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# Joints Overview Overview: Joints determine the allowable motion(s) between two or more parts.

Specific elements (lines, planes, points, etc.) from each part are required, dependent on the joint type, and their alignment determines the motion of the joint (the Rigid joint is an exception). Essentially, assembled parts are free to move in all directions until restrained by joints. In an assembly, the Mechanism requires proper joint relationships among all the parts in order for motion to be successfully simulated. There are many different joints available in CATIA V5, discussed below. All Joint commands are located in Insert | New Joint, or on the fly-out found on the DMU Kinematics toolbar under the Revolute Joint command (which is the default). The toolbar access also offers an additional type (Axisbased Joint). Remember that you can also 'tear off' the joints sub- menu for quick joint access. This table shows a list of all of them for reference. Revolute The Revolute joint is a rotation joint. It eliminates five degrees of freedom and allows only one rotation. It is used when one part must rotate with respect to another about a linear axis common to both parts. A good example is a bearing rotating on a shaft. If required by the mechanism, a Revolute joint can be controlled by an angle Command (discussed later). Prismatic The Prismatic joint is a translation joint. It eliminates five degrees of freedom and allows only one translation. It is used when one part must slide in a specific linear direction with respect to another. A good example is the way a drawer opens and closes within a kitchen cabinet. If required by the mechanism, a Prismatic joint can be controlled by a length Command (discussed later). Cylindrical The Cylindrical joint is a translation and/or rotation joint. It eliminates four degrees of freedom, and allows one translation and one rotation (independent of each other). It is used to rotate and/or translate one part with respect to another, both motions relative to a common linear axis. A good example is the way a periscope can be raised and lowered, and also rotated. If required by the mechanism, a Cylindrical joint can be controlled by either a

length Command, an angle Command, or both. Screw The Screw joint is a translation and rotation joint, linked together with a specified Pitch ratio. It eliminates five degrees of freedom and allows either a translation or a rotation (the chosen one driving the other). It is used when one part needs to move linearly while being rotated with respect to another part (e.g. a nut being tightened onto a bolt), or when moving a part linearly causes it to rotate with respect to another (e.g. a child's toy where a plunger is pushed to make the toy spin). If required by the mechanism, a Screw joint can be controlled by either one angle or one length Command; the other is automatically driven based on a specific 'pitch' ratio. Spherical The Spherical joint is a rotation joint. It eliminates three degrees of freedom (no translation allowed) and allows three rotations. It is used when one part needs to be free to rotate in any direction with respect to another part, with both connected at a single point. A good example is a ball and socket condition. None of the free rotations of a Spherical joint can be controlled by Commands; the parts involved must also be restrained with other parts in the assembly mechanism using other joints. The Spherical joint is only used in the overall scheme of a mechanism where two of the parts must simply remain connected at a single common point but be free to rotate at that point. Planar The Planar joint is a translation and rotation joint. It eliminates two rotations and one translation, and allows two translations and one rotation. It is used when a planar feature of one part needs to translate freely while maintaining contact on a planar feature of another part; the first can still rotate in one direction while maintaining contact. An example is a rotary sander being operated on a flat panel. None of the free motions of a Planar joint can be controlled by Commands; the parts involved must also be restrained with other parts in the assembly mechanism using other joints. The Planar joint is only used in the overall scheme of a mechanism where two of the parts must simply remain in contact along a common planar location but be free to move in other directions. Rigid

The Rigid joint fixes two objects together. It eliminates all degrees of freedom between two parts. It is used when two separate parts in an assembly cannot move with respect to each other (i.e. they act as one part in the mechanism). Since there are no motions to control in a Rigid joint, no Commands are defined. Point Curve Point Curve joint is a translation and rotation joint. It eliminates two translations, and allows three rotations and one translation (along a specified curve). It is used when a point on one part needs to follow a curve on another part. The free translation (along the curve) can be controlled using a length Command. However, none of the free rotations of a Point Curve joint can be controlled byCommands; the parts involved must also have joints with other parts in the assembly to eliminate these degrees of freedom. The Point Curve joint can only be used in the overall scheme of a mechanism with multiple joints. Slide Curve The Slide Curve joint is a translation and rotation joint. It eliminates three degrees of freedom and allows two degrees of rotation and one degree of translation (along a specified curve). It is to slide a curved object along another curved object, maintaining tangency among common curves. A good example is a spherical probe sliding along a curved surface, maintaining contact not at a single point but between a cross- sectional curve on the probe and a curve on the surface. None of the free motions of the Slide Curve joint can be controlled by Commands; the parts involved must also be restrained with other parts in the assembly mechanism using other joints. The Slide Curve joint can only be used in the overall scheme of a mechanism with multiple joints. Roll Curve The Roll Curve joint is a translation and rotation joint. It eliminates four degrees of freedom and allows one rotation (as a part 'rolls') and one translation (a distance along a curve). It is used when one part needs to move along another, maintaining contact without sliding (in other words, one rolls along the other). A good example is in a roller bearing where the inner bearing will spin while the outer bearing rotates about its center axis. If required by the mechanism, a Roll Curve joint can be controlled with a length Command.

Point Surface The Point Surface joint is a translation and rotation joint. It eliminates one translational degree of freedom and allows three rotations and two translations (a point moving along a surface). It is used when a single point on an object needs to freely move along a surface while maintaining contact. A good example is a probe with a single point moving along a surface. None of the free motions of a Point Surface joint can be controlled by Commands; the parts involved must also be restrained with other parts in the assembly mechanism using other joints. The Point Surface joint is only used in the overall scheme of a mechanism where a point and a surface must maintain contact. Universal The Universal joint is a rotation joint. It eliminates five degrees of freedom and allows one rotation. This joint is used to transfer the rotation of one cylindrical object to another where the axes of both are positioned at an angle to each other (the axes must be coplanar). It simulates the motion of an actual 'U joint' where one shaft spins another, with the second shaft spinning at a non- constant rate. The rotation of a Universal joint cannot be controlled by a Command; the parts involved must also be restrained with other parts in the assembly mechanism using other joints. The Universal joint is only used in the overall scheme of a mechanism where a transfer of rotation is included. Constant Velocity (CV) The CV joint is neither a translation nor a rotation joint. It only allows the transfer of a rotation of one part to that of another, where the axis of rotation of each part is parallel. The transferred rotation is constant and maintains the same rate as the driving rotation. The CV joint accomplishes this by including a third cylindrical object between the first and last (all three axes must be coplanar). Essentially, a CV joint produces the same result as two Universal joints. The rotation of a CV joint cannot be controlled by a Command; the parts involved must also be restrained with other parts in the assembly mechanism using other joints. TheCV joint is only used in the overall scheme of a mechanism where a constant transfer of rotation is included. Gear The Gear joint is a rotation joint only. It actually consists of two Revolute joints which are considered sub-joints of the Gear joint, and which are linked with a Ratio. This joint is used where the rotation of one gear

spins another based on that ratio. If required by the mechanism, a Gear joint can be controlled by an angle Command driving one of the sub- joints. Rack The Rack joint is a rotation and translation joint. It consists of both a Prismatic and a Revolute joint, considered sub-joints of the Rack joint, and which are linked with a Ratio. This joint is used to either cause a part to rotate by translating another, or to translate a part by rotating another. An example is a feeder-type mechanism which moves items linearly with a series of rollers. If required by the mechanism, a Rack joint can be controlled by either a length or angle Command. Cable The Cable joint is a translation joint. It consists of two prismatic joints, considered sub- joints of the Cable joint, which are linked with a Ratio. This joint is used when a translational motion of one part causes a translational motion of another, either at the same rate or based on a ratio. An example is in a hydraulic mechanism where moving a piston in one cylinder causes a piston in another cylinder to move a different distance, depending on the volume. If required by the mechanism, a Cable joint can be controlled by one of the two length Commands. Axis-based The Axis-based joint is a unique joint, because it can create revolute, cylindrical, spherical, or universal joints. It has the same options of command and/ratio association based on which type of joint is created. The difference is it uses user-defined axis systems created in the parts for definition. The major advantage to using this method for joint creation is the ability to move the objects around. In addition, the joints are not affected because axis system features used for definition are infinite in size. Simulation and Fixed Components There is a process we must all follow in order to successfully simulate any joint we create. It will most likely involve at least one component being fixed, which cannot be completed with the joint commands just discussed. It is a separate command altogether called Fixed Part. Just like in the Assembly Design workbench, its icon is an anchor. There are a few different ways to simulate a mechanism and we will discuss these as the

course progresses.