks of Tantra Vidya in conventional points out that even the 14 not terms and explicitly
woiship'is the form of worshipping the supreme Brahman as a It is the worship of supreme Reality in the form of Unipath,
13 Qaktas

female entity

versal Mother. Following the Upanisadic


Sakti
is

maintain that

the Universal

existence,

Eneigy which has brought the which Sustains and withdiaws the Universe. is

Universe

into

not a new development in the history of motlierworship was recognised in the prevedic period. This type of worship has been traced to the Indus Valley whether or not the Indus Civilization. It is still not definitely known

Now,

this Siikti

worship

is

Indian culture

This kind of

valley civilization had pieceded or followed the Rgvedic

Samhltd,

period
in

but

it

may

be concluded that the


7

Scr/cff

cult

seems to have prevailed

India at least in circa 3000*


various goddesses

number of hymns written on and more than 40 names of goddesses, indicate a fully
is

B.C. The

18 This Soldi recognised form of Sakti worship.


to in the

specifically

referred
etc.

Rgveda with her eight

diffeient

attributes-/sTa/i,

TarS

19 of

Devlsukta, Snsukta, Us.a-Suktas of the Vedas

aie

clearly
to

indicative

worship of mother goddess. Thus,


the &3kta Tantra has
in India

it

is

a faulty notion

believe

that

come out of
than the

much

earlier
soil.

Mahayana Buddhist Tantra. It existed Mahayana Buddhism made its appearanis

the

ce

on the Indian

The concept of mother goddess

found

in

early

60
1 *

y. S, Shastri
also.

There are many later Upanisads which have developed as the same idea of mother goddess, that centre round akti regarded

Brahman

arid

became

the Philosophical basis

of Bdkta Tantra.
&zkta Tantia, Viz.,
Kattla,

There are thiee

Subschools within the

Mttra and Samaya and -they have their own independent treatises Kaula group has 64 treatises with various commentaries.* ^i^i a group has
eight
2 Agamas. * These two schools emphasize external worship and their methods aie mostly used to acquire material power and prosperity. Really it is some of the followers of Kaula gioup who have biought bad name

to Tantra literature.

These two groups are considered as non-Yaidtka by traditional Tantnc writers like Sankara, Laksmidhara and others. Srividyopasakas are warned not to follow these paths. 23 The Samaya group is most important among the Sakta Tantias on account of its philosophical height and
its

purified

method of worship. This group of

literature points the

way

to liberation along

woship

is

accepted as the

with material piosperity. This samaya method of &aktt supreme path of realisation of Advaita by

Its path is purely internal, though, as a first step in the advancement, it prescribes external worship of diagram and image. The main source of this Sama)a method is five treatises known as

Adi San/o?r.

spiritual

Subhagamapaftcaka, whose authors are the great Sages, Vasiftha, Sanaka Sanandana, Sanatkumara and uka. 2 * In adition to these five treatises, there are innumerable texts, such as VamakeSvara, Tantraraj'a, Saundar] a
lahari etc.,

and

many commentaries which


2S The

propagate

philosophy

and

practice of

rivi<iyS.

out the finest

aim of our present papei is to bring philosophy and path of Sadhand of this Samaya group of

mam

Uteiature.

>r

'She

ly

is interpreted as either 'He (Supreme Biahman) is' (Goddess) with me. It means that one has to think constanthat he is always one with the ultimate Reality. He has to identify
is'

The word Samaya

limself with the


is

Supreme Brahman Samaya

is

also

commonly explained

worship to a cakra in the ether of the 26 heart. This internal considered as the supreme by all the great Yogins. It is a vorship ligher kind of worship consisting of inward prayer, deep meditation and
offering
is

Jolemn contemplation. In
this Tantra, the 'Sak/i*
is a synonym of Brahman of the Vedantic Brahman or Mahsfakti or Universal Mother.

nought.' She

may be

called
the

same

Brahman of

Upaitisads

is

termed

as

Tripura or

Maha

Tripura Tanfra (ri Vidfa)

'

Its Philosophy

and Path of

sadhana

61

The woid 'Tiipmt' piegnant \\ith a significant meaning. The Universal Mother is known as Tnpuru due
is>

Tripura Sundaii by these Tantric texts

to various reasons. In the Nityasodaiikaina\a

it is

stated that this suni erne

power

is

tiiple

foimed

viz

creater
is

destroyer (Rudra). Again she


therefore called 28
Trinity.

in the

(Brahma), Sustaincr (Vimu) and form of will pmvci, power of


creates

knowledge and power of action and


Tripura.
this

she

tlnec

woild.s,
exists

and
prior

is

27 She

is

the principle
1

which
as,
is

to

Again

word 'Tnpura

is

mteipreted

She who hasthiee


three
lined,

angles, as well as three circles and

her

bhupura

her

Mantra
she
is

said to be three syllables thus, since, she is everywheie tuple, called Tripurd, * 9 Again, philosophically moie significant interpreis

tations of this

word Tnpura

aie

found

in

these

texts.

Tripurd

means

three

nfidis

sujunina,

Devi dwells (as Jiva) in these,


says.

Pinfold and Ida and Manas, Buddlu and Citta, as she is called Tnpura^ Gaudapadutiltra

"The

difference
is

is

by the three

tattvas

"^^ The meaning


In the

is

that the

one Brahman

divided into three by the three tattvas

comment

tary of the above, the tattvas are explained variously as qualities, fonns divisions of Mantta, elc., states of consciousness, worlds, Pitha, bijci,

and pur

8.

means beyond
is

these.

The

gist

of

all

these
all

interpretations
these
things.

is

that, she

the supreme power behind and beyond


Tripurn

The philosophy and aim of


Advatta,
i

TaMra

is

the

realisation

of

e.,

Unity of Siva and

Sakti, Jivdtinan

and paramattnan
Tantra

Quite

agreement with

the Advaita Vedantic stand point, this

main-

tains dual aspect of Universal power, namely Saguna and Nirgtuia,

This

of Brahman Upani^ads describe the nature

Tantra describes the nature of Tripura in a similar manner as She is described as Nirvitesa

as Savitesa (determinate). These descriptions may (indeterminate) as well seem to be contradictory but actually there is no contradiction. From be conditioned and untwo different standpoints Supreme Reality may of liberated soul, it conditioned at the same time From the standpoint that of one in bondage who has not yet reached 1S unconditioned, from Brahman appears to be the the state of sameness or unity (Simanaya), with omniscience and with other attncause of the Universe, endowed two systems, one esoteric, philosobutes Thus this Tantra constitutes for the few ones i are containing metaphysical truth phical (Nirgunavidtf) theoable to understand it and another exoteric, in all times who 'are and who want images, less intellectual capacity
Icmical

(Sa^na) who have not meditation. But ultimately, it piopagates not abstract truth; worship, of the Upanlfads. At the transcendental level, uont-dualistic philosophy

(,2

Y. S. Shastri

this StikH i> the highest

knowledge

(Safavid),

In

iti

vcM> nutuic. existence,

consciousness and

beyond time and space and bliss. 32 Triputa is the


noi,
is

is neithei rise, highest Reality in which theie luminous 33 She is the highest Biahman,** and

fall.

It

is self-

the

iS She Reality

is

the seed of all

the Universe.

The

only Outological Universe which

it emanates and shines foith outside of it 3 o This Sahtt bcvond 36 Tatt\as 37 Even S/va and &ahti emanate fiom this non dual the foim of Biahman and known us prihciple. She is PtuTtbhatfdnkc .38

resides inside ot

is

She

is

the

mateual cause of 36
it

'fattvas

ness and Dli^s, and as such nisadic thought

is

Tnpufa is Existence, Consciousequivalent to the Brahman of the Upa


and
still

She

is

beyond the tliiee gun as

she

emanates
g] lc
]s

them. She

is

the nature of ViJya

and devoid

of

attubutcs 30
is

natuic of beginning, states Vpamsads. Similarly that nothing existed in the Tnput jpaiuw'l states beginning but 42 Beginning does not the goddess alone liteially mean beginning of thr Unhcise. It is only knowledge point ot view, It was alone in the begin-" nmg. It is she who has created the world with all animate and inanimate objects She is the Supicme power that permeates the three worlds and the three bodies and enlightens them both internally arid exteinaljy ~She is all forms and she fills all space and time. She the
Atn.un.*
1

formless, immutable, all pervading

Biahman *u She

the

Brahman was alone

in the

is-veijly

se ]f

and also everything else that is not self, She is wave mcainate ocean of the bliss of conscious existence. She is
self,

on
is

the
th

eveiything. She
is

the universe, all gods

and

all that exists,

She

the oneness of the se jf and the only Reality which pervades the whole Universe 43 related to She is not anything foi theie is nothing else to i elate Sh is Unique. She ,s beyond all relational b asis O f knowing and knowledo/ She is pure consciousness. She is indeed the tu^a, beyond the word and thought, inaccessible and of un-paialleed giandeur.*

she can be

known only thiough expeiiencing


is

the only truth and

Brahman, She

infinite,

un-graspable,un-bom and non-dual. She

is

even gods do not

known

as infinite.

ceptible, no

resides cvciywhere, thus known as non-dual. She 1B consciousness all compact. She is mdescnbable.45 she cannot be described beciuse is unhmited In descnbing hei we we makll g mfinite as fi / cannot be hm.te^. She is beyond speech, touch and tongue Even sods cannot g.asp her nature.*. She cannot be defined n terms'of
,

h t hu < She is ungmspable, and she is thus known as imner one knows hei oiigin thus known as un-boin She nlo
limit,

know her uatnic She has no

She is un-knowabl unknowable because'


-

and

she

gones

for there

is

any

nothing bes.dcs Hei. Nature of Ti-/y,/7

Tripura Tantra (S>2 Vidya)

Its

Philosophy and Path of sadhana

63

So the best way of describing


Reality
is

this

un- practicable

and incomprehensible

utable, indivisible
a limitation, for

via negative or through negatives by calling it, infinite, immand inexhaustible.'* 7 Positive expiession is in a sense
it

implies the duality of the experiencei

and the expedenies


the

rienced, the denotive


possibility of such

and

denoted.

The negative

concept

knowledge with legaid to Supieme Brahman. It is beyond, quite beyond the grasp of human faculty or psychic appaiatus. This Reality (Tripin'a) is devoid of the distinction of knowledge, known
and knower
is

+ 8

She

is

known,

all the particulars

the highest Univeisal. When the highest Universal included in it are known. She is un-poin-

table,

allpervading, pine consciousness.*


5

She cannot be understood


bliss

by
is
is

scriptmal study.
unaffected by

^ She
all

is

one undivided

and
is

self of

all.

She
she

suppoiting ground of
blemishes. She

5 1 s

Even though,
a

innei controller of all,

all blemishes, by any 53 She is neither is unthuched by pain and pleasure. girl, nor maid, nor old, neither female nor male, nor neuter. 54 She is inconceivable, immeasurable power, the being of all which exists, devoid of

like the sun who

unaffected

all duality,

the

Supreme
feet,

Though without
ears,

she

Brahman, attainable in illumination alone. moves more quickly thali aii, though without

hears even subtlest sound, though without eyes, perceives everything. ss The sciiptuial statements Though without tongue, she tastes all taste. 'I am Brahman.' 'This Atman is Brahman'' 'That thou ait', etc., indicate like that non-dual Tripura only. 50 She is the innermost self of all.sv She is the undivided one consciousness, which continues in all ,the three states-

like ether

man, is waking, dreaming and dreamless state. This consciousness covered by pot. Though pot is destroyed, the ether inside of the form in of darkness When destruction. ignorit is untouched by
ance
is

removed,
8 it. 5

it

shines in

its

own

purity and

one

realises

nondual

nature of

She

is

known

becomes known.
of Tripw'8
is is is

as highest

knowledge, knowing which

She

is

identified with one's

own

self

everything else o^ Realisation

This nothing but the state of perfect identity of the self the state of nondual, blissful communion, unitive life, in which there entire Universe, even state neither bondage, nor liberation In this

6 versal self.

and everything appeals as cieator, doer, action, cause, effect, -A negatives It is a state in which positives and
it

one
are

Uni-

one

neither origination nor destruction. It is and the same. In a really a state of Supreme It is beyond all fancy of imagination. This is the state of Advaita-Umty of individual self and
theie
is

Brahman.

Brahman.**

Y-

Shastri

Supreme
:lu\
in

Reality can be

known

either

as

S/va or Sakti
1

because
Siva
as

are not two different entities, but

one and the same.e

Though one

essence, yet for the sake of our convenience,

we may

call

Suitit
S,7/i/i

and Sakti as Kinetic energies. Siva is prakaSa (Knowledge) and When we emphis Vimarfa (activity; aspects of the satna Brahman.

asize

knowledge
is

side, It is

&tva

and

the

same

thing

is

Sakti

when

activity side

I'rakahi

a single Unity called emphasized. Together they form d3 In the form of Siva it is inactive, indefferimaffo Svarupa.
.

ent, non-relative, witness self.


is

The same principle in the

material cause of the Universe. But they are inseparable like heat

fire,

whiiencss from milk, sweetness from sugar,

form of &aktt fiom luminosity from light

and weight from


is

material bodies.

,?<wi

including and Sakti and creative, sustantive and destructive powers also arise, then arise the worlds and elements of which they are composed. Creative

Maya power of Sakti. Veiling herself with her own A48ya, 36 Tattvasos becomes, desirous of creation. Then there arise

She

sustanthe and destructive powers are not distinct entities. They are all

one

and the same as paits of her. Creation is a mode of divine existence and Dhine energy sustains the Universe that binds the atoms with atoms Again destruction is also an aspect of Divine energy that goes in hand in hand \\ith the cieative energy. Thus creative, preservative and

destruin

ctive forces are but the three aspects

of Divine energy

that

exists

Brahman.

has accepted &aktl


into the form of Universe.

Parinamavada. Sakti
is

itself,

transfoims

World
is

expansion

of

this

Universal

Con
like

sciousness.

Thus
It

this

world

also real.*? It is

not

JSrahmavivarta

Advaita. This Sakti is not material like

Sankhya

not Prakrti of the Sabkhyas, which is unconscious and real. E\en great Advaita stalwart Ankara treats &akti of the Tantra

philosophy

but

Consciousness

pure

is

as

Supreme Brahman.

It is very important to note that this Tantric literature lays stress on the dynamic nature of the creative power i e> Sakti here ere as Bfhman fman " 1 hough the of the conception goddess Trfpura corresponds to tha" Impersonal Brahmaa of the Upcmt^s this Tantr* literature, emphasizes the dvnanuc aspect of the godhead-the activity of manifestation Je,t 3 m the form of Dmne energy. The S?*to have transformed the
>

itself.

of'

hue ***"""

f the

that is the omnipotent, omnipresent and omniscient Mother-the source, support and end of the en.re

lakti

empi

c^

Tr/pura

Tamra
to this

(&ri Vidyu)

Its Philosoph v

and Path of

sadhand

65

According which is really nameless and Formless conceived through religious imagination becomes goddess in Saguna form The Nirguna Brahman of the Upam$acls comes down step by step and assumes the foim of a.
goddess, and becomes an object of woislnp
in
the

Tantra the supreme

tianscendental Reality (Brahman)

form

of

Universal

Mother

All the

concept of the it has its own significance


nity to refoim their
assion,

parsphermlia fo worship are then offered to hei. This highest as Mother is a special feature of &akta Tantra and
Mother,
This

attitude, forgives the faults of

always nurishes a more charitable her childien and offers them an opportu^attitude

ways.

of
to

foigiveness

and compto

love and pity are

more
the

natmal

Mother

than

father.

Thus, supreme Brahman in

personified

form becomes
is

afectionate

Molhei, worshipped

the

name of Maha TupurusundarL She


as $nvidyd
is

also

known

by various other names, such Kame^vari and so forth. She


Sarasvati, Laksml, higher than

QriLalita Pancadat&ksari, SodaSi,

conceived as
Vi$nu,

Brahma,

most high, higher than Isvara and even Sada&ivaS


t'.e

Worship of Universal Mother


is

in the Saguna form with ceiemonial pomp only a suppoit for meditation on the highest, which is strictly beyond thought and mind. The Mothei is leally the highest Brahman in empiric

dress.

The
is

significance of the description of the highest


is

Brahman

in

Saguna

form
is

to indicate that she

near enough
it

in tho woild

and also bayond


is

us and yet far away, she and that she is both immanent and
to

transcendent. In this form she


rising sun. She
is

desciibed as resplendaut as the newly

three eyed and holds in her four aims, noose, goad, arrow and bow. She can be worshipped either in female form or male form In the, male form she is worshipped in the form of Lord
also

Snkrsna. 71 This Saguna aspect is only for those who are ordinary mortals, highly emotional and unable to meditate on the highest attributeless Brahman.

The

beautiful description of goddes Tripurd. in Saguna


its

form and

signi-

ficance of

worship

is

found

in

many

texts

such as

and Tripwamahimnastotra. This kind of description is emotion of devotion and strengthen it by furnishing suitable support for
meditation.
is

Saundaryalahan mamly to rouse our

Tnpitrs

is

desciibed from head to foot in these texts. This.

really

intended to show that the Supreme

Being

is'

also

Supremely

beautiful and

when

it

gets

embodied
is

in

human form,

for

the benefit of

dull witted mortals, the

beauty that 72 every tissue and filament. Sambodln


XII
9

its

essene naturally shines through

6~6

7.

Shastn

All othei gods and goddesses aie subordinate to her, and offei obeisance to hei 7 3 Inspired by her, Brahmil creates
Triptird
is

the

supreme deity
iL

the

world,

Viuu

sustains

and Rudi a destroys. The

lelative icality

and

due

objectivity of the woild and us icgularity and law abiding natute are She is absolute in the world context. She is the supreme Lo her.

from

the cosmic end


1

She

is

Karma,"

She

is

in the

form of

the moral governei and lord of the law of ocean of mercifulness. 75 She is the

bestower of all kinds of riches and 78 best owe r of ultimate liberation.

happiness, 7fl Mothei of

all 77

and

The worshipper of
atfia,

Tripura,

becomes the

rival of Sun, Gatuda,


*>

Manm

The devotee of Tripura Brahma, Vtsnu and &ankura n acquires great learning becomes exceedingly prospeious and develops a
Fire and

charming personality 8c Devi confers all sorts of powers to her devotee. She fulfils all the desires. Her devotee becomes mastei of all arts, and obtains unparalleled name and fame, 8 * She bestowes all worldy prosperity to her devotee. The devotee ofTripurS, enjoys and becomes ons with hQT(Brahman) in the end. 82
all the

worldly riches

PATH OF SADHANA
This Tripura Tantra
this Tantra
is

mainly practical

scripture if Ved&nta
its

represents Upanisadic

philosophy,

Though main emphasis is the


this

lted the

practical aspect of realisation of Brahman supremacy of knowledge, but it

No

doubt

Tantra has exathat

emphasizes
the

ledge which is obtained derived from scriptures

from
will

spiritual

on experience Mere
or
erudite

know-

not

lead to

realisation

knowledge of one's

own
ledge

self

Mere
does
not
in

scriptuaral

specxilation

Vedftnta

necessarily
spiritual

lead

to

real

scholaiship in knowledge. Real knowliberate

consists

experience

that

can

the

soul

by aspirant on the path of realisation of Advaita. But it is very important to note that these disciplines described by Tantra do not propagate self torture and dry austerity. It is clearly mentioned in these texts that,

bondage Thus both theory and practice are of utmost importance for a devotee to reach the highest goal. For this icason, this Tantra literature prescribes a set of disciplines, to be followed the

from

eternal

worship of goddess brings all ultimately leads to liberation

worldly pi osperity
3

and enjoyment

and

Now,
at

it is

necessary to set forth the nature of the path of


length.

Tarxtric

some greater

Tripura. Mantra 'i/f

Vidya)

Its

Philosjphy and Path of sadhana

$7

These Tantric
internal or higher

texts

advocate two kinds of worship of Tripura: the form of woiship, consisting of deep meditation and
the exU'inal

solemn contemplation for the highly advanced and


for the less evolved,

Jiitcndcd

oidiuaiy mortals
in

Bdktas believe that the Universal


is

energy en Spiritual power


lhat has coiled
its
\

man

lies

doimant and

likened to a serpent

up Kundalini &akti) This power has to be aroused fiom place (which is at the beginning of the spinal coid) mid led up btep
step to the cerebiuin

by
is

Here, in

this state Sakti unites

with
is to

/.

This

the liberation. Thus, the pninaty purpose of the aspiiant

awaken

this sleeping

Snake or

Sukff. This

is

done

in

many

ways, such as purely


(Jjpti)

practising Yogic technicalities, reciting sacied pping diagram and image.

letteis

and \\oishi-

Details of Yogic disciplines are set forth by Sankara

in

Saundaryalah'

an.** Yoga speaks of satcakras viz, Mul&dhdra (full of rays), Sv&dhitfhana (own place,), Anahata

original abode),
("sound),

Manipura

vUuddhi (the ether

85 abovejand Ajftd. (mind between the eyebrows), within the human body. These are actually psychic centres in the body. These six psychic cenether and of tres represent the cosmic elements earth, water, fire, air,
the mind
respectively.
8 e

Last and high up

in

the cerebrum,

there is

the Sahasrara Kamala- thousand petalled lotus.


itation led
it

An

aspirant by deep

med-

up
is

to the
it,

cerebrum where
emerges iu
its

this

Sakti disengaged from all

that

is

adventitious to
It

native splendour as pure consci-

ousness.

here iu this state Sakti


is

is

transformed into absolute con-

a state of applying Yogic or subtle technicalities is considered as higher form of internal worship 5 Highest type of meditation (Paradhydna) is meditation (Suk^madhydna).

sciousness. It

liberation. This method of

~>

done
less

as one by meditating on the ParSfakti


8

impartite, and

impartible

whole and visualising the 'Atman


place.
8

as steady, motionless

flame

a wind-

Japa (reciting sacred lettersjis PancadaSaksari Mantra is considered as supreme is identified with Devi. 8 formula for deep It is a Mantra, which is also called Gupta Gdyatri because it contains fifteen germinal meditation. This mantra is so called
union of Siva and Sakti, Jiva and Brahman* letters. These letters represent herself is called This Mantra represents body of Tripurasundari. Tripura
the universe because she is witness of five kinds of stages of paflohdaft 1 fifteen meanings of this tnafttra** and indestructible." Bhzskararaya gives is explained in TrUatlbtiasya Three hundred meanings of paficadafckjan three 93 The fifteen letters of this Mantra are divided into by Safikara and&aM. F*tfvarf is the JMtoa!-

an aid

to meditation.

Mantra

KSmaiSja groups (K&ps) viz. Vtgbhava, division and confers akti which' is in the VSfbhava

salvation.

KSmardja

65
the Knmyafaki! the ruler the will power-the

y
oJ"

is is

desi'e

and

fulfils desiie.

The

SaA// division
&i\>a.<><t

supreme energy

and

is

in the

form of

Again each group repiesents and the Moon. These thiee

specific divine powers, such as File, Sun gioups represent, the three states of waking, dreaming and dieamless sleep-vtfiw, Taijasa and pt2jn& and willpower,

power of
said to

knowledge and
all

powci of action. In essence,


fundamental
truths of the

this

Mawia
Fins
is

is

compnse
results. It

the

Umvcise

is

considered as a very poweiful


yield
is

Mantia and

recitation of this

sure to
this

said that the

man who

has been
is

initialed to

Mantra has no more

iebnth.5 This

paflcadasaksaii

known

as either

H&di or Kadi, on the basis of beginning letter of the Mantra. It is said that Hadi is followed by Lupamudra and Kadi path is followed by HayaDuivasa. For the very highly advanced and Agastya, and
griva,
a,

initiated,

sixteenth letter
is-

is

added, and

it

is

called Sodagaksarl. This sixteenth


stated.

letter
'

kept very secret

and not openly

the Paths of Yoga and Japa Sadhana are puiely internal type of woisliip. The mind cannot remain steady on, what is formless (amurta). Theiefoie a form is accepted as ai'd to meditation Foim is also of two kinds-gioss
arid'subtle,
feet "and soTorth. Subtle
bo'Hy of Mantras,

The grossest form is pictorial that which is with hands, foim is the diagram which is also called the
The well known Snyantra or Silcakra
is

adopted for the


in

worship of

Tripiira or

Lahta Details of Sricakra are given

VamakeSvra

Vardhani and Lak$midharS. Tanfra, Tantrardja,Saundaryalahaft,Saubhdgya


v

"

-The

'Sriytintra is

composed of nine

triangles and Cakras, one wit'hifi


is

the other until the central point 01 Hindu

leached.

The names of the


of foui-

nine Cakras are Bhupura, sixt^n petals, eight

petals, first set

e teeu angles, second set of ten inner angles, third set of t n angles within these, fourth set of eight angles within these, three angles within these

and the point or Bindu,


sundart
is

In each of the nine Cakras the


its

worshipped in

centre under one of her nine

Gooddess Tiipuranames united

with the Padukdmantra of seven letters. These nine Cakras are also called
Trilokyamohana, Sarvdfdparipiiraka, Sarva Samksobhana, sarvasaitbhagjadayaka, Sarvartha Sadhaka,
arid Sarv'&nandamaya,

Sarvaraksdkara, Sarvarogahai-a, Sarvasiddhipradafunctions,

on account of then main

These

nine

(srsti). maintenance (Stlriti) and absoiption 98 In the middle of this Srzc'oAra there are nine (Samharai. triangles. The five triangles with their apexes pointing downwards are indicative of

Cakras also represent creation

&akti elements and four with their apexes pointing upwaids are of SzVo.

poritin'g

But Laksmidhara, mentions that according downwards are of S/vfl and the five

to

Kaulas

four

triangles

triangles pointing

upwaids

Tnpura Tantra (&* Vidya)


aie of the
blissful.
It

Its

Philosophy and Path of kadluma

69

&akttv

The Hindu
as

is

in

the inneimost

represents the unity of Siva and

&akti
)''(.;

binJu

is

also

known

yombmdu. The word

It all tmingie. This cential point 01 heie does not mean the
it,

generative oigan of woman, it means source of the entire Universe, the cause and the womb of the Universe.
coiistiuct ^ricakia. To constmct evolulion mode ( bnti\*rama)method accepted by Samydcarins and lo \voik it out fiom the cuclc Bmdu is involution method (Samharakianta\ adopted b> the Kauhis a "
'

iicakra
the
to

There are two different processes tu from the Bmdu mitwaids is the

This

presentation of Divinity souud expression. Both these, ricakra and Manna


is

a diagrammatic

and

mantra
the

is

its

embody

subtle

essence of Devi herself.

'A deepsi

study of construction of Sruakra ieveals that,

it is

also a

diagrammatic lepresentauon of the human body which


body. They aie:
vital air

consists

of nine

cakras, According to this Tantra system, nine elements sustain the

human

skm

and

soul.

The

blood, flesh, muscle and bone and marrow, semen, first five originate fiom the Sal.ti and are known

They are diagrammatically represented as five triangles with their apexes pointing downwards and remaining foiu elements are ivasvariipa and called Qrikantbas. They are tepiesented by four triangles
as S/va Yuvatis.

with their apexes pointing

upwards. In addition to these nine elements


also

winch sustain the body, there are


it

fortyfour

elements

composing

triangles.

and these 101


is

aie arranged as so many triangles on the sides of the nine that the en the human body repiesents Sricakra, It means

which

Devi herself
of

The

mam

the unity of knower,

object of the worship of knowledge and the

ricakn\

is
-

the

realisation

known, 10
the

the

leahsationof
difference
is

Swatmabhavii.
between
expressed
ritual

The devotee has to him and the deity. In


in
ritual,

abolish
this

imposed
this

Tantra
In

Advaita bhava

meditation
has
to

and

Japa,
-1

the beginning
or she'

of the

the

worshipper

think that

am He

and should

t0 * An aspirant should the unity of Jiva and Brahman * Kuliirnava tells as one and the same with hei.i meditate upon himself Let him give up is the temple of God. Jiva is Saddfmi us that the body

meditate upon

with the as the offering which is thrown away and worship his ignoiancc 5 'I am He or She.'* Even, Ny&sa, Japa. Homo, Tarpoaa thought and feeling
of woiship indicate used in this method
dess.
the

Atlwta bhwa. with the god

one's own Ny&sa means identifying

body with the deity's

image.

10
J.ipa generates a sense

Y.

i'.

Sftustti

of identity willi the deity. Hoina is destroying the the sense of inuUifariousiiess of the UmveiEie. It in dissolution of all
distinctions such as

"Thou" and "I", "Is and ''Is not" Tarpana is the contentment (trpn) caused by the realisation oi identity of all things with lr "> one's self Ka//aj and mantras help to produce steadiness in the
belief of one's unity 01

oneness with the Atman

'

No

doubt, the

method of worship

advocated by
i.e,

this

Mantra in the

priliminary

stages involves the duahstic idea

worshipper

and

the

disappears in the end and spiritual expeiience the gained through this worship i e merging of the individual soul into the supieme energy or Brahman, supports the idea of oneness between

worshipped

But tins idea

woi shipper

and

the

worshipped. After

realisation

of

this unity, the

aspirant will ever be in the

becomes Jivanmukta here

enjoyment of the bliss of Brahman. He and now. 108 Thereafter, he is not bound

to perform either any Pu/d or Japa or dhynna Every word, thought, act and movement of his will be a spontaneous offering to the highest

deity.

We

have seen that immorality

is

not the aim of

the cult of

Mother

worship The higest impersonal Brahman of the Upanisads is worshipped in its feminine form. This Tantra mentions in clear terms that only those who are well exercised in selfdiscipline are eligible to worship the
highest

Brahman

in the

ted out that the worship of Universal

form of Universal nother. Sahkara rightly poinMothei is impossible for those


3
T

who have no
that
fully

control over the senses

In Tantrarnja Tantra

we

are told

worshipping this goddess, controlling the wild longings, one will know one's own true nature and conquer the proclivities with
is

born and thus become one with the true, pure manifest becoming, 111 This Tantra emphasises the worship of qualified Brahman in the form ofUniveisal nother which leads in effect
which one

and boundless

sonal

to the merging of the individual soul (Jivatman) of the aspiiant into the non differentiated Brahman. This Tantric path is an appioach to ImperBrahman through sa%una in essence. It points out the gate way to

approach the highest reality which is attainable only through spiritual devotion, mental purity, self control and the knowledge of one's own real nature It aims at the gradual dissociation of the spirit from the
shackles of matter and also from the limitations that are imposed on it its association with the mind and the antafykarana, Mattel exists in the form of five gross elements (earth, water, fire, ah and ether) which are formed out of the five Tanmatras (finer Each element has

by

essence).

its

own

peculiar quality

(i.e

odour,

taste,

colour,

touch

and

sound,

Tnpiti-a

Tantra (&ri Vidya]

Its

Philosophy and Path of

s~>dhiina

7/

respectively) and we have special senseorgans d e the nnsc, the tongue the eyes, the skin and the ears) to peiceivc these qualities. Enjoyment of the worldly objects thiough these organs, and mind, keeps the soul of the

man in bondage The aspuant of liberation has lo transcend these senses and objects. Then he has to rise above the limitations set by his own mind and the internal organ When consciousness is completely Freed
Horn
all
its

adjuncts,

it

shines

in its

own

native splendoui

* 3

This

is

the realisation of oneness with Univeisal Consciousness

Tins

is

the gist

of the philosophy of fripum Tantra and

its

path of Stidhanu.

Foof-Notes
Matr.kabheda Tautra-Introduction,
Metropolitan printing
P,
(2)

(1)

ed.

and publishing

Bhattaehaiya CMntamani, House, Calcutta, 1933,

4-5.

Ibid-Introduction, p-1

(3)

Agatam Sambhuvaktrebhyo gatam ca GuijSmiikham. Matamca Vasndevena tasraadagama ucyate, Nirgato Girija Vaktrat gatafca ginSafrutam. Matamca Vasudtvasya Nigamah Parikathyate,Againadvaitaniriiya, quoted in Matrkabheda Tantra, p. 2-3.
Bhagavan Paiasuiamopyaha-Paflcamiiayan paramarthasaraiupan pratunaya iti-Setubandha, by Bhaskararaya, ed Agashe Kasinath Sastri, pub Apte Hari Narayana, Anandashrama printing press,
:

(4)

Pane, 1908.
(5)

p.

24.

grati&a dvividha Vaidiki Tantrikica-Mantismrti-IT-l, CommentDesai M.L., GujarPandya Pranajivan Harihar, Pub ary ,-ed
. :

ati

Printing Press,

Bombay -1913. p

30.

(6) (a)

Ayamatma Brahma-Msnd Up.-2,

Brh. Up.-II-V-19.

(b^
(c)

Aham BrahmSsmi-Brh.

Up.-I-IV-lO

yadyasiottaia^atopanisad,

Tattvamasi-Chsn. Up.-VI-XVI-3. Panashikai ed


:

Pub
(7

Vasudcvasharma, Sheth Panduranga Javaji, Nirnayasagara press, 1925.

Tantra'Aikyam Jivatmanoishuryogam Yogavi&iradah'-Kulsrnava Sharma Bhadiaslula, Pub Kalyana mandira, Prayag. j-^_31_ e d
,

V.S. 2016
(8)

p 57.

devah Sacl^ivah. Piasaottaraparair"Guru^isyapadeshitva svayam Mahasvacchanda Tantra, Tantiam Samavatarayat." vakyaih Setubandha by Bhaskararaya-ed; Apte, H. N, Anand quoted in P-21 preas, Pime, ^908,

asluama printing

72

Y.

Shastri

<9) (a)

Madyam Mams am

tatha Matsyainiidramaithunamevu ca. Etani

paiicatattviuii

cd

tvayaproktfmi Sjukara Mahanii vana Taiilia-1-59, Valmiki printing Bhattacaiya Jivananda Vidyasagai, pub
:

1884. pi ess, Calcutta,


fh)

p-13
ca Miuhli

Madyam Mamsam
rirapancamam

ca

matsyam

mailhunamcva ca MakTanlia,

Devi

devalapmiKsmnam Kuliinuiva
followers,

(c)

p-63. Kulamava Tantia,


5,

ctiticises those

who misuse

these

five

Makaras-H,
Tantra

-14-1 5.

(10) Tantraiaja
rati,
f
1

pub

Gancsh

&

John woodroffe, preface by Shuddhananda BhaCo., Madras. 1954. p -XVI.

1)

Patoksam Ko anujanile Kasya kirn va Bhavisyati. Yadva pratyuksa phaladam tadevottama darsanam' Kulamava Tantru, JI-89, p 12.

(12) 'Bhukti
(13)(a)

Mukti pradayakam, Kularnava,

II,

p-I3.

Setubandha-p-24. a Tantra Introduction, p (b) Matrkabhed


-

10,

(14)

Kamo Yonih
natu piakatam

kamaletyevam

saiiketikaih.

^abdaih

vyavaharati

Bhaskararaya,
Library
(15)

yam vidyam Vedapurusoapi.-VarivasySrahasya of S. 1 8, ed Subrahmanya Sastri, pub Adyar


:

Madas,

194L } p

8,

Yato Va imHni Bhutan! Jayante, Yenajatani Jivanti, Yat prayntabhisam vi^anti, Taittinyopanisai, I. Bhj-guvalli, l^adidasopanisad, pub: Motilal Banarasididas, Delhi 1978, p-319.
(a)'LayasthityudbhaveJvan'-Lalita tndati, works of Sftrtkaracarya Vol-18, Vanivilas press, Srirangam, 237.

'16)

(b)jSrstisthiti

a^rama

vinafensm Saktibhute Sanatarti-quoted by


the
Sastri'
;

in

KaivalyMadras',

Auanta Krisna
i

yj

commentary on Saundarya Laliarj-E d pub Ganesh & Company,


Culture-Vol -IV ed
Ltd.,

/ *

P~

'

;i7)

Encyclopaedia

of

Indian

Salctore

RN

Sterling publishers private

L-10

New
I8)fiakti

Delhi 1954, p-1271

Green park

Extension!

Cult In Ancient India-Pushpendra kumar, pub

Bharaif

publishing House, Varanasi, 1974. p-10.


19)

Mstrkabheda Tantra; p-9.

20) A(l)Kenopanisat-III-12, p-3.

(2)Tc

dhyanayoganugataapafyan dwatmafaktlin SvagunairnigO-

dhani-Sveta^vataropanisad-l~J.

Tripurn Tantra (Sri VidyS)

Its

Philosophy and Path of sadhani

13

(20) B. (1) TripurSta-pinyupanisad-p-461-70


(2)

Tripuropanisad-

p-472-73

(3)
(4)

BhavanopanisadBahvrcopani?ad

p-476-77
p-554-55
:

(21) Nityssodasikarnava. 1-14-21, ed

Dviveda Vrajavnllabha, Vara-

naseya Sanskrit ViSvavidyalaya, Varanasi, 1968; p-43-44.


(22) Saundaryalaharl-31. (23)

Commentary by Laksmjdhara,
hi Sankari'

p-140.

'MiSrakam Kaulamirgamca paritysjyam

Saundaryala-

hari-31, with LafcjmJdhars, p-141. (24) Ibid p-140.


(25)

Vamakesvara Tantra with setubandha, RjuvimarSim, Artharatnavah, Tantrarsja,


Tri'Sati

Mstrlcabheda Tantra, Varivasyarahasya, Lalita with Sankaiabhasya, Kamakala vilssa, Tripuramahimnas-

totia,

Vardhanl, Laksmidhara and AuinSrnodini; Tnpura Tapinyupam?at; Tripuropanisat. Bhaetc.

Saundaryalaharl with Saubhagya

vanopanisat, Bahvrcopanisat
(26)

Lalita

Daharaka^avakaSe cakram vibhavya tatra pujadikam samaya iti, sahasranama with Saubhagyabhaskara, verse 88, ed
:

Pansikar Vasudeva Laksman Shastri, Pub


rnayasagara press,
(27)

Tukaram

Javaji,

Ni-

Bombay
devi

1914 p-53.

Tripura Trividha

BrahmavisnvlSarupinJ. Jfianaiaktihkriys
Trailokyaiu
p.

^aktiricchaiaktyatmikapriye.

samsrjatyesa
205-207.

tripurg

pariKtrtita-NityasodaMkarnava-IV-H-12.

(28) Murtitrayasyapi puratanatvattadambikayastnpureti nama-Lalits-

sahasranama with Saubhagyabhaskaia p-135,


(29)

Trikonam man dalam casya bhiipuram


^aktih tridevanam ca srsfaye.

ca

trirekhakam.

Mantro

api tryaksarah pioktah tatha rupatrayam punah. Trividhakundall

Sarvam irayam

trayam

yasmat

tasmattu tripuramata. Ibid-verse


(30)

Naditrayam
cittam

tu tripura

I-Commentary, p-2 susumna pingala ida. Mano budhistathaTatra


tatra

puratiayamudahrtani.

vasatyesa

tasmattu

tripuramata: Ibid-176-Commentary, p-133.


(31) Ibid-p-133.
(32) (a)

De&kalakarabhedah

samvido na

hi yujyate-Tantrika

vang-

mayame
(b)

Saktadrti-Kaviraj Gopinath. Pub; Bihar Rastrabhasa-

parisad Patna, 1963. p-4.

Saccidananda-Lalita

Trifetl

with iSaflkarabha^ya,

Works of

San^ara, Vol-XVIII, Vanivilas Press Srirangam p-258.


(c)Saccidaiiandasvarupini Tripwrs
Introduction, p-86.
iti

ni&Jyate-Nityasodaiikarnava-

Y. S. Shastri

(33) Nodeti

nastameiyeka samvidesS svayam prabhii-PailcaclaSi,

quo-

ted in Nityasoda:iikar.nava, lutioduction


(34)

p-85.

(35)

Tnpuraiva paiambrahmelyabhidluyatc .-Ibid-Inlroduction, p-85. Eesa sa patama Saktirekaiva Ibid-- IV- 10, p-205.
Samvideva bhagavati svantah sthitam jagad bnhih prnk^ayaUtiIbicl,

(36)

Introduction, p-85.

(37) 36 Tattavas are: Siva, Sakli; Sadasiva, Isvara,

SuddlmviUys, Maya,
Prakrti,

Kala, Kala, Vidya, RSga,

Niyati,

Purusa,

AhaAkHra,

Buddhi, Manas, five Jfisnendriyas, five Karmendriyas five Tanmatras and five Mahabhutas. Nityotsava by Uniftnandanatha-IIIrd
edition, ed
:

Shastri

Mahadeva,

Gaekwad's

Oriental rnslitutCj

Baroda 1948, p-7.


(38)

Nityasoda^ikarnava 1-1, p-9

(39)Nirguna-LalitSsahasranama 95, p-61. (40) Lahta Trisati with SaAkaiabhajya, p-218-19.


(41) Sarvsimika-TriSati,

(42)(a)

p-217, 'Sadeva Saumya idamagra asid ekaraevadvitiyam'


p.

(b)Devihyekagra^sit-Bahvfcopanisat-l-I^adyasfottara^atoapaniBiid
554.
(43) Ibid,

p-554.
:

<44) Saundaryalahan-98. ed

Shastri

Subralimanya

Srinivas T. U., Theosophical Publishing


i

and Ajyangar House Adyar, Madras-

/ /

(45)Lalita Trisati with Sankara bhasya, pp-175, IRQ, 192.


(46) NityfiBodaiikarnava-I-9, (47)

23,

Devyupanisad-p-471.

(48)

Jttnajaatrjfleyanamabhedabhavanam -Bhsvanopaniwd p-476


'

(49) Tris'ati

p-175

218.

(50) (51)

Ibid-p-180.
Sajvadhara
Ibid,

218-

(53)

Hanopadsna

(54)

Sate and

nirmukta,Trifatl-p-234.
Woodroffe> Pub
:

S 5Icta - Jota

Qancsh

(55) Ibid-p-43-

(56) Bahvrcopauisat
(57)

p-555.
'

'Sarvea-smantahpurusah p-469.

"

fripura Tuntra

(n

Vidyu)
l

Its

Philosophy and Path of sadhana

73

(58) Ibid- 11. p-46 J. (59) NityaflodaSikaituiva with sctubandha-lV-2, p-132,


(6"0) (a)

Sadiimmdnpurnuh hVatmaiva paiadcvata laUla.-Niiy.isoda&kaiPanpiumisvulmaikyasvaiupS Bhavauopauisal, p


KarLa
kiirayiUi
477.

nava.
(b)
(u)

kaima

Laraiutin

karyumcvtica.

SiuvfttmtilHya

bhati prasadSL puiamcsvardL-Tanliiku vai'igmaya

me

Sakltidrsti-

P-163-KJ4.
(61) BIiuv.ibli5.vu
Lltani

vinirmukLam n.isotpaLU
SiLklimulorbhcdiim

vivtu jitum.

Sarva bankcilpunnAbliedawitli

puiabuihma uulucyaic-lbid, p-172,


vadaniyiipauunailhatali,
'Sauiularyalahail
3.

(02) (a) 'Sukti

yoginaslauvaoiniakah manupti^yanti Saubhagya vaidhanj, 1. Commentaiy, p


([>)

'Sivasaklii'Uihyekam

Tiittvt-im.iliiiimajiIsinal.u-Vruilrika

vang-

nuiyainc Saktadr^i p-76


(.63)

Sakli Cult
I

in

AnciciH India- PuspuudKi ICuinui, p

9798.

(64)

bid- p

151

(65) Nityiiijotla^ikuniavu

IiiLruduction, p

8590.
2.

(66) Suktt Cult la Ancient India


(67) (a)

151

'Asyam Pannatciyan arnava IV 5, p 195.


'Aupanisadfnn

lu na KaScit puiaisyutti

Nityasodasik-

(b)

paksaslu
Lu

para^ya

culiupasya

brahmanah
jagato

,4aktirmayakhya, Sscajadava. Saiva

jagatali

parinsmyupadanamj
ova
api

Param

biahma

vivartopadanam.

At

nidyikatvat

jadatvam

mithyatvam

ca.

TaiitrikanEiin

paksaatu

paracinniijtlia
'

lupatvat mayetyiicyato

ya cicchaktih aupanigcidunumapi sammata saivaiianta* Tatpariimma cva prapaflcalj Ata cva

cidrupah Cidvilabiil; prapaflco ayam" iti Jfiauava'si^Uiat. ova ca satyo apt Nityasod^sikSraava with sctubaiiUha, p
(68) (a) Lalita, TrIJali

Ata

with & irikarabhasya


35, 98

169, 178, etc.,

(b) Saundaryulahail,

(69) (a) Lalita Tri&iti,

235.
7,

(b) Saundaryalahai-i
(c) Ibid
I,

41.
2,

Laksnndhars, p

(70) (a) Simnddryjila]ian--22-29, p -36


(b)

42.

Tri&iti-p-iys.

(71) (a) TautrarSja

Tantra-Julm WoudiolTc-p-24

76

r. S. Shastri

(b)

Kadacidadyalalita

pumrupa

kygnavigrahS-LalitStrteati

sya-p,
(c)

22526

Tantraraja Tantra,

XXXIV

p. 99

(-72)

(d) Lahla .sahasranamabhasya, Verse 16, p-9 Devi Worship in Saundaiya Laharl-Iyer Venkataiama

M.k.

Prabuddha Bharata.
(73)

Sept. ;959.

pageB-1.

fa) Saundaryalahan, 24-25 p, 37-38.


(b) Tris'ati-p-211.

(74)
(75)

Karmsdi ssksmi

karayitiJ kannapkalaprada-TriSati- 4, p-173.

'Karunamrtasffgara'-Tri^aii-2, 7 p- 184-87. (76) Ibid


(77) 'SarvamstA' (78)

169.

Ibid.

p~218-9.

Sadgatida-yml-Ibid. p-25S-60

(79) fa)
(b)

Nity?sodastkarnava-I-3 p-14 Saundaryalahan-lOI p-251

(80) (81)

Saundaryaltihan-5 6,13,18,101.

^adatta yj3
i

Tnpiiramahhnnastotra-Sl, 53, KSvyamala-pait XI ed: pandit Si and Kasinath pandurang parab, Nirnayaaagai press, Bom "
*

Jo~~~o7

(82} Jbid

54-P-37.

(83) 'Yatrasti

tatra mokgo, yatrSsti niok ? o nahitatra bog Sivapadamfafioja yugarcaksnam bhukti^ca muktisca karasthiteva-Sa

bhogo na hi

(84)

darja lahan with saubagya vardhani, p-22. Saundaryalahan, 7-p-10

(85> Saundaryalahari with (86) Ibid p-70


(87) -Tantraraja-p-76. (58)

Laksmidhara-9 p^70

Ibid-p-76.
Tripuretapiayapanisad
tat

(89) (a)

p_46l-463

2L3 S2SSL
kararaya

%%"******

prapa%ate aspa?taDi Vede SPP^iyataram-Varivwyarahasya, Bhi

m yat

(90) LaIita-trifeti-p-291. (91) (a) lalita sahasranstna

p-50-52
a ari

5d

"

<ma,n-p..
(92)

- Sau ^aryalahan

with

atigya

va

Varivasy5rahasya-p
p

37-110

(93) Lalitatris'atj

166290

5) (a)

Yasya no

pamam

jaama yadi va

'Iripuru Tantra (Sri Vidyd)

Its

Philosophy and Path of sddhana

77

svayam. Tenaiva labliyate vidy&fcimatpSfloadaiaksaii-Lahtatribiti p -293.


(b)

'Yasya vijnananiairena punarjanma na

vidyate'.

Matrkabhedatantra

VII-1, p-38.
(96; (a) NityasodaSikainava. iVamakesvaia
Taatia).

1-29-43,

p-50-57

acd 1-59-75

p-83-88

(b) Tautraraja Tantia-VIII -52-71


(c) Saundaryalahari with Saubhagya vardham and Laksmidliara-lO, (d) 'Bindu trikonavasukonadaSarayugmamanvasranagadalasainyuta so^._

agsram. Vpttatrayauj ca dliaiaol sadanatrayam

ca

irlcakrarajamudHam
p
27.

paradevatayah' -quoted in setubandha by Bhaskaiaraya


(97) NityasodaSiksniava witi
(98)

Rjuvimadim and

\rthaiatn5vah

p-135-36

Setubandha-p-40.
'Kaulamataausarena adhoinukhani catvantnkonani Sivatmakani,

(99)

Qr72.

dhvamukham panca
(100)

trikonani Saktyatmakani'-Laksmjdhara-p
1

Samhsrakramena Kaulamargah
argah.'-Lakjmidhara

Sfstikramastu

samayaiiT-

p
ed
:

82-83.

(101) Sauadaryalahail,

II

Subrahmanya

Sastri

and Snuivas

Ayyangar

Adyar, Madias, 1977; p-64-71


(102)
'Jflats

Svatma bhavejjflanamarghyamjfleyam havih sthitam. SricakraTantraraja


natva vidhanena so aliamiti purodhasah,
ca'

pujanam te?am ekikaranamiritam'


(103)

Guram

Tantra,-XXXV,p-102. Aikyam samuhacv-

ayet dhlman jivasya brahmaaoapi Sakti and Sakta, p-568.


tato devim so (104) 'Evam dhyatva

Gandharva Tantra, quoted in.

ahamatmanam

arcayet', Ibid,

p-56S.

(105

'Deho devalayah devi


so

jivo

ahambhavena

pfljayet

Tyajedajflananirmalym Kularnva Tantra IX p 58.

deval; sada^ivah.

devatatvena svatmano dehakalpanam. (106) (aj Nyasastu


^b) Japastu
(c)

tanmayata rupabhavanam.
homali.

Kartavyamakartavyamaudasinyanityatmavilapaaam

(d)EB?m anyonya sambhedabhSvauamtarpanam-Tantraraja-XXXlV


p-104.

(107J Ibid, p-104.


bhavati (108> 'Bhavanaparo jivanmukto

Btavattopanisat

p-477

(109) Saundaryalahar3-27 (110) Saundaryalahari-96.

fill) Tantraraja TaiUra-XXXVI-p-109-10.


(112)
(a; (b)

BfUadaranyakopaniBad-III-I-9 p Devi worship in saundaryalaharl p-B 5-6.


:

-792-3,

PLEASURE AND PAIN


M.
Before the
attributes, as
create,

ACTION

P. Lakfiani

creation,

God

exists in an unconditioned

state

without
desires to

He

the Absolute, Nirguna Brahman, conditions Himelf and becomes

God

When He

Suguna Brahman-in

the

form

of Trinity-Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva-personifying the attributes of


Satva, Tamas., representing Activity,

Rajas,

Harmony and

Stability, Inertia

and

Destruction. Creation starts with the coming into being the fourth, the feminine or passive or negative Prakrit! or Primordial aspect, Mattel,

Eneragy.

What Brahma
of virgin Mary,

creates with the help of Prakriti becomes 'alive'

when

pervaded by the Spirit of Vishnu.


life starts-the

When

Christ descends into the

womb

creation starts.

Life consists in balancing the two

principles-activity

and

inertia,

the positive and the negative, the Spirit and Matter, the Punisha and the
Prakiiti.

There

is

thus duality in

life

good and bad, pleasure and pain,


forth.

up and down, light and darkness and so

These two opposite priis

nciples are the two sides of the same entity, Life. Realisation of this
the ultimate goal of

man;

this is realising the

Truth;

this is

reaching

Godhood. By the very nature of


les,

creation, therefore, the

two opposing princip-

positive and negative exist in equal quantities. If one principle were


it

to increse or decrease,

would produce

disharmony, unstabihty, destr-

uction.

Man,
pleasure,

as every

other

living being,

is

struggling,

'living' to

find

If a

man

is

willing to go
is

somewhere

to achieve
is

what he has
taking
pain;

his

a pleasure because it to his fulfilment. But the exertion to take a step

mind, every step he takes

him
with
feels

nearei

is

every

step

he takes, hundreds of

cells

of his body die.

When man
satisfies

hungry
of

he eats. Every morsel he takes

is

a pleasure;

it

the

pangs

hunger,

it

to his taste. yields pleasure

But the labour involved


it,.... is

in prepa-

to the mouth, ring food, raising it

chew

labour,

is

pain

and

SO

M.
hundred
cells

P. Lakhani

'during this labour

of his body perish. And so


.

with

any

and everythin

man

does-pain and pleasure go togethei

And
If pain

to act,

if pa in and pleasure are equal why should one act for a thing. and pleasure are equal, if there is no profit, it is foolish for man to do anything. It is no thing but FOLLY to live. The only logical

and sensible thing would be


to die.

to get

But the patent

fact

is

that

man

out of such an unprofitable existence, does not want to die, he does not
is

want

to quit.

Obviously he finds that pleasure

greater than pain,

he

finds it pleasanter

and more profitable


?

to live than to die.


is

This means

that
is

in life,

the proportion of pleasure

gieatei than that of pain.

How

that brought about

God
to

created

man and wanted him

to

go forth in the world of matter

experiment, to gather experience, to evolve and gel at the Truth of Life. This he could do only by performing action so that existence and
action are synonimous.

To supply

incentive for action.

He made

arrange-

ment

"so

that, for

sum
cross

total

man, sum total of pleasure becomes greater than the of pain. He or His Deputies, sacrifice themselves to lift some

pain off humanity. There are a large

number of 'Christs' who bear the who take upon themselves some of the pain of humanity, they accept Rishis, Munis, Yogis, suffering so that humanity may move forwards.

are not being selfish.

having renounced the Avorld and sitting in caves ahd forests in Samadhi They have not run away from the world for
In Samadhi, they are helping the

selfish purposes, for personal progress,

human

race on higher planes of existence. All the time they are 'endea-

vouring to pull up the

human

race.

Masters though they have discarded

their physical bodies, are


'hSimanity. This
is

working on higher planes to teep and guide a collosal task and there are a large number of spiritpain.

Beings constantly lifting a part of human ratio of pleasure becomes greater than pain and
ual
to act

That
finds

is
it

how

the

man

possible

and

live

Atnritarn and poison

come up while churning

the ocean. Poison

would

have destroyed
His throat-that
to

all
is

activity. So, Shiva

how

took up the poison and kept it in his throat and body became blue, and He came

be tailed 'Neela Kantha',

and

so helped

the

creation

to

act

and

progress.

PREPARTING THE WOMEN FOR DECOLONIZATION THE ROLE OF GUJARAT VARNACULAR SOCIETY
r

(1848-1915)
Miss Bhatt Usha G.

The 19th Century witnessed

the transition of the Gujarat Society as


British
rule in this region.

a icsult of the general impact of the

The

piocess of colonization was at the same time released by colonial rulers as a result of which a number of institutions emerged in Gujarat. Some of these institutions were founded with the co-operation and active support of the well-meaning

and friendly

British

officials,

although

the

and perpetuated. One of these general colonial environment prevailed institutions was the Gujarat Varnacular Society, founded in 1848 by the
social elites like Bholanath Sarabhi, Bhogilal Pranvallabhdas,
poet Dal-

Himabhi, The local elites got moral patram and Nagarsheth Premabhi bureaucrats such as A.K. Forbes, T.B. Curtis support from the British and Major Full James. The Gujarat Varnacular Society generated multi
faceted refoimist activities and
social
it

became a

ncucleus

for

meaningful

connection with the problems of women. The particularly in of this institution and is to trace the growth objective of this paper of women. its role towards the upliftment

work

explain

1848 to 1915

of t h e Gujarat Varnacular Society from Before we review the work of out of place to briefly sketch the condition it would not be

woman which

half of the 19th Century. in Gujarat in the first prevailed of a wo19th Century in Gujarat the concept In the early part of the social was not accepted. Really speaking B independent personality i In feudal attitude reflected the medievalach towards woman had she to a man and a woman was secondary

dominated society

very few social rights.

The

miserable
i
'

child marriages tradition of infanticide, social in the was sharp contrast

etc.

made female
given

life

treatment

to

There

A f male children.

Female

education in the
that if a girl

modern

term

was

Ae

existence

It

was believed

was taught she would

become a widow Some families, an irJormal but ths Js more of


Sambodhi
XII
11

no doubt, emphasised female education, within the family rubnc. Sh 9


training

$2

MJSS Shan Us ha G.

was not supposed to go to the school. She was meant to be marrif were excepti children. Theie to do domestic work and lo deliver Sansk like Diwalibai who wrote poems and few Nagar women knew
or Persian, 2
Prior to the 19th Century in Gujarat child marriages were commc A girl was generally married between the age of three and 11 yea The marriages were supposed to be limited to the casts, subcasts or a loi

community. Therefore the scope for the selection of a


limited. Besides the choice of a girl

life

partner
at

v
a

was not

in

the

As a
(

result of the child marriages

unmatch-couples

picture or odd
girl

coup

Kajoda lagna) were

in the existence.

An

eight

year

could

married to an old

man

of sixty

The 18th Century poet Krishna ram remarks that girls at the age 11 or 12 years used to become mothers."3 The death rate of pregnant women was high. Even after the delivery women used to due to vmhygenic conditions, lack of medicines etc. Polygamy was pr alent in the society. Widow-remarriage was not possible and the cond ons of widows were terrible. They had to live their lives under vari<
10,
I

social restrains. This


in^

was the general picture of social status of

won

Gujarat.
II

This picture began to change when a large number of social refoi ers appeared on the scene and they were the products of the Bril educational system. These reformars launched cruzed against the a

system and the evils like the child marriages and ban on the wic remarriages. For example in 1858 Karsandas Mulaji wiote that as ir. and famale both are human beings they should have equal rights.* F

Narmada Shankar suggested 18 points to improve the position of wor and emphasised female education. 3 The Gujarat Varnaclar Society re cted this general environment and assumed the role of a change-ag< It took up the work of woman's upliftment. In the initial stage
Gujarat Varnacular Society was purely a product of the colonized atn phare. Like the Indian National Congress this regional organixai

was founded by

Non-Indian

named

Alexander

Kinlok

Forbes

26th December 1548, All the managing committee members were Eurc ans.7 Only in 1852 Bhogilal Pranvallabh, the principal of the Eng

School was included


M

in

the committee.

The basic object of the society reveals the symptom of decolonizat The object was to enhance the progress of the regional Gujarat! langu

Preparing the women for Decolonization

The Role of Gujarat


to

S3
rate

and

lileiatuie,

to

spiead

knowledge

and

increase

the

of

On the 5th January 1849 the society started the native library. In a sense the hocicly played very important role as, an effective medium
education. 8

of socral change

May 1849 the society started a newspaper published on cveiy Wednesday mimed -Vaitnmn* by Bajibhai Amin. In the 'Vartman' 2nd dated July 1851 a para in connection with the jail administration
the

On

2nd

was published. o On the very point the government was displeased. One of the managing committee members Mr. Hanson expressed his acute
protest against 'Viutman'.
1
<>

On the 1st April 1854 'Buddhi-prakash' was published by the ance of the Gujarat Varnacular Society, 1 l This Jouuml, among things, published articles on famaJe education and adult marriage.

assist-

other
It

also

published articles in favour of widow remarriage. In a very tiue sense., the Buddhi prakash generated an ideological movement for the betterment

of the Gujaiuti Women. On account of its moderate and popular the journal was very populai and it had a large circulation both urban and rural aieas such as Broach, Junagadh, Phandhuka,

style
in

the

Mahudha, Nadiad,

emdavad, Rajkot and Baroda, Mostly


in charge of these agencies* 3 In

Jambtisar, Kapadvanj, Dholaka, Sadara, Petlad the government school teachers were

1855 the well known Gujarat! poet Dalpatram was invited to join the position of 'Kaveeshvar' of the society. He was pro-British and praised the British raj. 13 Palpatram wrote a poem regarding the rule of the uneducated ruler and he warned the native
rulers that if they \vould not
inipovc

upon

themselves

they

would be

loosers. 14

Besides Buddhi piakashtued to spread the thoughts pertaining to the


1 various kinds of rufoims. * In tins work they tried to get support from This was indeed a major landmark in the history the native rulers,
1

movement in general and women's liberation in in view of the fact that the native rulprs particular. This was particularly

of

social

leform

were ignorant and backward Gujarat, like their Indian counter party Society that it It goes to the credit of Gujarat Varnacular was able to persuade the Raos and the Rajas and the Maharajas to utilize of welfare the women. They for resources their financial uiul othui State was Lo set up hchools for the education of young girls. This now

of

looking people.

began

an important anticulonial was later to do the same

battle

from within the society

itself.

'Gandhiji

thing in his endeavour to fight

away

the British

54

Miss Bhatt Usha G.

imperialism. Mahaiaja Sayajirao financially assisted the society,*


3

Gaikwad III, The Society

the

uilei

of

Bare
cont
1

likewise

had

with the Maharaja of Kutchi8 Nawab Sher Mohammad Khanji of anpur Stale 19 and Maharaja Vakhat Smhji of Lunawada. 20 When

society raised the fund for the building of the society Shii Diwan M Mohammad Khanji of Palanpur paid Rs 651, Mansingh E of Baraily, Piatapsinhji Gulabsinhji of Vasada, Motismhji of Chota-U pur-they each paid Rs. 500 Manvar Khanji Joiavar Khanji of Wadasi

akhan Sher

paid Rs.300

The

society took the initiative

Thus the native states were incorporated in the activit and leadership to get the suppoit of
society.

various segments of the

These instances are sufficient to reveal ths point that the soci contained the potentiality to mobilize the processes or' decolonizati
In a sense the working of the society shows typical Gujarati mmercial Culture. Apparently it was pro- colonization but slowly, gradu; and indirectly the society was working in- the direction to piepare
<

decolonized psychology of
spirit.

the

people or

to

strengthen the nationa

pro-colonization, inner currents were surely those of de-colonization-paiticularly 'decol ization' of the older approach of men towards women.
Ill

Though apparently the

image

was

that of

was

the files of

The main thrust of the society while doing the multifarious activii to bring about change in the social status of women. The study r Buddhi Prakash from 1<S54 to 1915 support this viewpoint.

society took-, up the slow


in favour of

the rqle

and gradual process to mobilize public opm women's education and simultaneously it helped to incre of women's education.
,
i

In the City of Ahmedabad in 1849 the Gujarat Vamacular Soci took the Charge of a school. The following figures 2i of the school \ help to.-, understand the condition; of the girls education.

Preparing

the

women for

Decolonization

The Role af Gujarat

Year
1850
1853

Numbei
42
38

of

Guls

(in the

gnls school)

1854
1855

84
132
of the society staler that the

The icpoit (1852-53)

guh

school founded

by Haikoi Shelharu, widow of Hathisingh Kcsau Singh a noted philanthrophist of Ahmcdabad, was under the Society's management, Avoiding to
the report, the woiking of the school was not
s
1

o.

factory, but the expecta


"

tion was

impiove the condition. Shelh Umabhai Hathisingh on behalf of Harkor Shethani awarded the puzes of Rs.250 to the students. 2 2 The
girls

to

pioneer woik of the Gujarat Varnacular


the

education was
2 ^

staited

undci

the

School

of

Society.

Further,

Shethani

Harkoibai
she

donated
agieed to
the

amount of

Rs. 6,000 foi the girls school

and
24-

besides In

donate Rs. 4,000 for the buildmp of the

school.

December 1955

Governor

personally

came

to

girls played garbas

examination of the gnls. Aftei and the piizes weie distributed

inspect the school He conducted the the completion of the examination the
to them. 23
in

This was

an important
paving the

step towards the upliftment of

women

general

and

the

gills students in paiticular. This

was

also a noteworthy cultural icsponse

way towards decolonization.

According to the Society's report of 1854-55 Shethani Harkorbai continued to rendei the financial assistance foi the school and she
! agreed to give Rs, 12,000. " The foundation stone of the the girls school was laid on the 26th October 1858 27

building of

As
and

far as

the,

interest not only in the city of

keen gnls education was conceined the society took Ahmedabad but also in the othei urban
iils

ruial centres of Gujarat. In 1859 theie weie nine


in

schools in

Gujarat. Out of these three were

Ahmedabad, two
one.

in Surat, Bliavnagar,

Rajkot, Limdi, Nadiad and

Gondal each had


girls

Even

in
8

Mahudha,

Nadiad and Kapadvanj the


In

education was piogressing.*

1870 Miss Mary

Carpentei

who was
In

intensely

interested in the
efforts

girls education visited

Ahmedabad

foi the third time

and the

were

made

to train

women teachers."

1872

Rav Bahadw

Bahechaidas

Ambaidas Lashkari donated Rs.10,000

for the purpose. 30

The Mahalakshmi

At a time when female training college catered the need of female leacheis female teachers female education was increasing, the need to create

Mi&s Bhatt Usha

iidiuialiy caujlil

fam,ilc "turning college

of the society. The Mahalal the jtteniion of the leaders was the result of this new social awakeninj

On
school

the

1st

September
with

1892
the

Ravbahadur
by

Ranchhodlal Khadia gir Ranchhodlal


Chhotalal, tr
In 1901 the

was

staitcd

donation
industry
a

ptoncci of the cotton textile

Gujarat
for

Gujare

Varnacular
the plan

Society
in

picpaied

plan
1915.

women's

educational

an

was

the existence in

The society by awarding the various prizes inspired the educate sections to participate in the essay competitions on the burning socic casts-iegimentation, supeistitions an issues such as child marriages, restrictions on widow -remarriages and foreign travels.

The women were encouraged


and the elocution

to participate in the essay

competition

competitor
11)

ev,ay competitions were


girls

On one occasion the subjects for th Result of child marriages and its impact o

education (nj The customs and traditions in the caste of Kadav kanabi 32 The theme on the 'Kadava Kanabi' shows that the society too]
special interest

on the caste which was

supposed

to

be

ritually

am

socially the lower caste

the society.

On 23rd and 24th December an elocution competition was organise* Maganbhai Karamchand girls school and the topics were (i) the ueec of the women's education and (li) what type of women's education shoul( be imparted 9 Six women participated in the Competition, Out of then Mrs. Gangabai Pranshankar Yagnik and Mrs. Ambaji Jivaram were res pectedly the teachers from Manasa ad Patlad, Mrs. Vijaya Premabha was a scholar in Ahmedabad female training college and Mrs. Gulal Kahandds was a teacher in the same college. Mrs. Reva Kashirara wai
in

m competitioi became the yeaily programme and on 22nd and 23rd December 1897 the competition was organised in Bholanath Sarabhai literary institute fo
were active

from Baroda and Mrs. Annpurnabai was the wife of Ganesh Gopal Pan dit (B A.}. Thus the married women teacheis were available and the? these type of activities. 33 The elocution

women. In
Nilkanth

the competition 10
teachers.

women

were the school

This

participated and mo&t of then function was presided by Vidyagaur

who

passed the Intel-Mediate examination 3 * It

may

be notec

daughtei-m- law of Mahipatiam Rupram Gujaiat and the wife of Raraanbha Nilkanth, a famous social and political reformer and the author of the renouned noval 'Bhadram Bhadra.' Mrs. Bayabai Shripad Thakur passec
the celabrated social leformer of

here that Vidyaben

was

the

Preparing the women for Decolonization

The Role of Gujarat

Si

the same examination, Miss Sharada Gopilal Dhruv and Pestanji Jamas passed the Matriculation examination. 2 5

Miss

Dinabai

The

fiist

female member of the society

was

enrolled

in

the

year

from Petlad named Rukshmanibai, her father Naranji Nandlal paid her subscription. The father and the daughter both were the members of the society. 3 6 In the year 1915 there were 45 female members of the society from the city of Ahmedabad and 323 female

1892. She was

members
In

were from the City of Boraday and the other places. 3'
short

the various activities of Gujaiat Vamacular Society helped the emeigence and the growth of women's awakening, Tli^ undoubtedly show that the Gujaiat Varnaculai Society had mobilized the Gujarati women folk much before Mahatma Gandhi gave a dynamic orientation towards the problems of women.

Notes

1.

Neera Desfu Social Change


Ltd. Bombay, 1979, p.
68.

in

Gujarat

Vora and

Co.

Publishers

Pvt.

Usha Bhatt

Pravnitti-Aitihasik Gujaratma Samajik Sud/iaranani 1st January Samiksha-Stri Vtkarsli 'Vikasgnh Vikasgnh, Ahmedabad,
1

1982, April 1982, October

1982.

3
4,

Neera Desai Social Change

5.

in Gujarat p 67 From the article Vol. 1, 1870 Karsandas Mulaji Nibandh Mala, on 24th October 1858 Premanand Sahitya Sabha, Narmada Shankar L.Dave Narmgady

written

Baroda

(1865) pp

184-187

Usha Bhatt

Gujarat

Vidya, Gujarat University

Vascular A Humanities

January 1981,

Vol XXIV, No.

Part Varnacular Society no Itiha, Himlai T. Paiekh Gujarat

Ahmedabad,

1932, p. 9
8, 9,
10.

Hiralal T, Parekh Gujarat

Ibid p 23
Ibid

p 16
1,

11

Buddhi Prakash Vol.


lb id. Vol
2,

7th March 1954.


9

12

av

YoU

Bombay

1879

pp. 55-73.

Chanff

Miss Bhatt Usha G,

14.

Bnddln Prakash Vol.


Ibid. Vol
(a)

1,

7th March 1854.


pp. 166-170

15
16,

2.

No

November J855
3

Buddhi Prakash Vol


Idid Vol
5,

February 1856 pp 33-35


1858

tb)

No

May

pp. 74,75

Dahwtram 'Varnacuik

Socjztyni
17,

Gaibi.
4 No. 5

Buddlu Prakash Vol


Hiralal T.Parekh

May

1957
II

18 19
20.

Gujatat Vernacular Societyno Itihas Part

pp.

Idtd p

80,

Ibid

82-83
T.

21
22,
23,

Hnalal

Paiekh Gujarat Varnacular Societyno

Itihas

Part
I,

II.

Hitalal T. Parakh

Gujarat Vamoculai Societyno Itihas Part

p,

Buddhi Piekash Vol.


Ibid.
Vol.
1

7th March I85t, P

10

24,

No.
7th

1st

August 18 34 pp
1854,

77,78.

25 26
27.

Ibid Vol.

Maich
3

Buddhi Prakash Vol.

p 10 March 1856

M/ September

1856, p. 161.
5

28. 29.
30.

Buddhi Prakash Vol

No

1-2 January-February 1858,


219.
p. 54.

Ibid Vol. 6 No, 11 December 1859 p


(a)
(b)

Ibid Vol

17

No.

3,

March

1870,

Mangubhai Ramdas Patel Rau Bahadur Bechardas

Ambaidas

Lai

(1818-1889)

of biographical study of the social end industrial leader

Ph.D.

thesis

Gujarat University 1985, PP. 267-278

(Unpublished) '(?u

Varnacular Society ane Bechardasni Pravruttw 1$48 to 1889


31.

Buddhi Prakash Vol


Ibid. Vol. 1. 7th

42 No,

9,

September

1895, p, 268

32.

March

1854, p. 13.

33
34.

Ibid Vol 42, January 1895,

No

1,
1,

30.

Ibid Vol.44, January 1897, No.

pp. 24-25,

35
36
37.

Buddhi Prakash
Ibid' Vol, 39, No. 12, December 1892,
p. 288.

Ibid

Vol, 63,

No.ll,. November 1916

The

Report

of

the

Gu

Varnacular Society, 1915, pp. 2-3.

FIXENG UP OF SOME VARIANTS FROM


(Ref.

1C

\UiHSV

HemacandiaS

T
This happens
to

S. Nantli

be the thud article


point out
o!

of

its

type
tix'ing

The
up
the

smgulai

purpose of our
available
in

effoit is to

that

vailuus
the
e.1

the

woiks

Kalidasa, editois

io

far,

including
oveiloo!

most reputed ones such as piof S. 1C perhaps the most important lesearch

Belvelkar, have
tool
i

sodh

e.

woiks

on

Mrnikf'u
1

with any number of learned eomentators quite often ch^ussirn thii 01 that reading calling one a 'sadhupalhn' and the othei an 'apapatha Noi only is KalidSsa quoted piofuaely, but Bhavabhiiti. Bhalfanaiayami, \ is~.

khadatta and many others


aning this or that point
in

are looked in to furnish illustrations while c\pi

alamkara

works

So, as in case of IClidasa.

we can

attempt a thorough lesearch

tins direction in the case

of othei

literary artists also.

In

this paper,

we

will consider only five verses

fiom the Abhijflana

Sakuutala of Kslidasa, and consult only Heraacandra's Kavyanusasaua for the present. In fact all alamkara works, biginnig from Vamana's Ka\vcil
atpkara^sutra-vftti and the Dhvanysloka to Mammata, Blioia, and upto Vi^vanatha onwards, with any nunibei of commentaries, both published

have
are

or unpublished, could be utilised for the purpose. Foi the present \\c chosen only Hemacandia to serve as an illustration. Ilcmacandra could be an ideal and most obviou-, choice hecausi uc

aware

of his
the

utility,

as

portion of

Abhinavabhai atl

proved by pi of. on the famous

Gnoh

in

editing

ra&asiitra in

Bhrata's

M, Kulkarni in leconslructuig the Di. V NstyaSsstia, and by Piof the Seventh lost portion of the Abhmava-bharali on the bhavadhyaya or
chapter of the Natya^astia Abhinava-bharatl on the sixth chapter
introduction, translation and notes
University.
('82).

of Bhaiata and

also

by us

in

editing

the

of the

Natya&slia with a

neat
at

in Gujaiati,

published by the GUJ.U

T
'

Tho

first

one

is

published

in

University, Jaganuatha purl

the vciy first number of the Journal uf the Sauskiu The setond one was read in the Vlth \\orld Sanskiu
'

Conference in Philadelphia., U.S.A.Oct *as read at April '82 Jan '83. This paper

84

and
I

is

publibbed

in

Sambodhi
'85.

the A.

C.,

Ahmcdabad, Nov

Sambodhl XII-12

n/,

T.

Nfiiuii

We
.ins
|oi

h.iw IH

ill 1-'

of pin poses

thib

ill

Lump.irmg MJIHC K p vanu^ivm.i


pi ut.

ot the \.uianls.
ut'

papei, utilised the following ediliare -

fhey

Hemauindia (H)

second

tevised edition

by
Si
i

R C

Pankli

&

Hi. V.

Kulkaim-Publishcd
64,

by

Mahnvira lama Vidyahua, Bombay,


(2i

The

AbhiifKfiiuirikiintaLi of

ICalidasa, Text, as edited

by piof

S.

K
Ci)

Bchelkai (B)

BORI
K

Poona Sahitya Akademi,


\\ilh

New

Delhi,

Tiist Edition, 1965.

Kjhdas,i\ Abhijilanasdkuntala
utai\
('

Rsghava
edition

&R)

cdilcd bv

Joglekai

Bhatta's* ComincBombay, 1913.

<h

Maliakavi

Kdhdasa-viiaciia

(I!) fin Chijarti)

Sgkuntala piof Umasankar Joshi Published by Gui]ai Grantha Ratna Karyalaya


1955.

Mnnedabad,
|5)

edition,

Ilic Ablii]flana

Sakuntala

of Kalida&a (G) edited with introdurevis'ed edition,

ction, etc

by piof. A B Gajendragadkar, Fourth The populai Book Stoic; Surat, 1956

(6^

Krdida^a's AbhijnaiiHsakuntalam, with an original Sanskrit

com-

mentary

etc.

by

Sfriadaianjan

Ray

fS.

Twelfth Edition,

Calcutta, 1924.
<7)

KalidSha-granthavalJ (Re
Vjranasi, 1976.

edited by piof.

Rewaprasad Dwivedi,

It

may

be noted at the outset that


at

horn Kahdssa

sana including the

more than one bundled places 2 in his Kavyami!& Alamkaiacudamam and the Viveka. Out of those
Abhijflana&kimtala one of them we have considered only five

Hcmacandra has drawn upon

vome eight verses ate cjkd Fiom the


verses to

being only a half quotatation. Hcic in?

begin

\vith.

The nght aic


verse

No

Page

No

m
?

^y

V- ? y)
2
3

Please see Appendix- 1.

Fixing up oj some Vauaftts j\om Kalulasu


4.
*TT5?5T

5.

6,

=35iqr3fj ePs'

(31)

(STIfs

7.

CR ^gtisK^fo

(si)

Oai

8,

It

may noted

that tiotu the above, \ve have left outnos.

no variants are noticed

1,7&8
rest

as

them.

We

will go to sec

ihut

the

are

numbered
edition
is

differently by referred to b\

diffeient editors.

We
&

also

do noi

know winch

piofessors Parikh

Kulkarni while identifying

tliese verses.

lu the five illnsuations oonsideied

liese \ve

are

mcmioning only
quoting
the

llie

variants as read, in this 01 that edition.

We

aie

not

full

verses as they are

all

quite well

known

>

._ (p.

7) jeaj as V-*<i

H &
U._
U.

^Hffto
(P.

R.-(P >**. read as V-U ) ^r'TH^^^j 31*q' g^'gr^:


.

.til

ihe^e leadings ar L-

also supported
?$;;,

by RSgliava p.
-

firimfd o

^"in^qa:,

^i 4 ^'

i^^-

lias

consulted

B.

K.

Tliakoie's edition

(punted 1922 D,

unfortunately R. Taraporewala & Sons, Bombay) also, which, we have not been able to obtain.

(P

has ?a)-Piof Oajenilragadkai

noted
'

somevananU

from some mss


.

(P

v^
.

(P.

^^o

<-?^)
etc

p^?JsRr

with

fl

note
a

meuliOUiDgvi/,

qr'lT^o

gm ^^Pt:
ll^
This

with
is

footnote

closer tn H,

T
It

S.

Natuh
is

may

be noted thai this verse

numbeied as 4-18,4

16,

4-19

&

4-17 bv diffetent editois. V Raghavan observes about

In issuing this

Publualion the authentic of the


a\\a'c of
its

''incompleteness."

Academy and its Sanskrit Board The other attempts are also equally

nre
iinj-

has ever thought of consulting perhaps a omiileti: ioi nobodj veiy iiu poilant icsearch tool available in the works of Alamkfiia Sastra.
fl

H.B.(P.
{P.

^.
*YO

lead as
s,

J.&R,-

read as

V|^ VIU) TOigs^H


)

(also

supports*

by Raghava, P.

11.

U.

IP.??,

?,

vi\s
5
|

G.

(P.
(P.

*.*,

noted in the
.

Ft.

note.

S.R k

ReThe vcise
-duors.
is

(P,

also

^T^5[ 3<

and
by

mentioned

in

Ft,

note
v.

numbered

as

v.?v

^andv
has

?^
:

dill'erer

Nobody
.,

has consulted H.

who

look into

Mammata

f^ara^q We
and

can alwa^
also

with a host of his

commentators

&
4,

Bho

Othei

H.-

B --

(P. (p.
:

J.&R-

both

of

these "varian

are supported
(P,
(P.
it.

by Ragbava

(P

^|^

^.
note,

is

(P.

^..
als0

(Pfcc...

^:

noted

in

ft

not

At

a"

*e

Editors arc

"

this ver SB

(P-7

Fixing up oj Atjme

I'anants ft

am

Kslidasa

93

J,& R-.

(P.

?^

^)
l-

'

=13;sf*J:

?H'

also

supported

by

amf^-tg^a.

Raghava p

^
note:

U.-

(P.**.
(P

tfTjefa

SliV
[

G.-

*?!$)

sisefa: also

q^ae <^' noted

in Ft

S.R.

(P.

jo.?l)^er'--'

^
at no.

swfafcio -no other


aic noted in the

\auanfc

Fu

note.

The
is

veisc

is

identically

mentioned

51* b>

all.

H's,

mostly accepted, of course without even


^T FC

dreaming pf

consulting

while Ins

n and

STRf^fTcfo

are accepted by some,

^SpTlIfo
fsf

^ gfa%

with

3'

for

as suggested in Uie

Ft.

note as

a variant,

f^.

J.&R.

(P.

^V

?|5?o) ^v

fT"

^g

fscft

also

suppoHed by R,Tghava

P
LJ.

^
?*'

(P.H. ?i^^)
(P.

G.

<I^O ^ T
F(^

';

^
*3

noted in S
|i?n

the Ft. notes

^g

fcft

SR
Re

(P
(P Y?U>

?!?<i

?Ro) %^,
??r'

^l?0

f^.f
as

also

noted '^awfi s?!

ui Ft

Note
^
?
,

This veise
diffeient editors

is

differently

numbered

R,

and

9 ^ by

mpting a

The above discussion should biing home otu point that while of Kalidasa, and we know ciitical edition of the works

atte-

thai

the Sahit}a

Akademi

editions are equally imperfect,-

we

have

to

take

into account the evidences supplied by the

works of

Anandavardhaua,
with

Mammata, liemacandra, Bhoja and


is

host of other alainkara works


that

numeious learned commentaries on them. -We know


being credited with ruoie than

Mammafa's. K. P. eighty commentaries and such other

authorities have got to be taken into consideration very seriously as they are perhaps the most important research tool Hemaca'ndra available,
in particular pro'ving most' useful.

Appendix

(3T)

(fa)

(30

(fl)
(fir)

n^

(Y

(ST)

^5, ^,

,<;K

(?-?

(ar)
/

^IT

^i

(r)

(*-<*)

(3T)

(fsr)

KiivyaiuisSja'aiia

^ilh Alankai'cu^a'mani

&

Vivejcit ol

^
Il-'6<1

dra,

By Prof Rasiklal C Parikh, Mahavir Jain Vidyalaya.

& Dr

V.

M. Kul Kami Edition

Filing up

of wnie Variant from


1 ;

Kalidfisa

(3?)

?^^,u<^
?v^,
??<=

(?-^)

(a)
i^r)

U~?0
(?-?=?)

^a.,

^3",

leg: f^Ttt^PS^sTq,

(?IT)

vs^, v

(te)

'^,

(3TJ

^<\,

(sr)

(fir)

95

T. S.

Nandi

(s?)

(f%)

>

(3T)

if^r)

(a?)

(fir)

(fr<

(w)

Hrserf%T

(31;

Fixing np of some Variants from Kalidasa

97

ft
c^'T^rSJTclWTqrfoflclT

(art

<*,<^

(v-0

reft

(3?)

(ft)

H^i,^
"J
8

(<?)

met 3

qssrTrswTOronnf

(w)
(ft)

'i.'i?

Sambodhi XII

13

ON THE TEXT
OF

of Skandagupla verse in the Bhitari Stone Pillar Inscription


Satyavrat

The
Pillai

coiitroveisy sparked off by

Verse

Seven

of The Bhitari Stone

on restoration of Inscription of the Gupta monarch, Skandagupta, coircct text of its last quarter, has lately assumed interesting, possibly the of some of the somewhat dogmatic overtones, with the jumping
though
stalwarts into the fiuy. V. C.
tenacity
J.

Pandey

is

faithful disposed to follow with

F. Fleet,

who, stiay

efforts

not

withstanding,

is

credited

with the
follows
:

iirt,t

coherent reading and translation

of
s

the

line that run as

<]$. ^.ilFifWr

^^"

SIW^R;

'Whom
Prof.
J.

the bards raise

to distinction

with

(their) songs

has bctm an equally aident


hii

N, Agrawal too on champion of Fleet's reading, though,


and praises"!

of the text.*

precise import felt sceptical of the admission,' he had often of his misgivings about It is a measuie of the intensity way while teaching us the inscription the veracity of the text, that Fleet but the leading, as made out by bade in 1937, he had retained It is a the manner, he has done recently.* had translated it almost in sense, long he had hit upon the intended to the fact that while pointer the correct reading of the In*. to say the least, of back, he was unsure,

own

andchaiacter of issues pertaining to the origin Since some momentous and interpretation line text of the la are involved in the while unbiased evaluation. Dr. Pandey, merits an honest and the verse. Thus, it is
's

reading, sights

many phantoms

wc owe
LUS

the breathtaking suggestion

that

Skandgupta

._.

from the low origin of bis Pandev further avers, emanated as of 'awravarw' and nave us betive, was \A r, who, of d&nigrating her as a stops short owe not a MahM&tt. tQ
, ,

for booth

him by petty bards, implying (SryaW bestowed upon non-Aryanwas not an Arya, Skandagupta's

that concubine, though

woum
now
_
.,.

^
it,

^^

^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^
^
'low

^ ^

*,,.

to uphold the supposed that she was not the chie

juu

Satyavrat

ved of his alleged humble moorings by lowly bards, who, in Dr. Pandey' view, were instrumental in elevating him to the honoured status. It
simply

comprehension how a court panegyiis a small fry in all essentials, could have the anogance to include in a which was patently insulting to hi official epigraph an expression,

beyond

reason

and

sovereign,
virtues,

who,

in his

own

estimation,

was

a
5

paragon of mamfol

prowess, modesty and libeiality

included.

The

of difficulty in the correct interpretation

the

verse stems fror


ii

which beset Fleet's text and which Dr. Pandey, his wisdom, has chosen to tuin a blind eye to 'Historical implication Fleet's in reading of the line, cannot escape apart, the oddities
the coirupt readings

the last perceptive reader. In our opinion,

word

of

the quarter, whicl

Fleet had read as SryatSm, holds bey to close scrutiny text. As a result of his

the

correct

restoration

of

th
it

of the

oiiginal
is

stone and

estampages, over the years, Prof. Jagannath Agiawal it. The woid there is no trace of an anusvara over

convinced tha
is thi
it
t<

therefore

be.

nominative aryata, and not the accusative singular, as Fleet took Once 3rya(d is, as it should be, accepted the correct reading,

the

verb pr&payati and the noun vandakajano in Fleet's text lose their relevant and cease to have locus standi in the verse. From the minute details h<

has laboriously furnished of the shape


the third word, there
as vandak.aja.no ,
is

and m&tra

of

each

syllable o

is little

actually

doubt that what Fleet had faltermgly rea( Assured of these two crucia vrtiakathane
.

words* one cannot be ins&nsifale


situation.

of prapayati in tbf to the absurdity obviously an error for hre, the verb thus being hrepayatl and not prapayatt, as Fleet had made it out. With these correction!
f

PrS

is

carried out, the text of the line

would

read

as

follows

lla:

^gftfir^

gT^*l3 3 St^lT^r "Whom his innate nobility causes to blush an tht course of recital of his exploaits by means of songs and praises." 6 Th( obvious connotation is that despite a plethora of varied achievement!
to his credit,

Skandagupta was so modest

that

he

would

hearing them sung by his court-baids.


great person to hyperbolic eulogis, well-known. This is as it should be.
to his guns, Dr.

The

aversion

go ablush on of a cultured and

howsoever

true they
fired

may
text

be, is so

However,
the

with a

zeal to stick

Pandey has

confronted

suggested

with

the

is in poor company with gttaih stutibhUca and objection that vfttakathane nryatd hrepayatl is bad Sanskrit. Morever, the causative hrepayati, he

7 This Sanskrit literature.

'causes to blush' in the extant confides, is not found used in the sense is rather a reckless statement. One need not
S.

V. go far but turn-to

Apt's 'A Student's Sanskrit-English Dictionary',

On

the Text

which iccords and

illustrates
is

it

as

one of

the

meanings of the causal


the construction, the

form of

/zrz.

Nor

there anything

wrong

with

new

text admits of,

We
chosen

are constrained to feel that a

pait

of

ambiguity
in their

sticks to the

line because both Prof, Agrawal and Di


to read
it

Pandey,

wisdom, have
If treated

m
to

isolation of the earlier part of


is

the verse

as a composite whole, the verse

bound

to unfold the true import text

and

provide sure clue

restoimg the correct

of

its

last

quarter,

The

preceding lines speak of Skandagupta's humility


9

spite of his multiple

equipments.

The

last

quarter

is

intended

to

strengthen his quality's of


set forth, in

anufseka (modesty) and avismaya (absence of airogance),


detail, in

some

the

earlir

part.

The

text of the line, as restored

by Prof

Agrawal and which adds up


performs precisely

to be the sole cogent leading in the context,

the sarne function

and

is

in

peifect accord with the

the verse, as a whole, It also serves to spirit of

knock out

the basis for

Dr. Pandey 's

fanciful interpretation of the verse.

Foot Note

Indicarum Corpus Inscriptions

(C1I), III, 55-56


(VIJ),

2
3

Vishveshvaraaand Indological Journal


VIJ, XVII, 194;

XX, 185

XX, 186
78

4
5 6 7

VIJ, XVI, Ft I, p, Bhitari Stone Pillar Inscription of Skandagupta (BSPI)

II,

op.

cit,

V. 2-8

VIJ,

XX, 185-186
(Dr.

Bharati-BhSnam
p.

K,

V,

Sdraia

Felicitation

Volume, Hoshiarpur,

1980),

437.
S.

V
41

Apte

The Student's Sanskrit-English Decuonary,

1963, 644.

sTmwfi

fefto

fotaia s ? ? 3i

TO,

BSPI,

THE MORALITY, AUTHORITY AND SOCIETY PROBLEM OF DHARMAPRAMANYA*


;

M,
The Problem

V.

Baxi

Texts and the Context

The problem of dharmapramanya is the problem of the valid sources of the knowledge of dharma i.e. morality, duty or the good.
In Hindu Ethics, Siuti,
Smr-iti

and SadScara are the valid sources of

the knowledge of dharma. The first aspect of the problem of dharmapramanya is that of resolving the conflict among the various sources of the

knowledge of dharma and

the second aspect of the same problem relates

among

to the question of resolving the conflict, not the prescribed dharmas themselves

among

the

sources

but

In case of the conflict among the sources, the general solution


in accepting a graded or ranked scheme of the
sources

lies

such

that

one

treated as more authoritative than the other (e.g. (e.g Sruti) is the concepts of lokavidvista, mahajana and kalStnritis) In this context, are also introduced to absorb the pressures on textual authority

source

ivarjya

and history. arising from public opinion, society


In the case of conflict among dharmas themselves
(i.e.,

relation

moral conflict), to the problem of determining the valid dharma during 01 ranked scheme of the the general solution lies in accepting a graded such that, in cases of conflict, one set of duties has categories of duties to .the other. For example, as against the SadbJrgreater force compared is to be followed even ana dharma (i.e. general morality), Varnadharma fellow human beings, but as against Yajfia if it involves violence to the

dharma, (sanctioning violence to be followed by redefining Yajfla


Thus

the

animals)

Sadharana dharma

is to

in a symbolic

and metaphysical manner.


the
conflicting

the general solution offered both

for

sources

and

conflicting

scheme dharmas involves an acceptance of some graded


criteria of choosing the selected category.

of categories along with

From an
#

of dharmapiamanya analysis of both these aspects

briefly

the moral imperatives in the tradit^ outlined in this paper, we find that
r

c P

and Western Approach.Seminar on Moral" und Aesthetic Value-India


1986

M.
i.>nal

V.

Baxi

Hindu

ethics aie

Scriptural prescnptivism sn Hindu ethics

or injunctions scriptural categorical imperatives thus is the main theme for legitimizing morality

textual morality or revealed morality) norms values, any society the changes in the rules, about by a number standards and patterns of human behaviour brought of factors. Such changes lead to new norms of interpretation of the texU

Any such

prescriptivism (or

\=,

bound

to face in

or
i\

ne\\

texts sanctioning a wide variety of

new

social practices.

thus a considerable scope for society asserting itself for a

There new mora-

the to Gradually such changes lead lity against scriptural authority. replacement of the greater part of scriptural or revealed morality by he uiciologiocal morality as far as public affairs are concerned. The Indian
i

history

of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

illustrate this

point.

According to Grace Cairns (1983)

Dharma

as

varnagrama dharma has

but modernization, undergone significant changes in modern times, urbanization, industrialization and education have not interfered with the of Sanskritic of tradition the and great continuing development ongoing

Hinduism, for which Dharma and Moksa are the highest values.
This paper deals with the set of concepts which developed in response

on the textually sanctioned morality. The concepts of lokavidvista, mahsjana and Kalivarjya are concepts which helped to relax or modify the rigid paradigm of scriptural morality especially in
to the social pressures
relation to textual conflicts.

Again

certain

well

known concepts like


a

the concept of

Karma, Moksa,
conflict

disinterested action etc., functioned as

means of resolving the

between dharmas.

Social concepts in response to textual conflicts and metaphysical concepts in response to conflict of dharmas (duties) illustrate the legiti-

mation devices underlying Indian ethical discourse.


II

Dharma
is

Dharma, according rojinable by the Vedic


^

to the

Purva-Mlmamsa

that

commands, I Vedic

sacrifices

good which is deteand their good

results constitute

*ith

God or ordinary
is

That which
the Vedas

this restricted to do sense, it 1ms nothing morality or with any kind of mystical fervour. 4 enjoined by the Vedas is virtue. Anything

dharma. In

is evil

and

prohibited 'by

sin. 3

The fundamental idea of the Gita according to


502)
is

that

man

Dasgupta (Vol.2 p should always follow his casteduties, which are his own

Morality, Authority and Society

The Problem of Dharmapratnanya


caste-duties are objectively

10$

proper duties

i.e.

sva-dhamia

The

fixed in

sanctioned and cosmic forces also support those who stand for Dharma. The only tiling that an individual can therefore do is to live upto his own vain a dhaiina irrespective of the consequences
a social order divinely

and without selfish motives or any attachment.


qualites

General

duties,

moral

and virtues constitute Sadharana Dhaima which has been recognized by the Gita, Dkuma^astras and Piuauas
Thus there aie only two basic
categories
(in
i.e.

Varn3rama- Dharma

and Ssdharana-Dharama Yajna-dhanna part of Vama-dharma.

the

MlmamsS

sense)

is

HE

LSources of

Dhnrma

the only

Vedas according
ritative.

As Dharma can not be known by perception 01 inference, Sabda is means of knowledge about Dhanna according to Mimaqisa". to Jairaini are eternal, self existent and absolutely authoAccording
to Rumania, those parts of Smrtis which Dhaima and Moksa have Vedas as their source.-*

are

concerned with

The customs, usages and practices of Vistas, (sadacara), also consDharma. Of course, according to Rumania, and duties expressly enjoined by the Vedas. 3 The works of heretical sects, those that are outside the
titute legitimate sources of

Sistas are those that perform religious rites

pale of Vedas, do not consitute authoritative source for the knowledge of Dharma. All Dharmagastras (i.e. the Sastras of Manu, Yajflavalkya,

Narada and others

as well as all Dharmasutras ) Gautma, Baudhayana, Apastamba and others ) aie sources of dharma along with Epics and Puranas,
It

(i.e.,

the

sutras of

regarded

as

valid,

has also been claimed that all Dharmasutras are

concerned

with

6 imparting .instructions in the dharma of Varnas and ASramas.

The
there
is

role of

Tarka

is

very limited. Reasoning which does not directly


is

conflict with

Vedas and Ssstras

to

be accepted.

It is

employed when

a conflict

among various
Conflict

texts.

IV

among

the Sources of

Dharma
basic

As

Sruti, Srurti

and

Sadacsra

are

the

three

sources

of

Sambodhi XII

14

M.
Dharma,
if

V,

Baxi

theie

is

a conflict

preceding one of the three

among them, the general rule is that each 1 has more force than each succeeding one.

In the case of conflict between two Vedic texts, an option regarding


the action to be performed
If
is

indicated.

two Vedic

texts, not of

equal force, are in conflict, no


that

option

is

indicated but the conflict can be resolved by holding


states a general rule

one of them

applies to Smrti passages,

and the other states the special rule. The same 8 However, in cases of conflict between Sruti and Smrti, Sruti is final. When two Smrti texts conflict, reasoning based on the practice of the ^htas (the elders) is of greater force. 9
It

yugas,
i

has been also suggested that as dharma changes according to four Manu is the final authority for the Krta age, Gautama for the

Treta age, Sankha-Likhita for the


age.

Dvapara age and Parstera

for the Kali

According
should prevail
If there is

to
in

Gobhila Smrti however,

the

opinion

of the

majority

the case of conflict between the


conflict

Smitis.* 1

between

Dharma-Ssstra

and

Arthalastra

dharma^astra

is

the final authority, 12

In the case of conflict

between

Smrtis and Puranas,

Srnrtis are to

be preferred. 13

Thus there are rules and norms for


texts

resolving

the

conflict

among

which have been graded according to certain norms of precedence. This is not merely a textual exercise It has a significance for the theory

be resolved through norms which are themselves textual. Thus we have conflicting texts on the one hand and later texts for resolving those conflicts on the other.
of moral knowledge. Textual conflicts are to

prescriptive. If for example,

There are two types of contradictions in the texts-descriptive and one text claims that ''X lived for 75 years"
7

and another that 'X lived for 50 years then only one of them can be true. This is because the discourse is about facts. But if according to one text, '*X is prohibited" and according to another text "X is permitted",
then here there
is

a contradiction between

prescriptions

and

therefore

to be treated as inapplicable or inoperative in a particular context. Such prescriptive contradictions are resolved by a number such cases, the absolute validity of revealed texts in all but of devices

one of the texts

is

is

ety overrides the

compromised. Scriptural prescriptwsm is to that extent diluted. Sociauthority of revealed morality in those contexts where

public opinion goes against the scriptural codes,

Morality, Authority and Society

The Problem of Dharmapramsnya


Lokavidvifta

101

It is in this sense that the concepts of

(hated by the

), the concept of Mahajaua and the concept ofKalivarjya become philosophically significant. They illustrate the complex interrelationship

people

among

morality, authoiity and society in the area of moral knowledge.


;

Lokavid vista

When

public opinion disapproves of that which has been sanctioned

by Smrtis, then accoidmg to certain Smrtis themselves, that which is thus lokavidista should be dtoppedJ* This is an important concession
to society for overriding scriptural authority in certain cases. For example, killing of animals for Madhuparka and for the rites of the
Pitj-s

and gods became

lokavidvista and theiefore

it

ceased to

be

The

discussion of lokavidvista

operative

smrtis

themselves reveal
texts.

how some texts

themselves sanction the undermining of some other

Such concepts were availed of for sanctioning social changes in a static society. This does not mean that public opinion is
progressive, but the point
is

even

always

that justification of moral

knowledge can

never remain entuely

textual.

To

recognize this fact

is

to see that values,

norms and

rules of conduct scripturally sanctioned are not


stipulate that

immune from

the impact of social forces. To sacred texts are to be treated

certain
is

passages
the

the

as

inoperative

at

same
point

time
has

to give up revelation as the only source

of

dhanna.

This

not been

sufficiently emphasized in philosophical discussions of moral knowledge. To be pleased only by the fact that social changes are
in textual modifications
is

properly reflected

also to miss the point that

If relative morality is recognized scriptural authority is thereby diluted. then the authoiity of the texts is compromised. The interesting point is

that such compromise

is

also sanctioned

proves that

as far as the

knowledge

by the later texts, and that of morality is concerned, social


texts to a great extent.

practice can undermine some scriptural

This does not mean that a group self-consciously decides about the moral validity of certain kinds of actions and deliberately undertakes a

planned change of public morality. Mostly, certain kinds of practices liberated from the burden of texts become functionally autonomous and these changes are reflected into the new texts sanctioning new morality.

Mahajana

Sometimes the conflict among all the sources is so intense that attempts at legitimizing dharma through scriptures have to be given Vanaparva of Mahabh&rata beautifully expresses this as under
:

all

up.

208

M.
"Rationalization
is

V.

Baxi

unstable, Vedas are in conflict with each other,


is

there is

no single sage whose opinion

held

to

be authoritative (by
it

all),

the truth

about dhaima

discerned)

and

is enveloped that therefoie the path


ii.

m
is

cave

(i.e.

can not be

clearly

the one followed

by

the

great

mass of people" (Kane V.

1271

Thus the path followed, by the mass of people (01 by the gieat mejiidhaima. This implies that when all the other sources create confusion there does exist a non- revealed sociological piamanya for dharma. People can change the norms and rules 01 choose among the confcotistitutes
licting

provision
morality.
relation,

ones by themselves as a group and the gioup values thus emerging can be treated as Dharnia irrespective of its textual justification This at any time can be availed of for new directions of social

Thus there is a provision for society to ovenide authority in. to morality The idea that what is lakavidvista may be diopped and the idea that mahajana may be followed because of the conflict sources., illustrate how scriptmal authority can be diluted by the
among
changing
i e.,

the

Another interesting idea society. idea that ceitain actions though

is

that

of

Kalivarjya
as

sanctioned

Dharma

should be treated as inoperative in Kahyuga.


Kftlivarjya
:

The concept of Kalivarjya illustrates the necessity of taking into the consciousness of people during in account the historial changes
various peiiods
the onset

of time. We may set aside the question of the date of of Kaliyuga or the calculations about its duiation or the be a period of moral degeneration but we may hypothesis that it would
still

how changes in. social consciousness lead to try to understand changes in the nature of the moral sanctions and prohibitions thiough the concept of Kalivarjya. Practices which aie forbidden in Kah-yuga
include,
class,

sea-voyage, carrying of a

jar of water, marrying a girl of a lower

offering of flesh in SrSddhas, human sacrifice, horse-sacrifice etc. Some of the new prohibitions of Kalivarjya appear to be rigid and irrelevant now but philosophically speaking, the concept of Kalivarjya of the scriptural paradigm of dharmaitself contributes to the relaxation

pramanya.

The tension between the sciiptural and the social basis for the moral of human affairs is still a live problem m oui contemporary is bound to highlight the problem of the interacsociety. Modernization texts and the society. How such a problem was solved tion between the
regulation
.
-,

p ast

an important aiea of knowledge

relevant to

values.

Any

Morality, Authority and Society

The Problem of Dharmapramanya

109

theory of moial knowledge which bases itself on sanctioned texts hat, to face the problem of the conflict of the souucs, One could in the past

never bypass

all the

texts

and work out a

criterion of the

knowledge of

values independent

of

all

the texts. Extreme textual morality however

has never worked. Pressures of social change, weight of experience and observation, changes of moral sensibility and clamis of public opinion have always threatened textual absolutism in the sphere ot moial knowledge. There
is always a tension between revealed moiahty and naturally evolving social morality. The texts are to be bypassed in the interest of social context

Tre Conflict between VarnaSra-ua Dtiarma end Sadba'ana Dbarma

Two categories of Hindu ethics are fundamental- Vain asrama Dharnia and Sadharana Dharnia (i. e. general moral qualities virtues and values)
Both types of Dharma derive their prStttSnya froin Sruti, Smrti and SadScara
legitimacy, justification or

The socialization process analysed by psychologists involve the Thus it can be inferred internalization of values and norms of behaviour. and norms of varnasYama and sadhSrna dharma legitimately that values the socialization process of a Hindu child in the internalized
are

during

traditional context.

The

internalized sanctions and prohibitions constitute

of an individual. the positive and negative aspects of the conscience i. e. values The Hindu conscience comprises two types of values associated with duties and moral associated with caste-duties and values
qualities as

When
there
is

there two

human being qua human being. components of Hundu conscience come


crisis.

into conflict,
evil,
it
is

a moral

It is

not a

conflict

between good and

a conflict between two types of values.

The concept of Dharma not only


as moral values but
it

includes

what

is

generally

known
and

with also includes legal as well social rules along

detailed rules and piocedures regarding

human behaviour

in social

non-social contexts.

Varna-dharma The GUa illustrates the conflict between caste-duties treats dhanna According to Dasgupta, Gitt
15 in cases of such conflicts. greater force

and Sadhainaas having a

in the Epics, we find that In the literature on mo. al counselling guilt-feelings, anxiety and crisis, individiial historical agents experience to follow varna because they are objectively required

depression

M
W heieas
moral

V. tiaxi

their conscience sanctions general

moial duties

a*

having greater

value.

of

A set of concepts like the concept soul Law of Karma, immo.tality of

of disinterested action, the concept


etc.

are

offered

to guide

an

conflict individual to icsolve the

favour of svadharma.

VI Conclusion

The relationship among morality authoiity and society values govern human practices. complex. Certain norms and

is

highly

the sacied texts. then codified at a certain stage of history for its moial contents. extent textual authority depends upon society as the morality authoritative are texts once accepted the other hand,

They aic To that

On
of

new
from

social practices

is

determined to a large extent by the

authoritative

texts. In this

sense social structures and their functions get theii


social

sanction

textual authoiity. But once again,

foices

lead to

changes

in the

norms
texts.

the
tliib

new

sanctiniug certain practices and they aie then codified Textual justification thus become less and less -rigid in

Any

process of continuous interaction between the text and the context. philosophical discussion of values and mor-ality concentrating only
categories of
the

011 the

individual

and

his

development

of moral

character fails to realize that historical changes in the authoritativencss of the sources of morality reveal a tiend towards uou -textual sociologito which an individual cally sanctioned morality or scheme of values,
is

exposed.

Most of the recent discussions on Hindu ethics have taken into account only the moral ideas, values and duties and have hardly attended to the problem of the valid sources of the knowledge of the and the
good
right.

Once

this episteraology

of Hindu ethics

is

taken into account, a

number

of philosophically interesting points emeige. For example, it emerges that the relation between reason and revelation is not just a pioblem of theology; it is a live issue in ethics and sociology also. * " we make
Similaily,

may

between the non scnptural and'scriptural piescriplivism lead to more comprehensive discussion of the nature of moral language and moral reasoning.
a
distinction

new

in ethics, which

would

Knowledge of values, like knowledge of facts is organized differently during different periods of society. Explanation of facts and justification of values are not isolated cognitive phenomena. are worked

They

out

Morality, Authority and Society

The Problem of Dharmaprainanya

HI

within a framework of assumptions about human natuie, human


the
role,

action,
distri

status and destiny of an individual


political

and

so

nn

The

bntion of power (both

and the validation of authority regarding the regulation and control of human affairs contnbute to the emergence, persistence and change m the codes of knowledge and conduct.
legal)

and

The

role of

Sabda-pramana

therefore

is

to be

viewed

course highlighting Indian scriptural prescnptivism not mean that theie was no role of reasoning in Hindu

Of

m this perspective m this manner does


ethics.

Reasoning

however, was employed only

to clarify,

establish or refute certain positions

operating within the spheie of levealed morality. We find that in the epics, there are beautiful moral discouises or moral counselling sessions where
of is employed for the purposes of defending a particular course action within the frame woik of scripturally sanctioned dharmas, The framework itself however is never given up. Reason operated within the

tarka

framework of revealed

morality,

it

could

not,

form

its

own

resources,

establish moral conclusions from nonscriptural premises.

Given this context, nothing can be gained by finding out parallels between Bradley and the Gita or Kant and the Gita. Neither Kant nor
Bradley ever offered scriptural
prescriptivism
as

the

basis

for

the

justification of morality, though they had their

own

metaphysical arguments.

Kant's categorical imperative

were not
mental

to a fixed social order

is totally non-scriptural. Kant and Bradley talking about divinely sanctioned scheme of duties in a relation reinforced by cosmic laws Given these funda-

on

the one hand and

differences, similarities between Kant's ethics or Bradley's ethics Hindu ethics on the other, do not amount to a

of either of the systems. significant understanding

We may

theiefore conclude our discussion by

pointing

out that the

with a very rich source both for history of dharma&stras provides us the study of history of ethics as well for the study of epistemology of In our search for the new ethics i.e. the problem of dharmaprsmaaya.

moral, social and

legal ideals

and for a new

justification for them,

an

intellectual understanding of the social and will prove to be very rewarding

history of

dharmapramanya

NOTES
1

Dasgupta, IV,

p.

2
3

1
3

Dasgupta, TV, p Dasgupta,


II, p.

483

4
5

Kane, V, Kane,

p.

1261

V,V

1264

in

M,

v,

Kane,
Kane,

I,

p, I, p, 4

7
8

III p III p.
III p.

863 864 866


869

Kane,
Kane,

P
10
11

Kane,
Kane,

III p

p,

1266
868

12
13

Kane,
Kane,

III, p,

III p, 873
III,

14
15

Kane,

869,

1268
27
(1374) This

Dasgupta,
Blanshard,

IT, p, 526,

16

B R^son and Belief

is

the

most
and

authentic

and

comprehensive discussion on the clash between reason


context of the history of Christianity.

revelation in the

Some

of his

techniques

of analysis

can be applied to Hindu ethics.

References

1,

Cairns Grace

E "Dharina and Moksa


:

The highest values of


In,

the

great tradition in modernizing India"

Main Currents
Delhi;

in

Mm

Soctohft Vol
House; 1983.
2,

(Ed

Gin Raj Gupta,

Vikas

Publishing

Dasgupta

S. History

of

Man

Philosophy, Vols II and IV,


1,

3,

Kane

P, V. History

of Dhrmaiastras Vols,,

3,

4 and 5.

VISVANATHA'S KAVYAPRAKAS'ADARPANA

(K. P. D.)

& SAHITYADARPANA
Jagriti

(S,

)*

Pandya

VasVanStha was wellknown by


Sanskrit
Poetics.

his

work Sahityadarpana
of

(S.D.)

among
after
this

He
D.

also
the

wrote a commentaiy called KavyaprakSsa-

darpana (K.

P. D.) on
S.

K5vyaprak5sa
has

(K. P.)
S.

Mammata,

completing the

He

mentioned

D. several times in

comm. at places for detailed discussions. Not only that, but many a time we get close resemblance with S. D. in it, from the point of view
of expressions of ideas. Here
in
aii

form of sentences and half-sentences and


attempt
is is

also in form
critically.

made

to

compare the two works


only.

This attempt
'76. It

limited to

some portion

We

have used the Ed.

of K.P.D. published by GangSnatha Jha Kendriya

Sanskrit Vidyaptfha,

Prayaga,

may

be noted that the said Ed. has the said comm. on


the complete

3 to 6 ullasas only and nowadays we have

Ed of K.P.D.

published from Allahabad in 1979, edited by Dr. Goparaju Rama. But this r *w Ed. of K.P.D. has too many misprints, so we have followed
it

only for the

first

two ullasas.
for 13 times in the
tried
to

ou

ViiSvanatha has quoted his S.D. by name the first six ullasas of K. P. We have

comm.

place similar or

both the P.D. and the S.D., which parallel portions side by side from may become self-evident of their close resemblance.

We

should also mention that the names of both


S.

the works are also


literature

very significant. as a whole with

D.

is

a work concerned with criticism of the


is

all its

forms, while K. P. D.
'^fnr'

only

comm. on

the

K. P. of Mammata. The word

which
its

is

common

to both the titles

indicates the faithful representation of

matter.
S,

The
below
1,
:

comparison between K.
P.
1

P.

D.

and

D,

could

be noted as

K.P.D. ultesa-1,

on K.P.

1.1.

urfifaer [JRI] qfawfaffirast

etc.
'

* The paper was read


i

at

the

XXXIInd

Session,

M.O.C.

at

Ahmedabad, Oct.

XH

15

114

See also

S.

D.

1,

P.

..... etc.
2.

K.P.D. ullasa-1, P.
...... qRsjtftzmi^q

on K.P.

1.2
......

Til^KT is^ftfr
remark

etc.
1.2

Compare
3.

the intioductory

to S. D.

K.P.D. ullssa

1,

P. 4

on K.P.

1.3

V3
See

Tf

qfiTjcijfefwfq

Vf-tti

on S.D.

1.2

......

qfcnafW:
1,

g?

4.

K.P.D. ullasa

P. 5

on K.

P.

1.4

and the

Vytti

on S.D. 1.2
ftfSfol"

U3
5.

fTS'T

Etft^^qq'

^
1.4

K.P.D. ullssa-1, P.

on K. P.

and the Vrtti on S.D.

1.2

aq^t
6.

q|q

B^I?f ^^f^f
11

K.P.D. ullasa-2, P.

on K.P. 2.6 b
I

3W^T

s^fil^T^I%T5t

?r

s^a

and the V?tti on S.D. 2-1 A

is

identical with the above.

*H$I^r Efftfelq&mwf^S!
7.

^ ^g

K.P.D. ullasa-2, P. 11 on K.P. 2.6b

and the

Vrtti

on S.D.

2.1

There seems to be a misprint in


-en *nsi: for
8.

K P.O.

in reading

sjNT^imt
2,

K.P.D. nllssa

P.

11

on K.

P. 2.6

and the

Vptti on S.D.

2.1

ruvanstha'a
9.

KnvyaprakKadarpana
P. 17 on K.

&

Sahityadarpana

U<

K.P.D. ullasa

2,

2.9
<n,

aififan- *qftift*(RT

and the
10.

Vrtti on

taiig^ftirr S.D 2.5

K.P.D. ullasa

2,

P. 18 on K.P. 2.9

...

etc.

and the

Vrtti on S. D. 2.5

11.

K.P.D. ullasa

3,

48 on

K.P

3.21

The

Vrtti

on S.D. 2.17A reads


K.P.D. we have

as

Above

in

^T^f^^i which

is

not

proper

and

is

corrected in

its

new

Edition.

But we have which seems


12.

*et^'

for ga|$FfiJftf3

&

W^q^r:

f r

quite

amusing,

K,PD,

ullasa 4, P, 60 on

K.P
I

4.24

snmfiTzfflL

Now

see the Vrtti on S.D. 4.2

The

reading of K.P.D
a

is

improved

by

removing

the punctuation

mark

of

fullstop after

'arfSft'PI?

in its

new

Ed., with the half of S.D.

The

sentence would be like this


......

etc.

13. K.P.D. ullasa

4, P.

60 on K.

P. 4.24

fagriti

fandya

We
is

have g^fq^l

5fis^'?r...in

the

new

Ed. of K.P D., which seems


is

proper but then


also useless.

firclqSIJ^ for

f^Sfa^

%ffifR3

not correct.
it

The

fullstop

We

have qRilfoa^ for iR^foci: in

Now

read

the Vrtti

on S D.

4.3

The second sentence


5
.

'^^ *3q'...

etc.'

in S.

D.

is

clearei

than

etc.

K.P.D.
4,

14.

K.P.D. ullssa

P. 61

on K.P. 4.25

We
proper.

have a fullstop after


for
aqqit.

sflfaciq.

in the

new Ed. of K.P.D., and thn


511

'.-.etc,

There

is

no

fullstop after
4.2

eqq'

q?q,

which

is

not

Compare

the Vytti

on S D.

15.

K.P.D. ullasa

4, P.

62 on K.P. 4.25

Compare

the Vrtti

on S.D. 4.5
fip

16.

K.P.D. uilasa

4,

PP. 63-64 on K.P.

4.27-28

See

the Vytti

011 S.

D.

3.1

17.

K.P.D. ullasa

4, P.

65 on K.P. 4.28

ii

In the

new

Ed.,

we have ^ st^*rtg for

sr
,

which

is

not

proper.

It

could be a misprint.
this

We
18.

have

quotation in S.D. 3,18


4, P.

K.P.D: ullasa

72 on K.P. 4.28

visvanamas fi&vyaprak&iadarpana

&

S&hityadarpaqa

Compare19.

the Vrtti on S.D.

3.1

sqsft ^if^qizta $qi?ci5(.qfi<iral K.P.D. ullasa 4, P. 72 on K.

s^-fli*?

03

P. 4.28

We
See

have...^<[<lRl the Vrtti on

W
SD.

ftfeaHig^T^T^l^
3-16

in the

new Ed of K.P.D.

20.

K.P.D. ullasa

4,

72 on K. P. 4.28

In the

new Ed. we have


etc,,

3^3*1, for

after

$fa. It reads as

T ......

which

is

incorrect.

Compare

the Vrtti on S. D. 3.1

on K.P. 4.28 21. K.P.D. ull&sa-4. P.72

"aqj^Hf 5XWI ^^1^1^' ^


ffi^wres ^fra wajwfiwwfcrei See - the Vrtti on S.D. 3.9 A
:

22.

K.P.D. ullasa

4,

P. 72 on K.P. 4.28

Compare -

the Vytti on S.D.

2.28

"wnqgwiai* ^^'
23

t^r ? ciqr55(ra

K P.O.
The

2. 29 ullasa 4, P. 82, on K.P.

reading of the new

Ed of K.P.D.distinct

......

<f*<
and
is

-ilvery
confusing.

from

the

original

rather

JQgrill

runuyu

Compare-the Vrtti on S.D.

186

24

K.P.D

ullasa 4,

P 84 on K.P. 42

In the

new Ed, of K.P.D.


sift is

''
is

added before 'f^fi* with the help


iffltit

of S.D., but

also continued after

which

is

incorrect

See the similarity with S

3.198B-199 A.

25.

K.P.D ullasa

4, P. 86

on K.P. 4 29

'

is

conected as '^^?^I' in the new Ed

Read

S.D. 3.208 B

26

K.P

ullsa

4,

P 92 on K.P.

4.30

This quotation
It is

is

not found in the new Ed. of K.P.D.


the Vrtti

the

same with

on S.D. 3.174

27.

K.PD.

ullasa 4, P.92 on K.P. 4.30.

The reading of
by S.D

n^fq^^

for

q^orfq^ n the new Ed>


;

Support9d

Read

S.D

3.176

A
on K.P, 4.34

28

K.P D. ullasa

4.

P. 94

This quotation is from DaSarupaka 4


3.140.
29.

7,

which

is

also

found

in S

'

'

KP.D.

ullasa 4, P. 94 on K.P.

4,34

Vifvanatha's KnvyaprakaSadarpana

&

Sshityadarpana

Campare -

S.

D. 3-142.

30.

K.P D. ullasa-4.
:

P. 94

on K.P.

4.34

^sij^^T^^oai^s^ S. D 3.160 Compare

31.

K.PD.

ullasa-4, P

96 on

P. 4 35

We
It

have *U?Rft

fow*

for aUcRstRsi'

in the

new Ed,, which doesn't

make any

difference.

has the influence of S.D. 3.180 B.


P. 96

32.

K.P.D ullasa-4,

on K.P.

4.35

n ?

See-the Vytti on S D. 3 250


1

aw" fii-sf*
33.

"BiRga
P. 97

...etc,

K.P.D. ullasa-4,

on K.P.

4.35 b

We

H" Ifer ?wi ^giR ^ have this reference in S.D. 3.261 B-262
1
i

A with

slight difference.

air
34.

K.P.D. ullasa-4,

P. 97

on K.P.

4.35 b

We

have

**l

for

wfoto

in the

new Ed of K.P.D.

which

is

obviously incorrect.
See-the Vftti on S.D. 3.250

120

Jagriti

Pandya

35. K.P.D,-uilasa-4, P.

112 on K.P.

4.

39B-41A

The new Ed. of K.P.D. has given


added
after

^HTO

for

tfttl &
and

'^' is

f?I^:

g^^I^'

is

replaced by

g$$W',

fullstop is

placed after

Compare

the Vrtti

on S D. 4.9A which has


frfc.

little

difference

in

idea

36,

K.PD.

ullSsa-4, P,

124 on K.P.-4.42b

Compare-the

V rtti on

S.D. 4 10

It

may be noted

that the K.P.D. Ed.

by Goparaju

Rama
the

requires

much

to be corrected. It is hardly a critical edition in

real
is

sense
to

of the term, however the effoit in bringing out the first edition

be

admired. The two works of Vi^vanatha resemble closely and the

influence

of

S,

D,

is

quite obvious.

We

first

dealt with this subject in a

separate

chapter in our thesis. This happens to be further study.

KbVlBWS
Amrtadhdrd-Ed. S, D. Joshi, Ajanta pp II to XVII and 511. Price Rs. 300/Publications,

Delhi,

1984,

is

Joshi The present volume, edited by no less a scholar than Dr S. "Professor R. N. Dandekar Felicitation Volume" to honour Dr.
seventy-five years and theiefore, fitly entitled

Dandekar on completion of

"Amrtadhaia". This easily reminds us of the Felicitation volume presented by his colleagues and pupils in 1969 when he completed sixty years of an illustrious life. The peisent volume is, however, unique in the sense
that
it

contains research papers by scholars of national and international


"specially
in
its

fame

written
that

for
it is

the

unique

claim

purely

happy occasion". It is also right and academic and consists, of research

work of high order, The volume consists

of 58 very valuable research papers of which 27

are contributed by Western scholars from the world over. One important trait is the large variety of topics covered up by the contributors. We find

papers on Veda (U), Grammar and linguistics (11), History (4), Darlanas Buddhism (3), Jainism (t),Dharmas'astra (3), Litera(3), Mahabharata (3),
ture and Poetics
(3),

Education

(1),

Culture

(5)

and

General

(8) etc.

In the papers on Grammar and

linguistics,

two or three are most rem-

arkable. In the paper entitled "Syntax and word -meaning", the paper mainly centres on the famous two views of Prabhakara and KumSrilabhatta regardthe meaning of a sentence. The ing word-meaning and its relation to of the Rgvedic syntax," the Peculiarities paper "About Some Archaic when a westerner translates arise that author discusses the problems of the Veda that he the Rgveda and the syntactical peculiarities faced with. The peculiarities are well derived. The Paper-"On the

is

Semantic use of the word Sphota"

takes

up an

analysis

of the

and

application of Sphofe
all concepts as

Different theories are

very well analysed

meaning and

almost

found

in Sanskrit are clarified.

aticality

and Meaningfulness"
is

principally explains

the

The paper "GrammNyaya theory. The

exposition

very

scientific.

Other remarkable
to

papers are, "Uktarthansm

Aprayogah," "Compositional Approach

the

Vedic word-accent" and

"Role

of Boundaries in the AstadhySyi".


the Vedic literature, "Vedic

In the paper on

Ksumpa and connected


'

Data"

claims

that

the

word

<K?umpa'
of

remains

'unexplained

in

and proceeds to give a "The krama -patta Unit" gives a lucid critical and analytical explanation. unit and rightly ends with the statement exposition of the Krama-patha

the latest 'etymological dictionary

Sanskrit"

XH

16

"There
I

is

much

to be said

on

this point.

But what

has been stated

so far,

enough to demonstrate the Krama-paMia (like the samhita), true to


think,
is

need

of

an

edition

of

the

our oral tradition."

concept of ritual

The paper "Ritual, mantras and the ongin of language" analyses the m details and the term and natiue of 'mantra' in brief
' L

goesi to impoitant similarities and dissimilarities beetween languages on the one hand and ritual and mantras on the other" The exposition is inteiesting and original. "The Ritualist's problem" tries to analyse

and

the concept of ritual

and

the

problems

that

aiise

for

the

ritualist
is

particularly with regard to animals to be sacrifice!


esting.

The

analysis

inter-

In the rest of the papers, naturally a standard expected


tation
that the

of a Felici-

volume of this kind is maintained, There is a rich variety. The claim volume 'contains research papers on oriental topics covering in its " is fully met. Some other interesting, wide range scholarly and original
papers

may

be referred

to.

"Rasa-relish
is

consideration

of Pre

requi-

a mental, intellectual enjoyment of an emotional experience brought by art", and proceeds to analyse five prelequisites on part of the experience!-. Any and every reader is not
sites" rightly states that

"Rasa

quail

fied to enjoy

Rasa of

art.

certain mental,

part is a must.
sties

He

will only then be

emotional equipment on his a real Sahrdaya, The pre-requi-

are very well analysed and give us a clear idea about the Sahpdayatva

of the experience!-. "Asoka's Inscriptions and Persian, Greek and Latin Epigraphy'* discusses the mutual give and take and "the reciprocal cultural influence

between India and Greece" etc. The paper is original and enlivening though we might not agree with all the views piopotraded.' "Dayabhsgavyavahararthasarnksepah'* of the 10th century gives a very interesting text critically edited. ''The Legend of the Destruction of Tripurs

and its Vedic origin" tries to trace the legend particularly to certain Brahmanas. "Vidvasraj Viivasijah and the Problem of continuity in Indian Reto lay down an understaing of "the universal features ligious history" claims
of Indian history" on the basis of the two terms.
priyah",

The

papers "Devanainin Thailand"

"The mouse

in the ancestry"

and "Hindu Culture


vision.

are informative

and 'help

to

widen our

It is very happy that even though the life and work of Dr. Dandekar, a scholar of international repute has been an open book to his pupils and friends, a brief account of his life and full career and details of his

research

work are given

here.

They enlighten those


to

scholars

and readers
is

who were not fortunate enough

be nearer

to

him..

The volume

Review

123

very valuable addition to the vast literature on oriental studies. The editor deserves all compliments for his labouis which are well-rewarded.

The
of

problems of research show that even now, there is an infinite scope research in oriental studies. This speaks for the uchuess and \ariety, depth and subtlety of oriental learning
R. S. Betai

A Complex Study of India - G. M. tions-Delhi 1986. Price Rs. 175-00

Bongard

Levin-Ajanta Publica

This is a systernatised collection of the different published research is known papers on Indian culture by the famous Russian author, who as a front-rank Indo legist. Eighteen Papeis in all aie divided into four
parts as follows
(I)
:-

Problems of Ethnic Study Problems of


Political

(II)

and Socio-economic

structure

(III)

Problems of Cultural Development

Texts (IV) Study of Ancient Indian

The
study of

first part,

in three small chapters,

is

fit

introduction

to

the

political

development in. study of Ancient Indian

and Socio-economic structure in ancient India, cultural but deep relation to world -civilization and -a broad-based
texts.

one discusses the problems of genesis Introducing the subject, chapter Munda cultures and their inter-relation culture, Dravidian and other literary, ethnogaphical and with the help of linguistic, historical, the old works. Yet the now, of references "available data, with the help

of Indian

Uy

of the study

lies

archaeological data.

He

that in the very great importance comes to the right conclusions

the author sives to

m
in

which he shows

LlUdian
form

and Munda

cultures as also the

Harappan

culture considerably have influenced the Vedic

are^rier all Jtt aspect


in

fistic. He

that the Rgveda, gives his opinion

Us present

C. existed in 2000 B. Proto-Indian Culture


the
the

and analyses Chapter two discusses all The chapter mata.y e and content of Ia g

studies-the

** *

different efforts .1

Harappan

w,,t,n 8

script,

It also discusses its procaoie delation with available inscriptions and seals. coaanuation of this, chapter three deals the old Dmvidian culture. In

and third millenna B. C. with the probable reality of Hindustan in the in the context mainly of archadiscusses the problems of ethnic history and linguistics. Heie, the study reaches its top height of scholareology
ship and research

acumen. One inteiesting

point

discussed

is

that

the

section of Dravida-speaking population Harappan civilization had a small B. C. to the second, and it is laid down now, from the fourth millennium south by stages. this section slowly migrated to come to

discussion on the relation

two chapters, Following the hints in the first between Indo-Aryans

here we have a precise

on one

side

and

the

Dravidians and the Proto-Munda on the


deal rightly concedes that a great
is

other. In

the end,

the

author

research
tentative

is

necessary

and

that

obscure, that continued integral answers to questions raised are only


still

hypotheses.
this

With

introduction

the first part,

in

the

second,

the

author

continues his study,


republics in

rightly

Ancient

India.

and Socio-economic state of He shows how, states and Governments were


with
political

both monarchical and non-monarchical; how, in the

governance of non-

monarchical republics, an element of democracy persisted and how the head or the Senapati was not necessarily by heritage in, all States and
this, the terms Gana and Sangha in their different meanings;, mainly political and social are analysed. The author shows how the scene even though Brshmanas and Vaifyas'were also K?atriyas dominated members of Ganas and Sanghas. There was inequality in status and Sudras,

Governments For
.

of comprising of workers

The varna-system

that

craft, and slaves were the lowest we popularly know as csturvamya,

in the ladder.
is-

also

discu-

ssed in this context. His opinion about the all-out domination of K?atri> yas can create second thought because of the race for politcal and social

supremacy in which Brahmanas did not lag behind. not discussed much.

The

lot

of Sudras is

In chapter five the author narrates,


state of Indian

discusses

and

analyses

the

This creates
its

for the clear perspective of Indian culture in varied aspects because this millinneum has been the most eventful in
'

community a sound basis

in the latter half

of the

first

millinneum B. C.

Indian history. The author discusses the status of grama and


different clans, groups
their
etc.,

its

headman,
sort

that were, in their

own

sphere, able to take

own

"decisions

and were ruled by their

own norms.

of

Review

fo

democratic element persisted and even heads


these
clans,
also

of

state

respected

duly

gioups
discusses

etc
in

The piocess developed


this

fast in this age

The
its

author

chapter
the

the
state

pioblcm
of
slaves

ol

slaveiy,

form

in this age, types


it
is

of

slaves,

and

so

on
that

Rightly,

stressed

that the

Aithasastia
lights
to

foims
slaves,

an

authoiity

regularises slavery, gives certain

light

of

freedom
biought

under

certain conditions and the

institution
is

of

shveiv-are

under the pale

of law.

The analysis

most
author

scientific.

With

this, in the sixth chaptei, the

lightly

sluits with

the

statement that a thorough acquaintance with great Indian works


the notion of the west that ancient Indian culture was

falsified

undeveloped and
this lesearch

that Indian society and state weie primitive. The author bases

mainly on Sanskrit works. Indians composed


the epoch-making Artha^stia.

Ssstras and Smrtis

as

also

He

rightly stiesses that the latter helps us


at

considerably in providing a basis for attempts


India political fabric of ancient

recreating the social and


stresses that

The aulhoi again


social

slavery

was an important

institution.

The Indian

and

political

structure
Ratfra,

consists of Kula, Jati, Gana, Grama, Dda, Sangha and, we


each, having its sejf-goveining within
its

may add
to

own sphere and one dependent


analysis
pi
tries
it

upon and

supporting the other.

The whole

evolve a

clear picture of Indian society then and to

ove
it

that

had a

firm

basis in tradition,

it

developed with time and

reflected a

mature and

wejl-developed Indian culture.

In the seventh chapter with which

the second part ends, the author deals

with state of Indian society and cultuie

the

Mauryan

period. This

is

important because the Mauryan epoch


grasping the development

is

crucial in understanding

and

in ancient India in political, social, caste, state


states that instead of reliable

and cultural matters. Here, the author

and

dated sources, we have religious and philosophical works as the sources. We have religious and philosophical woiks, the sourses of which should
be used with caution. With
this correct

and cleai peispective, the author


Indian politics, society,
period

gives a brief but studied picture of the state of caste and cultuie during
this

very important

of

foimation

of

"united Indian state", a period development and spread of scripts and

"marked by an upsuige of
dialects". (P. 172)

culture, the

With

the eighth chaptei,

the

author

comes

10

the

estimation

and

understanding of Indian culture in the wider concept of cultural and other relations between India and the world around it. Certain misconceptions- about Indian culture were erased slowly from ihe western mind

126

Review
India

from the 18ih century onwaids. The chapter deals with contact of
with the

Greeco-Roman World. Here,

the leferences of Megasthenes and

cultural exchange that followed

coming of Alexander and the and refeicnces in Indian and Western The mutual our source-material. become woiks, impact of India and Greece, and Rome is divided by the author into fom periods. The impact of study by chastians is also discussed. The discussion shows the interaction
also those by Buddhist tex's 10 westerners, the

and poses a few pioblems besoie

us.

The

nevi paper in chapter nine


India,

and

elation

of

Greece

Rome

with

ihoagh veiy well studied, need not detain us. We go to the next chapter in which the author discusses the problem of Canakya in the Greeco-Roman tradition. This is because of the Central importance

Mauiyan

of Canakya's or Kautilya's work Aitha^astra Close contact was there between the Indian and Western woilds and that led to cultural exchange

and
is

affinity,

and exhibition of mutual

familiarity.

Here,

references to

Candragupta. and state of India in his days


historical also.

aie analysed

The treatment

Chapter eleven deals with archaeological research in Soviet Central Asia aad ancient Indian Civilization, i. e,, the relation of the two in the author the Kushana period. It is a study of facts and reality and
takes due care of his evidences.

The Kushana empire was formed due

to

connections between the two as archaeological excavations in Central Asia


reveal.

The data available

is

described and

made

use

of.

of Lokayatikas atheists

The Study of Indian cultuie would be incomplete without a study who most vehemently attacked brahmanisui and

even though they were, in turn, traditional thinking and philosophy, severely criticised by traditionalists. Chapter 12 refers to the contribution and also refeis to the severe of Aryabhata and the Loksyatikas
onslaught on their works by followers of the Vedic tradition. Even in thi's small chapter of eleven pages the author show a fairly good grasp over the contribution of the two, though we feel that the study and analysis

demanded

a longei

chapter.

With
of

this,

we come
and

to part
six

four of

the

book

entitled "Study of
variety

Ancient Indian Texls". The


texts-Prakrit

small chapters here, tieat of a

Sanskrit

It is

of and study on Indian texts natural to state and concede that richness of a culture implies richness

the discovery piobe into from central Asia and eastern Turkestan.
also

and

of varied

texts,

scripts,

works -

literary

and

scientific
it

The

study

on
have

ancient Indian civilization and

the problems that

poses

\\ould

been incomplete without

this part,

Actually hete this book is a collection of different papers alreadv published. The four paits in which these papeis arc divided is a scientific

arrangement. The arrangement coveis up almost all aspects of culture except sciences, philosophy, art and poetry, in which again, Indian
culture

some topics that are is very rich. One might feel that there should have been iacluded. We leave it to the great Indologist to give more such studied and scholarly papers on subjects left out and these
fitly
Is

may
that

comprise of another volume, other

than the second collection

the way

to be published. If he has laised problems and has rightly shown which he to fulture research, he could also give a volume in
its

and

will enlist the achievements of Indian culture, attainment in most of the spheres of life.

very

rich

heritage

We
from

therefore

this

warmly welcome renowned Indologist.

this

study

with

future expectations

R.

S,

Betai

Social Life in AncieM India-Haran Chandra Chakaldar Cosmos PublicaPace Rs. 135/tions, New Delhi-110002, Second Edition, 1984-Pages 212,

The second edition of

this

famous book appears

affter a span of 55

as "a complete and comprehensive study" of years. The woiK was praised was considered to be a work life in ancient India; it is scholaily and studies of Ancient in 1929. Even to-day, after so many

of renown them,
Indian Culture

in all its varied facets

in

countless

works
is

the scholars, both of east and west,

second editon
life

by eminent welcome in its


India
as

own

of social way. It is a masterly analysis reflected in the Kamasutra of Vatsysyana.

in

Ancient

The famous work of Vatsyayana

is

basically a

work on "the Science


life

and art of love" and it on the subject. We may


Yet

is

considered to be a standard work in Sanskrit


then.
this

not expect much of a dipiction social a lot of material in unlike our non-expectation, there is

work

the life. That explains and justifies that can be utilized as reflecting social has utilized to the full all material that writing of this work and the author still a diffiIt is both. and indirectly will help his interpretation directly different topics, he gives countless task indeed. When he writes on

cult

references from Sastra and other

works

that

stand

to

comparison and
the
:

piopounded by the author regarding contentions of Vatsyayana. The study is divided into these chapters
(1)
(ii)
(iii)

contrast both, with the views

Date of Kamasutra

Geogiaphy of Vatsyayaua
Social Life jn Ancient

India
India-II

(iv)

Social life ia Ancient

(v) Social

Life in Ancient India-Ill


first

Scholarly and studied though the

two chapters
country.
3,

are,

these

need

not detain us.

He

places Vatsyayana in the 3rd century A. C. and he has

a thorough grasp of the geography of the hole

The

study, is mainly of deep interest, in chapters


life

4 and 5 in whioh

he deals with the following topics of social

then.

Chapter
(i)

Castes and occupation


:

Chapter 4
(ii)

Marriage and Courtship


5
:

Chapter
(iii)

Life of the

Nagaraka

(iv)

Position of

Women

(v)
(vi)

Arts and Crafts

Conclusion
3

Chapters

and 4 deal with very important


life.

topics, topics that constitute

the very basis of social


felt that

Chapter

five deals

"conclusion", which surveys the whole, should have


6.

with three topics. It is been given

in

an independent chapter
Vatsyayana
is

a traditionalist in matters ethical, religious

and moral

of social

life.

He

therefore rightly accepts the brahmin as the most res-

the rules regarding choice of gills as given by Manu pected, accepts and the Sastras, concedes that the position of woman is lower than that

of man, accepts child mairiage of

girls

and

difference in age

between

Keeping himself within the limits laid down by the Sastras in this manner, he gives alternatives, married establishes the position and behaviour of young women, youths,
so
on.

man and woman who marry and

who marry through the deep desire and love of heart, love of wives of mistresses and love of couitezans and elc. Detailed nobility, love of
study of varied arts

and

crafts cultivated

own way. Thus, without offending


life

tradition

and developed is new and the pictute of

in

its

social

of social life then.

a picture of the other side depicted therein, the author gives to us His approach of respecting hadition and with it

giving his reflections

on the basis of the

Kamasutra,

is

correct

and
real

sound.

We

thus get a full all-sided

representative
interesting

and
is
is

genuinely
the

social life then, picture of life of the Nsgaraka. One

The
more

most
fact to

study of the
the
is

be

noted

that

whole

life as reflected in the depiction of social is all-sided and impartial and objective; it

Kamaustra
full.

realistic,

Conclusions are Very

well

drawn,

The author had undertaken


that is

a difficult, a challenging task, of giving

the picture of social life of the third centuiy

A.C. on

the basis of

work
fully

"Science and Art of love."

He

has stood

his test well

and

met the challenge.


Thes Unfortunately, the book docs not have a Bibliography and Index. table of were necessary to enhance the value of the work. Detailed contents could also have been given to advantage.

R.

S.

Betal

M.S. University, "Rasa Theory and Allied Problems" Dr. G. K. Bhat,

Baroda 1984, pp.69 price


Dr. O.K.
Allied

Rs. 29/

and Bhal delivered a scries of lectures on "Rasa Theory


in Humanities,

Problems" under the Tagoro Chair

M.S. University,

Baroda,

The author

clarifies that

"In the course of


interpretations of

my

treatment,

offered

some explanations and

some

intricate concepts in the

Rasa theory and suggested

a perspective".

These lectures

now appear

in

book-form.
in

The book

la in

nine small chapters

technical with precision all important explains clearly and to the So* Theory and Sanskrit poetics that are relevant

which, the author analyses and terms of


its

allied

Sambodhi Xtt-17

Review
problems. Besides this,

Bharata and this is view of Rasa. Next inline follow the four famous views on Rasa-nispatti. The explanation, analysis, criticism and value of each view is laid down Abhinavagupta's theory of Rasa, In its culmination is in and

Rasa -sutra of he explains fully the famous on Bharata's naturally followed by a discussion

naturally one that precedes and these four, each theoiy that follows attacks the views as he analyses and criticises all the three preceding

Abhinavagupta

lays

down

his

own Theory.

It

is

of Rasa comes nearer to

the

truth
is

notable that with each view the theory of Rasasvdda. The philosophical

background
be
stressed

at the root

of each
four

explained
together
that
is

in

brief.

It

could
in

also

that the

theories

form

unity

the
the
in

ultimate sense because

every

theory

follows, proceeds
at his

from
*

former. In this whole analysis, Dr. Bhat

best

particularly

"Analogy of anna-rasa", "Major defects

of Sankuka's theory,"
1

Bhatta-

Nayaka's contribution to aesthetic theory' on "Abhinava's theory of Rasa". So


discussed

and
for

analysed

the

and the entire eighth chapter many scholars have by now Rasa-theory and there is not much
But
with
that
again,

of a

scope

originality here.

Dr.

Bhat's

discussion, analysis and exposition is clear, precise, to the point, subtle and scholarly and makes very lively and interesting reading. Particularly
the sections
relish"

10 in chapter eight beginning with "Psychology of Rasa1 to and ending in Summary of Rasa-concept are a fairly original

contribution

of the author.

The author 'is again original in the last chapter of summing up which he captions "Some Problems". He treats of the Rasa-theory in a wider concept and gives to us some views of western criticism. Here, some details would
have been explanatory and welcome. Dr. Bhat rightly stresses that
"T. S. Eliot says that emotion cannot be expressed directly, but has to when the external facts which must turn into sensory experience are given, the emotion is
be conveyed through 'objective correlatives', so that

immediately evoked."

Again the author's handling of the problems is too small, casual and just referential. It could have been a little longer and more elaborate. Dr. Bhat is right again when he states

"The

relevancy, appropriateness and skill in constructing the

compon-

ents of art-presentation have to be separataly judged by the principles of literary criticism. Unfortunately, Sanskrit poetics seems to be

preoccupied

do

with theoretical speculations on the nature of poetry itself, and did not much to develop an independent science of literary criticism." (P. 65)

Review

i3l

But Dr. Bhat could have, following the path of Anandavardhaua and Abhinavagupta, taken the study further as he has expected here. He could have hinted at the thinking and analysis with his wide and deep
life-time study, his tapas, his

thorough grasp, and

his authority

ou

literary

competent enough to do this. derive satisfaction from Dr. Bhat's words in the 'Preface'
criticism
aesthetics.
is

and

He

We

however,

"I wish to write, some day a bigger and comprehensive book on this
subject".

We
for the
it

students of literary criticism and aesthetics will


for

anxiously wait
the purpose.

is,

book and wish him a long and healthy life the book is authentic and very well laid

As
The
is

in its structure.

further questions that the

work poses

are

very well laid

down

together

with the possible line of thinking that


thus thought-provoking.

we can

take on them. The work

In the end,

the

reviewer

may

be

permitted

to

add
to

that

the

very

valuable

work

could

have been made

available

students

and scholars

at a lesser price

by the University.
JR.

S. Betai

Ml-iL

=tl>t<Ml

Si,

aW'ClHW

av.

^r*<\( tt>MlCcl "SlaHlfiW

"^

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l

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wl.ti

cl

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ll

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132

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734

Review

ii

4(1

<W

d.

OBITUARY
Late Dr. Prataprai
It is with a

M. Modi

deep sense and experience of sorrow and grief that I take note of the demise of Dr. P. M. Modi at Baroda less than a month
"back

on 17th July 1986


a

at the

age of 88,

Modi

i. e. t some 15 years even after her retired from active service as a Professor of Sanskrit, Dr. will be remembered with veneration, warmth, love and regard, as a
/

As

prominent professor of 50 years* standing,

impart his about time when he taught. He therefore naturally won the veneration of his pupils who looked upon him almost as a R.?i. Hundreds and thousands of students remember him as an AjataiSatru, as an ideal teacher besides being a profound scholar. Dr. Modi started as a college teacher and retired as
learning on pupils and
it

very able and untiring,

teacher.

He was

ever

anxious to

was

his nature

not

to worry

college
last to

Principal

Samaldas College, Bhavuagar,

But he
Ph. D.

Was

first

and

a Professor.

He

therefore continued to guide

students

and

M. S. University, Baroda, for several So many Ph. D. students including myself are a testimony to his abilities as a researcher and guide. For his Ph. D, students he was far more than just a guide and he put in so much of labour for his students, labour that no Ph. D. student can expect.
years after retirement.

teach at post-graduate classes at

His profound contribution in form of very valuable books and research is mainly in the realm of Vedanta of ganfcara and the Bhagavadglta though he has worked with authority on Ramsmaja and Vallabha also
papers

Retitw

m
Siddhantabiudu,
(H)

His most

important

works

are-

(i)

Aksara^A
Thesis

forgotten Chapter in the History of

Indian

Philosophy (Ph, D.

writteen in Kiel University, Germany), Critique of Brahmasutra

-land H. many
of

Bhagavadgita.-A

fresh Approach, Ramanujacharya


his

etc,

besides so
into

works that await publication, including

translation

English

AnubhSsya.

Right from his school days, upto

his days of retirement,

Dr.

Modi

won

so

many medals, awards and


Govenments.
of
the

honours from

college,

U.G.C

as also the
scholar.

State

and Central

He was

life-time honoured
that
is

His English translation


expected to be his

Anu-bhasya

in

the

press
lore.

Is

most

significant contribution to
for scores of years
to

Yedanta
as a

Dr.

Modi

will be

remembered

some

profound
and

scholar, a front-rank researcher,

an untiring
Gits.

able

teacher,

an
also

authoritative writer

on Vedanta and

Above

all this,

he will

be

remembered

as

a thorugh gentleman, simple and


his

straightforward,

warm
with

and loving, honest and sincere in


students. His motto of life

worldly
living

relations,

mainly

was-"plain

and high thinking".

Our
Great
is

salutations to this savant

who was a

scholar of all-India fame,


his

our

loss,

his students mainly of M. A. and Ph D,, who were

very heart.
peace.

May the

soul of this worthy son of Gujarat rest in eternal

R,

S. Belai

Statement about ownership and other particulars about Sambodhi,


Quartet I y Journal of

the

Institute

of Indology

published

in the first issue

every year after the last

Ahmsdabad, day of March.

to be

From IV
(See
1.

Rule

8)

Place of publication
Periodicity of
Printer's
its

Ahmedabad.
Quarterly.

?.

publication

3.

Name

Nationality

Pitamber J Mishra. Indian


Tirhut Printers,
41,

Address

Meghnath Society, Ramp, Ahmedabad 5.


J.

4, Publisher's

Name

Nagin
Indian
L,

Shah

Nationality

Address

Acting Director, D. Institute of Indology

Ahmedabad-9.
5-

Editors'

Names

(1)

Dalsukh Malvania
Nagin J Shah.
Indology,

(2)

Nationality

Indian
L. D. Institute of Ahmedabad-9,

Address

6.

Individuals

Names and addresses of who own the

L. D. Institute of Indology,

Ahmedabad-9.

newspaper and partners or


shareholders holding more than one-percent of the
total capital.

I, Nagin J. shah, hereby declare that the particulars given above are true to the best of my knowledge and belief

Nagin
Signature

J.

Shah
Publisher.

of

PERCEPTION ACCORDING TO VYAKARANA SASTRA


*

V,

D. Hegds

Language

is

a luimiui

activity.

Tluough

this

activity

one

makes
is

himself understood by another. Another tries to understand


the

what
and

in

mind of the speaker. These two

individuals,
lost

the
sight

producer
of.

the

recipient

of the language should nevoi be

The
and

speaker

und the hearer perceives them. The produces sounds spoken word is the primary form of language.

heard

A woul
the visual
is

has got two forms. One


is

foim, Writing
until

is the audible form, the other is only a substitute for hearing. A written word

mummified

some one imparts


,

life to

it

by transporting

it

mentally

into the

corresponding spoken word 1


think in the form of

We
itself.
It

sentences

and

also

speak in

the

form

of sentences,

Avoiding
which

to Vyiikaiana Ssstra a sentence


its

possesses an individuality of
different

is complete in own. PunyarSja likens it to a

delicious drink in
tastes lo give

ingredients
it

merge

their

individual

rise to u

pcculUn

flavour. Or,

resembles the
to

liquid

in

a peahen's epg

where different colours mingle


is

produce a

variegated

hue.*

sentence

n class

by

itself like

the
is

man-lion
neither a

which,

resembling partly a

man and

partly a lion,

man nor
two,

though a lion
the
the

but something definitely diftemiH

from
(the

either

of

the

Both

Padavadin and the

V.Tkyavadin

grammarian)

have

examined

milim of
1

a sentence.

The Padavadin

believes in the reality of terras and

looks
his

upon

a sentence as a combination, of several terms.


is

According

to

interpretation, a term

the ultimate entity and

sentence

cannot

be considered as an indivisible unit of thought

and expression. 3

On

the

other hand, the Vakyavsulin (the


lity

grammarian) emphasises the


refutes
a

indivisibi-

of

sentence

and

strongly

the

Padavadin's
is

claim,*.

The

splitting up of a sentence into

number of terms
5

only a means

that helps

the beginner in the study of a sentence.


'

Definition of

This question has been raised as well as taken up for discussion by


Sambodhi

XU-18

138

V.

D. Hegde

Patafljali

in

tiates a

word from

the very beginning of his discouises on giammar. He differen substance (Diavya), action (Kriya), quality (Guna;

and class (Jati). According to him, that which has a meaning is a word That which really constitutes the 'woid' when one utters "gauh" (cow idea o is the sound which simultaneously with the utterance gives the an animal possessing dewlap, hump, hoofs and hoins. Therefore a wore 6 the same as sound
.

js

Evolution

of sound
is

Perception

an active interaction that takes place between life anc

The Vyakarana Sastra is defined as Sabds nu&sana. Hence the purpose of this paper is to discuss the perception ol words only. When the process of perception takes place between twc
the external physical world.

individuals, in
the sound.

one

is

seen the evolution of sound


is

and the other perceives


the

The former

called

The

latter is called 'grhita*

Vakts' or the producer of or the recipient of the sound.

sound,

of space (Sabdagunakamskadam; Indian philosophy. Accoi ding to the Buddhi. sts, sound is without any substratum and it results ftom the disruption of the great elements, and has both production and destruction. 7 Bhartis

Sound

considered as a quality
the systems of

by almost

all

rhari has made mention of air (Vayu), atom (anu) and knowledge (Jftana), each of which has been treated as capable of developing into sound by 8 different schools of Indian thought According to the
.

Chsndogya
air

Upanisad, the speech sound


called

is

kind of internal

air,

The

internal

Vyana,
is the

which

apsna ao amount

same
of
air,

an intermediary stage between Pirtna and While "uttering a sound we require both out flowing and It is in-flowing
is

as

Vak. 9

but a stream of air

made
its

nothing

active by physical the

sound by virtue of

contact with

According to Paniniya Sik 5 a, shape of audible sound. The course


the
acts

efforts, that develops into 'sound-producing apparatus.' 1 the physical air gets itself manifested in the
is

as follows

having intellectually

determined the object to be communicated

mind

to others, the soul urges to vocalise the thought rising within. The mind so stimulated
its

upon the physical order which in


it

tmn
air

brings about a

movement

in the region of internal air.


till

The internal

reaches the vocal apparatus.

thus moved gets upwards Both Bhartrhari and his cornmen-

tator Punyaraja have mentioned the transformation According to Bhart rhari, air which is influenced

materialised into audible sound, to all kinds of sounds, 13

It is

of air into sound by the mind gets itself the Pranavayu which gives rise

Perception According

to

Vy&karana Sastra

Perception of words not only belongs to the domain of physiology but also to that of Psychology. The grammarian admits that both fire

and air which contribute to the evolution of


with a stimulus received fiorn the mind. 1 *

sound

act

in

accordance

From

the epistemological point of view, tlu


is

contact

of

the

mind
work.

with the soul

an essential

condition

for

all

cognitions.

The mind
it

sends a stimulous to the whole mechanism of speech and sets

to

The consciousness which has


in couise of

its

seat within the body, exhibits


is

its

activity

communication of thought. 15 The mind


is

not merely

an

instrument. Innei speech

a direct leflection

of

the

mind.

In

other

words the

mmd

of the speakei reveals itself in the form of words.


its

The

psychologists opine that speech has

origin in the

mind of

the speaker
*5

Consequently language

is

regarded

as

a mental phenomenon. 1

7 The According to Patanjali, knowledge is translated into word.^ words uttered by the speaker are an embodiment of his thought. The internal knowledge, remaining within as a subtle element of speech,

assumes the concrete form of words whenever necessity


to reveal its

is

felt in

order
is

own

identity.

1 8

The

thought
(tejas)

that- rises

in

the

mind

developed and materialised


by
the

by

fire

aud
air.^
9

is

next

driven

out

force

of

speaker

are

revealed

outflowing in the

current
audible

of

form

The ideas of the of words that stand

symbols capable of arousing those ideas in the listener. 40 Likewise the subjective world of thought is connected with
as their phonetic
the corresponding objective world of rnattei There are subtle elements of sound lying inside and outside all material bodies, They are incomp-

rehensible for their extreme fineness. This type of sound,

identified

by

sound with the

all

pervading space,

is
'

when

it

2 reaches the auditory organs.

manifested and comprehended only Woids, having been manifested

TrSna' by the combination of two forces called 2 2 the intended meaning. capable of expressing

and

'buddhi

become

three foims

and Vaikharl are the According to Bhartrhari, PaSyantl, Madfayama of Vgk. But Nagesha admits the four forms of Vak including

the comprePara. Para and Pagyanti aie so subtle that they are "beyond in the shape of hension of sense organs. Para resides in the MuladhSra

motionless 'Bindu'.
the internal air.

Vaikbari

is

the

Madhyama is found in the What is, uttered by the vocal only Vak which is capable of

naval

region
is

pushed

by

organs

called Vaikharl

being heard

by ptherM*

140

V.

D.

whereas sound

According (Ekatva), indivisibility (Akhandatva) and eternity (Nityatva)are the salient features of Spk>ta. Sphoja is Sabda, 1 * is only a quality as it serves only to manifest Sphofa.

to Patafljali, unity

The
is
it

relation between the

two

is

one of the indicator and


aspects
:

indicated.

It

further elucidated that


is

Sabda has two


is

Sound and

Sphota,

only the sound that

perceived by auditory oigans and seems to be

either long or short, while

Sphofa remains completely unchanged.

One

thing becomes clear

on going deep

into the concept

of Spliota

that Sphofa, though strictly one rnal and external.

and indivisible, can be

classified as inter-

The

external form,

Sound manifests only the internal form of Sphota. of Sphota, which is comprehended by the auditory

organs, has

no intimate relation with the meaning. 25

Bhattrhari has dwelt at length on the concept of Sphota. He clearly This can be explained as enunciates that Sabda is of two kinds. 56
.follows
:

Perception

Speaker

Upadana Sabda

Nimitta Sabda

Vaikhari Sabda
[Sakrarna]

[Akrama; Sphota]
Listener

Upadana Sabda
I

Nimitta Sabda

Sabda which

resides in the

mind
[Vaikhari Sabda; Sakrama]

of tke listener.

[Akrama; Sphota]
is

Sphota

is

called

Akrama, because there

no

question of
to

order
2 '

(Krama) such as priority and posteriority in is sound that passes through successive stages and appears to be either long or short in
exertion which the utterance of a

relation
in course

Sphota.

It

of

articulation

proportion

to the
to

amount of
varying

word

requires.

Due

the

modulations of voice, as caused differs from 'Kha' sound,

by the

vocal

apparatus,

'Ka'

Sound

Bhartrhari has pondered over the dual aspects of Sabda. to him Sabda can express itself as well as its He

According
has further

meaning

corroborated this point, by citing an episterno logical evidence be explained as follows


:

This

may

Perception According to Vyakarana Sastra

J4I

Sabda

GrUhakatva

Grahyatva

double function as GrMiaka and Gruh.w. ^ does a Sabda. A light is grabya because it is luminous by itself. A light is described as giahaka as it illuminates others. Likewise a ,'.iKU is first compiehended, Hence it is called that sahUi gialiya. It is only which lias been comprehended becomes expressive of meaning. On account
light possesses a

As a

of this function, a 3abda is

called 'grahaka' 28

The triple aspects of Sabda aie also noticed by be explained as follows 29


:

Bhartrhun.

Ii

can

Sabda

T~
Sakrama

Akrama

Sakrama

Sakrama
Afterwards
it

is
is

perceived by the listener and is converted into Akiama. converted again into sakiama at the time of usage.
:

The dual

words are noteworthy.

i.e., production and reception of aspects of trie language It can be shown as follows
:

PRODUCTION OF WORDS
Speaker
ftuddhi or Intellect
Listener

* Sabda

<

Buddhi or

Intellect

Pragbuddhi

PERCEPTION OF WORDS
Listener Buddhi or Intellect
Speaker PrSgbuddhi

Vyavassya

The speaker employs his mind


mind of the speaker
is

in

the

words he intends to

use.

The

called Pragbuddln.
in the

An

action called 'Vyavasaya' takes place

mind of
Both

the listener

pragbuddlii of the spoken and heard words. prior to the perception to the process of perception.^ and Vyavasaya are indispensable

141

V. D.

ffegde

According to Patafljali gabda which is perceived by auditory organs, tains to the sky. a 1 It comprehended by intellect, manifested by sound, pel is evident that auditory organs, Buddhi (intellect) and prayoga (production of sound by vocal organs) are indispensable to the perception of words.

WORD AND MEANING


Thoughts using
of sounds
lliat

in otir

mind

find their audible expression in the form

by vocal organs All sounds are not called words. Only those sounds which signify objects are called 3abclas or
are produced

words. According to Patanjali, the expression of thought is the sol e 82 If there is no communication of purpose of the usage of words.
ideas,

no necessity

is

felt to

exercise the vocal apparatus,

its meaning is the most vital problem, which has been tackled by many systems of Indian thought. According to Bhartrhari ^abda and arlha are diffeient aspects of one and the same. 3 3

The relation of a woid with

The Upanisads
speech has
its

state that the

seat

the

exactly presented

to us

when

mind finds its expression in speech and mind, 3 ^ The meaning of a word is what is a word is uttered and heard. * s When a
aie

word

is

uttered

three

things

compreheded.

It

can be shown as

follows: 38

PRAYOGABHIJVALJTA SABDA
(The used word or the word manifested by sound).

The intention of the


Speaker

The

~r
The particular word
or

external object

Sabdasvarupa

Bhartfhari holds the view that there

between word and meaning.

^ 7

is a reciprocal causal connection This can be shown as follows;

WORD AND MEANING

(Kaiya Karana bhava)

Perception
Listener

Word
[The heard word Karana or cause]

Meaning
[The meaning that resides in the

mind
Effect]

of the Speaker.

Karya or

Preception According to Vyakarana Sastra

143

Speaker

Meaning
[The meaning that resides in the

Word
[The uttered word. Karya or
Effect]

mind of
or cause]

the

speaker-Karana

that resides in the mind of the speaker finds its audible form of a word, A. word is comprehended only through the instrumentality of which resides m the mind of the listener. meaning Both word and meaning remain inseparable in our (buddhi) prior to their outward manifestation. as According to Durga, the intellect that exists

The meaning

expression

the

in

the spatial region manifests itself in the two-fold shape

of

word

and and

meaning.

a s

On

account of

this

inseparable

relation,

both woid

are interchangeable with each other * According to those who maintain a causal connection between word and meaning, speech being undifferentiated from meanings, gets itself materialised m the shape of objects like cows and others. Objects which are the external manifestations

meaning

of consciousness assume the audible form. 41 The twofold creation of Natnan and Rupa is mentioned in the Chandogyopanisad.* 5 T| le same
point

Rupa

elucidated by Kaundabhatta, a later grammarian. *3 Naman and are correlated with each, other from the time immemorial. So the study of mutual relationship between gabda and artha, or Samjfta and The three luminous samjfil, or Naman and Rupa has its own history
is
i.e. fire, the resplendent consciousness within and 3abda are held high esteem, being equated with one another.?? The grammarians have equated Sabda or eternal verbum with Brahman of the Upamsads, According to Bhartrhari, Sabda itself is Brahman. There is no distinction

bodies
in

between iabda brahman and parabrahman.* J Thus it is clear and consciousness are inextricable from each other. It is further
that s"abda has
itself

that

word

elucidated

view divided Vacya been influenced by a Sruti.* 7 Both the plurality of appears to have and the objective phenomena which are correlated as linguistic forms Vacaka and Vacya, have only a provisional pragmatic validity. Thus
into

and

Vacaka. 56

This

the exigencies of religious mysticism appear to have inspired the philoto enunciate the identity of both wotrd and conscious-

sopher-grammarian
ness.

According

to Helaraja,

meaning

is

converted
elucidates

into

word.

He
Vak

has
is

called that process ^abdana'.

He

further

that

Parg

144
at a later stage

v D Hegde
-

'Madhyama' Vsk splits itself into tv indivisible. Only Vscaka. Then it is seen that Vacya parts namely Vacya and converting itself into Vacaka, TJiis is based ou 'Adhyasa
gradually

The process of the Madhayams stage be shown as follows


:

is

called

'Pa ram arcana'.

it ct

PERCEPTION
Speaker
1.

2.

Par* Vs.k (Paly an ti according to Bhartfhan) Paramar^ana Madhyama V%k


Vaikharl

3.

Vacya->Vacaka Vak
(Vscya)->VScaka
Both.

abdana

Paravnar&na and Sabdana denote two successive stages

in

tl

process in which Vacya converts itself into Vacaka.

Sabda and Sense-Organs

Vyakarana Sastia differentiates Sabda from Sense-organs, Sabda described as JnSpaka. Sense-organs are considered as KSrakas.40 Sabd is both gr&hya and grahaka. Sense-organs are considered only as grShakc
by nature. Sense-organs participate in the process of perception as the exist. But Sabda does not participate in the process of perception on! s<> When Sabda is comprehended by tfc by its existence in the space auditory organs, it becomes botb jflSpaka and grahaka, According t
Patafljali,

Sense-organs by virtue of their association with the an active part in the process of perception. 51

mind

talc

Atisannikarte (Excessive Proximity), ativiprakarsa (Excessive remot<

murtyantaravyavadhana (Impediment by other objects), taraasi vjtatva (State of being filled with darkness), indriyadourbalya (Infirm it of the sense-organs) and atipramsda (Excessive are the si
ness),
insanity),

in the process of perception. Even though the objects before the Sense-organs, they are not perceived owing to any of aforesaid impediments. $ *

impediments

exis

th

REFERENCES
1.

The Philosophy of Grammar by Otto Jespersen.- P.18. Punyarajaunder Vakyapadiya KarikS 2-7-P. 71 Benares Edition 1887, also s e e "The Philosophy of Word and Meaning" by Gau.ri.nSt
Sastri. P. 71.

3.

PunyarSja under Vakyapadiya.

P. 91.

Perception

Adding

to

Vyakarana Sastra

145

4.

5. 6.

Punyaiaja under Vakyapadiya, P. 92. Pimyaiaja undei Vukyapadiya. P.91.


Pataftjati's

Mahablisshya-Paspashahnika

also see

7.
8.

Speculations of the Hindus." by P.C.Chakravarthi. P.76. VstsySyami Bhasya under Ny ya Sutra 2-2-12
s

"The Linguistci

Vakyapadiya

tCai ika

1-108.

9.

Chilndogya 1-3.
VakyapadTya-KLririka 1-109
of the
also
Se3

10

'The
p.86

Lingusitic Speculations

Hindus" by

P. C. Chakravaithi.

11.

Paciiniyti fiiks-i.

also see

"The Lmgusitic Speculations of

the

Hindus"

p.H6.
12.
13.

VakyapiiUiya-Kankai-llS. -do1-116.

14.
15.

do-

1-115.

16.
17.

Punyaraja undci Vakyapadiya. p. 1. The Psychology of Language by W. E. Pillsbury. p.91, Kaiyata under Mahsbhaaya. 1-4-29.

18.
19.

VskyapadTya-Ksrika 1-113. 1-114. -doVakyapidiya-Sambandhasamuddesha-Karika. 1. Poona edition. 1963. Also sec "The Linguistic Speculations of the Hindus". p,94. Vakyupadiya -Kitriks 1-117, also see "The Linguistic Speculations of the Hindus" p,95~9tf. Puiiysu;ja under Vskyapadiya. Karika-l-llS.

20.

21

22. 23.

Vakyapadiya Karikfi 1-144, VaiySkaranu Siddliauta Manju?a by Nagesha 178 and 178.
Mahabhasyti. Vol.
KuftjikA
ot\
I.

Bhatta. p. 175.

24.
25. 26.

p. 181.

the Maftjilshs.
1-44.

Vukyapadlya-Kaiika
do do-do-

27.
28. 29. 30.
31.

1-45.

1-45.

1-51, 52 1-53.

-do-

MahabUusya.

Vol.1.

1-1-2, Also see

"The
97.

Philosophy

of

Sanskrit

Grammar"
32.
33.

by P. C. Chakravartlii. p

Mahabhs ? ya. 3-1-7


Vskyanadiyu Kariks 2-31,

Samobdhi

XII19

146

V, D.

14,

Aitareyopanisad

35
36,

Myapadlyrfanka

2-329.

Vakyapadiya Sanibandhasamudde&i., Karika,


-do-

1.

37,

-do-

3-32,

38,

Hclaraja under Vakyapadiya Sambandhasamuddeto

3-32.

39,

Dorga under Nirukta

1-2.

40

Helaraja under Vskyapadiya sambandha SamuddeSa 3432

41, Punyaraja 42,

under Vakyapadiya,

Namarupe Vyskaravani
VaiyakaranabhushanaSsra, P.528-530 Chowkharaba edition, 1969

43,

44, Pimyaraja's 45,


46,
47,

Commentary under Vskyapadiya Karika


1-1

1-12,

KankS Vakyapadiya
Vakyapadiya

and 1-133.

Karika 1-118 and 1-119,

under Vakyapadiya Punyaraja

Kadka

1-119,

48,

Helaraja under Vakyapadiya Sambandhasarmiddefo Karika-2

49,

-do-

-do-

-29.

50, Vakyapadiya-Karika 1-56 and 1-57 also see Kaiyata's

Commentary

under MahabhSsya 1-1-68.


51,

Mahabhasya 3-2-115,

52

MahSbh3?ya 4-1-3.

"KAVI PUTRA" OF KALIDASA-' A Critical Review


Sudarshan Kumar Sharma

In the Prologue to

his play

Lo his illustrious forerunners in the line-

Malaviksgnimitram Kfilidasa has referred

"Prathitayafcsam Bhasa-Kaviputra-SaumUlakadjnarn prabandhanati-

The

Sahitya

Akadami
as

edition?

has
the

the

compoundof
1

"

Bhasa-

Sairniilla-Kaviputrsdmaru"

varying

in

reversal

"Kaviputra-

SaumillakSdinarn"

Dwivedi*

and

and G.H.

dissolved- "Bhasah sa eva


yesarn tesam,

"SaumillaKaviputrsdlnaV Dr. Reva Prassda C. H. Tawneye follow this reading while P.S Sane Godbole? follow MR. Kale's text. The two compounds
kavih
tasya

putrah

Saumillakah-tavevadau

Bhasakaviputra-Saumillakadinam"
SamillakaS ca" BhssaKaviputraSaumiUaklh
'

"Bhasah evadau ye$Sip

Kavjptral?

ta

te5in.

Aud

BhKsah
yesai^i teSarri
i.e.

Saumillafca

BliasaSaumillaKaviputianan
i.e.

eva Kavis tasya putrah ta evadau yefffm tesSraor Bhasa-Saumilla-Kaviputras ta evadau

Bhasa

the

Bliasah Saumillah Kaviputra^ ca gdau ye?3m teiain. poet and his son- the two head those and others.

Or

BhSsa, Kaviputra and Saumillaka


Or

the

three head

those and others

Bhasa

and Saumilla the poet and Or

his son head those

and

others.

Bhasa and Saumilla and Kaviputra


Or

the three head those and

others

Bhasa and
Poet of the

Saumilla and the son of Kavi

the three head those and

others their prabandhas; the poet


present age,

calls himself as

'Varttamana Kavih" the


poet and
his son

obviously the two Bhasa the

Saumillaka or the three Bhasa, Kaviputra and Saumillaka or


son of Kavi and Saumillaka or

Bhasa

the

son or

Bhasa and Saumilla the poet havmg his Bhssa and Saumilla and Kaviputra or the son of Kavi, having
compositions of these Kalidasa
expresses a sense of

ignored the
lity

humi-

may

unto them with the complex that his composition in his present age not acclaim the same popularity among the audience as those of

theirs.

Dr. Ramji

UpadhySy

Dr.

V.

V. Mirashi 9 and

S.

A.

Sabnis^

style the three

as

Bhasa, Kaviputia, Saumillaka or Bhasa, Saumilla, Kaviputra dramatists play wnglits). Bhasa's tlmteen plays are too well known
(

for

the critics

to gainsay

theii

authenticity. Scholars

like Dr.

A. D.

have already established their author as Bhasa beyond any Pusalkar or Saumillaka is still a controversial figure though I dispute. Saumilla
have tned
to

11

ascribe to his authorship the

anonymous work- Vinavasava-

"Safijaya of Malatimadhava having an impact on the authorship and date of Vinavasavadattam" read at the 32nd Session

dattam

in

my paper-

of the All India Oriental Conference

Ahmedabad (Nov 6-8


must

1985),

Kaviputra-

if

construed

to

be a playwright

denote a
date to

wright of fabulous
extolled

renown

01 else

Kalidasa

could hardly
a sense

playhave

him in such
in

a laudable tone as

to feel

of inferiority

comparision to his talent, Sornila has been bracketed with of Sudraka-Kaths 1 2 the nature of which, Rarrula as the joint author can h.afdly-be preconceived as a play of tangible norm. It may have
complex
"

been

a-

prose

version of the

narrative of

King

Sudraka

versified

by

Gundahya

in his

VIII, Vetala 4) like the

Bj-hatKathl(ICathsSarjtSagarai3 Larabaka XII, Taranga MudraraksasanaJakaKatha of Mahadeva 1 f

prince

The playwright Kaviputra could be of no mean merits or else the among the poets Kalidasa could never have held him in higl i
with Bhasa and
Saumillaka.

esteem in line

the great, the author of Mrcchakattka, mind of Kalidasa whose deep sense of suggestiveness in his works strikes the head lines in the domain of literary criticism. "Kaviputra" must have been a popualar title of Sudraka or
In

my

opinion "Sudraka"

could have been in the

else KalidSsa

could never have

felt

that abject sense

him

in alliance

with Bhasa and Saumilla 01 Saumillaka.

of humility unto Bhasa in his

Pratijnayaugandharsyana-I1.13is referring to Gopalaka and Palaka the two sons of Mahasena Pradyota along with Vasavadatta-their only sister; Barhaspatyam-artha^astram"isin'PratimSiiataka Act V", GunSdhya 1 '?
'

(Katha-Sant-Sagara the verbatim version of

Brhatkathaj
of

referring

to
,

Canakya
Sudraka
referring

as well as Brhaspati, 18
referring
to

Naivahanadatta son
Palaka

Uda>aua lfJ

Gopglaka,

and

Gopaladaraka
;

Aryaka;

Gunddhya

also refevnng to Avanti-vardhana son of Palaka 20


lo

SudiaLt
Kaiitilya

Canakya (I-39-p-44
tlieii

and
last

V11I 35-p 288)

and

referring to the lestotation of the

Kingom

of Suyatra
to

(Nalaj
,

and
of

Udayana during
36 p-230
demaicate
R.P.

life

time

obviously

refernng

the theme

Pratijfiayaugaudharayana and Svapnavasavadatlam,

in Aitliasastia

1X-7ainpl)

Kangle

edition,

Umveisity of

Bombay

I960j

the serial cluonology of the three writers Bhasa,

Gunadhya, and

Sudraka considerably on
Bhasa
dating prior to

formal

giounds

KauMya

and Gunadhya
to

and

Sudraka

after

him, Vinavasavadattaip if consideicd or Sauinillaka 21 referring exclusively


between Bhasa and
referred to so

be the genuine work of SaumilUt to Brhaspati 11 may also be placed

Gunadhya
by

before

frequently

Canakya

Canakya and aftei The mtroductoiy

Brhaspati
verses

of

Mrcchakatika carrying expressions


2 "dvijamukhyatamah Kavirbabhuva

3
11

piathitah Sudraka ityagadhasattvah,


"rajaiiaro vlksya

putram paraiua24

sarnudayenasvamedhenestva,

labdhvg cayurj ^atabdaip daiadinasarjitarp Sudrako' gniinpravistah"


2

samaravyasaui prarnada^unyah kakudam vcdavidani tapodhan

ca

paravaranabahuyuddhalubdhah kitipatih kila Sudrako babhuva

Such

as these

compared with 'BhasaKaviputiaSaumillakadinaV'

Or
of Kalidasa make it convenient to ''BhSsaSaumiUaKaviputradinam' have a 'putra' whose name deserves that Kavi as Sudraka could Of the two reading S -"BhSsaKavipi.traSaunuHakad examination

presume

an

and 'Bha Sa SaumiUaKavi P mam" a conned " (i.e would be "Bhasa and reasonable the interpretation K^vi " de emed ** g The other rea others and Saumillaka Putra and his be- "Bhasa, Saunulla, Kav, and the interpretation would

utradinam"if the

first

is

a.

ra

.*

correct

putra and others

i.e.

Sudraka and

his

Putra and others". Putia

may

be

taken

to

mean

son

and a propel noun both by Pun.

The Jam veision of

the
7

Canakyakaths given by Hausena


o

in

Chapter

143 of the Brhatkat!ia-Ko&i

refers

to

having his queen as Suvrata. His three

King Nanda of Pataliputra famous ministers were Kavi,


the son

Subaiidhu and Sakata


Devila
the

He refers to Canakya as Brahmana couple. Canakya was a

of

Kapila
of

and
all

greater

scholar
sister

branches of learning

His wife was Yatomatx. Kapila's

Bandhumati

who entered into a pact with Canakya to overthrow King. The Brhat Katha of Gunsdhya i epi esented by BrhatKalha Man j an of Ksemendra 27 and Katha Santsagara of Somadevazs
was wedded to Kavi
the

Nanda

lefers to the tale of one PaJali daughter of Mahendra Vaima wedded to Putraka a Brahmana evolving the title of the towa named Patliputra,

BKM*HX, 263 264, 299, 322) KSSfXII.ll ,4-5 and 68)3 re fer to King Sudraka as the sovereign lord of Sobhavati Nagan reigning supienie
for

moie than

hundied

years.

"Asti Sobhavatl

nSma nagan sampadam nidhih. Babhuva Sudrakas tasyara yafosvi prthivipatih.


devi

mahlbharttuh Sudrakasyagravallabha Aliatp Sa ca devas tntlye' hui purnayur divam esyati


Jivitena

madiyena jlvaty esa

saputrakafy.

Devi
and

viravaio virah prov^cetyatha Sudiakah" of K^emendra

Asti Sobhavati ugnia Satyskhyg uagarl bhuvi

Tasyam ca Sudrakakhy'abhfld bhupatih prajyavikraraah. Mama murdhopahare^a raja jlvatu Sudrakah.


Anyadvarsa fetam devi Somadeva deserve to be quoted here.
?

kuryadrajyam

akanjakam"

of

"

Bha-sa has been referred to by Kremendra in VI 13-1731 along with Mahartha Prabhava and Siddhartha as the three mirusters of King SOryaprabha, son of Candraprabha of Sskalapun in the Madra count

-, s

Sakalam nama madrwu babhuva nagaram puraCandraprabhakhyas tatrnid

Kiitap

rajaflgaraprabhataajah
tasya devjamajayata

Putira" of Kalidasa
e?a

I51

Suryaprabho

naraa raja

jalah purarma,

bhavl vidyadhaiadhlsa-Cakravartl vinirmitah,


Sa eva mantriputra"m6 ca nijarpstasraai sam'arpayat, Bh&sa prabhasa Siddhartha prahastaprabhrtin baiifln" A Survey of the contents collected above
brings
the following

to the fore

few facts for recognition

1.

Nanda
for the

his three

reigning in Pataliputra had Kavi, Subandhu ministers among whom Kavi was alligned extirpation of Nanda.
to

and

Saka^a

by Csnakya

2,

Patali daughter of

a
3

Mahendra-varma wedded Brahmana gave Pataliputra its name.


sovereign Jord of Sobh&vati

Putraka or Putra

Sudraka the

reigned for more than

hundred years.
4.

In the

Madra Countries

there was a

son of Aiigaraprabha who queen named Kirtimati.


5

King named Candraprabha produced a son named SUryaprabh in

Suryaprabha had four ministers Bhasa, Mahartha, Prabh&va and Ksemendra and Bhasa, Prabhasa, SiddMrtha and Prahasta according to Somadeva. Gunadhya, ie one
Siddhartha according to
rich in virtues was the honorific title of Malyav&n of Pratisthanapura in DaksinS patha who was Puspadanta in original as the son of Somadutta, a resident brahmana of Kau&Smbi whose variant three appellations were Katyfyana, Srutadhara and

Vararucih according to

Somadeva also construes GunSdhya as the title of Mmlyavan born in a town named Supratisthita. His two otaer names were Puspadanta and Vararucih. 3 * Supratisthita was in Mahanagart Kau^ambj. Somadeva describes PUnini as one of the pupils of Varsa to whom the New System Grammar (VySkaranam uavam) revealed itself through the grace of mooncrested god Siva and who outclassed all his contemporaries, 3 Kremendra also construes PSniai as the pupil of Varsa who obtained the system of
"3"

These two

or New system of grammar by penance unto Ankara. 3 BfhatkathS versions in Sanskrit (rendered by So^adeva and describe Yogananda the reigning Nanda King who had Kremendra)

New Grammar

his three ministers. Sakatala

Hiranyagupta as his son and Vararuci and Sakafala as also Subandhu as and Subandhu vied with each other for the

supreme seat of a learned BrShmana


nanda preferred Subandhu. $akaf5la

in the

court of Yogananda. Yoga-

brought CSnakya in Ins

own

alliance

152

Suciarshan

Kumar Sharma

with whose Krtya (Chai in)


killed Hiranyagupta also

Nanda King died of burning


37

fever

and CSnakya

and made

Candiagupta the scion of the former

Nanda King

as the Soveieign lord.

"tadvaSad Yoganando' tha dshajvaiamavapyasah,

Saptame divase prapte paficatvam Samupagamat.


hatva hiranyaguptam ca Sakatalena tatsutam,

purvanandasule

caksml Scandragupte
te

niveiSita"

of Somadeva, along with

"Canakyanamna

natha Sakatalagrhe rahah,

Krtyarn vidhaya saptahalsaputro nihato nrpah, Yogananda ya&hese Purvananda Sutas tatah,

Candragupto dhrto rajyeaa Canakyena mahaujasa,


of Kremendra deserve to be quoted here

Somadeva' s version describes

Canakya as a peer
took to
exile, a 9

to Bjhaspati

whom

Sakatala made his successor and

A
more
1.1.10

perusal of the contents

made above

illusrates

Somadeva

as the

faithful

pupil of Gunndhya as

confessed by

Somadeva himself

in

- as-

Yatha mflltarp tathaiva

tat

na manSg apy atikrmah,


bha?3
ca bhidyate.

grantna-vistara-saipksepa-roatram
Irt

complete comparison of the versions of Pratijfi&yaugandharayana and Svaptiav&savadattaqi given by Bhnsa and
fallacy
tliose

view of this

and a

given by

GunSdhya

(i.e r

Somadeva) convince one of


history of his
times while

this fact that

BhSsa

has depicted the

true

GtinSdhya

has

combinded fiction

with facts.

"Harnso hi ksiramadatte
recourse to this

tanmiSrah vaijayaty apah"* 6 having taken


easily

maxim of
to

Kaliddsa we can

take the

account of
to

Somadeva

as

near

factual
Bhtisa,

represention

when we

go

make a
Bh&sa

comparative

identity of

Kaviputra

and

Saumillaka

or

Saumllla and Kaviputra.


Kavi, Subandhu

and Spkata the three ministers of King named Nanda

given by the Jain version of the "Canakya Kaihs" come near to the analogy of Vararuci, Subandhu, and Sakatsja fo Gunadhya as the three ministers of

King, In Brhatkathdit

and
the

Yogananda. In Jain version Kavi incites Canakya to extirpate the Nanda is Sakajaja who does it. Of the trio BMsa, Kaviputr* Saumillaka or Bhasa, Saumilla and Kaviputra, BhSsa the author of

Trivadrum plays eulogised by Kslidasa, B&nu

(HC)

(Jalhana's Suktimuktavali)

may be

identified as the

famous
of

minister

of

Sfirya-prabha, sou of Candraprabha

and

a grand son

Angara

Prabha,

the sovereign lord of Sakalapuri in the

Madra

countries.

Saumilla

may

be considered as his son (Bhdsa eva Kavis tasya putrah Saumillakah) or he may be construed as the son of Kavi (Sudraka King of Sobhavati) in
succession
to

Bhnsa

in

the

field

Vinav&savadattam-, or Kaviputra

may

of dramaturgy having composed be construed as Sukrac&rya the author


first

of Sukraniti the 4th son of Kavi, the

also being

named Kavi (Mbh-

Kosa). The description of Sudraka given in Brhatkaths


"asti Sobhavatl

(BKM* 1

nsma nagarl Sampadam

nidhih.

bhuvo bhu?ana-maleva bhuriratnavirajini." babhuva Sudrakas tasyam yasasvl prthivlpatih,


bhargavadikathah kartyam
tasya

yad

viracaritair

yayuh."

Somaprabha nama lavanysmrta&Mm.

babhuva vallabha cittakaiiava^lini


along with Malavlyo mahasattavah karavalasakhodvijah,

deva

vlravaro

nama

sevsrtham

drasJumicchati

and

aharp devl mahibhartuh Sudrakas'yagravallabha.


tptlye'hni puraayur divaai eayati, referring to Sudraka as the King of Sobhavati having Somaprabha as his wife, abramana lad hailing from Malava having come to him for service. (KSSj 7 * omitting the name o Somparabha and referring to Dharmavati a^ the spouse of Viravara,
1

Sa ca deva ?

point of considering Viravara as a

Satyavara as his son and Vtravati as his daughter; both agreeing on the Brahmana lad from Malava, Sudraka

having been conferred the BOON of than a century. According to Dr,


aritsSgara

living

and

reigning

for

more
Katfids-

A.D.
i.e

Pusalkar*^ "The

makes him
is

uile

over Sobh&vaH
the

But

he

fourth vetala

wiong Kaths

m
as

illustrating

point

Karnfyaka or KalingaS'f that "According to the

given

in

the

Bj-hatkathamaiijari

Sudraka

is

stated to be the

above dispells

King of Vardhamftna" because BKM IX. 4.263 quoted this doubt. Mrcchakatika illustrates the entire story of

in the city of Ujjayini, .Sudraka evincing a close acquaintance with the remote nook and corner of the city, we can hardly go beyond a surmise that he had a sentimental ampliation unto that town

an internal Revolution

and therefore, had a domicile of that town. N.L. Deyt* takes Sobhsvati
as the birth place of

Buddha or Kanakamuui
to

identified

by P.C. Mookarji

as

Araura in the Nepalese Tarai a yojana

the east of Tilaum,

Sftmbodhi

XH

20

Sudarshan Kumar Sharma


of Ujjayini like VUila in the Meghad&a** was one of the most of Kslldtea. According to Dr. K C. Jain:*' "Malva in ancient Limes, and its influence of Indian important provinces of India

could also be a variant

name

culture

has
call
it

been
the

profound.
'Heart

Physically,
India'.
It

culturally and politically,

we

may
formed

of

is

the

passage

way

from
which

plateau North India to the Deccan. Malwa implies Kalmga and Saura?*ra. In the a political unit like Magadha, the name of Avanti but under famous became it B.C. Sixth Century onwards it was largely called 'MALVA". Hence from the fifth
the

region

century

a Junior contemporary King of Sobhavati referred to by Gunadhya of C&nalcya (4th Century B. C.) and Candragupta having Vlravara come to for us to constiue him as it convenient him from Malava can easily make a King of Kalinga or Karnataka as postulated by Dr. A.D. Pusalkar. But Vlravara could also come from the contiguous Malva regions of

SilJraka

Sauraitra.

Sobhsvatl therefore construed as Ujjayifii in Avanti subsequently construed as the Capital of Sudraka having close contact with this of the Mfcchakafika in line with the country completes his authorship authors BhSsa and Saumilla, of PratljMyaugnadharayana, Svapnavasavadattam and Vinsvasavadattam.

was

But a study of AvimSraka makes it equally cognisable that Bh&sa 47 (Multan and Jaliarwar) fairly acquainted with the kingdom of Sauvira

contiguous to Sindhu and the town named Rintipur on the Gomti a branch of the
Capital of Sauvira). Sauvlra could be

Vairantya* -Rintambur or Chatnbal (Roruka was the


to

contiguous

'Sakale"

the
as

town
the

proper of the

reigned sovereign lord of BhSsa, Prabh&sa, Siddhnrtha and Prahasta.

Madra country where "Surya Prabha"

Bh3sa and Sudraka (Kavl Putra or Kavi having a putra) Saumillaka could have been residents of Ujjayini originally
areas such as Kalinga, Karnataka they could have a better
the incidents occuring

along with but serving

in their professional careers as ministers the kings in different contiguous

beyond

the pale

reckoning of of their existence such as Avanti

Sauvira and Sakala,

of the Sakala King country named Suryaprabha, son of Candraprabha and grand son of Angaraprabha who could have been the rajas who were a corporation of warriors originally hailing from the ancient Ksatriya tribes of
in the

Hia:e

Bh^tsi could hivi enjoyed the patronage

Madra

vedic tin}5

la ^7,5

BC

Alex^ad?- b:oag'\t ths-u under sway.i-o

"Knw
01

Puttra" of Kalidasa

155

Kavi having putra as Saiimillaka the dramatist, or Bhdsa the dramatist the poet having Ins son as Saumillaka the dramatist or Bhssa and Kavi having his putra and Saumillaka, the dramatist convince one of the points
that Kavi Putra or Kavi having his putra could
far as
v

be

Sftdraka alone

in

so
ity

-Dvijamiikhyalumah

ICavh

babhflva

prathitah

Sudraka

agadhasatlvul/'so
along

withviksyu putiam paramasamudayensdvamedhena cesi-va; .4niabdarn da^adinasahitam Sudiako'gnim pravistah" 51

"Rsjamun

Labdhvu clyuh

And
Avantipurytlm
dvijiisfirlluviiho

yuva daiidrah kila Csrudalta\i:

gundiHirakta gauika ca tasya vasantuSobheva Vasantasens,

Tayor idam .satsurulotsav^rayarp. nayapracararp vyavaharadustatani; Khalusvabha'vam bluivitavyatani tatha cakara sarvam kila Sudrako Uj-pah. Sama'ravyasiuil pramfidasunyah kakudam. vedavidsm tapodhana^ ca
Paraviiiuna b.ihuyucldha lubdhah ksitipatah kila Sudrafco
afford us the

babhuva.

dear

clues.

Sudraka was
us SUdraka,

the

best

among

the

best of the

dvijas-ksatnyaw nr entitled *kavf well

Br.ihmanas

(preferably

known
he

Ksatriyas Having seen his

here).

He was
as

son

King
to fire

he entered

lire

i.c

died

and

his

frame

was

consigned

after an ago of one hundred years and ten days. He was 'KLsitipSla' and a Mij-pu' who created a plethora of characters who belonged

walks of life such as logucs and rakes, dissolute profligates. Since GunStlhya refers to CAnakya and so also does Stidraka, we can easily
to all

construe them as having nourished after C&nakya

(Candragupta Maurya)

as contemporaries, Sudraka outliving GunSdhya, Gunadhya's allusion to BhSsa and Xiidraka both and Sudraka' s allusion to the characters pf
as Gopnlaka, P&Iaka, Yatfgandharsyana LTdayunn plays, of Bhusa such convince one of tlio point that Bh&sa was decidedly an elder_ contemporary also refering to Aryaka son of latter the Sudraka and of both Uunadhya

Gopaluka

and

Clmldhya

missing

to

refer

to

Bsnabhatta referring to Avanti-Vardliana, son of Piilaka; Lotd of the Cakoras being attached to his chamberlain,
with his ministers deprived of
life

Aryaka and referring to C( Candraketu

was

along

emissary of Sudraka^ also rid of Candraketu the refers to an historical allusion whereby Ssdraka got with his overlord of Cakoras through his own secret emissary, along a doorkeeper own min is ten fond as he was of a Chamberlain or of

by an

or a portress.

156

Sudarshctn

Kumar
5 s

Shartfta

'Cakora' was situated to the According to Di. V, S Agravsla South- West of Ujjayinl the Capital of the Lata country where reigned Cafana. It was formerly included in the reign of Gautamlputra. Two generations before the reign of Gautamiputra Satakarni Cakora
capital of Satakarni. He was probably known as Candraketu. It perhaps whom the emissary of Siidraka got killed. According to Prof. K. D. Bajpai s<i , Cakora is identical with the Caranadri or Sunara

was the
was
lie

in the Miizapur District of Uttara Pradesa. But the Vidyadharendra Candraketu contemporary of the Brahmadattas of Varauasi referred to in Taranga 11(90-126)57 appears to be the most probable counterpart of the Cakoranatha killed by the emissary of Siidraka in

XVUth Lambaka
company of
i.e.

his councillors addicted


portress, preferred to
in

as

lie

was

too

much

unto

his

Chamberlain or

by Sana being the ruler of Cakoia


district

Caranadri or Cunara

the

Mirzapura

of Uttaraprade&i.

Hence Kaviputra being


i.e.

the Putra of Kavi

be the appropriate suggestive connotations of the line written by Kalid&sa. Bhasa the poet having a sou named Saumillaka brushes aside the name of Sudraka whom KalidSsa
could hardly omit through a covert allusion to be unravelled by the researchers of posterity. In the Colophon to the IVth AdhySya of Sukranni vefse 4285 s the writer has extolled the Niti of Kavi as unparalelled in
the triod of worlds. 'Kdvyd nitilf according to hirn
is

Siidraka having a son Saurnillaka or to Sftdraka having a Putra appeal,

i.e. Siidraka or Bhasa and Kavi Bhasa Sauinilhika and Kavi i.e.

the real mti. Others

according to
givers

him are

the dicta

of 'Kuiiltih' for toe


to

Vyavaharitis
his

or

law

amongst

whom
calls

he has referred

many

as

verse 426.

He

himself as

'Bhnrgava'sv the author

predecessors in of 2200 Verses

in nitis&ra. If

the

first

named a lso Kavi we can do well

Kslidasa meant 'Kaviputra* dukracSryct the eighth son of Kavt, to place the author of this
or
else

treatise in the early centuries before Christ

how could he

b;

if taken down to the later centuries of the placed before Kalidssa even Christian era or how could Kslidlsa dare to refer to him in his Malavithiid is the honorific title of SukrScSrya referred kagnimitrara. 'U&analf

to

by the Sanskrit writers.


Tn Paficatantra of Visnu&irma
(5th

or

6th

Century

AD)

UfanSfi

is

believed to have

composed

Sastra for

Ravami

"durgas trikutah. parikhs

sarnudro;

rakssmsi yodha dhanadad ca vittaqi;


Sasfcrarp cti

yasya U^anasa pranitarp

sa

Ravano daivava^ad vipatmah'e

puttra" of

Mid&sa

fa

This can back dale the composition of &ukramn as Ufanoniti to of the Rarnayaua as such the epoch In Rsmayana o f Vghmki is described as a II.25-23,i he in the Sage
lesiding

Dandakavana.

Kau&Iyii
iattei's

had

puiyecl
In

Ibi

his

help

in

favour
]

of
lllb

exile.

the

same

text

Vli 16"2 g u i vlu


elder

beeij

Rama dunntr ^u^,.^^


of
the

as a minister

of ICubera. Kubera being the


to

brolhei

Sukia referred

by Visnusauna as

Uknah

could well he

Ravana, same 'as

the Minister of ICubera


also

been a

who wtote the Sastia for Ravana He could have minister of Ravana In Sukramti 63 1.113 Ravana has been
along with India,

illustrated as a person

Dandakya and
Paulastya

Nahusa
has
also

who
been

met

their

doom on

account of their addiction unto wives of others. But


raksasa

141-145 Ravana leferred to as

illustrated iu line with

Dsndakya, Janamejaya, Aila the Rajarsi, an asura


lost

named Vatapl, having


person who enjoyed
this

his

life

due

to

Jauiadagnya (ParasurStna) and Ambarlsa have been ueated


earth foi

pride (maiiad). of

In 1.146
as

suave
ans-

long aftei having vanquished the

advargn. In I-152-1536* 158, trayi (the triad of vedas) has been mentioned. But in 1.155 67 (.VedSb catvaio) Vedas as four in uurabei have been lefeiied
to,

Athaiva veda being

a specialised

tieatisc

though

the

Xth

Mandala

of

Rgvedn

as

the

manual

synchronising of iitual has

with

been

one composite whole. Cannons"* have been refeired to along with Qun Power. This has misled niauy an erudite scholar to put forward the view that Sukranltih or Ufanonitih 01 Bhargavamtih could not have
segregated, to

been written before 8th Century A.D., when

Gun powder and gun making

came into actual vogue

after a gap of

long centuries. In IV. 7. 200-20 J6

for fully enunciated the specific powders and their measures have been the composition of the Gun powder to be used for explosion in small cannons and the bigger ones carriageable on the Carts as well as the

big

(Pravahyam^akatadyaistu). Suvarcilarvanagandhaka-arka-snuhi-substances to the ancient norm forming the compounds of Gun powder certainly refer

and not

to

the

modern norm

necessarily

Hence
68

the antiquity of the

work

cannot be gainsayed.
with
If. 18

KauWya

XIII 4.19-21 p,263


5,

Part-1

Kangle

(AyudhSgara

(SOU as

6) p.

KAS

pp 150-151 and p. 566 leferring our jescue here equally comes to


pi va)

to Agnicurna

Part II R. P. Kangle and Sthita and Calayantras


point

m expounding this

(goto lohamoyo

garbhaguiikah kevalo'pi va; sisasya

laghunalartharp

hy anyadhatubhavo'

Lohasaramayam vapi nalastram tvauyadhatujam.


nityasarmnarjana-svacchaniastrapatibhir
nvrtam). IV.7 204-205
refers

to

1^
cannonballs
bullets

Sudarshart

Kumar SharHM

other

metal

bullet, stuffed witniii th made of uon or having tiny Gun (Laghunalartha) or made of som made of lead for the small 206-210 aefexs to Coal 7. IV.

c^ble of ending

Sulphur

nitre, haritsla,

N-Mrasa]
lionately

Sa^U.niiyW
combined
indicate

KSata rajas ^arpura, Jatu lead pooler, Hingvla, or proper these mixed up equally all

to create the

formulas

an indigenous

Gun powder. Their nomenclature touch and not a bonowed one

an,

fro,

alien intruders.

The Greeks allied


-Srutismrtl

to

in have been referred to by Sukra

ydvanam 'Kavyani de&bha ? a-vakarokti-r

matam
ye mitcm*

vma dharma-dharnmu

stas tac ca

tad y3vana,h Srutyadibiiinnadlunamo'sti yacca

And
kutasadrsam Dhairaayuddhc tu kukvai na yuddarn " ua^anam balavadripoh
na
s,anti

niyatnah ami;

RamaKrsnendradidevaih,
kutaraevaSritam pura, Kutena nihato balirYavatio

73 naniucis tatha"

But obseived minutely

and

"Y&vanam matam" referred adharma divested of the


line

to

above
of
at

as

one

in

which

dliarn
i

dicta

which

of action or code of conduct

and smifti or one vanauce with the dicta


sruti

<

drutismrti

makes

it

evidently clear that

Atharva vedic cult

of

Vratyi

the progeny of tl and d&samiyaa immune from Upanayana being the last instam is meant here. In intermixture of the three varnas refers to K&layam line with Numuci quoting Yavaita having killed

an asura born from the

'teja

of GargScaiya.'74
gargatejo'

"Yah Kalayavanah khyato


bhavisyati

bhi

samvrtah

vadhas

tasya

matta

eva

dvijottama."

It

hardly refers tu the Greeks following the


this

Macedonian-invasion

Apart from

'Prthak prthak knyabhir hi kalabhedas tu jiiyutc;

Yam yam

kalaxa sama^ntya tanflamna


'Jails'

Jdtir ucyate'1

refers

to

professional origin of

along with

Puttra" of Kalidasct
ca
Sasti

W9
yah
o

'asatyavadinam gudhacaram naiva


Sah nrpo 'mleccha' ityukta

the defining in alliance with bhrtaka by Kauttlya?? on the Revenue side has its variation in Sucaka and stobhaka the spy 19 and the intelligence officer of Sukra'

prajapranadhanspalmh'"'

term 'Mleccha'.

Sucaka referred to

is an "na kasicid vadham arhati" exception referred to by Sukra with-"Tasmat saivaprayatnena vadhadandam tyajen nrpah"B. sukra the fourfold enunciated classification has of Jati by Brahma through which segiegation through or ssmkarya professional asamkarya, pratiloma and anuloma mode of marital ties assumed a limitless norm an

along

of
the

which

it

is

not possible to give. 8


segtegation

He

is critical

account of those who evaluate

congenital

of

the

four castes.

ta

"Manyante jstibhedam ye manusyansm tn janmana, eva hi vijsnanti parthakyam namakarmabhih"s2

Apart from this


born becomes low
with high

"A high bom when come bom by birth. But a low born

into contact with a low

when come
birth.
8 3

into contact

born does not become high born even by

Concepts like these along with 32 lores and sixty four fine arts referred IV 3.233 A. recounted in IV 3.26-29** fully and to in individually 86 with specific allusion to the names of Manti* explained in IV 3.30-64
1

and

KanSda 8 ^ and Vasistha 8 ^

tn

IV5 232-233

Svamahatvacca yo divyam na kurysj jnanadarpatah


Vasisthadyaritam nityam sah naro dharmataskarah" along with

"MTmamsavedavalcyanam
"Cittavrttinirodhas tu

saiva nyayah

praklrtitah"9

pranasamyamanadibhih,
1

tadyogasSastram vijfleyam yasmindhyanasamadhitah"^

Srutismytyavirodhena

rajavrttadi^sanam,
7

Suyuktya' rtharjanarn yatra hy artha^Sstram tad ucyate

'? 2

Sa^adibhedatah puriisam anukfilsdibhedatah,

Padrninyadiprabhedena strinam sviysdibhedatah,


tat

ksma^strarn sattvadeh laksma

yattSsti

cobhayoh."53

illustrating the

naming

NySya, Yoga and Arlhalsstram and KgmasSstra without their authors Gautam, Patafijali, Bfhaspati or Kautilya and make itself evident that Sukra knew the names of Mann,

Sudarshan

Kumar Sharma
of

Kanada and

Va^ha and

the

names

Qautam,

Patanjali,
his

Bjhaspati,

were alien to Kautilya and Vatsy^aun


nor contempoiaries

him being

neither

predecessor

his Arthatestra 01

with Kaulilya and Sukra does not evince any acquaintance lie had full Vatsyiyana and his Katnasiitra though of Nyaya-Vataesika through the psychic activity cognisance of the theory Science of the Polity and had the knowledge of of Samkhya and Yoga sections of Mahsbhsrata and had the fust hand through the rajadharma of Vedas, Vedarigas, his study through knowledge of the Ksmafestra, of the Prosody in TV 3.45-46, that Sutras His expert knowledge
At
least

Kalpa

of Ganita-Jyotwa

in

IV

3.44.7
in IV, 3

Samkhya

and

Vedanta

TV 48-49,

Puranam Paflcalaksanam

52-53 and that of Smrtis

ir~

Varnadidharmasmranam yatra vedsvirodhakam,


Kirttanam cBrthaStasrgnSDi
(pp 228-29)
All these

smrtih sa ca prakirttita. in

IV

3.53-54

make

it

to utilyan epoch. His allusion


in
his

amply manifest that Sukra belonged to the preKa 'Nanaka I(>4 a CO m referred to by Sudraka

makastkn" etc 182 and 308 M.


a
little earlier

Mrcchakatika (1.23 p 30 M.R. KALE) "esa nsnaka mos*ka: referred to also and Ksyastha 9 ^ by Suclraka (pp the same view that he was R. Kale) also confirms
than Sudraka and Cfinakya who has been referred to by Brhatkatha alluding to 'Agncysstra' in X.4.194 and "Dinara"
it.

the latter. 9

in X.4.214,222,228 equally confirms

To conclude

this?

dissertation

it

becomes pertinent

to

remark

lhat

a Putru Kaviputra" in contemporaneity of 'Kavipittra' or 'Kavi' having Bhasa and Saumilla the three having a kinship through birth or in the form of pation and protege as such within the span of a Century referred
lo

by Kalidasa within the prologue of his play Mslavikagmmitram could be Sudraka the famous author of Mrcchakatika and Sukracarya the

famous author of Sukraniti meant as such pvmningly by Kalidasa. Footnotes


1.

Paper read at the All India Oriental Conference 33rd Session Calcutta held from Oct 24-26,1986.
Lectiuei Senior Scale in
(Pb) 151001.

2.

Sanskrit

Govt

Rajindra.

College

Balliindu

3.

Kale. M.R, Revised by Dave.

Prof.

Jaysnand,

A.R,

Slieth

&
4

Co;
p.4,

published by.Mahendra A. Sheth, Princess Street,

Bombay-2, 1960

"Kavi Pittn" ofKelidssa


4.

161

Tver

1C.

A. Subiamania. Rahindra

Bhavan,

New Ddhi-1 10001

1st

1978, lextp-2.
5.

Kalidasa graWhavali Kitshi Hindu Visva-Vid^ulaja-1976, p-259,


Booksellers Publishing

6
7.

Co

Indological Book Series,

C. K

Bombay-4, 1958, p-4 38/16 Buns PhRtak,

VSrSnsi,

1964,

Text
8.

p--3.

9.

Saganlca trauussiki X1J 1-2, KilidSsa Visesanka-J973, p-144 KHlidasa- Date Life and Works, Bombay,

Popular

Prakashan,

Sept, 1969, p, 52 and

Kaljdgsa (Hindi edition)

Hindi Grautha Ralnakara (private) Limited, Bombay, Second Revised Ed. Sepl 1955, p, 141
10.

Kalidasa His
-

style

and

His

times,

NM,

Tripathi Private

Limited

Bombay, 196611.

pp. 37

and 321

BHASA
Post

A STUDY - MESSERS MUNSHI RAM


1165,

Manohnr Lai

Box

Nai Sarak DeIhi-6 CH-l pp.

1-

2-3.

12. tau

Sudraka-kathakarau ramyau RsmilaSomilau; Kayyatp yayordvayoi


SQktimuktavali
p,

asld ardhanarlivaropamam.

43

RSjaiekhata Kavyamlmamsa Ed by C, D. Dalai, and R, A. Sastry revised and enlarged by K.S. Rama Shastn Srauta Pa*ndita-0rientel

13.

Third Ed. 1934 Explanatory notes. * Intitule Baroda Verses 1-132 Text edited by Jagadlfo Lain &gtri 1st Edition 1970

Messrs Moli Lai Banarsi Dass-Delhi-110007.


14.

Raghavan Dr.

V.

1946 published

by

the the

Srmivasa

fress

TiruvSdi

for the Administrtive Committee of


lylalial

Mahsrsjo

S^rfojj Saraswati

Library Tanjore.

15.

Artha^stragunagraln jyestyo

Gopslakah sytah; Devdhar C.R.

Gandhatvadvesi vyayamaisli espy anupSlakah"


Hhasanskfca Cakratfa, Oriental
1962 p-80
16. Ibid.

Book

Agency, 15 Shukrawar Poona

296
Ll]a,KathaSarilsRgaia
1

17. SSstri Jagdl^a

Ml 8. p.

14

MotiLal Banarsi

Dass Delhi-1 10007 1970


18.
19.

Ibid 1-5 124.


Ibid IV
3.64 p. 92 IV 3 73 p. 93.

20.

Myccakatika,

KALE
XVI

M R,,

Booksellers
p.152.

Publishing

Co.

Mchendalc

Building, V.P. Road,

Bombay 1962
1,2,13 p. 529,

20

KSS

Slmstri J.L,
2i

Sambodhi XII

>fi%

Sudarshan Kumar Sharmn

21.

of Malatl-Madhava Already established by me in my paper 'Saftjaya of Bhavabhiiti having impact on the authorship and date of VlnavaNov 6-8 1985. ATOC Ahmedabad 3^nd at read a paper savadattam' 22. Vlaavasavadattam IV p. 65 published by Kuppusvaitu Sastrl Research Sarma with a by K.V Institute Myalapore Madras-4 1962 Ed. foreword by
23-25

Dr

V.

RAGHVAN.
I

Kale M.R., Mrcchakafika


1962.

4.5

p.

8,

Booksellers

Publishing

Co.

Bombay-4
26

Introduction to Mudrarsksasa Nalaka-Katha ed

by Dr V. Raghavan.

Published by the Srinivasa Press Tiruvadi Maharaja Sarfoji Saraswati Mahal Library Tanjore pp. 83-84 Cff-23
27.

BKM-I
1982.

2,68. p.

12

Mehar Chand Lacchntan Dass New Delhi


3.20-21 p. 6 Messrs

110002.

28.

KSS. JL

Shastri 1970

Moti Lai

Banarsi Dass

Delhi-1 10007.
29. pp. 308, 311,

313

30. pp. 414, 416


31.

BKM

pp. 137, 138


1

Madresu Sskalapura Raja Candraprabho bhavat.


Suryaprabho' bhavat sfinuh pratapaktantabhudharah.

babhuvuh sacivas tasya samagragunadarpanSh. MaharthaS ca Prabhava^ ca Bh&sah Siddharthakas


32.

tatha,

KSS
KSS.

VIII
I.
I.

1.

17,

19, 20, 25, pp.

204-205

33.
34.

BKM

1.1

69-71 p-6

1.64-65 1-1

3.x Ibid I 4.18, 22, 25, 36.


37.

BKM.
KSS.
I

2.71.72

pp 12-13

5.114 123 p. 14.

38.

BKM
KSS

39.

J 5.124 p.

2.216-217 p. 24 14
Abhijflas5kuntala

40. Kslidasa,

VI 28 p

568, Kalidasa Granthavall by

Dr. Rev;! Prasada Dwivedi, Kashi Hindi VisvavidySlaya 1976


41.

JX 4
XII
1

263, 264, 268, 270, 299 pp. 308, 9, 311


1-4,' 5, 8, 9 3

42.

68 vetses pp. 414-416

nama satyakhya nagari bhuyi; yasysm ca Sudrakakhyo' bhud bhupatih prajyavikramah;


asti i'obhSvatl

tarn kadacinmartipalanp

priya^urara upayayauj

sevffrtham m^lavgd

eko

nsmng Vjravarp

dvijah,

Putra' of Kalidasa

yasya dharmavats nama bharya satyavarali suial* Kanya Vlravara ceti tiayam gj-hapaiicchdah.
along with

43.
44.

murdhopahai ena raja jlvatu iWm/ia/j; auyad varsasataui devl kuryad rsjyani akantakam. Authorship aud Date of MrechakaUka p. 34 JAHRS XI 1937
Geographical Dictionary oP Ancient and Mediaeval India

Mama

45.

Meghadula, Dr. Aggarwal Mahal Prakasban Delhi-6,


Suiesh Chandra Benerji

V.S.,

1971

Purva-hhaga Verse 30 p. 171 Ra| Second Edition, Kalidasa Kosa, Dr.


first

p. 32,

Cho\vkhanba Publiculiort 1968


p.

ud.

46.

Malwa through
Delhi-1 10007.

the Ages,

Ch

II

15

Moli Lai Banarsi Dass.

1972

47-48. Bhasa a Study by Di


49.

AD,

Pusalkat pp. 339-40 and 346


published by Society A&iatique of

HGUAI
PARIS
1

Dr.

D.C SIRCAR p. 124 Rue de Sethe PARIC VI


I.

France 1968

50.

Mrcchakatika
1.

p.

tt

51-53. Ibid
54. E.B.

6f

7, 5 p.

Cowell aud F.W. Thomas, Harfcicarita of Bsria English translation page 193 Messrs Moti Lai Batiarsi Dass Delhi-110007 1962 'Utsaraka ruciip ca rahasj sasacavameva dvricakaru
l

HC
55.

Cakorauathani Sudrakadutajj, Caudra-fcetuiji jivitat VI p. 695 pp. 5-6 'Calcutta ed IVth 1939

Harsacarita Eka Samskrtika Adbya>ana, Bihar

Rakablja?3 ?ati?ad

Patna 1953 Cff 2


56.

p.

133

of Ancient and Geographical Encyclopaedia 1967 Academy, VsrSnasi Pt-I A.D.

Mediaeval

India.

India

57.
58.

KSS

544-45

MBD

Delhi 110007 1920

Ed JL SASTRI

na Kaveh
Kavyaiva

sadrii niti strisu


nltir

lokesu vidyate;

Caukhamba Sk
59.

am anya tu kunitir vyavahsrm 395 series ed. Varanasi 1968 p.


ibid

Msnmdyair

dvwtefati tadartho bh.rgavena vai; ad^to yorthab

Mm
v.

^lokah Mtisare prakirttitah.

Jss STSSTSS,
11.89. p. 63
61.
t

StimiulvEtalki

RWiayanam

Part-I Git, Press

ed.

Text

and English

,,

,.

338 translation 1969 p.

\(\4

Sudarshan
Ibid Fait IJi p.

kumur Shamiu
gadadharan

n2.

1954. talo durad pradadrde dhana^Jayakso

Sukiaprausthapada&liyani. ca Sankhapadmasamaurteli.
63.

Brahmasartkara
p. 23,

Mishra-Gmkhamba
67 Ibid
p.

Sanskrit series ed. 1968

64-65 IBID
66-67. Ibid
68.

24

Pp.

2425
I

Yamikaih raksjto nityam nalikastrais ca s,amyuta. brhanuallkam and loghuualikayuktiDani Ibjd I 239 p. 36 and
7.22,

24 pp. 330, 331.


nasti

Yadarnafitrikam
Ibid

nslikam
p. 357.

tatra "~

dhaiayet...

IV 7.192

Nalikam dvividham jfteyam

brlmtksudravibhedatah

Tiryagurdhvacchidramularii nalarfi paflcavitastikam,

Mulagrayorlaksyabliedi tilabinduyutam sada. Ibid IV 7.194-195 p. 357

Yautragh3t4$aikrd

gravacQmadhrkkat y auiulakaiu
ca

SukaBtbopafigabudhnam
etat

isadhyaiigulabilantar<ini,

Svante' gaicBrna samgliatr

^alakasamyutam

drclhani,

pradharyam pattisadlbhilr
durabhedi
tatU.ita.tlia:

tu tvikgaratp yatba sthulabjljataraaj;

tat,

kstha
uyvkta^i vijayapradaui
'pp.

357-358.

59. Ibid

3,5,$.
srt

paflcapalsni gajidliakst

palaip..

vijjakvarka Snuliysdya^garatah palaiii, saipgrabya suftcurnya samuiilya prapute<feasaih.

Souhyarklnam rasonasya bosayedgtapena ca


Pi?va &irkaravac;caitadaguicurnam bhavfed bha'u, Suvarcilavanadbhagah sa^va catvara eva vs.
nalastrarthgghicurharthe gandhaugarau tu purvavat.

70

Aflggrasyaiva gandhasya Suvaicilavauasya ca; Silsysh l^ritalasya tatha Sisamalasya ca; hingulasya tathff" karpurasya ca.
Jatornilyafca saralaniryasasya

kmtanjasob

tathaiva ca.

Samanyu-nadhi^kaifam-b'airaghi-currjanygnekasah Kulpayatiti ca tadvidyaccandriks bhadimantica Ksipanti cs-

t>Mfa of kaii

gimamyogad laksam gok Sunalagam


dadyattatragujcui uakain.

ualadyam

Sodhaycdadau.

nivesayettaddandenu nalamule yutha drdbam tatah siigolakam


dadyat
tatalj

kame'gmdirnakani.

Karnacuniagnidanena golam Jaksye mpatayet.


71.

Ibid IV 3.29 p, 225 Ibid


Ibid

72.
73. 74.

TV
IV

3,63 p. 231

7.362364

p.

384.

Mbh. Sauti purva


Sukraniti
Ibid
J

339.

95-96

75.
76.

IV 3.66 p. 231
49 IV. 5

338 p

293 p. 317.

77.

KA! II 8.29 32. p. 46 RP Kangle Part I published by T.V. Chidambiam Registiar University of Bombay Foil Bombay Dec 1960
Sukraniti
Ibid

78.

IV
p.

6770
196

p. 280

79
80.

IV 1.92

Ibid IV

1.93 p. 196
p.

81. Ibid 82. Ibid 83.

IV 3.11-12 IV

223

jf.12-13 p. 223 tu janmanali;

Uttamo nfce saqisurge bhavcii njcas

nice bhaveu uotlainas tu samsargsd vapi janmand. Ibid IV


84.

314

p,

223

Jbid p. ,225

^85. !J.gyajuI?&Sina cMftLaivji

yfdsh iyut dbanulj

kianiai;

ggtidlaarva^

caiva taotraui upavedah

praklrttitaJ>.

tathaj Sikaa vyakaranam kalpo uiruktam jyautisam vedacsm Jcirtita mihi; Cliandah

fjadaAganimam

IVjItuatDSl-tajrka-sSiakUyaui

vedaitfo yoga eva ca;

nastikam raatam; itihasah pursnain smftaya

Kavyaai desabha?avasaroktir dessdidharma dvatrimSatl eta


I

arthatestraw kauia&stram tatha Spamalankrtih yvanam matain;

225 vidysbhisauwfiitafc. ibid p.

86. 87.
88.

Ibid pp.

226231
Kr ? un
prokta Manvadyaili brahmaftadiau

Ibid IV 3.12 p. 224 S*rachadaih


Ibid IV 3.47.48 p. 228

piamapatah. bh-TvabhavapadaTthanam pratyak?adi matam ca yat. Saviveko yati-a tarkah Kanadsdi


89. Tbid p.

306

ill

iv jjfi

91, Ibid

1? 3,50-51
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92,

93,

1 M

IV

155-56

p,

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3,5WI

p,

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l

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295
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95, Ibid 11

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of Manuscripts in Gaekwad's Oriental Series No'. LXXVI,


**^H
H^ll ci^H ov cinl
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Baroda
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IV.

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Ed Muni Punyavijaya Catalogue of Palm 'leaf Manuscripts in the Smttmtha Jain Shandara, Cambay (pt-l),Gos No. 135 Baroda 1961, 117118. p.

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Krsnakridita of Raula
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Kanha

Aa Ofd

Gujarat i Krlshnite

Poem

of the

iSth cent.

edited for the

first

time from three Manuscripts

by

H. C. Bhayani

This

is

an important Old Gujarati poem not


first

later

than the 15th cent.

A. D, and published here for the

time,

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text is

based on three

MSS,

the earliest of

which

is

dated 1571 V,S

(i. e,

1515 A, D.). The

poem

contains 108
rati

stanzas, the last nine of which are in Sanskrit,

The Old Guja-

verses are in the Sardulavikndita metre


is

and

this fact is significant

because Old Gujarat! verse literature


that

mostly in Matra-metres and De&s

were sung in popular

melodies.

The poem
of

falls into three parts.

The

first

part describes love-sports


relates

Krsna

with Rsdhs and

Candravati,

The second part


is

to the

Rasa-lila and Vastra-haiana-Ma, The third part


of the poet's fervent devotion

mainly an expression
merit, It is also

The poem has considerable

of Vaisnavism in important for the pre-Vallabhaite period of the history

Gujarat.

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detachment, honest observation, logical conclucan help an individual tp

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these

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Atmabodha
Introduction

(Alocana) of Padmanandi

(With Introduction and translation) Editor-Translator-Y, S Shastri

In the line of Jaiua wnteis, one and the

same

name

is

borne

by

many

authors belonging to different periods of time


Saints and wuters
to
is list

Theie have

been

many Jama
ces.

bearing

the

name Padmanandi and we


different

have been able

about eighteen Padmanandis from

sour-

Padmanandi

anothei

name

of KundaKuudacSrya.l
is

The

author of
than Aka-

the Prakj'tavrUi on Pafica-sangraha


latika.2

Padmanandi who

is later

Padmanandi^
is

also called Siddhanti


in Jain
)

CakreSvara, who flourished

in

Saka 997,

mentioned
(

inscriptions

budvipapaiindtti

a prakrt-Text

who

flourished
is

The author of the Jamin circa end of the

tenth or beginning of the llth

centuiy A.D,

Padmanandi.4 The author


is

of Dharnma rasayana

was Padmanandi. a There


in
is

another

Padmanandi

who
ain,

belongs to Senagaua and flourished

chca 9th century

D.

Ag-

Aviddhakurana Padmanandi-Siddhaiitika

referred to in an inscri-

ption of A.D. 1163.7

A
in

disciple

of Naykirti was Padmanandi, whose


dated A.D.
1181,
is

name
1206.8
in

is

mentioned

some

inscriptions

1195

and

Padmanandi was pupil of Ramanandi.9 whose name

mentioned

PanditalO was one of

A.D. an inscription, of the middle of the 12th century the pupils of Adhyatma Subhacandra who

Padmanandi
flouri-

shed in the

end

of

the

13th

Padmaaandt Bhattarakadeva,H
(1)

a discipteof

and beginning of the 14th century A.D, Hanasoge Bahubali Maladhar126.

2
13)

Eputrachic. Carnatika-Vol. U, Panca Sangraha-Introduction, Pub


Jaina Silalekha Sa.graha-Part
?
II

P-64, 66 and Indian Aatiquary-XXHI


:

Bharatiya Jnaua Pith, Banuc.


:

p^

Pub

[i960, Manikacandra Digambara Jaiua GranM.

(4)

US tSS^ H l ^ - A
BhakaSap iay ae
Sanskilti
:

S^,, ,.
Jaina

Di^bara
ed:

Orantha.a,,

P.

******
1958,

16 ,

O. H.

Samrakaka Sangha Sholopur


Carnntika-TI, SB, No. 64
1

P-3.

(7)

Epigraphwft

-387.

4(j

Atmabodha

Padmanandi, flouushed in end of the 13th and beginning of the 14tn century A D and he was a pupil of Traividyadcva of KundaKuudanvaya,l2 Padmanandi Bhattgraka succeeded Prabhideva, flourished in saka 1225

acdndra on the pontifical seat at Delhi, since VS. 1385 to 1450 (=13281393;. He was the authoi of Bhsvana Paddhaii and Jlrapalli Par^vanathaStotra 13 This Padmanandi was veiy popular and he consecrated an image
1450 '4 He was so famous that some in the ycai, Samvat of the scholars presumed that, he was the authoi of twentyfive small tre5 There aie some more Padatises, known as Padmanandi PancavimaSati.l manandis!6 who flourished in 16th, 17th and 18th centmies A.D. But the

of Admalha

author of Padmanandi Paflca-vim&ti

(
)

in

which our piesent work Atm

seems to be quite diffeient from all these above mentioned Padmanandis, because he is a disciple of Vlranandi, the author of Acarasara with Svopajfiavrtti m Kannada Ianguagel7.

abodha

01

Alocana

is

also

included

This Padmanandi

clearly mentions his guru's

name

as

Viranandi in his

works

viz.

Dhaimopade^amrtara,
he
is

Alocana. 18 So,

and from

the

Danopade^anam and Atmabodha or from other Padmanandis in general Bhattaraka Padmanandi ( 14th cenury ) in particular. It is
quite different

very difficult to fix the exact date of this Padmanandi, still we can say that, he flourished in the first or second quarter of the 12th century A. D. on the basis of the following observations: Out of 25 small treatises of

Padmanandi Ekatvasaptati
Jaina Writers.

We

is very famous and, it is often quoted by find verses quoted from Ekatvasaptati, in the works of

<12) Epigraphica Carnatika


(13)

-SB No.

-269.

BhatfarakasampradSya - P-92.

(14) Ibid- P.92

(15) (16)

Kartikeyanupreksa-Inlroductkm,- A.
(a)

Upadhye
Hetnacandra- BhatfSraka Sampra1

Padmanandi (V.S.- 1576) a


dSya P, 247

disciple of

(b)
(c)

(d)
(e)

Padmanandi (Samvat - 1600), disciple of Sakalakirti Ibid-P208. Padmanadi (Samvat - 1683), -pupil of RSmakirti - Ibid - P. 158. Padmanandi (SamvaL - 1773), disciple of Candra kirti Ibid - P. 125 Padmanandi (V.S J850), disciple of Devendrakirt: Ibid
P. 78.'
.

(17) (18)

PravacanasSra-Introduction -ed
(a) 'Sa Srigururdifolu

A.N, Upadhye, P -104.

me

inunivlranandi'-

Padmanandi Pancavim&ti.ed A N. Jaina Grantha mala No-10, Sholapur, 1962' P - 77.


(b)

Dharmopade^mrtarn-Verse - 197 Upadhye and H.L, Jaina, Jivaraja


Sanjan.taprabhSvah'-

'Ratnatrayabharanavlramunmdrpadapadmadvaya DSnopades'anam- Ibid - Verse - 54, p - 90.


Snvire,m

(c)

mama

prasanna maaasl kmcittaduccaih padaprSptyartham

Introduction

12th century writers such as Jayasenal9 and Padmaprabha.-O Jayase flourished in the beginning of the 12th century and commented upi
PaftcSstikaya and

Padmaprabha Maladhaiideva

flourished in the

midd

of the 12th century A.D. and commented on Niyamasaia. Piabhacandra the Ratnakaiandaka Sravakacara in his commentaiy on quotes tv
verses

from Padmanandi's work He

fir

unshed

ciicu

end of the

12th

<

beginning of the 13th century We also find vetses quoted ftom Padni; nandi's work in the A^adhaia's Svopajfiavrtti22 O u Dhaimsmrta, wfc
lived in the 13th cxntuty

in the 10th

A D, Again, Padmanandi seems to be mfjuei ced by the writeis such as Sonidevasuii23 and Amitagati,24 who fJourishei and beginning of the llth century, A.D. respectively. Padn
lifted certain

anandi bodily
it

Hues fiom the Somadeva's Yasastilaka.

Sc

is

certain that our Padmanandi, the writei of twentyfive small

treat]

ses,

must have flourished

in the first
011

and 2nd quatter of the 12th centur


Ekatvasaptati, cleary mentions
thai

A.D. The Kannada commentary

Padmanandi is a contemporary of Nhnbadeva who flourished in 1136 A.D. 25 The Kanuada commentary on Ekatvasaptati mentions the won
'labdhatmaVftti' on the basis of which some scholars presume that,
tht

author himself has written the Kannada oommentary.26 But this possibi is ruled out because, the commentator Padmanandi is not a pupil oj
lity

Viranandi, but disciple of Subhacandra-Raddhantadeva and his VidySguru was a great scholar of is Kanakanandi Pandita." Though Padmanandi
Sanskrit, Prakrit and Kannada,
author. place of activity of our
still
it

is

He might

very difficult to specify the have lived in the Kannada

speaking area. This Atmahodha


rit
(

or Alocana )-a

hymn

of 33 verses

in.

fluent sansktreatises of

composed in iSardula metre is included along Padmanandi in a manuscript known as Padmanandi


(19)

with other

Paflcavirofati.

This

(20)

with Jayasena's comjayasena quotes 14th verse of Ekatvasaptati Pancastiksya mentary, gathS, 162. A.N. Upadhye, pub : Padmaprabha and commentary on the Niyamasata

Journal of the Umveisity of Bombay


(21)

11,

1942.

Ratnakaran^aka^SvakacSia
1925.

- Introduction

-pub- Manikacandra DJ. Granth-

(22) (23)
(24)

(25)

amala, 24, Bombay, - N. premi, Bombay, 1956 p - 342 F. Jaina Sahitya aur ItiJiSsa K, Handiqui, Sholapur, 1949. Ya&stilaka and Indian Culture - llnd ed N. premi' Bombay, 1956' p. 275, 'Jama Sahitya aur ItihSsa. - Introduction, p. 17. Padmanandi pancavimiSati - Introduction - p - 17 - 18. pancavin^ati

FF

Padmanandi

Svasti

&I

1 ^ubhflcandrarSddhantadevagrusisyena, Kaoakanandi pan^ila Vagra^m

of the Kanaa<^a -vikasita hrtkumudananda-... -concluding portion - Introduction, p - 17, 911 Ekatvasaptati

commentary

42
small work
is

Atmabodha
ci ideally

edited with an introduction

nslated into English

for the fiist

and accurately tratime on the basis of the MS. found

Ahraedabad under Punyavijayaji's collection at L.D, Institute of Indology, the heading of Ekatvasaptatikadi - Acarya - Padmanandi Krtisartgiaha,28
No. 4425/1 2/
This complete Ms. of 33 verses
consists of 3 folios (24

to 26 A),

containing 58 hues and 47 to 49 letters to a line.


is

25

1 (

K 11.5

cm.

It

is

hand-written
)

ui

The black ink on


is

size of

each page

the

hand made

papei

= country papei

Handwuting

left for full-slop

(-danda) aflei

veiy cleai and fair, space is completion of every verse. The Ms

on of

seems to be very old (circa 400 yeais ), solid in appearance and conditithe MS is very good. This work is written along with other works
it

of Padmanandi,, so,
it

begins after, the

woik Siddhastuti in the MS. and

'Few panditottama &n Padmanandinah. mistakes are found here and there. Possible corrections are shown in the
ends
with
k'ttin\ an\\Sia

bracket with

questionraark,29
is

To speak about this woik, it awarness or Alocana-self-confession,


is

tetraed

as

Atmabodha-self

It

seems

that

the
in

name AlocanS
the concluding

more popular than Atmafaodha. The author himself, it Alocana,30 An unknown Sanskrit calls verse,
commentary 00
is

commentator's

this
as

work,

ends

with

itynlocana

also

termed

ent of thought. This

Atmabodha on the name is more bifittjng

samaptd 31 This basis of the inner

work
curr-

to this work.

There are two

currents of thought running thioughout the hymn One is in the form of self-confession of one's own faults and another as in the foim of describing the nature of Atman and self-realization. Most of the verses are devoted to the latter. The author's statement that recitation

of

this

work

leads one to
title

the

abode of

bliss

in

the

concluding

verse, itself,

size, it is a very important hymn from the Jaina religious point of view. It seems to be a sponte neous expression of a mystic mind in its attempt to leahse the Supreme i.e-. Atman on the religious plane. This is full of hymn Reality rhythm, ~ "
(28) Published Catotogue,
(29) It
is

justifies the

Atmabodha. Though small in

"

very important to mention heie that

cal edition and English translation of this small treatise the printed book Padmanandi Pancavurndti, with Saoskiit commentary ed by A Upadhye and H. L. Jama came to our hand. We have made good use of it in Intro but we have duction, maintained our own critical

when we have completed the

criti-

readings,

and
'

different

readings accepted by those editors are


necessary.
(30) Sureh
(31)

mentioned

the

notes

wheiever

Pankajanandinah Krtunimraalocanam;~33
P-lgg'

Padmanandi-Pancavim^ati-AlocanS

Introduction

4$

vigour and insight, that inspire one for self-realization. This \u>rk ii in the form of a prayer. Piayei isnolluiig but ,i\ e\pics,suni oi inner dc\otion.

and praIt is a firm belief of the aiithoi that devotional thoughts yers directed towards Jineia bi ing the highest happiness (Liberation) here
in the

and now. The entiie hymn can be summaused The way shown by the Jma leads one to the
Self-awarnese realisation, of
is

following

manner

state of

self- realisation.

nothing but a sameness of all

state of
(

complete desirdessness and


).

the

Sam;it3

Jma

is

a perf.ict Soul

and

treasure of bliss. Meditating on him, with an unflinching faith, ntly

consta-

remembering

his

name and
life
i.e.,

following the path of three jewels, which


attains
will

consist of Right faith, Right knowledge and Right conduct, one

the highest object of


save one from

liberation).

Firm
death,

f;iith

in
is

Jina

the fear of bitth, old age and

Jma

for the worldly people who are parasel of shower-bath, in the \vorld i-, momentary the strong heat of mundane life. Everything and knowledge, and worthless, Jina-a perfect soul-is the only Reality, faith,

good tormented by

hVe

lity-is realised,

ultimata bhss and vigour belong to this Reality. If Jina-the then everything else, automatically becomes known

Rea-

and

attained. Thus, Jiua should only be prayed, remnothing remains to be

embered and saluted.


Whatever blemishes occur, through
tice

sins occur thereby of religious duties and whatever

negligence and doubt in the pracwill become null

and void
is

after confessing ones

own

faults in the presence of Jioa.

Jtne&
Lord.
nul

omniscient, knows everything.

Still,

for purification of one's

own mind,

one

The

"<n i r
tl exed, deluded and ossible to axp,a

in the presence of "as to cofess ones own faults ornament divest ones self from of self-confession is to main

purpose

: man
I

conm

ta.

uo

- -:" -- -^

from

enu

^ ^ ^^
is

solemn an so deep med.tat,on I,m. Mmd ,o the state of

"

^.ptotion. H
very
.,

the only

^
,

<(

t ,0,

to

lly

through concentrating

rt

the

Supreme

Self.

TWS mU ndane
iMSS In
.

Hfe

this

44
realisation of pure

Atmabadha
knowledge which
state,
is

indescribable in terms of
gross, neither

human

language. In
;

this

Atman

is

neithei

nor nentei neither heavy nor


Consciousness.

light. It is

male nor female a formless state of pure absolute

Tt is a body that is affected by birth, old age, disease, agony and death. Atman is pure spirit and untouched by all these. Thus attachment to everything including the body has to be given up It is on account

of enjoyment of worldly objects through senses and the mind, that Karmic
particles enter the soul and the individual self to the wheel of mundane life. Realising the unreality of the sense-objects enjoyment and the sepa-

rateness of the

Atmam from

the material

body,

one

can

attain

real

peace. Attachment and aveision are the root causes of Karmabandha, They are very powerful enemies on the path of spiritual progress. Thus,

attachment and aversion, have to be avoided. Duality thy ara (-mundane life) Libeiation-the state of immortality

name
is

is

the

sams non-

dual
Is

state, fiee fioin all

kinds of dualities

One has

to reach

from dua-

lity to

non-duality, from lower to higher The real is above all duality and beyond speech and intellect. It can be realised only in the innermost

self of all.

The rigerous path of conduct preached by Jina is very difficult to follow in these days of Kali. The contemporary environments are not favourable for practice of code of conduct. So, unflinching devotion to wards Jina alone will work as a boat to cross over the ocean of munIt is Jina's feet which will make one's free from the cycle of and deaths and bestow liberation. Even recitation of this hymn which is written in praise of Jina will lead one to the permanent abode

dane

life.

births

of bliss

Our author Padrnanandi seems


Vedsritic thought.

to be

power
in

fully influenced by

the

Many

statements

made

this

work

remind

us

of

some Upanisadic passages. While descubing

the nature of

Atman and

the state of liberation, he speaks, just almost in the Upanisadic tone Upanisad states that on knowing Biahman or Atman, everything else

becomes known and everything


similar

is

attained. 32

Padmanaudi speaks

in just

way

(v. 5).

Atman

is

the

only

(anrta,) say one

UpanisadS3.

Padmanandi
I-II-3.

Reality, also

everything is unreal tells us in a similar

(32) (a)

Mundaka

Upanisad

<b) Ibid-III-II-9.
(33)
(a,)

ChSfndogya Upanisad-III-XIV-1.

^hL_Ekamevadvit!ym Brahma.

Introduction

45
else

way

that,

Arman

is

the only Reality

and everything

is

worthless

(V.-4), Again, the

Upaimads conceived

Brahman

as

beyond thought,
the

speech and

bliss. 34
it

Padmanandi borrows the word Brahman of

Upan-

isads and uses

in the sense of the highest Reality which


(17).

is

indeteris

minate and

bliss

We

are told in the


is

Upanisad

that,

Atman

neither male, nor female, nor neuter. 35 It

self-luminous consciousness.
self,

There
self

is

neither duality nor plurality

of the

but

every

personal
also

and impersonal Brahman are one and the same.36 Padmanandi,


it

describes

in similar

manner

(17, 18, 29).

He

also seems to be influenced

by the Bhakti school of Ramanuja Vedanta, Contemporary


is

environment

not favourable to practise this code of conduct. Thus, Padmanandi lays


stress

more

an devotion, almost of
spirit is

the theistic pattern. It seems that the

imbued by our author, even though details are set in the religious and metaphysical framework of Jainism. We can also judge from this work that the author is more inward than out-ward in
Upanisadic
his religious approach,

Though small

in size, this

work

is

undoubtedly

a very good contribution to religo-philosophical literature of the Jainas,

(34)

Katha Upani?ad-II-VI-12, Katta Upani?ad-II-IV-ll.

(35) Sveta^vatara Upani?ad-V-10


(36) (a)
(b)
(c)

MSndukya Upani?ad-II

Brhadaranyaka-II-V-19-n, Sambodhi Vol. XII

ATMABODHA (ALOCANA) OF PADMANAND1


English Translation

By
Y.
S. Shastri

Lord Jinesa

if

(ones)
if

mind mediiates on you-the tieasure of


is

bliss

and pure Reality;


oneself)
iri

Mantra-(Sacred letters) (with the form of rememberance of your name, which is infinitely
great
is

there

radiant; if (dnes) journey

on the path of three Jewels, (then) what


desired

impediment can be there


(f.'O,

(in regard to attaining) the


?'

object

liberation)

of noble people

2,

Lord

non-acquisition, non-attachment, equanimity, annihilation of

Karma 2 and
vigour,
world,
is

all-pervading perfact knowledge with

full

of
the

bliss

and

the pure path (preached)

by you to renounce
feet
is

mundane

Thus, adoration of your

always consented to by the

noble people,

3.

Lord of three worlds


of mind) on
account

if I

have reached
worship,

surely this steady (state

of your

then

indeed, where

is

fear

from even (the most) powerful enemy in form of mundane life ? even tormenting mid-day heat of summer cando to a person

What who

J.

This verse indicates the importance of three things in the


aspirant of
liberation,
i.

life

of an

e.

meditation

on

pure

blissful

Stman,
which'

recitation of

name of

the Lord, and the path of three Jewels-

consists of Right faith, Right

knowledge and Right conduct, -the word

'Tritayatmaka' reminds us of Umasvati's statement in TattWrthasfltra


viz.

'Samyagdarfana-Jfiana- Caritrani moksaraargah'-

T. S. I-|,

2.

'Krtsna

Karmaksayomoksah' - T,

S.

X-3,

Atmabodha

47

has reached the good parasol of shower bath3 which is the caaae of immense satisfaction on account of showering nectar-like water ?

4.

Lordl if some wise man reflects singlemindedly with discrimination on worthiness and worthlessness of all objects of three worlds* for long, for him, you are the only Reality (Lit. = Worth) and everything else is worthless. Thus, all that great happiness is attained by me*

who has

taken refuge

in you.

5.

Lord

JmeSa

knowledge

and

faith of

all

objects, that infinite

faultless e. God of all Gods) aad happiness, vigour, sovereignly (i. to you after a long period beauty are yours (Only). When (One) attains not known, is then, what knowledge of time by right yogic vision,

what

is left to

be seen and what

is

not attained

6.

take you to be the only highest Lord of the three worlds, g*f*l remember (or hold, ia, my cbnqucrer and (iny) Lord. I always salute, I take refuge only in you, Wfrg^ is heart), seive and pray you only.

the
I

it be like that, use of speaking more (about all these)'? Let ! have therefore, no purpose with any other person (thanyou).
i

,,.-_

-!_! -mirn-rr

3.

L. Here, A. N. Upadhye aad H.

Jain's

(U

&

J) edition

reads as 'Sady*

seems to be very good reading. antra' instead of 'Sacchatra,' which

Through these words


of
T, preksaO-See also

the author
i.

Indirectly expresses, the, the

impe

lokavistarabhavans
S.

e.

one of

important

reflwtiww

IX -7.

5.

into the & J- edition reads here -me' in place of 'Tad' put 1 by us.

bw*t

6.

the (JM-adic statement, This verse reminds u* of

'yena vijftitena

sarvanm
7

vijfiatam

bhavati*.

surrender, ln this verse, the author


of

U wit

t. tk.

Urt,

W*

**

navavidW bbaMi

viz

^avanam-tota.am

visao*

48

Padmunandikna
Jioapati! on account of delusion, whatever sin, I made others to commit, whatever I have myself done and consented to others sinful

7.

good, by body, mind and speech, and again the sin from these nine sources (mind, speech and body) at present, and which will be done in future, that everything of mine be proved null and void (in effect) on account of reproaching one's
activities

as

which

arises

own

self in

your presence.

8.

Jinendra! Constantly (at all the times), simultaneously


sides you

and from
the

all

know and

see the universe and beyond the Universe, which


in
all

are having infinite modifications and which exist


times
of
(in past,

three

present and
of

future).

this

birth

mine.

Then why
for

expressed in

your

presence

you know the faults mine cannot be 1 ? purification and confession


Lord
!

this fault of

9.

endowed with fundamental and Subsidiary virtues of a fault is committed) on the basis of empirical stand point or doubt raised by mind (in your words) that all, also to,
!

Lord

monk 9 (Whatever

purify, I am ready to confess in your presence, because, pious, wise people have to make (others) heart free from cause of tormentationj

in every respect,

S,

In this

verse, the author


is

brings out the

doctrine

of omniscience

widely debated, in Jaina Philosophical literature. Lord, Jina omniscient. There is nothing in the universe, which he does not know and does not see. It is said that.., 'Ekobhavah sarvatha yena dr.sh strve bhsvsh sarvatha tena dr. star.. '-quo ted in
is

which

Syadvadamaft-

jart, -I,

P-5

9.

fundamental virtues, to protect, nourish fundamental virtues, Wrtain othet miridJvirtues are accepted. These ate known as Uttaraguna, that Is, subsidiary virtues. T. S. *V*

Non-violance, truthfulness, arc called Mula g un as i. Sl

iwa-thoft.

celibacy,

and

ndri-acdulsitidri

tod purify these

Atmabodha
10.

49

Jinapati! every Jiva

this cycle of births

and deaths
of clear

(travels)

innumerable

worlds

associated

with

the
10

net.

and unclear

thought. Therefore this jiva is always piled up by endless defaults followed by this net of thoughts, For So many laults (innumerable
faults)
is

where

is

scriptural (Agamic)

expiation

Expiation (of them)

(possible) only in your presence.

11.

Lordl he who, withdrawing internal and external senses from out


in a

way and uniting (them) with you-the knowledge; being detached (from worldly the and gist of scriptures, being tranquil objects), understanding, 11 on appioaching solitude (if) such a one meditates you, that
worldly objects
proper
personified

pure

true

fortunate one attains

your

vicinity.

12,

Arihanta! attaining you (i. e, thy feet) the adorable Lord, by the great meritorious deeds done in the past, the state that is rare

even to the creator

My
very

mind even to-day

much

what can I do etc, is surely atainable, But, if forcibly concentrated (held) at your feet runs towards wordly objects ia

'?

13,

This niiindane

lite

is

full

of miseries

state of happiness.

To

attain this state

worldly things, we retired to our doubts. But ereti by (following) this difficult path of vows, liberation is not attained, even to-day. The reason is that our mind
is

liberation is the only of liberation, renouncing all the forest. There we have discarded ail

(and)

perplexed like

a petal

made

tremulous by line of wind (or series

of wind).

10.

Here

U and J edition reads more correct reading.


Word
1

'Sadaiva' in placs of 'Madaiva', which

is

11.

the

'Samlksate
;

is

used

in

and J edition

in

plaee

'Samlkr.te

Which

is

again a more satisfactory reading,

12.

la 12-15,

the

adthdr

enumerates the fickleness of the mind, Thes<

Verses remind us of nature of

mind described

in the Bhagavadgita,

50

Padtnanandikrta

14.

(The nature of mind is such that), it wonders here and thsre, shine^ all around by obtaining external objects (for enjoyment); Constantly

makes knowledgeable Soul

restless

without
is

any reason and


the powerful

infuses
friend of

the group of sense-organs (by

karma) and

karma which
this

is

the

cause of

world even for restrained


7

mundane life. Where is happiness in people when (such kind of) their mind

functions

15.

Lord

this itund (after)

attaning you-the essence of puie knowledge,


(i.
it

indeed,

meets

with

death

e.

mind

bicomes functionless). (But),

wounders continuously towards the outworldly object, withdrawing (concentration) from you (your feet). to be is what done O Lord, (in this matter ?) who is not afraid of
being agitated by dilemma,

death on account of infatuation in this world

Thus, please impede

my

infatuation which

is

the cause of all kinds of asries of evils.

16.

Amongst

all

the karmas, this


its

account of

influence, the

deluding karma is very powerful. On mind becomes perplexed and afraid of

death, Otherwise, on
dies in this world V

the point of

Manifoldness of the world


modifications
only'
3

view of substance, who lives and is seeu (preached) by

you OB account of

its

17.

Thinking

that, this universe is

always momentary from

all

aide* like

a series of waves of ocean

accompanied by the wind,

my

mind, at

present being free from (or going beyond) all these activities, are cause of mundane life, desires to dwell in you-the
highest blissful

which

changeless

Brahmau,

l *

13,

In this verse, the author brings out the philosophical truth of Jainism. According to Jainism, there are six substances vit Jlva, Ajwa-principle of motion, principle of rest, space, matter and Time All of them are real from the point of view of substance It is the only point of view of modifications there is change in substance Thus, substance is ddhcl us tint which consists of production' destruction and permanence. (T 3 -V). Hence the point of view of Substance, no one lakes bnths and no one
dies,

4-

This line

wrnmd.

of the Upa,,is 1;Ji,

sUtement-'taandam Brahma,'

Atmabodha
18.

5l

on account of man becomes subject of


is

Demerit

inauspicious activities.

From
is

this

demerit

uciivi ies

From

suffering. Religious merit this (religious merit) one attains


is

due to auspicious some sort of happishelter in

ness. This pair of duality


life.

on account of taking

mundane

Again, attainment of the highest eternal blissful state is on account of pure auspicious activities. O Arhan, (the difference between you and me is that), you are in the state of eternal bliss and I am here
in this

mundane

life

(which

is full of

pain

and pleasure).

19.

am

nothing else but that highest self-luminous Consciousness (Lit inside

light) wlvcli dwells neither

nor outside; nor in any direction;

neither gross nor subtle; neither male, nor female, nor neuter; neither heavy nor light; free from Karma, touch, body, smell

(which

is)

counting,

word

and

colour and

embodiment

of

pure

knowledge

and dargana.* 6

20.

Lord! the gulf between us is created by this enemy in the form of mischievous kaima, which, without any reason destroys the advancement of Spirit. 18 This, I am and that karma both are here in the

presence of you. Amongst us (between

us),

(please)

throw out

that

malignant (karma), because, it is the duty of a king ous, and punish the wicked ones.

to protect virtu-

21.

Th* msntal agony,

disease, old age and 'death, etc.,

are

related to

th^ body. (Thus) what (harm) these inanimate things

can

do
"

to

my

supreme Soul, which cannot do anything

is

quite
as)

different

from these

things?

17

(They

just

these

clouds

taking

various forms

and

shapei of the sky,

in

the

sky,

cannot

change

the

essential

15

This versa

is

very similar to the Upaniijadic statement that'Atman is


i

neither male, nor female nor


16

neuter. '-SvetaSvatara

Upanisad-V-lO

The wotd 'cidunnatiksayakrta' is used in U and J edition, instead of 'cidunnatim'. The reading 'cidunnatim' is more appropriate here.
-\

17.

In these lines, the author

indirectly

attacks the materialists


the

(who
th.at

claim that
Atrnan
is

Atman

is

not

different from

body)

by saying

quite

different front the material

body.

*2
n 2' "

Padrnanan4ik r ta

on account of having always in (the state of) sorrow, like a fish (which is) life burning by heat of mundane heart to the a long as I dedicate my (lllt h,, round. Rut, I am happy, of association account cool on

o lord I body which


'

am
is

lotuslike feet of
(if

your\ which are very

nectar like

compassion.

23.

the group of sense-organs beO Lord pure soul this mind, with karma arises. comes connected with out-worldly objects. From that, from that (karma), indeed, or that karma (But), I am'allways different
' !

consciousness. Here also (in (which is material) is different from your different from material may ease also) consciousness (which is quite

karma)

the main

cause (in feeling different

from

that

Karma).

I am in thyself) (Thus) ultimately my existence is in you only (or no difference between nature of your consciousness and (i. e. there is

my

consciousness, ultimately),

24.

At man

what

is

speech,
All of

senses, vital

the use of these, universe, abode, matter, force and those imagined objects for

body,

you

them

are modifications of matter (only). (They are) different

from you.
in

Alas,

why are you b;ing

negligeat,
?

vainly

tiding

shelter

bondage, by these

imagined objects

25.

Principle of motion, principle of rest; space and Time, do not do any harm to me, (Instead of that) all the four assist me in motion,
etc, 18

This

is

the only

enemy

in the

form of matter

which

is

trans-

formed into the basic and subtypes of karmas, coming to me become a cause of bondage. So, I have destroyed these with the help of
the sword in

form of discrimination.

26.

Just as

matter

is

modified

by changes caused by

attachment and

aversion, in a similar manner, four formless (substances) apace, princ-

18.

Dharrrw, the medium of motion is the auxiliary cause of the movements Adharma, the medium of rest serves as 'the auxiliary cause of rest. Aka&, the space assists to exist and Time (ksla) has characteristic of making possible transfroraation perduration, activity, prior and posterior-pra&imarati-215 and 218,

53
>les

of motion and

rest,

and time
this

la

do not get modified or changed,


there,

rom
ne

these attachment and aversion

constantly,

arises ao

new

arma.

On account
In this

of

karma
life,

life.

mundane
are to

(bandba), there is this mundthere follows series of sorrow

Thus),

both
1
.

these

be

avoided

by

the

wise

with

great

sxertion*

why are you vainly performing inauspicious actions (which of sorrow) imagining attachment and aversion towards outworldly objects 1 If you dwell in pure toul, which is ocean like aectar of bliss, then surely you will attain that abaadont happiness
!

3 mind

ire cause

of oneness.

Jina

keeping

9a

of your

feet this

man ascends

these (ideas) firmly, in my mind, by the grace the one side of the transcendental scale

for purification. On the other side of (the scale), these irreststable enemies in the form of karmas forcibly standing to make me faulty.

Lord

thus in

this

matter of giving judgment you are the impart-

ial witness.

Ultimate point of view, the duility is mundane 23 In both the cases, non-duality is liberation.

life
it

and (the state of


said briefly in its

is

out from a varieghighest sense (or limit). The soul, slowly walking * state ^i. e. from the state of duality), reaches Oil-holds) ated first 3

another state
of view)
it,

(i.

e.

non-dual

(soul)

becomes

state). It is certain that (ultimate point nameless and on the empirical point of

Pra'samarati prakarana-207

'

The word 'ghana'


This verse

of is used by U and J edition instead and reminda us of Uausvati's statements on attachment he states that attachment aversion in PraSamaratiprakarana in which = greediness and infatuation) and aversion ( = anger and ego) are (

'navam.'

the root cause

of

mundane life-pra&marati~3Q-32,
'itySdhaya'. that very similar to
states that this

U
I.

and

of J edition reads Mtyssthaya' instead

The

idea

which

expressed in this

verse

is

of
is

where he Gaudapa-da in the mSndukyakarika, no duality at the Maya, and duality. There is

world

ultimate

point of

view

no duality i. e and realising this there remains dvaitam advaitam paramarthatah, jnaUTdvaitam

karika-Agama
4.

P, 17. 18.
ia

'Nirgatyadipadst'

used in

and

edition

instead

of

'

dyapadat'.

54

view,

it

is

ciill&tt

in

terras such as

Brahman

etc,

(i.

e,

paranfntman,

parabrahman,
30

etc).

Lord

for (attaining) to liberation,

the code of conduct preached by you-the perfect omniscient, difficult to Follow by the is, indeed, very
in Ihis

man

like

me,
the

unfavourable period of Kali age.

Jina

the un-

flinching

devotion
in

towards you,
life
2fr

which
be
the

is

on

account

of

merits
the

earned

previous births,

boat for

ma

to cross

ocean of mundane
31.

Lord
I

while wondering in the

cycle of

births

and deaths,

since

long,

have obtained Indrahood(i.

e. birth in the

form of god of gods)

Nigodata" (i.e. birth in Nigodaform) and in between obtained all sorts of seats ofbriths.in innumerable times. Thus, in the world, there is
nothing new for

me

and Right
(Please)
32.

conduct-which

except the path of Right-faith, Right knowledge bestower of liberation. is the (path)

make

that path of

mine

perfet.

Lord, to attain that highest state, 27 Viranandi asant heart has imparted the highest teaching in

(My

guru) with

ple-

my

mind. As a conthree worlds

soquencef of that (religious teaching)


of
is

let,

this

one momentary kingdam

earth,

be far away from me; 31 even the

kingdom of

not dearer to

me

here.

33.

The

wise,

presence

of

who reads this Alocana, the work of Padmanandi in the Lord Arihanta, thrice a day, bowing down with pure
is

devotion, indeed, attains that


bliss,

which

highest state (which is) the abode of searched withjgreat exertion by the yogins with the

help of deep-rooted penance.

Here ends

this

work of Pandjtottama Padmanandi.

25.

religious

In this verse, the author points out the practical difficulty in following injunctions. He states in clear terms that, contemporary
is

environment

So, devotion towards Jina

not favourable to practising rigorous code of conduct, is the only solace. It remind* us oT very
'fCalau bhaktirvi&syate 1
.

popular statement that


26. 27.

Nigodata-one

common body
1

inhabited by infinite jwas.


is

The word

'tatkinciduc caiU'
'.

used

in

and J edition,

instead

of

'kincittaducchaih
28.

The author means


the

to state that he is not at all interested even in kingdom of three worlds what then to talk of the earthly kingdom.

"cepton According
d by
V.

to Vyikarftna

D. Hegde
,-

very iod of Kali


,

'Kavi-l>u(ra' of KalidSsa
'

A. Critlqd

Revlw

Shtma **-!,<

ich

the

;te

of
in

births HMjj.

birth in the

and
ics.

Thu-n,

in

itiue-c,

',

Uie

nesloK:

jf

fe.

fet.

VirartauJi(Myi.vi,ii

teaching
St,

in

ny

r.md.
i

this OHC

IRJillffllc

ven the

kingdom

oi

:.;:

is
;

work
state

of

a day,
(>vhicii
the
is^

If

sxertion by

jojirs

ie

practical clear teriB)

lint,

csi

ctising

ri

ly soluctf. IinMi-'>!

:d

by

infinite.!!

in

and
at
all

JcJim'

not
n to

inte'C'"
1

talk

of

ilii

a'*

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