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BITS Pilani

Pilani Campus
VINAYAK KALLURI
BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus
BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus
ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS
Also called as rolling-contact bearing, antifriction bearing, and
rolling bearing
Class of bearing in which the main load is transferred through
elements in rolling contact rather than in sliding contact
Bearings are manufactured to take pure radial loads, pure thrust
loads, or a combination of the two kinds of loads
The starting friction is about twice the running friction, but still it is
negligible in comparison with the starting friction of a sleeve
(journal) bearing
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Rolling element bearings Two types:
Ball bearings (balls are the rolling elements)
Roller bearings (cylinders are the rolling elements)
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Ball Bearing Nomenclature:
F
a
F
a
F
r
F
r
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Different types of ball bearings:
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Deep Groove Ball Bearing
Radial load as well as some thrust load
Single- row Deep
Groove Ball Bearing
Double-row Deep
Groove Ball Bearing
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Filling notch Deep Groove Ball Bearing
Use of filling notch in the inner and outer rings enables a
greater number of balls to be inserted, thus increasing the
radial load capacity compared with deep groove.
Thrust capacity decrease because of bumping of balls
against the edge of the notch when thrust loads are present.
Single- row Filling
notch Ball Bearing
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Angular Contact Ball Bearing
Provides a greater thrust capacity along with the radial load
Single row bearing takes axial thrust in one direction only, where
as double row bearing accommodate axial thrust in both
directions
Single- row Angular
contact Ball Bearing
Double- row Angular
contact Ball Bearing
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Self Aligning Ball Bearing
shaft misalignment of deflection is severe, self-aligning
bearings may be used
Double- row Self
aligning Ball Bearing
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Must not be subjected to any radial load
Single direction thrust ball bearings can accommodate axial loads in
one direction and thus locate a shaft axially in one direction.
In general, thrust ball bearings consist of a shaft washer, a housing
washer and a ball and cage thrust assembly.
The bearings are separable so that mounting is simple as the washers
and the ball and cage assembly can be mounted separately.
Thrust Ball Bearing
Single direction thrust ball bearings
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Shielded and sealed bearings
All the above discussed bearings may be obtained with shields on one
or both sides to protect against dirt (not a complete closure ).
A variety of bearings are manufactured with seals on one or both
sides. When the seals are on both sides, the bearings are lubricated at
the factory and to be lubricated for life.
Usually a shielded bearing has a thin "shield" that helps keep debris
out of the bearing surfaces whereas a sealed bearing has "seals" that
attempt to keep out debris and moisture.
Shielded bearing
Sealed bearing
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Different types of roller bearings
a) Straight roller
b) Tapered roller, thrust
c) Spherical roller, thrust
d) Needle
e) Tapered roller (both radial and thrust)
f) Steep-angle tapered roller
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Straight roller Bearing
Straight roller bearings will carry a greater radial load than
ball bearings of the same size because of the greater contact
area
They have the disadvantage of requiring almost perfect
geometry of the raceways and rollers. A slight misalignment
will cause the rollers to skew and get out of line. For this
reason, the retainer must be heavy. Straight roller bearings
will not, of course, take thrust loads.
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Tapered roller (Thrust) Bearing
Tapered roller thrust bearings enable axially very
compact bearing arrangements to be produced which can
carry very heavy axial loads, are insensitive to shock
loads and are stiff.
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Spherical roller ( Thrust) Bearing
The spherical-roller thrust bearing is useful where heavy loads
and misalignment occur. The spherical elements have the advantage
of increasing their contact area as the load is increased
In spherical roller thrust bearings the load is transmitted from one
raceway to the other at an angle to the bearing axis. The bearings are
therefore suitable to accommodate radial loads in addition to
simultaneously acting axial loads.
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Needle roller Bearing
Needle bearings are very useful where radial space is limited.
They have a high load capacity when separators are used, but may
be obtained without separators. They are furnished both with and
without races.
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Tapered roller bearings have tapered inner and outer ring
raceways between which tapered rollers are arranged.
Tapered roller bearings can take either radial or thrust loads
or any combination of the two, and in addition, they have
the high load-carrying capacity of straight roller bearings.
The tapered roller bearing is designed so that all elements
in the roller surface and the raceways intersect at a common
point on the bearing axis.
Tapered roller (both radial and thrust) Bearing
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Tapered roller (both radial and thrust) Bearing
The axial load carrying capacity of the bearings is largely
determined by the contact angle
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Bearing life
If a bearing is maintained in condition of clean and
properly lubricated, is mounted and sealed against the
entrance of dust and dirt and is operated at reasonable
temperatures, then metal fatigue will be the only cause of
failure.
Bearing life of an individual bearing is defined as the total
number of revolutions (or hours at a constant speed) of
bearing operation until the failure criterion is developed.
ABMA (American Bearing Manufacturers Association) standard states
that the failure criterion is the first evidence of fatigue.
For Timken company, the criterion is a wear area of 6.45
mm
2
.
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Rating life
The rating life is used by AFBMA (Anti-friction Bearing
Manufacturers Association)
the rating life of a group of nominally identical ball or
roller bearings is defined as the number of revolutions (or
hours at a constant speed) that 90% of the group of bearings
will achieve or exceed before the failure criterion develops.
Rating life for different manufacturers:
SKF : 10
6
revolutions
Timken : 90(10)
6
revolutions
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Bearing load (F) - Life (L) trade-off at
constant (rated, 90%) reliability (R):
Rating Life
Fig: Typical bearing load-life log-log curve.
Using a regression equation of the form
Experimentally
obtained data
plotted, for 90%
reliability
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( ) ( )
a
D D D
a
R R
n L F n L C
/ 1 / 1
10
60 60 =
a a
L F L F
1
2 2
1
1 1
=
Associating the load F
1
with C
10
, the catalogue rating that you need to look at, and
the life measure in revolutions L
1
with the L
10
, which is the manufacturer specific
quantity, F
D
and L
D
refer to the design quantities for the bearing to be selected, we
can write,
( ) ( )
a
D D
a
L F L C
/ 1 / 1
10 10
=
Here If we want to specify in the life hours, then we can write, rpm (n
R
& n
D
) values:
Different terms in the above equation?
Rating
Life=L
10
Desired
Life=L
D
Desired Load=F
D
Rating Load=C
10
1
2
Bearing load (F) - Life (L) trade-off at
constant (rated, 90%) reliability (R):
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( ) ( )
a
D D D
a
R R
n L F n L C
/ 1 / 1
10
60 60 =
Catalog rating, kN
Rating life in hours
Rating speed in RPM
Desired load, kN
Desired life in hours
Desired speed in RPM
Solving for C
10
gives
a
D D
D
a
R R
D D
D
life rating
n L
F
n L
n L
F
/ 1 / 1
10
60
60
60
C rating, load Catalogue
|
|

\
|
=
|
|

\
|
=
Bearing load (F) - Life (L) trade-off at
constant (rated, 90%) reliability (R):
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The Desired load (F
D
) is not steady then Load application factor
(A.F) is used
For all problems in this chapter,
If A.F is not given , Dont use it
If it is given, then directly multiply with F
D
to get Desired load
Table 115
Effect of load application factor
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Problem:
The rating life of rolling contact bearings as 10
6
revolutions. Select a ball bearing for a motorcycle
for a life of 5000 hours to work at a speed of
1800 RPM under a radial load of 3000 N.
BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus
Solution:
( )
kN N
n L
n L
F C
a
R R
D D
D
43 . 24 76 . 24429
10
60 1800 5000
3000
60
60
3 / 1
6
/ 1
10
=
|

\
|
=
|
|

\
|
=
From the table 11-2 (next slide), for the above load
rating, the nearest ball bearing is 35 mm bore, 72 mm
OD, 17 mm width, 1 mm fillet radius, 41 mm shaft
diameter and 65 mm housing shoulder diameter (it has
C
10
of 25.5 kN).
Assumed reliability is 90%
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Table 112:
Dimensions and Load Ratings for Single-Row 02-Series
Deep-Groove and Angular-Contact Ball Bearings
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Table 113
Dimensions and Basic Load Ratings for
Cylindrical Roller Bearings
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The coding method for standard bearings:
02 bearings means
As per ABMA, the bearings are identified by a two-digit number
called the dimension-series code.
The first number is from the width series, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6.
The second number is from the diameter series (outside), 8, 9, 0, 1, 2,
3, & 4.
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Shoulder dimensions:
What d
s
and d
H
in the catalogues
mean
The housing and shaft shoulder diameters
listed in the tables should be used whenever
possible to secure adequate support for the
bearing and to resist the maximum thrust
loads
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Example
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Reliability goal of the mechanical system
The combined reliability goal is normally specified, say, R
t
.
Then each of the two bearings, if both of them are same type, must
possess a reliability of:
t
t
t
t B A
B A t
R R Thus
R
R g e
R R or
R R R R R R R If
R R R
>
= =
=
=
= = = =
=
,
948 . 0 90 . 0
, 90 . 0 ., .
,
2
When dissimilar bearings are to be chosen at the two ends, the more
critical of the two will be designed for R
t
. R
B
=R
t
/R
A
=R
t
/R
t
=1. Thus
automatically the second bearing will have 100% reliability.
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0
0
exp[ ( ) ]
b
x x
R
x

=

Using the Weibull distribution, along any


constant load line (horizontal line in the
graph):
=characteristic parameter corresponding to the 63.2121 percentile value of the
variate; b= shape parameter that controls the skewness
Bearing load (F) - Life (L) - reliability (R)
three-way relationship
(What to do, if more than 90% reliability is desired?):
R=reliability
x=life measure dimensionless variate, L/L
10
x
0
=guaranteed, or minimum value of the variate
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1 /
1 0
1 /
0 0
( ) , 0 . 9 0
( ) (1 )
a
D
D
b
D
x
C F R
x x R
=
+
a
D D
a
B B
x F x F
1 1
=
a
B
a
D
D B
x
x
F F
1
1
=
Along a constant load line (AB),
( )
ng substituti
R
x x x
x Solving
x
x x
R
b
D
B
B
b
B
D
/ 1
0 0
0
0
1
ln
exp
|
|

\
|
+ =
(
(

|
|

\
|

( ) ( ) ( )
a
b
D
D
D
a
B
a
D
D B
R x x
x
F
x
x
F C F
/ 1
/ 1
0 0
1
1
10
/ 1 ln
(

+
= = =

The natural logarithmic function can be series-expanded and simplified to yield


Bearing load (F) - Life (L) - reliability (R)
three-way relationship
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The rating life of rolling contact bearings as 10
6
revolutions.
Select a ball bearing for a motorcycle for a life of 5000 hours to
work at a speed of 1800 RPM under a radial load of 3000 N, with
a reliability of 95%. The pure radial load is not steady and hence
use an application factor (AF) of 1.5. Use Weibull distribution and
Weibull parameters, guaranteed or minimum value of the
dimensionless variate x as x
0
=0.02, characteristic parameter minus
the minimum guaranteed value as (-x
0
)=4.439 and the shape
parameter as b=1.483.
Example
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Solution: desired value of the dimensionless variate
x
D
=L/L
10
=(60 L
D
n
D
)/(rating life)
= (60*5000*1800)/(10
6
)=540
This means that the design life is to be 540 times the L
10
life.
Hence the necessary C
10
is
( )
kN N C 24 . 43 43236
95 . 0 1 439 . 4 02 . 0
540
) 3000 )( 5 . 1 (
3 1
483 . 1 1
10
= =
(

+
=
From the table 11-2, for the above load rating, the nearest ball bearing
is 55 mm bore, 100 mm OD, 21 mm width, 1.5 mm fillet radius, 63
mm shaft diameter and 605 mm housing shoulder diameter. The C
10
itself is 43.6 kN.
Solution
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No thrust load
Thrust load present
Combined Radial and Thrust Loading
Two different applications having and not having a thrust load:
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Accounting for thrust force:
1
e
r
F
VF
=
when
e a
r r
F F
X Y
VF VF
= +
when
e i r i a
F X VF Y F = +
Purpose is to find the equivalent radial load F
e
, that
would do the same damage as that done by the
existing radial and thrust loads together. V is the
rotation factor. V=1 for inner ring rotation, V=1.2
for outer ring rotation.
e
Generalizing for both zones,
For horizontal line zone, i=1 and for
inclined line zone, i=2.
Table 11-1 gives the values of X
i
and Y
i
.
a
a
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THE ITERATIVE SOLUTION METHOD
(BOTH F
r
AND F
a
ACTING)
1) Calculate F
a
/(VF
r
) , Assume this is greater than e in table 11-1
and note down the X
2
and Y
2
values.
2) Estimate the equivalent load F
e
. Calculate the desired load
F
D
=A.F(F
e
). Calculate C
10
for the given reliability.
3) Find the C
10
as well as C
0
from catalogue for given reliability. C
0
is the bearings static load catalog rating.
4) Find F
a
/C
0
and for this F
a
/C
0
, is F
a
/(VF
r
) greater than e?, if Yes
note down the X
2
and Y
2
values.
5) Estimate the equivalent load F
e
. Calculate the desired load
F
D
=A.F(F
e
). Calculate the new C
10
value for the given reliability.
6) If the same bearing is obtained, stop. (calculated C
10
is less than old
C
10
)
7) If not, take next bearing for new C
10
value and repeat from step 4
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The SKF rates its rolling contact bearings as 10
7
revolutions.
Select a 2-series angular contact ball bearing for a life of
10000 hours to work at a speed of 200 RPM under a radial
load of 2.5kN and a axial load of 1kN having a reliability of
99% from SKF catalogue. The load is not steady and use an
application factor of 1.5. Use Weibull distribution and
Weibull parameters are: guaranteed or minimum value of the
dimensionless variate X as X
0
=0.02, characteristic parameter
minus the minimum guaranteed value as (-X
0
)=4.439 and
the shape parameter as b= 1.483.
Problem
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