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Chapter 8 Foundations of Group Behavior

MULTIPLE CHOICE Defining and Classifying Groups 1. Which one of the following characteristics is not part of a definition of a group? a. interdependent b. two or more members c. organizationally assigned goals d. interacting (c; Challenging; p. 1!" ##### groups are defined by the organization$s structure. a. %nformal b. &ormal c. &riendship d. %nterest (b; 'oderate; p. 1!" (. %nformal groups) a. appear in response to the need for social contact. b. are detrimental in the wor*place. c. should be formed outside of wor*ing hours. d. are defined by the organization structure. (a; 'oderate; p. 1!" +. Which of the following is not a sub,classification of groups? a. command b. tas* c. wor* d. friendship (c; 'oderate; p. 1!" -. .hree employees from different departments who regularly eat lunch together are an e/ample of a(an" ##### group. a. formal b. informal c. command d. tas* (b; 0asy; p. 1!" 1. Which of the following statements is true? a. 2ll tas* groups are also command groups. b. 2ll command groups are also tas* groups. c. 2ll tas* groups are also friendship groups. d. 2ll command groups are also informal groups. (b; 'oderate; p. 3" 4. .he group type that is determined by the organization chart is) a. the friendship group. 114 .

b. the interest group. c. the reference group. d. the command group. (d; 'oderate; p. 1!" 5. Which one of the following groups is organizationally determined? a. friendship b. tas* c. interest d. 6ol7o owners (b; 'oderate; p. 3" !. .he group type that is not limited to its immediate hierarchical superior but can cross command relationships is the) a. tas* group. b. command group. c. interest group. d. friendship group. (a; 'oderate; p. 3" 13. Command groups are also) a. informal groups. b. tas* groups. c. friendship groups. d. interest groups. (b; 0asy; p. 3" 11. 8ocial alliances based on support for 9otre Dame football is an e/ample of a #### group. a. formal b. command c. friendship d. tas* (c; 0asy; p. 3" 1 . 0mployees who band together to see* impro7ed wor*ing conditions form a(n" ##### group. a. social b. support c. interest d. wor* (c; 'oderate; p. 3" 1(. Which of the following statements most accurately describes interest groups? a. .hey are longer lasting than command groups. b. .hey rarely satisfy the needs of members. c. .hey are formed because of some common interest. d. .hey are not found in manufacturing organizations. (c; 'oderate; p. 3" 1+. Which of the following is not a reason people :oin groups? a. security 115

b. status c. e;uity d. power (c; 'oderate; 0/h. 5,1< p.

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8tages of Group De7elopment 1-. .he stages of group de7elopment are) a. idea generation< implementation< termination. b. introduction< high producti7ity< decline. c. initiation< e7olution< maturation< decline. d. forming< storming< norming< performing< ad:ourning. (d; 'oderate; 0/h. 5, < p. 1" 11. Which is not one of the stages in the fi7e,stage group,de7elopment model? a. forming b. worming c. storming d. norming (b; 0asy; 0/h. 5, ; p. 1" 14. .he stage in group de7elopment which is characterized by uncertainty is) a. norming. b. storming. c. forming. d. performing. (c; 0asy; p. 3" 15. Which is the stage of group de7elopment characterized by close relationships and cohesi7eness? a. bonding b. norming c. performing d. storming (b; 'oderate; p. 1" 1!. %n the second stage of group de7elopment) a. close relationships are de7eloped. b. the group demonstrates cohesi7eness. c. intragroup conflict often occurs. d. the :ob tas* is performed. (c; Challenging; p. 1"

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2fter which stage of a group$s de7elopment is there a relati7ely clear hierarchy of leadership within the group? a. norming b. storming c. forming d. performing 11!

(b; 'oderate; p. 1.

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2fter which stage of a group$s de7elopment has the group formed a common set of e/pectations of member beha7iors? a. norming b. storming c. forming d. performing (a; 0asy; p. 1" When the group energy is focused on the tas* at hand< the group has mo7ed to the) a. performing stage. b. norming stage. c. storming stage. d. ad:ourning stage. (a; 'oderate; p. 1" .emporary groups with deadlines follow the ##### model. a. sociometry b. fi7e,stage group de7elopment c. punctuated e;uilibrium d. cluster 7ariance (c; 'oderate; p. " 2ccording to the punctuated e;uilibrium model< all of the following are true about groups e/cept) a. the first meeting sets the group$s direction. b. a transition ta*es place at the end of the first phase which occurs e/actly when the group has used up one third of its allotted time. c. the first phase of group acti7ity is one of inertia. d. the group$s last meeting is characterized by mar*edly accelerated acti7ity. (b; Challenging; p. " 2ccording to the punctuated e;uilibrium model< groups tend to e/perience ##### about halfway between the first meeting and the official deadline. a. inertia b. stagnation c. reinforcement of the initial fi/ed course d. =mid,life crisis> (d; 'oderate; p. (" -. +. (. .

.oward 0/plaining Wor* Group ?eha7ior 2ll of the following are reasons some groups are more successful than others e/cept) a. age of group members. b. size of the group. c. le7el of conflict. d. internal pressures for conformity. (a; 'oderate; p. (" 143 1.

0/ternal Conditions %mposed on the Group Which of the following is not an e/ternal condition imposed on the group? a. group composition b. authority structures c. formal regulations d. performance e7aluation system (a; 'oderate; p. +" Which of the following defines =authority structure?> a. who reports to whom b. who ma*es decisions c. what decisions indi7iduals or groups are empowered to ma*e d. all of the abo7e (d; 'oderate; p. +" .he more formal regulations that the organization imposes on its employees) a. the more dissatisfied the employees will be. b. the more producti7e the wor* group members will be. c. the more the beha7ior of the wor* group members will be consistent and predictable. d. the less producti7e the wor* group members will be. (c; 'oderate; p. +" (3. Which e/ternal condition imposed on the group outlines the organization$s goals and the means for attaining these goals? a. organization$s o7erall strategy b. authority structure c. formal regulations d. performance e7aluation system (a; 'oderate; p. +" (1. Which e/ternal condition imposed on the group determines the *inds of people that will be in its wor* groups? a. selection process b. authority structure c. performance e7aluation system d. formal regulations (a; 'oderate; p. +" ( . .he unwritten law that defines for employees standards of acceptable and unacceptable beha7ior is the) a. organizational culture. b. employee handboo*. c. feedbac* employees recei7e from their superiors. d. informal discussion among co,wor*ers. (a; 0asy; p. -" Group 'ember @esources !. 5. 4.

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Which of the following is not true concerning *nowledge< s*ills< and abilities of group members? a. Aart of a group$s performance can be predicted by addressing the *nowledge< s*ills< and abilities of its indi7idual members. b. 2 group$s performance is not merely the summation of its indi7idual members$ abilities. c. %nterpersonal s*ills consistently emerge as important for high wor* group performance. d. Group members do not need conflict management s*ills. (d; Challenging; p. -" (+. Which one of the following personality traits tends to be positi7ely related to group producti7ity? a. dominance b. authoritarianism c. sociability d. uncon7entionality (c; 'oderate; p. 1" (-. Which of the following is not negati7ely related to group producti7ity? a. fle/ibility b. authoritarianism c. dominance d. uncon7entionality (a; 'oderate; p. 1" (1. Which of the following personality traits is generally negati7ely related to group producti7ity? a. initiati7e b. uncon7entionality c. sociability d. openness (b; 'oderate; p. 1" Group 8tructure (4. &ormal leadership< roles< group norms< group status< and group size are e/amples of group) a. structural 7ariables. b. role definitions. c. status symbols. d. perceptions of reality. (a; 'oderate; p. 1" (5. Which of the following is not true regarding formal leadership? a. .he formal leader can play an important role in the group$s success. b. .he formal leader is typically identified by titles such as manager< super7isor< foreman< and pro:ect leader. c. &ormal leadership does not shape the beha7ior of members. d. 2lmost e7ery wor* group has a formal leader. (c; 'oderate; p. 1" (!. 2 ##### is a set of e/pected beha7ior patterns associated with a particular position in a social unit. a. role b. norm c. stereotype 14

d. status hierarchy (a; 0asy; p. 1" +3. Certain attitudes and actual beha7iors consistent with a role are the) a. role e/pectations. b. role identity. c. role perception. d. psychological contract. (b; 0asy; p. 4" +1. Which of the following is true of role identity? a. .he attitudes and actual beha7iors consistent with a role create the role perception. b. Aeople ha7e the ability to shift roles rapidly when they recognize that the situation re;uires change. c. Aeople do not ha7e the ability to shift roles rapidly. d. 07eryone is re;uired to play one specific role in e7ery situation. (b; 'oderate; p. 4" + . Bow others belie7e you should act in a gi7en situation is a) a. norm. b. stereotype. c. role e/pectation. d. role perception. (c; 0asy; p. 4" +(. .he ##### defines mutual e/pectations along with beha7ioral e/pectations that go with e7ery role. a. group norm b. role e/pectation c. role stereotype d. psychological contract (d; 'oderate; p. 4"

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When an indi7idual finds that compliance with one role re;uirement may ma*e more difficult the compliance with another< the result is) a. role conflict. b. role e/pectation. c. role perception. d. role identity. (a; 'oderate; p. 5" +-. Cimbardo$s simulated prison e/periment is most important because it demonstrates) a. the importance of status. b. the impact of cohesi7eness. c. that indi7iduals can rapidly assimilate new roles 7ery different from their inherent personalities. d. flaws in the Bawthorne studies. 14(

(c; 'oderate; p. +1.

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Cimbardo$s simulated prison e/periment in7ol7ing =normal> students at 8tanford Dni7ersity illustrated) a. group conformity. b. a conflict of interest. c. indi7idual communication. d. the sudden adaptation of new roles. (d; Challenging; p. 5" +4. 2cceptable standards of beha7ior that are shared by the group$s members are) a. norms. b. rules. c. sanctions. d. opinions. (a; 0asy; p. !" +5. Which is not a common class of norms appearing in most wor* groups? a. performance norms b. appearance c. termination d. arrangement (c; 0asy; p. !" +!. Ene e/ample of wor* group norms deals with performance,related processes. performance norms include all of the following e/cept) a. appropriate dress. b. how hard the employee should wor*. c. appropriate le7els of tardiness. d. le7el of output. (a; Challenging; p. !" 0/amples of

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9orms that dictate with whom group members eat lunch< friendships on and off the :ob< and social games are norms dealing with) a. appearance factors. b. social arrangements. c. ethical issues. d. group acti7ity. (b; 'oderate; pp. !, (3" -1. 9orms that dictate assignment of difficult :obs and allocation of new tools and e;uipment are norms dealing with) a. corporate ob:ecti7es. b. financial standards. c. allocation of resources. d. informal arrangements. (c; 0asy; p. (3" 14+

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#### norms include things li*e appropriate dress< when to loo* busy< and loyalty to the organization. a. Aerformance b. 2ppearance c. 8ocial arrangement d. 2llocation of resources (b; 0asy; p. !" -(. ##### norms include how to get the :ob done and the le7el of output. a. Aerformance b. 2ppearance c. 8ocial arrangement d. 2llocation of resources (a; 0asy; p. !" -+. ##### norms include with whom members eat lunch and friendships on and off the :ob. a. Aerformance b. 2ppearance c. 8ocial arrangement d. 2llocation of resources (c; 0asy; p. !" --. ##### groups are characterized as ones where a person is aware of the others. .he person defines himself or herself as a member< or would li*e to be a member. a. @eference b. 8tatus c. @ole d. 9ormati7e (a; 'oderate; p. !"

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.he ma:or contribution of the 2sch study was to demonstrate the impact of) a. group pressures for conformity. b. seating arrangements. c. the Bawthorne effect. d. status on group performance. (a; 'oderate; p. (3" -4. 2ntisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally 7iolate established norms and that result in negati7e conse;uences for the organization< its members< or both are referred to as) a. ethical dilemmas. b. de7iant wor*place beha7ior. c. norms. d. antisocial beha7ior. (b; 'oderate; p. (1" -5. ##### is a socially defined position or ran* gi7en to groups or group members by others. 14-

a. Aosition b. Aromotion c. 8tatus d. @ole (c; 0asy; p. ( " -!. Which of the following is not true? a. 8tatus has been shown to ha7e some interesting effects on the power of norms and the pressures to conform. b. Bigh status members of groups are gi7en more freedom to de7iate from norms than are other group members. c. Fow status members of groups are gi7en more freedom to de7iate from norms than are other group members. d. Bigh status people are better able to resist conformity pressures than their lower status peers. (c; 'oderate; p. ( " 13. Which of the following is not true about status e;uity? a. .he trappings that go with formal positions are important elements in maintaining e;uity. b. 8tatus incongruence is the percei7ed ine;uity between an indi7idualGs ran*ing and the status accoutrements that person is gi7en by the organization. c. Groups generally agree within themsel7es on status criteria. d. %t is unimportant for group members to belie7e that the status hierarchy is e;uitable< only that they understand it. (d; Challenging; p. ((" 11. Hour group is engaged in problem sol7ing and your goal is fact,finding. Which size group should be most effecti7e? a. ( b. 1 c. 4 d. 1 (d; Challenging; p. (+" 1 . %f your group must ta*e action< which size should be most effecti7e? a. 4 b. c. 13 d. 1 (a; Challenging; p. (+" 1(. %n comparing the results of indi7idual and group performance on a rope,pulling tas*< @ingelmann concluded that) a. the larger the group< the greater the indi7idual producti7ity. b. increases in group size are in7ersely related to indi7idual performance. c. total producti7ity tends to decline in large groups. d. group size is not a determinant of indi7idual producti7ity. (b; Challenging; pp. (+, (-" 1+. 2ccording to your te/t< the group size that e/ercises the best elements of both small and large groups is) a. ( to + members. 141

b. + to - members. c. - to 4 members. d. 4 to ! members. (c; 'oderate; p. (+" 1-. @esearch on group demography demonstrates that ##### are positi7ely related to ##### a. similar member attributes; performance. b. dissimilar member attributes; performance. c. similar member attributes; turno7er. d. dissimilar member attributes; turno7er. (d; Challenging; p. (1" 11. When predicting turno7er in a wor* group made up of nine females and one male< we$d predict that) a. the male would be most inclined to lea7e the group. b. a female would be more inclined to lea7e the group than the male. c. there is no indication as to who would lea7e the group. d. the indi7idual who had been in the group the longest would be most inclined to lea7e the group. (a; 'oderate; p. (4" 14. .he degree to which group members are attracted to one another is called) a. cohesi7eness. b. integration. c. sociability. d. reliability. (a; 0asy; p. (4"

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Group cohesi7eness is increased with each of the following e/cept) a. when the group is heterogeneous. b. when members spend time together. c. when e/ternal threats e/ist. d. when the group is physically isolated. (a; 'oderate; pp. (4, (5" 1!. %f cohesi7eness is high and performance norms are low) a. internal conflict will be high. b. internal conflict will be low. c. producti7ity will be high. d. producti7ity will be low. (d; Challenging; p. (4" Group Arocesses 43. ##### is an action of two or more substances that results in an effect that is different from the indi7idual summation of the substances. a. ?rainstorming 144

b. Aower diffusion c. 8ynergy d. 0ffecti7eness (c; 0asy; p. (5" 41. Which of the following is an e/ample of negati7e synergy? a. research teams wor*ing together< ma*ing use of di7erse member s*ills b. social loafing c. process gain d. I J (b; 'oderate; p. (5" 4 . ##### refers to the tendency for performance to impro7e or decline in response to the presence of others. a. 8ocial loafing effect b. 8ynergy c. 8ocial facilitation effect d. 9egati7e synergy (c; 'oderate; pp. (5, (!" Group .as*s 4(. 2 group characterized by poor communication< wea* leadership< and high le7els of conflict will) a. be low performing. b. be high performing. c. disband due to inability to perform. d. still be effecti7e if the tas*s are simple and re;uire little interdependence among group members. (d; Challenging; p. (!" Group Decision 'a*ing 4+. Group decisions are generally preferable to indi7idual decisions when ##### is sought. a. acceptance of solution b. speed c. efficiency d. clear responsibility (a; 'oderate; p. +3" 4-. Which is not a wea*ness of group decision ma*ing? a. %t is time consuming. b. .here is increased di7ersity of 7iews. c. %t suffers from ambiguous responsibility. d. %t can be dominated by one or a few members. (b; 0asy; p. +3" 41. %ndi7idual decisions are generally preferable to group decisions when ##### is sought. a. speed b. di7ersity of perspecti7es c. acceptance of solution 145

d. a higher ;uality decision (a; Challenging; p. +3" 44. Groupthin* results in) a. higher ;uality decisions. b. more ris*y decisions. c. less critical analysis. d. unpopular decision choices. (c; 'oderate; pp. +1, + " 45. ##### is a phenomenon in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual< minority< or unpopular 7iews. a. Group conformity b. Groupshift c. Groupthin* d. Compromise (c; 0asy; p. + " 4!. Groupshift most often means decisions) a. are made by groups rather than indi7iduals. b. contain greater ris*. c. are made more ;uic*ly. d. pro7e less effecti7e. (b; Challenging; p. + "

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2ll of the following are e/planations for the phenomenon of groupshift e/cept) a. discussion creates familiarization among members. b. most first,world societies 7alue ris*. c. the group leader usually gets the credit or blame for the group action. d. the group diffuses responsibility. (c; Challenging; p. +(" 51. Which one of the following is li*ely to generate the least inno7ati7e alternati7es? a. face,to,face interacting groups b. brainstorming c. Delphi techni;ue d. nominal group techni;ue (a; 'oderate; p. +(" 5 . ?rainstorming is) a. used to build group cohesi7eness. b. a techni;ue that tends to restrict independent thin*ing. c. a process for generating ideas. d. used mainly when group members cannot agree on a solution. (c; 'oderate; p. ++" 5(. .he ##### techni;ue most restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision, 14!

ma*ing process. a. interacting b. nominal group c. brainstorm d. electronic meeting (b; 'oderate; pp. ++, +-" 5+. Which of the following is not considered an ad7antage of electronic meetings? a. honesty b. speed c. recei7ing credit for the best ideas d. anonymity (c; 'oderate; p. +-" 5-. Which type of decision,ma*ing group is most committed to the group solution? a. interacting b. brainstorming c. nominal d. electronic (a; Challenging; p. +-" TRUE/F L!E Defining and Classifying Groups 51. 2 group must ha7e at least two members and one or more ob:ecti7es. (.rue; 'oderate; p. 1!" 54. 'embers in a group are interdependent. (.rue; 0asy; p. 1!" 55. .he tas*s in groups within an organization must be directed toward organizational goals. (&alse; 'oderate; p. 1!" 5!. Command and tas* groups are dictated by the formal organization whereas interest and friendship groups are not. (.rue; 'oderate; p. 3" !3. 2ll tas* groups are also command groups. (&alse; 'oderate; p. 3" !1. While command groups are determined by the organization chart< tas*< interest< and friendship groups de7elop because of the necessity to satisfy one$s wor* and social needs. (&alse; 'oderate; p. 3" ! . .he types of interactions among indi7iduals< e7en though informal< deeply affect their beha7ior and performance. (.rue; 'oderate; p. 3" !(. .here is no single reason why indi7iduals :oin groups. 153

(.rue; 0asy; p.

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!+. Different groups pro7ide different benefits to their members. (.rue; 0asy; p. 3" 8tages of Group De7elopment !-. .emporary groups with tas* specific deadlines follow the fi7e,stage model of group de7elopment. (&alse; 'oderate; 0/h. 5, ; p. 1" !1. 'ost conflicts are resol7ed by the completion of the first stage in a group$s de7elopment. (&alse; 'oderate; p. 3" !4. .he norming stage of group de7elopment is characterized by camaraderie. (.rue; 'oderate; p. 1" !5. &or permanent wor* groups< performance is the last stage in their de7elopment. (.rue; Challenging; p. 1" !!. Dnder some conditions< high le7els of conflict are conduci7e to high group performance. (.rue; 'oderate; p. " 133. .he stages of group de7elopment must occur se;uentially and will ne7er occur simultaneously. (&alse; 'oderate; p. " 131. .he fi7e,stage model of group de7elopment ignores organizational conte/t. (.rue; Challenging; p. " 13 . %n the punctuated e;uilibrium model< the group$s direction is ree/amined fre;uently in the first half of the group$s life and is li*ely to be altered. (&alse; Challenging; p. " 13(. .he punctuated e;uilibrium model characterizes groups as e/hibiting long periods of inertia interspersed with brief re7olutionary changes triggered primarily by members$ awareness of time and deadlines. (.rue; Challenging; p. (" 0/ternal Conditions %mposed on the Group 13+. 2n organization$s strategy will influence the power of 7arious wor* groups. (.rue; 'oderate; p. +" 13-. 2n organization$s authority structure defines a wor* group$s formal leader. (.rue; 'oderate; p. +" 131. .he more formal regulations that the organization imposes on all its employees< the more the beha7ior of wor* groups will be inconsistent and unpredictable. (&alse; 'oderate; p. +" 134. .he criteria that an organization uses in its selection process will determine the *inds of people who will be in the organization$s wor* groups. 151

(.rue; 0asy; p.

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135. 2fter a few months< most employees understand their organization$s culture. (.rue; 0asy; p. -" 13!. 2 wor* group often forms a subculture within the organization$s o7erall culture< but members of wor* groups ha7e to accept the standards implied in the organizationGs dominant culture to remain in good standing. (.rue; 'oderate; p. -" 113. .he physical wor* setting creates both barriers and opportunities for wor* group interaction. (.rue; 'oderate; p. -" Group 'ember @esources 111. @esearch demonstrates that group performance is the summation of the indi7idual members$ abilities. (&alse; 'oderate; p. -" 11 . 8ociability has been found to be a personality characteristic that is a good predictor of group beha7ior. (.rue; 'oderate; p. 1" Group 8tructure 11(. Wor* groups ha7e a structure that shapes the beha7ior of members and ma*es it possible to e/plain and predict a large portion of indi7idual beha7ior within the group as well as the performance of the group itself. (.rue; 'oderate; p. 1" 11+. 2lmost e7ery wor* group has a formal leader. (.rue; 'oderate; p. 1" 11-. 2ll group members can be said to be actors< each playing a role. (.rue; 'oderate; p. 1" 111. We all are re;uired to play one role and our beha7ior 7aries with that role. (.rue; 0asy; p. 4" 114. Ene$s 7iew of how one is supposed to act in a gi7en situation is a role perception. (.rue; 0asy; p. 4" 115. @ole identity is created by certain attitudes and actual beha7iors consistent with that role. (.rue; 'oderate; p. 4" 11!. .he psychological contract defines beha7ioral e/pectations that go with e7ery role. (.rue; 0asy; p. 4" 1 3. When an indi7idual is confronted by di7ergent role e/pectations< the result is role conflict. 15

(.rue; 0asy; p. 1 1.

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2sch$s simulated prison e/periment demonstrated that people with no prior personality pathology or training in their roles could e/ecute e/treme forms of beha7ior consistent with the roles they were playing. (&alse; 'oderate; p. 5" 1 . Enly some groups ha7e established norms. (&alse; 0asy; p. !" 1 (. 9orms tell members what they ought and ought not to do under certain circumstances. (.rue; 0asy; p. !" 1 +. Aerformance norms include things li*e appropriate dress and when to loo* busy. (&alse; 'oderate; p. !" 1 -. .he most common class of norms are social arrangement norms. (&alse; Challenging; p. !" 1 1. %f group acceptance were not important to you< the need to conform to the group$s norms would decrease. (.rue; 'oderate; p. (3" 1 4. 8olomon 2sch$s study was 7ery important in demonstrating the concept of group conformity on indi7idual beha7ior. (.rue; Challenging; p. (3" 1 5. 2sch$s study suggested that we desire to be one of the group and a7oid being 7isibly different. (.rue; 'oderate; p. (3" 1 !. 07idence indicates that 2sch$s findings about group conformity are culture bound. (.rue; 'oderate; p. (1" 1(3. De7iant wor*place beha7ior co7ers a wide range of antisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally 7iolate established norms and that result in negati7e conse;uences for the organization< its members< or both. (.rue; 'oderate; p. (1" 1(1. Bigh status members of groups are gi7en less freedom to de7iate from norms than other group members. (&alse; 'oderate; p. ( " 1( . When an employee belie7es there is an ine;uity between the percei7ed ran*ing of an indi7idual and the status amenities he or she recei7es from the organization< this is *nown as status congruence. (&alse; 'oderate; p. ((" 1((. Cultures differ on the criteria that define status. (.rue; 0asy; p. (+" 1(+. While group performance increases with group size< the addition of new members to the group has diminishing returns on producti7ity. 15(

(.rue; Challenging; p. (+" 1(-. @esearch on group size concludes that groups with an e7en number of members tend to be preferred o7er those with an odd number. (&alse; Challenging; p. (+" 1(1. @esearch on group composition concludes that homogeneous groups are more effecti7e than heterogeneous groups. (&alse; 'oderate; p. (-" 1(4. @esearch on group composition concludes that composition may be an important predictor of turno7er. (.rue; 'oderate; p. (4" 1(5. Group demography is the degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute. (.rue; 0asy; p. (1" 1(!. Conformity is the degree to which members are attracted to each other and are moti7ated to stay in the group. (&alse; 'oderate; p. (4" 1+3. %f performance,related norms are high< less cohesi7e groups are more producti7e. (&alse; Challenging; p. (4" 1+1. Ahysically isolating a group will ma*e it more cohesi7e. (.rue; 'oderate; pp. (4, (5" Group Arocesses 1+ . 9o matter how well designed a group is< it cannot create outputs greater than the sum of its inputs. (&alse; 'oderate; p. (5" 1+(. 8ocial loafing is a case of negati7e synergy. (.rue; 0asy; p. (5" 1++. .he social facilitation effect refers to the tendency for performance to impro7e or decline in response to the presence of others. (.rue; 'oderate; p. (5" 1+-. .he size,performance relationship is moderated by the group$s tas* re;uirements. (.rue; 'oderate; p. (!" 1+1. 0ffecti7e communication and minimal le7els of conflict should be more rele7ant to group performance when tas*s are interdependent. (.rue; Challenging; p. (!" 1+4. Group decisions generate higher ;uality decisions than indi7idual decisions. (.rue; 0asy; p. +3"

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1+5. Group decisions are more li*ely to be accepted than indi7idual decisions. (.rue; 0asy; p. +3" 1+!. %ndi7idual decisions are more time consuming than group decisions. (&alse; 'oderate; p. +3" 1-3. %f a low,to,medium ability person dominates the group< the group$s o7erall effecti7eness will suffer. (.rue; 'oderate; p. +3" 1-1. Group decisions tend to be more creati7e than indi7idual decisions. (.rue; 0asy; p. +3" 1- . Groupthin* impro7es group performance. (&alse; 'oderate; p. + " 1-(. Groups usually ma*e more ris*y decisions than do indi7iduals. (.rue; Challenging; p. +(" 1-+. .he Challenger space shuttle disaster was an e/ample of groupshift. (&alse; 'oderate; p. + " 1--. ?rainstorming is li*ely to generate more creati7e alternati7es than use of face,to,face interacting groups. (.rue; 'oderate; p. ++" 1-1. .he chief ad7antage of the nominal group techni;ue is that it permits the group to meet formally but does not restrict independent thin*ing< as does the interacting group. (.rue; Challenging; p. +-" 1-4. Ene of the ad7antages of the electronic meeting is that ideas are processed fast. (.rue; 'oderate; p. +-" 1-5. .he primary contingency 7ariable moderating the relationship between group processes and performance is the group$s cohesi7eness. (&alse; Challenging; p. +4" !CE" RIO#B !E$ %UE!TIO"! 2pplication of 8tages of Group De7elopment 2stro %nc. is reorganizing and your new wor* group begins wor*ing together on 'onday morning. Hour college course in organizational beha7ior contained information about the stages of group de7elopment and your super7isor has as*ed your ad7ice about the predictable stages of group de7elopment. 1-!. Hou should warn your super7isor that in the first stage of group de7elopment< the team members will probably) a. be uncertain. b. be their most producti7e. c. be a stage of conflict. 15-

d. focus their group energy on performing the tas* at hand. (a; 'oderate; pp. 3, " 113. Hou are predicting that the most producti7e stage will be) a. forming. b. storming. c. norming. d. performing. (d; 'oderate; pp. 3, " 111. .he final stage for this permanent wor* group should be) a. storming. b. norming. c. performing. d. ad:ourning. (c; Challenging; pp. 3, " 2pplication of @oles 8e7eral years ago you began a small retail store to sell computer parts. .he store grew and the business e/panded to offer computer repair and custom computer programming. Hou ha7e noticed that people ha7e definite e/pectations about what their appropriate role within the e/panding company should be. 11 . Hou can help them understand their roles and the role of other people by e/plaining some common facts about roles. 2ll of the following are true e/cept) a. each person will be e/pected to play a number of di7erse roles. b. most people ha7e the ability to shift roles rapidly when they recognize that the situation and its demands re;uire ma:or changes. c. role perception is how other people belie7e they are e/pected to act in their gi7en role. d. it may be helpful for them to 7iew role e/pectations through the perspecti7e of a psychological contract. (c; Challenging; pp. 1, 5" 11(. Kohn is e/pected to help customers in the retail store as well as perform computer repair wor*. Be feels that e7ery time he gets started on a repair< he is interrupted and doesn$t *now whether to finish his repair or wait on the customer. Kohn suffers from) a. role conflict. b. role e/pectations. c. role perception. d. role identity. (a; 'oderate; pp. 1, 5" 11+. .o clear up confusion< you ha7e decided that you must come to an unwritten agreement with each employee about your mutual e/pectations. Hou are de7eloping a(n") a. role playing document. b. role e/pectation contract. c. psychological contract. d. employment contract. (c; 'oderate; pp. 1, 5"

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2pplication of 8ize Koe is restructuring departments and is creating teams to increase the effecti7eness of his departments. Be recognizes that the size of groups impacts their o7erall beha7ior. 11-. Koe has learned in an E? course that) a. small groups are good for gaining di7erse input. b. large groups are better at ta*ing action. c. social loafing is the tendency for indi7iduals to e/pend less effort when wor*ing collecti7ely than when wor*ing indi7idually. d. the sense of team spirit spurs indi7idual effort and enhances the group$s o7erall producti7ity in all groups. (c; 'oderate; pp. (+, (-" 111. Gi7en what Koe *nows about groups< what is a good group size for a group that must ta*e action? a. b. 4 c. + d. 1 (b; 'oderate; pp. (+, (-" 114. Koe is forming a fact,finding group. What is a good group size to gain di7erse input? a. b. c. 1 d. 1( (d; 'oderate; pp. (+, (-" 2pplication of Group Decision 'a*ing Hour organization is considering the use of team decision ma*ing. Hou ha7e read e/tensi7ely the literature on decision ma*ing and are trying to inform your manager about the ad7antages and disad7antages of group decision ma*ing. 115. Hou should e/pect to find that) a. group decision ma*ing will be faster. b. group discussions will be shared e;ually. c. there will be increased acceptance of the decision. d. group decision ma*ing will not be 7iewed as legitimate. (c; 'oderate; pp. +3, +(" 11!. Hou should e/pect a wea*ness of group decision ma*ing to be) a. less complete *nowledge. b. more time will be used to ma*e the decision. c. employees will be less accepting of the group decision. d. the decision will probably be a lower ;uality decision. (b; 'oderate; pp. +3, +(" 143. Hou ha7e obser7ed that the group tends to come to consensus 7ery ;uic*ly and you *now that the 154

group is 7ery cohesi7e. Hou conclude that they may be suffering from) a. inefficiency syndrome. b. groupshift. c. disintegrating norms. d. groupthin*. (d; 'oderate; pp. +3, +(" 2pplication of Group Decision,'a*ing .echni;ues Hou decide that the decision as to which new product to produce has got to ha7e widespread acceptance and needs to be the highest ;uality decision possible. Ba7ing read the literature on decision ma*ing< you decide that this decision needs to be made by a group of your best managers. 141. Hour managers are located in .aiwan< %ndia< ?razil< and the Dnited 8tates. Which group decision, ma*ing techni;ue seems most reasonable for your situation? a. interacting groups b. brainstorming c. nominal group d. electronic meeting (d; 'oderate; pp. +(, +-" 14 . Hou ha7e decided to use the electronic meeting techni;ue. Which of the following is not true about this type of meeting? a. Aarticipants type their responses onto a computer screen. b. Hou can e/pect participants to be honest. c. Aarticipants will be anonymous. d. Group cohesi7eness will be high. (d; 'oderate; pp +(, +-" 14(. Hou ha7e decided to use the electronic meeting techni;ue. Which of the following is true about this method? a. .his method is good for building group cohesi7eness. b. .his method is good for processing ideas fast. c. .his method is good for establishing responsibility. d. .his method is an ine/pensi7e means for generating a large number of ideas. (b; Challenging; pp. +(, +-" 2pplication of 0/hibit 5,13 07aluating Group 0ffecti7eness Kacob is the manager of a wor* group and has not been able to assess the group$s effecti7eness. .he 7ice president has told Kacob that there are many different effecti7eness criteria and that his problem may be that he has not decided what he wishes to consider in analyzing the group effecti7eness. Kacob has disco7ered that an appropriate choice of the type of group used may also be an important part of group effecti7eness. 14+. %f commitment to solution is Kacob$s effecti7eness criteria< the ##### type of group should be the most effecti7e. a. interacting b. brainstorming c. nominal 155

d. electronic (a; 'oderate; 0/ 5,13; p. +1" 14-. De7eloping group cohesi7eness is an important effecti7eness criteria for the group. Kacob would want to a7oid the ##### type of group. a. interacting b. brainstorming c. nominal d. electronic (d; Challenging; 0/ 5,13; p. +1" 141. %nterpersonal conflict would be a big problem if it should de7elop in the wor* group. Kacob should probably a7oid the ##### type of group. a. interacting b. brainstorming c. nominal d. electronic (a; Challenging) 0/ 5,13; p. +1" !HORT $I!CU!!IO" %UE!TIO"! 144. Fist and briefly describe the stages in the fi7e,stage model of group de7elopment. (Aages 3, " .he fi7e,stage group de7elopment model characterizes groups as proceeding through fi7e distinct stages) forming< storming< norming< performing< and ad:ourning. &orming is characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group$s purpose< structure< and leadership. 'embers are testing the waters to determine what types of beha7ior are acceptable. .he storming stage is one of intragroup conflict. 'embers accept the e/istence of the group< but there is resistance to the constraints that the group imposes on indi7iduality. .here is conflict o7er who will control the group. .he third stage is one in which close relationships de7elop and the group demonstrates cohesi7eness. .here is now a strong sense of group identify and camaraderie. .his norming stage is complete when the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of e/pectations of what defines correct member beha7ior. .he fourth stage is performing. .he structure at this point is fully functional and accepted. Group energy has mo7ed from getting to *now and understand each other to performing the tas* at hand. %n the ad:ourning stage< the group prepares for its disbandment. Bigh tas* performance is no longer the group$s top priority. %nstead< attention is directed toward wrapping up acti7ities. 145. What is the punctuated e;uilibrium model? (Aages , (" .he punctuated e;uilibrium model is an alternati7e model for temporary groups with deadlines. .hey don$t follow the fi7e,stage group de7elopment model. .hey ha7e their own uni;ue se;uencing of actions. .heir first meeting sets the group$s direction. .his first phase of group acti7ity is one of inertia. 2 transition ta*es place at the end of this phase< which occurs e/actly when the group has used up half its allotted time. 2 transition initiates ma:or changes. 2 second phase of inertia follows the transition and the group$s last meeting is characterized by mar*edly accelerated acti7ity. 15!

14!. 0/plain the psychological contract. (Aage (4" .he psychological contract is the unwritten agreement that e/ists between employees and their employer. .his sets out mutual e/pectations L what management e/pects from wor*ers< and 7ice 7ersa. 'anagement is e/pected to treat employees :ustly< pro7ide acceptable wor*ing conditions< clearly communicate what is a fair day$s wor*< and gi7e feedbac* on how well the employee is doing. 0mployees are e/pected to respond by demonstrating a good attitude< following directions< and showing loyalty to the organization. 153. (Aage What are norms? !" 9orms are acceptable standards of beha7ior that are shared by the group$s members. 9orms tell members what they ought and ought not to do under certain circumstances. &rom an indi7idual$s standpoint< they tell what is e/pected of you in certain situations. When agreed to and accepted by the group< norms act as a means of influencing the beha7ior of group members with a minimum of e/ternal controls. 9orms differ among groups< communities< and societies< but they all ha7e them. 151. Bow does group size affect a group$s beha7ior? (Aages (+, (-" .he e7idence indicates that smaller groups are faster at completing tas*s than are larger ones. Bowe7er< if the group is engaged in problem sol7ing< large groups consistently get better mar*s than their smaller counterparts. Farge groups L with a dozen or more members L are good for gaining di7erse input. 8o if the goal of the group is fact finding< larger groups should be more effecti7e. 8maller groups are better at doing something producti7e with that input. Groups of appro/imately se7en members tend to be more effecti7e for ta*ing action. 8ocial loafing is the tendency for indi7iduals to e/pend less effort when wor*ing collecti7ely than when wor*ing indi7idually. Groups with an odd number of members tend to be preferable to those with an e7en number< and groups made up of fi7e or se7en members do a pretty good :ob of e/ercising the best elements of both small and large groups. 15 . What is cohesi7eness? (Aage (4" Cohesi7eness is the degree to which members are attracted to each other and are moti7ated to stay in the group. Groups differ in their cohesi7eness. 15(. What is the relationship between cohesi7eness and producti7ity? (Aage (4" .he relationship of cohesi7eness and producti7ity depends on the performance,related norms established by the group. %f performance,related norms are high< a cohesi7e group will be more producti7e than will a less cohesi7e group. ?ut if cohesi7eness is high and performance norms are low< producti7ity will be low. %f cohesi7eness is low and performance norms are high< producti7ity increases but less than in the high cohesi7eness L high norms situation. When cohesi7eness and performance,related norms are both low< producti7ity will tend to fall into the low,to,moderate range. 1!3

15+. 0/plain groupthin* and groupshift. (Aages +1, +(" Groupthin* is related to norms. %t describes situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual< minority< or unpopular 7iews. Groupthin* is a disease that attac*s many groups and can dramatically hinder their performance. Groupshift indicates that in discussing a gi7en set of alternati7es and arri7ing at a solution< group members tend to e/aggerate the initial positions that they hold. %n some situations< caution dominates< and there is a conser7ati7e shift. 'ore often< howe7er< the e7idence indicates that groups tend toward a ris*y shift. ME$IUM LE"GTH $I!CU!!IO" %UE!TIO"! 15-. Differentiate between formal and informal groups. (Aage 1!" &ormal groups are those defined by the organization$s structure< with designated wor* assignments establishing tas*s. %n formal groups< the beha7iors that one should engage in are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals. %nformal groups are alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. .hese groups are natural formations in the wor* en7ironment that appear in response to the need for social contact. 151. Differentiate the terms role identity< role perception< and role e/pectation. (Aage (4" .here are certain attitudes and actual beha7iors consistent with a role< and they create the role identity. Aeople ha7e the ability to shift roles rapidly when they recognize that the situation and its demands clearly re;uired ma:or changes. Ene$s 7iew of how one is supposed to act in a gi7en situation is a role perception. ?ased on an interpretation of how we belie7e we are supposed to beha7e< we engage in certain types of beha7ior. @ole e/pectations are defined as how others belie7e you should act in a gi7en situation. Bow you beha7e is determined to a large e/tent by the role defined in the conte/t in which you are acting. 154. What are four common classes of norms? (Aages !, (3" .he most common class of norms is performance norms. Wor* groups typically pro7ide their members with e/plicit cues on how hard they should wor*< how to get the :ob done< their le7el of output< appropriate le7els of tardiness< and the li*e. 2ppearance norms include things li*e appropriate dress< loyalty to the wor* group or organization< when to loo* busy< and when it$s acceptable to goof off. 8ocial arrangement norms come from informal wor* groups and primarily regulate social interactions within the group. With whom group members eat lunch< friendship on and off the :ob< social games< and the li*e are influenced by these norms. 2llocation of resources norms can originate in the group or in the organization and co7er things li*e pay< assignment of difficult :obs< and allocation of new tools and e;uipment. 155. Discuss strengths and wea*nesses of group decision ma*ing. (Aage +3" Groups generate more complete information and *nowledge. Groups bring more input into the 1!1

decision process. .hey offer increased di7ersity of 7iews. .his opens up the opportunity for more approaches and alternati7es to be considered. Groups will almost always outperform e7en the best indi7idual. Groups generate higher ;uality decisions. &inally< groups lead to increased acceptance of a solution. 'embers who participated in ma*ing a decision are li*ely to enthusiastically support the decision and encourage others to accept it. Groups also ha7e drawbac*s. .hey are time consuming. .hey ta*e more time to reach a solution than would be the case if an indi7idual were ma*ing the decision alone. .here are conformity pressures in groups. .he desire by group members to be accepted and considered an asset to the group can result in s;uashing any o7ert disagreement. Group discussion can be dominated by one or a few members. %f this dominant coalition is composed of low, and moderate,ability members< the group$s o7erall effecti7eness will suffer. &inally< group decisions suffer from ambiguous responsibility. %n an indi7idual decision< it$s clear who is accountable for the final outcome. %n a group decision< the responsibility of any single member is watered down. COMPREHE"!I&E E!! '! 15!. Compare and contrast the fi7e,stage model for group de7elopment with the punctuated e;uilibrium model. (Aages 3, (" .he fi7e,stage group de7elopment model characterizes groups as proceeding through fi7e distinct stages) forming< storming< norming< performing< and ad:ourning. &orming is characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group$s purpose< structure< and leadership. 'embers are testing the waters to determine what types of beha7ior are acceptable. .he storming stage is one of intragroup conflict. 'embers accept the e/istence of the group< but there is resistance to the constraints that the group imposes on indi7iduality. .here is conflict o7er who will control the group. .he third stage is one in which close relationships de7elop and the group demonstrates cohesi7eness. .here is now a strong sense of group identify and camaraderie. .his norming stage is complete when the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of e/pectations of what defines correct member beha7ior. .he fourth stage is performing. .he structure at this point is fully functional and accepted. Group energy has mo7ed from getting to *now and understand each other to performing the tas* at hand. %n the ad:ourning stage< the group prepares for its disbandment. Bigh tas* performance is no longer the group$s top priority. %nstead< attention is directed toward wrapping up acti7ities. .he punctuated e;uilibrium model is an alternati7e model for temporary groups with deadlines. .hey don$t follow the fi7e,stage group de7elopment model. .hey ha7e their own uni;ue se;uencing of actions. .heir first meeting sets the group$s direction. .his first phase of group acti7ity is one of inertia. 2 transition ta*es place at the end of this phase< which occurs e/actly when the group has used up half its allotted time. 2 transition initiates ma:or changes. 2 second phase of inertia follows the transition and the group$s last meeting is characterized by mar*edly accelerated acti7ity. .he punctuated e;uilibrium model characterizes groups as e/hibiting long period of inertia interspersed with brief re7olutionary changes triggered primarily by their members$ awareness of time and deadlines. Meep in mind< howe7er< that this model doesn$t apply to all groups. %t$s essentially limited to temporary tas* groups who are wor*ing under a time,constrained completion deadline.

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1!3. Discuss e/ternal conditions imposed on the group. (Aages +, -" 0/ternal conditions include the organization$s o7erall strategy< its authority structures< formal regulations< resources< employee selection process< performance e7aluation and reward systems< culture< and physical wor* setting. 2n organization$s o7erall strategy outlines the organization$s goals and the means for attaining these goals. Erganizations ha7e authority structures that define who reports to whom< who ma*es decisions< and what decisions indi7iduals or groups are empowered to ma*e. .his structure typically determines where a gi7en wor* group is placed in the organization$s hierarchy< the formal leader of the group< and formal relationships between groups. Erganizations create rules< procedures< policies< :ob descriptions< and other forms of formal regulations to standardize employee beha7ior. .he presence or absence of resources such as money< time< raw materials< and e;uipment L which are allocated to the group by the organization L ha7e a large bearing on the group$s beha7ior. .he criteria that an organization uses in its selection process will determine the *inds of people that will be in its wor* groups. 8ince wor* groups are part of the larger organizational system< group members$ beha7ior will be influenced by how the organization e7aluates performance and what beha7iors are rewarded. 07ery organization has an unwritten culture that defines standards of acceptable and unacceptable beha7ior for employees. 'embers of wor* groups ha7e to accept the standards implied in the organization$s dominant culture if they are to remain in good standing. .he physical wor* setting that is imposed on the group by e/ternal parties has an important bearing on wor* group beha7ior. .hese create both barriers and opportunities for wor* group interaction.

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