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2008 Answers to this Paper must be written on the paper provided separately.

You will not be allowed to write during the first 15 minutes. This time is to be spent in reading the Question Paper. The time given at the head of this Paper is the time allowed for writing the answers. Section I is compulsory. Attempt any four questions from Section II The intended marks for questions or the parts of questions given in brackets [ ]. SECTION I (40 Marks) Attempt all questions from this Section Question 1 (a) Name the SI unit of:[2] (i) Linear momentum. (ii) Rate of change momentum. Question 1 (b) A body of mass 1.50 kg is dropped from the 2nd floor of a building which is at a height of 12 m. What is the force acting on it during its fall? (g=9.80 m/s2). [2] (c) When an arrow is shot from a bow, it has kinetic energy in it. Explain briefly from where does it get its kinetic energy?. [2] (d) What energy conversions take place in the following when they are working- (i) Electric toaster (ii) Microphone?. [2] (e) Copy the diagram of the forearm given below, indicate positions of Load, Effort and Fulcrum. [2]

Question 2 (a) (i) A monochromatic beam of light of wavelength passes from air into a glass block. Write an expression to show the relation between the speed of light in air and the speed of light in

glass. (ii) As the ray of light passes from air to glass, state how the wavelength of light changes. Does it increase, decrease or remain constant? Question 2 (b) In what way will the temperature of water at the bottom of a waterfall be different from the temperature at the top? Give a reason for your answer. [2] (c) A radar sends a signal to an aeroplane at a distance 45 km away with a speed 3 x 108 ms-1. After how long is the signal received back from the aeroplane? . [2] (d) Draw a ray diagram to illustrate the determination of the focal length of a convex lens using an auxiliary plane mirror. [2] (e) What is meant by primary colours? Name the primary colours of light. [2] Question 3 (a) (i) Sketch a graph to show the change in potential difference across the ends of an ohmic resistor and the current flowing in it. Label the axes of your graph. (ii) What does the slope of the graph represent? Question 3 (b) Draw a labelled diagram of the staircase wiring for a dual control switch showing a bulb in the circuit. [2] (c) The electrical gadgets used in a house such as bulbs, fans, heater, etc, are always connected in parallel, NOT in series. Give two reasons for connecting them in parallel.[2] (d) An electrical heater is rated 4 kW, 220V. Find the cost of using this heater for 12 hours if one kWh of electrical energy costs Rs. 3.25. [2] (e) State one point of similarity and one point of difference between an a.c. generator and a d.c. motor. [2] Question 4 Two isosceles right-angled glass prisms are placed near each other as shown in the figure.

(a) Complete the path of the light ray entering the first isosceles right-angled glass prism till it emerges from the second identical prism. [2] (b) A certain quantity of ice at 0oC is heated till it changes into steam at 100oC. Draw a timetemperature heating curve to represent it. Label the two phase changes in your graph.[2] (c) What is meant by work function of a metal?[2] (d) What is radioactivity?[2] (e) Mention any two differences between nuclear energy and chemical energy.[2] SECTION II (40 Marks) Attempt any four questions from this Section Question 5 (a) (i) A stone of mass 64.0 g is thrown vertically upward from the ground with an initial speed 20.0 m/s. The gravitational potential energy at the ground level is considered be zero. Apply the principle of conservation energy and calculate the potential energy at the maximum height attained by the stone. (g = 10 m s-2) . [3] (ii) Using the same principle, state what will be the total energy of the body at its half-way point? Question 5 (b) Define 'joule', the SI unit of work and establish relationship between the SI and CGS unit of work . [3] Question 5 (c) (i) Draw a labelled diagram of a block and tackle system of pulleys with two pulleys in each block. Indicate the directions of the load, and effort and tension in the string. [4] (ii) Write down the relation between load and the effort of the pulley system. Question 6

(a) What is meant by the 'aperture' and 'shutter speed' of a camera? How are they related? . [3] Question 6 (b) (i) Draw a labelled ray diagram to illustrate (1) critical angle (2) total internal reflection, for a ray of light moving from one medium to another. [3] (ii) Write a formula to express relationship between refractive index of the denser medium with respect to rarer medium and its critical angle for that pair of media. Question 6 (c) (i) The diagram below shows a ray of light incident on an equilateral glass prism placed in minimum deviation position. Copy the diagram and complete it to show the path of the refracted ray and the emergent ray . [4]

(ii) How are angle of incidence and angle of emergence related to each other in this position of the prism? Question 7 (a) (i) What is meant by an echo? Mention one important condition that is necessary for an echo to be heard distinctly . [3] (ii) Mention one important use of echo. Question 7 (b) (i) What is the name given to a cylindrical coil whose diameter is less in comparison to its length? (ii) If a piece of soft iron is placed inside the current carrying coil, what is the name given to the device? (iii) Give one use of the device named by you in (b) (ii) above. Question 7

(c) (i) Sometimes when a vehicle is driven at a particular speed, a rattling sound is heard. Explain briefly, why this happens and give the name of the phenomenon taking place. (ii) Suggest one way by which the rattling sound could be stopped. Question 8 (a) (i) Why does a magnetic needle show a deflection when brought close to a current carrying conductor? (ii) A wire bent into a circle carries current in an anticlockwise direction. What polarity does this face of the coil exhibit? Question 8 (b) Three resistors respectively joined together as shown in the figure. The resistors are connected an ammeter and to a cell of e.m.f. 6.0 V.

Calculate:[3] (i) the effective resistance the circuit. (ii) the current drawn from the cell. Question 8 (c) (i) How does the heat produced in a wire or a conductor depend upon the: (1) current passing through the conductor. (2) resistance of the conductor? (ii) Draw a simple sketch of a step down transformer. Label the different parts in the diagram. Question 9

(a) (i) Define heat capacity of a given body. What is its SI unit? (ii) What is the relation between heat capacity and specific heat capacity of a substance? Question 9 (b) A linear object is placed on the axis of a lens. An image is formed by refraction in the lens. For all positions of the object on the axis of the lens, the positions of the image are always between the lens and the object. [3] (i) Name the lens. (ii) Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of the image of an object placed in front of the lens at any position of your choice except infinity. Question 9 (c) A piece of ice of mass 40 g is dropped into 200 g of water at 50 oC. Calculate the final temperatue of water after all the ice has melted. (specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J/kg oC, specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 x l03J/kg)[4] Question 10 (a) (i)When does the nucleus of an atom become radioactive? (ii) How is the radioactivity of an element affected when it undergoes a chemical change to form a chemical compound? (iii) Name the product of nuclear fission which is utilized to bring about further fission of 23592U. Question 10 (b) (i) Mention oneuse and one harmful effect of radioactivity. (ii) Give one source of background radiation. Question 10 (c) (i)

The above diagram shows an electron gun of a hot cathode ray tube, l. Name the parts X and Y. 2. A 6 V d.c. source and a 1000 V d.c. source are available. Show how these sources should be connected to the terminals of X and Y so as to obtain a focused beam of fast moving electrons. (ii) Give one use of a cathode ray tube.

2007

General Instructions: 1. Section I is compulsory. Attempt any four questions from Section II . 2. The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ]. SECTION I (40 Marks) Attempt all questions from this Section Question 1 (a) Which class of levers has a mechanical advantage always greater than one? What change can be brought about in this lever to increase its mechanical advantage? [2] (b) Two bodies A and B of equal mass are kept at heights 20 m and 30 m respectively. Calculate the ratio of their potential energies. [2] (c) What is the S.I. unit of upthrust? Mention one factor on which the upthrust of a liquid depends. [2] (d) Why are infra-red radiations preferred over ordinary visible light for taking photographs in fog? [2] (e) Define Relative density of a substance. [2] Question 2 (a) Mention two reasons why water is not suitable barometric liquid. [2] (b) State Snell's Law of Refraction of Light. [2] (c) (i) What will be the color of a blue flower when it is seen in magenta colored light. (ii) Name another secondary color of light in which the flower will show the same color as it shows in the magenta colored light. [2] (d) The upper blood pressure of a patient is 160 cm of mercury whereas the normal blood pressure should be 120 cm of mercury. How much extra pressure is generated by the heart above the normal pressure? (Give your answer in S.I. unit.) (Density of mercury = 13600 kg m-3 ; g = 9.8 ms-2) [2] (e) Draw an approximate graph to show the variation of atmospheric pressure with altitude. [2] Question 3

(a) Define the terms:- [2] i. ii. Amplitude Frequency (as applied to sound waves)

(b) An object is placed in front of a converging lens at a distance greater than twice the focal length of the lens. Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of the image. [2] (c) Mention one difference between reflection of light from a plane mirror and total internal reflection of light from a prism. [2] (d) The V-I graph for a series combination and for a parallel combination of two resistors is as shown in the figure below:-

Which of the two, A or B, represents the parallel combination? Give a reason for your answer. [2] (e) Of the three connecting wires in a household circuit:- [2] i. ii. Which two of the three wires are at the same potential? In which of the three wires should the switch be connected?

Question 4 (a) What will an alpha particle change into when it absorbs:- [2] i. ii. One electron; Two electrons?

(b) Some hot water was added to three times its mass of cold water at 100C and the resulting temperature was found to be 200C. What was the temperature of the hot water? [2] (c) Calculate the value of the resistance which must be connected to a 15 resistance to provide an effective resistance of 6. [2] (d) Why are burns caused by steam more severe than those caused by boiling water at the same temperature? [2] (e) Mention two important properties of a metal that make it a good thermionic emitter. [2]

SECTION II (40 Marks) Attempt any four questions from this Section Question 5 (a) (i) Define a kilowatt hour. How is it related to the joule? (ii) How can the work done be measured when force is applied at an angle to the direction of displacement? [3] (b) (i)What is the main energy transformation that occurs in:i. ii. Photosynthesis in green leaves; Charging of a battery.

(ii) Write an expression to show the relationship between mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency for a simple machine. [3] (c) A block and tackle pulley system has a velocity ratio 3. [4] i. ii. Draw a labelled diagram of this system. In your diagram, indicate clearly the points of application and the directions of the load and effort. Why should the lower block of this pulley system be of a negligible weight?

Question 6 (a) (i) Name and state the principle on which the working of a hydraulic machine is based. (ii) A balloon filled with hydrogen rises to a certain height and then stops rising. Why does it stop rising? [3] (b) (i) State the Archimedes Principle. (ii) Explain why a piece of iron sinks in water while a ship made of iron floats. [3] (c) A piece of wood of volume 200 cm3 and density 0.84g cm-3 floats in a liquid of density 1.05g cm-3 [4] i. ii. What volume of wood will remain above the surface of the liquid? What force must be exerted on the wood to keep it totally submerged?

Question 7 (a) The diagram given below shows a right-angled prism with a ray of light incident on the side AB. (The critical angle for glass is 420) [3]

i. ii.

Copy the diagram and complete the path of the ray of light in and out of the glass prism. What is the value of the angle of deviation shown by the ray?

(b) (i) A particular type of high energy invisible electromagnetic rays help us to study the structure of crystals. Name these rays and give another important use of these rays. (ii) How does the speed of light in glass change on increasing the wavelength of light? [4] (c) (i) With the help of a well-labelled diagram show that an apparent depth of an object, such as a coin, in water is less than its real depth. (ii) How is the refractive index of water related to the real depth and the apparent depth of a column of water? [3] Question 8 (a) A man standing in front of a vertical cliff fires a gun. He hears the echo after 3 seconds. On moving closer to the cliff by 82.5 m, he fires again.This time, he hears the echo after 2.5 seconds. Calculate:- [3] i. ii. the distance of the cliff from the initial position of the man. the velocity of sound. [3]

(b) (i) What is meant by Specific heat capacity of a substance? (ii) Why does the heat supplied to a substance during its change of state not cause any rise in its temperature? [3] (c) A substance is in the form of a solid at 00C. The amount of heat added to this substance and the temperature of the substance are plotted on the following graph:- [4]

If the specific heat capacity of the solid substance is 500J/kg0C, find from the graph:i. ii. the mass of the substance; the specific latent heat of fusion of the substance in the liquid state.

Question 9 (a) (i) What is meant by earthing of an electrical appliance? Why is it essential? [3] (ii) What will be the effect on the working of an electrical bell if instead of a direct current, an alternating current is used? (b) (i) State two factors on which the strength of an induced current depends. [3] (ii) When a solenoid that is carrying current is freely suspended, it comes to rest along a particular direction. Why does this happen? (c) A cell of 1.5 V and internal resistance 1.0 is connected to two resistors of 4.0 and 20.0 in series as shown in the figure:- [4]

Calculate the:i. ii. iii. iv. current in the circuit. potential difference across the 4.0 ohm resistor. voltage drop when the current is flowing. potential difference across the cell.

Question 10 (a) Name the three main parts of a hot cathode ray tube. Mention one important function of each of the three main parts. [3]

(b) (i) State the principle on which the functioning of a nuclear reactor is based. (ii) Name the material that can be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor. (iii) How is the activity in a nuclear reactor controlled?[3] (c) (i) What happens to the atomic number of an element when it emits:- [4] a. an alpha particle; b. a beta particle. (ii) Explain why alpha and beta particles are deflected in an electric or a magnetic field but gamma rays are not deflected in such a field.

2006

General Instructions 1. Section I is compulsory. Attempt any four questions from Section II. 2. The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets. SECTION I (40 Marks) Attempt all questions from this Section Question 1 (a) Mention any two differences between the mass and weight of a body. [2] (b) State the amount of work done by an object when it moves in a circular path for one complete rotation. Give a reason to justify your answer. [2] (c) A uniform metre scale is kept in equilibrium when supported at the 60 cm mark and a mass M is suspended from the 90 cm mark as shown in the

figure. State with reasons, whether the weight of the scale is greater than, less than or equal to the weight of mass M. [2] (d) Draw a graph showing the relationship between acceleration and mass for a constant force. [2] (e) The speed-time graph of a moving car is as shown in the figure below:-

Calculate :- (i) the distance covered by the car in 5 seconds. (ii) the acceleration of the car. Question 2

(a) Will the pressure exerted by water on a diver at a certain depth in the sea, be the same, more, or less than the pressure exerted on him in a river at the same depth? Justify your answer. [2] (b) Mention one similarity and one difference between the lens of a photographic camera and that of the human eye. [2] (c) An object is placed in front of a convex lens such that the image formed has the same size as that of the object. Draw a ray diagram to illustrate this. [2] (d) Give two reasons as to why copper is preferred over other metals for making calorimeters. [2] Calculate the height through which a body of mass 0.5 kg should be lifted if the energy spent for doing so is 1.0 joule. (g = l0 ms-2). [2] Question 3 (a) Explain why musical instruments like the guitar are provided with a hollow box. [2] (b) A wire of uniform thickness with a resistance of 27 is cut into three equal pieces and they are joined in parallel. Find the resistance of the parallel combination. [2] (c) Draw a labelled diagram of a three-pin socket. [2] (d) A room has window panes made of a special glass which can reflect green light, transmit red light, scatter blue light and absorb all the other colours of light. The room is illuminated with white light from the inside. What colour will the window pane appear when seen from: i. ii. inside the room outside the room ? [2]

(e) What is Newton's colour disc ? What does the Newton's colour disc experiment establish about the nature of white light ? Question 4 (a) State two advantages of an electromagnet over a permanent magnet.[2] (b) Calculate the amount of heat released when 5.0 g of water at 200C is changed into ice at 00C. (Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J/g0C Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J/g). [2] (c) Mention two factors on which the resistance of a wire depends.[2] (d) A certain radioactive nucleus emits a particle that leaves its mass unchanged but increases its atomic number by one. Identify the particle and write its symbol. [2]

(e) What is a nuclear chain reaction? [2] SECTION II (40 Marks) Attempt any four questions from this Section. Question 5 (a) Show that for the free fall of a body, the sum of the mechanical energy at any point in its path is constant. [4] (b) Name the type of single pulley that can act as a force multiplier. Draw a labelled diagram of the above named pulley. [3] (c) A pulley system has a velocity ratio of 4 and an efficiency of 90%. Calculate :i. ii. the mechanical advantage of the system. the effort required to raise a load of 300 N by the system.

Question 6 [4] (a) A wooden cylinder of length 40.0 cm and area of cross section 5.0 cm2, floats in a liquid of density 0.72 g cm-3 such that 4.0 cm of the cylinder is above water. Calculate: i. ii. the density of the wood the mass of the wood.[3]

(b) (i) What is the approximate numerical value of the normal atmospheric pressure in units of Pascals? (ii) Why is the barometric pressure of a place expressed in centimetres of mercury rather than in Pascals? [3] (c) Define Newton, the S.I. unit of force. State its relationship with the C.G.S. unit of force.[4] Question 7 (a) PQ and PR are two light rays emerging from the object P as shown in the figure below:-

i. ii. iii.

What is the special name given in the angle incidence (PQN) of ray PQ? Copy the ray diagram and complete it to show the position of the image of the object P when seen obliquely from above. Name the phenomenon that occurs if the angle of incidence PQN is increased still further .[3]

(b) When a tuning fork, struck by a rubber pad, is held over a length of air column in a tube, it produces a loud sound for a fixed length of the air column. i. ii. iii. Name the above phenomenon. How does the frequency of the loud sound compare with that of the tuning fork? State the unit for measuring loudness[3] .

(c) Give one use each of the electromagnetic radiations given below: (i) Microwaves (ii) Ultraviolet radiation (iii) Infrared radiation .[2] Question 8 (a) A piece of iron of mass 2.0 kg has a thermal capacity of 966 J/0C. (i) How much heat is needed to warm it by 150C? (ii) What is its specific heat capacity in S.I. units? [3] (b) (i) Define specific latent heat of vaporization of a substance. (ii) What is the principle of calorimetry? [3] (c) Explain why water is used in hot water bottles for fomentation and also as a universal coolant. [4] Question 9 (a.) In the figure below, the ammeter A reads 0.3 A. Calculate:-

i. ii. iii.

the total resistance of the circuit. the value of R. the current flowing through R. [3]

(b) Find the cost of operating an electric toaster for two hours if it draws 8A current on a 110 volt circuit. The cost of electrical energy is Rs. 2.50 per kWh. [3] (c) (i) What will happen to a compass needle when the compass is placed below a wire and a current is made to flow through the wire? Give a reason to justify your answer. (ii) What energy conversion takes place during the working of a d.c. motor? [4] Question 10 (a) (i) Name the material used for making the control rods in a nuclear fission reaction. Why is the material named by you suitable for this purpose? (ii) State one difference and one similarity between a nuclear bomb and a nuclear reactor.[3] (b) (i) Define thermionic emission. (ii) Mention one use of thermionic emission. (iii) Name a substance which is a good thermionic emitter.[3] (c) State three properties that are common to and shown by both beta rays and cathode rays.

2005

Question 1 (a) Which physical quantity does the electron volt measure? How is it related to the S.I. unit of this quantity? [2] (b) What should the angle between force and displacement be to get the i. ii. minimum work; maximum work?

(c) State Newton's second law of motion. [2] (d) The work done by the heart is 1 Joule per beat. Calculate the power of the heart if it beats 72 times in one minute.[2] (e) Mention two properties of a wave: one property which varies and the other which remains constant when the wave passes from one medium to another.[2] Question 2 (a) Explain briefly what causes the twinkling of stars at night. [2] (b) State two advantages of an aneroid barometer. [2] (c) Explain why a gas bubble released at the bottom of a lake grows in size as it rises to the surface of the lake. [2] (d) What is meant by the statement, 'the critical angle of diamond is 240 '? How is the critical angle of a material related to its refractive index? [2] (e) A block of wood of volume 25cm3 floats in water with 20cm3 of its volume immersed. Calculate: i. ii. the density and the weight of the block of wood.

Question 3 (a) Name any two electromagnetic waves which have a frequency higher than that of violet light. State one use of each. [2] (b) State two ways by which the frequency of transverse vibrations of a stretched string can be decreased. [2]

(c) Why does the temperature of the surroundings start falling when the ice of a frozen lake starts melting? [2] (d) Four resistances of 2.0 each are joined end to end to form a square ABCD. Calculate the equivalent resistance of the combination between any two adjacent corners. [2] (e) In a three-pin plug, why is the earth pin made longer and thicker than the other two pins? [2] Question 4 (a) State the energy change which takes place when a magnet is moved inside a coil having a galvanometer at its ends. Name this phenomenon. [2] (b) Draw a labelled diagram of an A.C. generator. [2] (c) Calculate the heat energy that will be released when 5.0 kg of steam at l000 C condenses to form water at 1000C. Express your answer in S.I. unit. (Specific latent heat of vaporization of steam is 2268 KJ /Kg.) [2] (d) How many alpha and beta particles are emitted when Uranium nucleus 23892 U decays to Lead 206 82? Pb[2] (e) With the help of an equation, state the mechanism of energy production in a nuclear fusion reaction. [2] SECTION II (40 Marks) Attempt any four questions from this Section. Question 5 [3] (a) (i) State the law of conservation of energy. (ii) Name the chief energy transformation that occurs i. ii. in a Loudspeaker; in an Electrical cell (Primary).

(b) (i) Define an Inclined plane. (ii) Draw a labelled sketch of a class II lever. Give one example of such a lever. [3] (c) The alongside figure shows the combination of a movable pulley. PI with a fixed pulley P2 used
for lifting up a load W. [4]

i. ii. iii.

State the function of the fixed pulley P2. If the free end of the string moves through a distance C, find the distance by which the load W is raised. Calculate the force to be applied at C to just raise the load W = 20 kgf, neglecting the weight of the pulley P1 and friction.

Question 6 (a) Water falls from a height of 50 m. Calculate the rise in the temperature of water when it strikes the bottom. (g = l0 ms-2 Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J/kg0C) [3] (b) Draw a labelled diagram of a common hydrometer and state the principle used in its working. [3] (c) A solid body weighs 2.10 N in air. Its relative density is 8.4. How much will the body weigh if placed: [4] 1. in water; 2. in a liquid of relative density 1.2? Question 7 [3] (a) The ray diagram given below illustrates the experimental set up for the determination of the focal length of a converging lens using a plane mirror.

i. ii. iii.

State the magnification of the image formed. Write two characteristics of the image formed. What is the name given to the distance between the object and optical centre of the lens in the diagram?

(b) (i) A glass slab is placed over a page on which the word VIBGYOR is printed with each letter in its corresponding colour.

a. Will the image of all the letters be in the same place? b. If not, state which letter will be raised to the maximum. Give a reason for your answer. (ii) What will be the colour of an object which appears green in white light and black in red light? (c) (i) What is meant by refraction? (ii) Express the refractive index n of a medium: (1) in terms of the velocity of light; (2) in terms of the angle of incidence i in air and the angle of refraction r in a denser medium. (iii) If a ray of light passes from medium I to medium II without any change of direction, what can be said about the refractive indices of these media (angle i is not 0)? Question 8 [3] (a) A radar is able to detect the reflected waves from an enemy aeroplane, after a time interval of 0.02 milliseconds. If the velocity of the waves is 3 108 ms-1, calculate the distance of the plane from the radar. [3] (b) A piece of ice is heated at a constant rate. The variation of temperature with heat input is shown in the graph below:

a. What are represented by AB and CD ? b. What conclusion can you draw regarding the nature of ice from the alongside graph? (c) If there is no heat loss to the surroundings, the heat released by the condensation of m2g of ice at, 00C into water at 00C. [4] (i) Find: i. ii. the heat lost by steam in terms of m1 the heat gained by ice in terms of m2.

(ii) Form a heat equation and find the ratio of m2 : m1 from it.

(Specific latent heat of vaporization of steam = 2268 kJ/kg; Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 kJ/kg. Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J/kg0C). Question 9 [3] (a) An electrical appliance is rated 1500 W, 250 V. This appliance is connected to 250 V mains. Calculate: i. ii. iii. the current drawn, the electrical energy consumed in 60 hours, the cost of electrical energy consumed at Rs. 2.50 per KWH.

(b) (i) State the function of a split ring in a D.C. motor. [4] (ii) Mention two reasons why a soft iron core is used within the coil of a moving coil galvanometer. (c) In the figure given alongside, A, B and C are three ammeters. The ammeter B reads 0.5A. (All the ammeters have negligible resistance.) [4]

Calculate: 1. the readings in the ammeters A and C. 2. the total resistance of the circuit. Question 10 [3] (a) State the functions of the following in a nuclear reactor:a. Moderator, b. Control rods, c. Coolant. (b) (i) Mention two important precautions that should be taken while handling radioactive materials. [3] (ii) State one use of radioisotopes. (c) (i) Draw a labelled diagram of a hot cathode ray tube. [4]

(ii) Why are materials of low work function preferred as thermionic cathode materials? (iii) Write an equation to show the fission of a nucleus of U235 with the production of three neutrons.

2004

General Instructions 1. Section I is compulsory. Attempt any four questions from Section II. 2. The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brakets. SECTION I (40 Marks) Attempt all questions from this Section Question 1 (a) (i) Explain why scissors for cutting cloth may have blades much longer than the handles; but shears for cutting metals have short blades and long handles. (ii) A woman draws water from a well using a fixed pulley. The mass of the bucket and water together is 6.0 kg. The force applied by the woman is 70 N. Calculate the mechanical advantage. (Take g = 10 m/s2) [4] (b) (i) State the energy changes in an oscillating pendulum. (ii) Two balls of mass ratio 1 : 2 are dropped from the same height. i. ii. State the ratio between their velocities when they strike the ground. The ratio of the forces acting on them during motion. [4]

(c) (i) A piece of ice floating in a glass of water melts but the level of water in the glass does not change. Explain this phenomenon. (ii) An inflated gas balloon is placed in a jar which is connected to an evacuating pump. What will be observed if the air inside the jar is pumped out? Give a reason justifying your answer.[4] (d) (i) Define 'critical angle.' (ii) A ray of light passes through a right angled prism as shown in the figure. State the angles of incidence at the faces AC and BC.[4]

(e) (i) 1. White light is passed through a yellow fillter. What colour is (colours are) seen on a screen placed at the end?

2. If the light emerging from the yellow filter is then passed through a red filter, what will be seen on the screen placed at the end? (ii) What is Sonar? State the principle on which it is based.[4] (f) (a) Differentiate between resonance and forced vibrations. (ii) The wavelength of waves produced on the surface of water is 20 cm. If the wave velocity is 24 ms-1, calculate : 1. The number of waves produced in one second and 2. The time required to produce one wave.[4] (g) (a) State the purpose of a fuse in an electric circuit. Name the material used for making a fuse wire. (b) Mention two factors on which the internal resistance of a cell depends.[4] (h) (a) Draw a labelled diagram to show the various components of a step-down transformer. (b) State the main difference between a step-up and step-down transformer.[4] (i) (i) In winter, the weather forecast for a certain day was 'severe frost'. A wise farmer watered his yields the night before to prevent frost damage to his crops. Why did he water his fields? (ii) 10125 J of heat energy boils off 4.5 g of water at 1000C to steam at 1000C. Find the specific latent heat of steam.[4] (j) (a) Define the term 'Work function' of a metal. (b) Mention two common properties of gamma radiations and visible light.[4] SECTION - II (40 Marks) Answer any four questions from this section Question 2 (a) State Newton's second law of motion both in words and in equation form. Under what condition does this equation become F = ma? [4] (b) The radius of the driving wheel of a set of gears is 18 cm. It has 100 teeth and rotates at a speed of 30 rpm. The driven wheel rotates at a speed of 150 rpm. Calculate: i. ii. iii. The gear ratio. The number of teeth on the driven wheel. The radius of the driven wheel.[4]

(c) A ball of mass 0.20 kg is thrown vertically upwards with an initial velocity of 20 m/s. Calculate the maximum potential energy it gains as it goes up.[2] Question 3 (a) (i) State 'Archimedes' Principle. (ii) A cargo ship is loaded in sea water to maximum capacity. What will happen if this ship is moved to river water? Give a reason for your answer. (iii) A body of mass 100 g is floating in water. What will be its apparent weight ? Justify your answer. [5] (b) A small stone of mass m = 200g is held under water in a tall jar and allowed to fall as shown in the figure. The free body diagram of the stone is also shown. i. ii. iii. What do F2 and ml represent? Calculate the net force acting on the stone and Its acceleration, as it falls through water. (Neglect the force due to viscosity. Take the volume of the stone as 80 cm3, density of water as 1.0 g/cm3 and the acceleration due to gravity, g = 10 m/s2.) [5]

Question 4 (a) The diagram given below shows an object O and its image I. Copy the diagram and draw suitable rays to locate the lens and its focus. Name the type of lens in this case. [4]

(b) (i) State Snell's law. (ii) Calculate the velocity of light in a glass block of refractive index 1.5. (Velocity of light in air = 3 108 ms-1) [4] (c) (i) What is an optical fibre? (ii) Give one practical use of an optical fibre. [2] Question 5

(a) A thermos flask of negligible heat capacity contains 100 g of ice and 30g of water. (i) Calculate: i. ii. The mass of steam at l000C needed to condense in the flask to just melt the ice; The amount of water in the flask after condensation. (Specific latent heat of vaporization of steam = 2260 J/g Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J/g Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J/g0C.) Is it possible to condense the water formed, back to ice by adding ice at 00C? Explain, giving a suitable reason to justify your answer. [6]

iii.

(b) (i) State the principle of calorimetry. (ii) Express l kWh in terms of S.I . unit of energy. (iii) Which of the two, 1 g of ice at 00C or 1 g of water at 00C contains more heat? Give a reason for your answer.[4] Question 6 (a) An electric bulb rated 220 V, 60W is working at full efficiency. i. ii. State the resistance of the coil of the bulb. Another identical bulb is connected in series with the first one and the system is connected across the mains as shown below.

(1) State the rate of conversion of energy in each bulb. (2) Calculate the total power. (3) What will be the total power, if the bulbs are connected in parallel? [6]

(b) Explain briefly how a magnet, can be demagnetised using an alternating current? [2] State two ways by which the emf in an A.C. generator can be increased. [2] Question 7 (a) (i) Copy and complete the below diagram by showing and labelling the paths of alpha, beta and gamma radiations in an electricfield. (ii) Name the radiations which have the least penetrating power.[4]

(b) (i) Give one difference between a chemical change and a nuclear change. (ii) How is the cathode ray tube used to convert an electrical signal into a visual signal? [3] (c) Copy and complete the following nuclear equations by filling in the correct values in the blanks. [3]

92P2

38

- ...P1...

...P2...

- ...P3...

2003

General Instructions 1. Section I is compulsory. Attempt any four questions from Section II. 2. The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brakets [ ]. SECTION I (40 Marks) Attempt all questions from this Section Question 1 (a) (i) What is the relationship between the mechanical advantage and the velocity ratio for: (1) An ideal machine; (2) A practical machine? (ii) Which physical quantities do the following units represent? (1) Dioptre; (2) Kelvin. [4] (b) (i) The weights of two bodies are 2.0 N and 2.0 kgf respectively. What is the mass of each body? (g = 10 ms-2) (ii) If the power of a motor is 40 kW, at what speed can it raise a load of 20,000 N? [4] (c) (i) State the law of floatation. (ii) A cube of ice whose side is 4.0 cm is allowed to melt. The volume of the water formed is found to be 58.24 cm3. Find the density of ice. [4] (d) (i) Does land cool at a slower or faster rate than water? Give one reason for your answer. (ii) Explain, why steam pipes warm a building more effectively than hot water pipes in cold countries. [4] (e) (i) A ray of light, after refraction through a concave lens, emerges parallel to the principal axis. Draw a ray diagram to show the incident ray and its corresponding emergent ray. (ii) The velocity of light in diamond is 121,000 kms-1. What is its refractive index? (Velocity of light in air is 3 108 m/s) [4] (f) (i) What is the voltage of the electricity that is generally supplied to a house? (ii) (1) The neck and bottom of a bottle have diameters 2 cm and 8 cm respectively. The bottle is completely filled with kerosene. If the cork in the neck is pressed with a force of I0 N, what force is exerted on the bottom of the bottle? (2) Name the law or principle you have used to find this force. [4]

(g) (i) The ratio of the amplitudes of two waves is 4 : 9. What is the ratio of their intensities? (ii) A pendulum has a frequency of 5 vibrations per second. An observer starts the pendulum and fires a gun simultaneously. He hears the echo from a cliff after 8 vibrations of the pendulum. If the velocity of sound in air is 340 ms-1, what is the distance between the cliff and the observer? [4] (h) (i) Which of the two wires of similar dimensions, copper or nichrome, would you use for the electric heater element? Give reasons to justify your answer. (ii) Two fuse wires of the same length are rated 5 A and 20 A. Which of the two fuse wires is thicker and why? [4] (h) (i) A flag is made up of three strips of cloth of yellow, white and cyan colours. Name the colour of a particular light in which this flag will appear to be of a single colour. (ii) Explain, why radium paint, consisting of zinc sulphide and a trace of radium salt, glows in the dark. [4] (j) (i) An electric kettle is rated 2.5 kW, 250 V. Find the cost of running the kettle for two hours at 60 paise per unit. (ii) A mass of lead is embedded in a block of aluminium (2 mm thick). Radiations from a radioactive source incident on the side of the block produce a shadow on a flourescent screen placed beyond the block. The shadow of the block of aluminium is fainter than the shadow of lead. Give the reason for this difference. [4] Section - II (40 marks) Answer any four questions from this section. Question 2 (a) A jeweller claims that he makes ornaments of pure gold that has a relative density of 19.3. He sells a bangle weighing 25.25 g to a person. The clever customer weighs the bangle when immersed in water and finds that it weighs 23.07 g in water. With the help of suitable calculations, find out if the ornament is made of pure gold or not. [4] (b) Draw a labelled sketch of an acid battery hydrometer and explain how it indicates whether a car battery needs recharging. [4] (c) Give two reasons why the efficiency of a single movable pulley system is not 100%. [2] Question 3 (a) A monochromatic point source of light 'O' is seen through a rectangular glass block ABCD. Paths of two rays, in and outside the block, are shown in the figure below.

i. ii. iii. iv.

Does the source 'O' appear to be nearer or farther with respect to the surface AB? How does the shift depend on the thickness (AD or BC) of the block? Justify your answer in (ii) with the help of an appropriate ray diagram. For the same rectangular glass block, which colour from the visible spectra will produce the maximum shift? [6]

(b) A postage stamp appears raised by 7.0 mm when placed under a rectangular glass block of refractive index 1.5. Find the thickness of the glass block. [4] Question 4 (a) State three characteristics of the image of an extended source, formed by a concave lens. [3] (b) (i) If a monochromatic beam of light, undergo minimum deviation through an equiangular prism, how does the beam pass through the prism, with respect to its base? (ii) If white light is used in the same way as in (i) above, what change is expected in the emergent beam? [2] (c) (i) Sound made in front of a tall building 18 m away, is repeated. Name the phenomenon and briefly explain it. (ii) A tuning fork, held over an air column of a given length, produces a distinct audible sound. What do you call this phenomenon? How does it occur? [5] Question 5 (a) In a laboratory experiment for finding specific latent heat of ice, l00 g of water at 30C was taken in a calorimeter made of copper and of mass 10 g. When 10 g of ice at 0C was added to the mixture and kept within the liquid till the ice melted completely, the final temperature of the mixture was found to be 20C. i. ii. iii. iv. What is the total quantity of water in the calorimeter at 200C? Specific heat capacities of water and copper being 4.2 J/gC and 0.4 J/g0C respectively, what quantity of heat would each release in cooling down to 200C from the initial stage? Write an expression for the heat gained by ice on melting. Calculate the value of the latent heat of fusion of ice from the data discussed above. [6]

(b) Electrical power P is given by the expression: P = (Q V) / time i. What do the symbols Q and V represent?

ii.

Express 'Power' in terms of current and resistance explaining the symbols used therein. [4]

Question 6 [5] (a) With reference to the diagram given below, calculate: The equivalent resistance between P and Q. i. ii. iii. The equivalent resistance between P and Q. The reading of the ammeter. The electrical power between P and Q.

(b) The diagram shows a coil connected to a centre zero galvanometer G. The galvanometer shows, a deflection to the right when the N-pole of a powerful magnet is moved to the right as shown: [5]

i. ii. iii. iv.

Explain, why the deflection occurs in the galvanometer? Does the direction of the current in the coil appear clockwise or anticlockwise when viewed from the end A? State the observation in G when the coil is moved away from N. State the observation in G when, both the coil and the magnet, are moved to the right at the same speed.

Question 7 (a) State two factors on which the rate of emission of thermions depends. [2] (b) The isotope of 92U238decays by alpha emission to an isotope of Thermions (Th) The thorium isotope decays by beta emission to an isotope of Protactamium (Pa). Write down the equations to represent these two nuclear changes. [4] (c) Draw a cathode ray tube consisting of a heater, a cathode, cylindrical anode and a deflecting system. Show how you will connect a low tension battery of 6V and a high tension one of 1000V to the electrodes of the tube. [4]

2002

General Instructions 1. Section I is compulsory. Attempt any four questions from Section II. 2. The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brakets. SECTION I (40 Marks) Attempt all questions from this Section Question 1 (a) (i) A machine raises a load of 750 N through a height of 16 m in 5 seconds. Calculate the power at which the machine works. [2] (ii) State the principle of conservation of energy. [2] (b) (i) A cook uses a 'fire tong' of length 28 cm to lift a piece of burning coal of mass 250 g. If he applies his effort at a distance of 7 cm from the fulcrum, what is the effort in S.I. unit? Take g = 10 m/s2. [3] (ii) State the S.I. unit of the momentum of a body. [1] (c) (i) State the law of transmission of pressure in liquids. [2] (ii) Calculate the hydrostatic pressure exerted by water at the bottom of a beaker, side ways. Take the depth of water as 10 cm, the density of water is 1000 kg/m3 and g = 9.8 m/s2. [2] (d) (i) In the diagram given below, a ray of light PQ is incident normally on one face AB of an equilateral glass prism. What are the angles of incidence at the faces AB and AC? [2]

(ii) Complete the ray diagram showing its emergence into air after passing through the prism. [2] (e) An erect, diminished and virtual image is formed when an object is placed between the optical centre and principal focus of a lens. i. ii. Name the type of lens, which forms the above image. [1] Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of the image with the above characteristics. [3]

(f) (i)Write the name of a pair of two colours which combine to give white light. What is the name given to such a pair of colours? [2] (ii) State two similarities between a photographic camera and the human eye. [2] (g) (i) An observer stands at a distance of 850 m from a cliff and fires a gun. After what time-gap will he hear the echo, if sound travels at a speed of 350 ms-1 in air? [2] (ii) A cell of emf 1.5 V and internal resistance 10 ohms is connected to a resistor of 5 ohms, with an ammeter in series (see figure). What is the is reading of the ammeter? [2]

(h) (i) A geyser has a label 2 kW, 240 V. What is the cost of using it for 30 minutes, if the cost of electricity is Rs. 3 per commercial unit. [2] (ii) State two advantages of an electromagnet over a bar magnet. [2] (i) Draw a sketch of an electric bell with electrical connections and label the main parts. Why is the armature made of soft iron and not of steel? [4] (j) (i) Mention two possible sources of background radiations. [2] (ii) An element X changes to another element Y with the emission of beta particles. Write down the equation showing changes in the nucleus. Take the proton number and mass number of X, as Z and A respectively. [2] SECTION II (40 Marks) Attempt any four questions from this Section Question 2 (a) Define: (i) Work (ii) Power and (iii) Energy. [3] (b) How is work done related to the applied force? [1] (c) By what factor does the kinetic energy of a moving body change when its speed is reduced to half? [1] (d) What do the following units measure? i. ii. Pascal Kilowatt hour. [2]

(e) From the ground floor, a man comes up to the fourth floor of a building using the staircase. Another person comes up to the same floor using an elevator. Neglecting friction, compare the work done in the two cases. [3] Question 3 (i) Define specific heat capacity of a substance. State its S.I. unit. [3] (ii) Give one example each where high specific heat capacity of water is used: i. ii. In cooling As heat reservoir. [2]

(b) A vessel of negligible heat capacity contains 40 g of ice in it at 00C. 8 g of steam at 1000C is passed into the ice to melt it. Find the final temperature of the contents of the vessel. (Specific latent heat of vaporization of steam, = 2268 J/g; Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J/g and Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J/g0C) [5] Question 4 (a) State two advantages of using a right angled prism as a reflector, rather than a plane mirror. [2] (b) Name any four regions of electromagnetic spectrum (other than visible light) in increasing order of wavelength. [4] (c) Draw a ray diagram to illustrate the bending of a stick in water. [2] (d) Name any two essential parts of a single lens photographic camera. [2] Question 5 (a) A rubber ball floats in water with one-third of its volume above the water surface. Calculate its average relative density. [4] (b) A vibrating tuning fork is placed over the mouth of a burette filled with water. The tap is opened and the water level gradually falls. It is observed that the sound becomes the loudest for a particular length of air column. i. ii. iii. What is the name of the phenomenon taking place when this happens? [1] Why does the sound become the loudest? [1] What is the name of the phenomenon taking place when sound is produced for another length of air column and is not the loudest? [2]

(c)What change, if any, would you expect in the characteristics of a musical sound when we increase:

i. ii.

Its frequency, Its amplitude. [2]

Question 6 (a) Explain briefly the function of the following in the household wiring: (i) a three-pin plug. (ii) main switch. [2] (b) Four cells, each of e.m.f 1.5 V and internal resistance 2.0 ohms are connected in a parallel. The battery of cells is connected to an external resistance of 2.5 ohms. Calculate: i. ii. iii. the total resistance of the circuit, the current flowing in the external circuit, and the drop in potential across the terminals of the cells. [5]

(c) Make a table with the names of three electrical appliances used in your home in one column, their power, voltage rating and approximate time for which each one is used in one day in the other columns. [3] Question 7 (a) State briefly two uses of a cathode ray tube. [2] (b) Name the technique used to estimate the age of very old trees, plants, wood and other such specimens. Name the isotope that forms the basis of this technique. [2] (c) Describe briefly, two properties each of alpha particles and gamma radiation. [4] (d) State two dissimilarities between a DC motor and an AC generator. [2]