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Abstract

This report discusses about Continuous stirred tank reactors in series for sodium hydroxide and
ethyl acetate to prodius sodium acetate. It involves the study about how the conductivity is
measured to indicate the conversion of the reactants to products with time. Inaddition this report
will determine the reaction rate constant to produce the products.

Table of contents
Title

Page

Abstract

Table of contents

List of Figures and tables

List of Symbols

Introduction

Experimental Details

Results

Sample of calculations

14

Discussion

17

Conclusion and Recommendation

18

References

19

Appendices

20

List of Figures and Tables


Title

Page

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

13

Figure 4

13

Figure 5

14

Table 1

Table 2

Table 3

10

List of symbols
Fa

The volumetric flow rate of NaOH [mL/min]

Fb

The volumetric flow rate of CH3COOH [mL/min]

Volume of the reactor (mL)

a0

The initial conentration of NaOH in the reactor [mol/dm3]

a1

The steady state concentration of NaOH in the reactor


[mol/dm3]

The concentration of NaOH in feed vessel [mol/dm3]

The concentration of NaOH after infinite time [mol/dm3]

at

The concentration of NaOH after time t [mol/dm3]

Conductivity of the solution after infinite time (mS)

The initial conductivity of the solution (mS)

The steady state conductivity of the solution (mS)

NaOH conductivity (mS)

Sodium acetate conductivity (mS)

Reaction rate constant

Xa

NaOH conversion

Concentration of sodium acetate after infinite time [mol/dm3]

Temperature [K]

Introduction
In all industries production, reactors are considered to be the most
important equipments inorder a reaction would undergo to produce
products at a requested time with good quality expected. CSTRs allow for
the continuous production of the desired chemical with less accumulation of
not needed products.
One of the most common reactors are the Continuous stirred tank reactors
in series. Continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) are open systems.It
operates in a steady basis which means that the reator dont change with
time. Reactants are continuously introduced into the reactor, while products
are continuously removed. CSTRs are very well mixed, so the contents
have relatively uniform properties such as temperature throughout. [1] This
experiment involves a reaction between Sodium hydroxide and ethyl
acetate to produce sodium acetate and ethyl alcohol.
CSTR is a helpful way to do a reaction which eventually reaches steady
state. Most of the CSTR are connected to the computers which gives the
readings everything that goes in the reaction. The readings show the
conductivity of the reactants and the products formed. Inaddition from the
readings we can conclude the variation in the reactants conversion with
respect to time and hence to determine the reaction rate constant.
The reaction that has been done is shown by this reaction:
NaOH +CH3COOC2H5 ------------> CH3COONa + C2H5OH

Experimental Details
Apparatus

Figure 2: CSTR reactor in series[2]

Figure 1: 2000 mL volumetric Flask

Procedures [3]
1) To study the reaction of NaOH and ethyl acetate, 0.05 M of NaOH and 0.05 M of ethyl
acetate are preapred using 2000 mL volumetric flask.

2) NaOH solution was filled in the reagent vessel 1 and Ethyl acetate in the other reagent
vessel.

3) Adjust the temperature controller to 25 C and the pump speed to 60ml/min flow rate for
each reactant.

4) Set the agitator speed to 7.00 and switch on the hot circulator.
5) Use the IFD channel history window to monitor the progress of the reaction.

Results:
Data tables and Graphs

Table 1: The calculations for equation 4 to 8 are based on steady state of the
conductivities
a

a0

0.02
8

5.82

a1

2.15

a1

0.0241

5.29

2.15

a3

a0

0.0204

4.81

2.15

Table 2: Shows the conductivity and concentrations for Tank 1, Tank 2 and Tank 3
Time
(sec)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330

Conductivity
1
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.31
1.82
2.44
2.98
3.78
4.44
4.93
5.56
5.76
6.01
6.04
6.03
6.02
5.99
5.98
5.95
5.94
5.91
5.90
5.89
5.87
5.85
5.83
5.82
5.80
5.78
5.77
5.75
5.75
5.72
5.71

Conductivity
2
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.41
3.32
4.12
5.13
5.75
6.22
6.46
6.47
6.53
6.47
6.42
6.35
6.30
6.24
6.21
6.13
6.09
6.06
6.02
5.97
5.93
5.91
5.88
5.84
5.80
5.76
5.73
5.70
5.68
5.65

Conductivity
3
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

a1 (mol/dm3)
-0.0164
-0.0164
-0.0164
-0.0140
-0.0025
0.0022
0.0063
0.0124
0.0175
0.0212
0.0260
0.0276
0.0294
0.0297
0.0296
0.0295
0.0293
0.0292
0.0290
0.0289
0.0287
0.0286
0.0285
0.0284
0.0282
0.0281
0.0280
0.0279
0.0277
0.0276
0.0275
0.0275
0.0273
0.0272

a2 (mol/dm3)
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0057
0.0090
0.0151
0.0228
0.0276
0.0312
0.0330
0.0332
0.0336
0.0332
0.0327
0.0322
0.0318
0.0314
0.0311
0.0305
0.0302
0.0300
0.0296
0.0293
0.0290
0.0288
0.0286
0.0283
0.0280
0.0277
0.0275
0.0272
0.0271
0.0269

a3 (mol/dm3)
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165

340
350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
500
510
520
530
540
550
560
570
580
590
600
610
620
630
640
650
660
670
680
690
700
710
720
730
740
750
760
770
780
790
800
810
820
830

5.70
5.69
5.67
5.66
5.65
5.65
5.63
5.63
5.62
5.61
5.59
5.58
5.57
5.56
5.55
5.53
5.51
5.50
5.51
5.50
5.48
5.48
5.47
5.44
5.44
5.42
5.42
5.42
5.41
5.40
5.40
5.39
5.37
5.37
5.37
5.35
5.36
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.34
5.33
5.34
5.32
5.32
5.33
5.32
5.32
5.31
5.31

5.63
5.61
5.57
5.56
5.53
5.50
5.48
5.46
5.44
5.41
5.40
5.38
5.37
5.32
5.32
5.30
5.28
5.27
5.25
5.23
5.22
5.21
5.18
5.17
5.16
5.15
5.13
5.12
5.13
5.10
5.09
5.09
5.07
5.07
5.06
5.05
5.05
5.04
5.03
5.01
5.01
5.01
4.99
4.99
4.99
4.98
4.97
4.96
4.96
4.94

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.99
3.39
4.31
4.60
4.68
4.65
4.64
4.62
4.61
4.61
4.58
4.56
4.56
4.55
4.53
4.53
4.51
4.50
4.49
4.48

0.0271
0.0270
0.0269
0.0268
0.0267
0.0267
0.0265
0.0265
0.0264
0.0264
0.0262
0.0261
0.0261
0.0260
0.0259
0.0258
0.0256
0.0255
0.0256
0.0255
0.0254
0.0254
0.0253
0.0251
0.0251
0.0249
0.0249
0.0249
0.0249
0.0248
0.0248
0.0247
0.0246
0.0246
0.0246
0.0244
0.0245
0.0244
0.0244
0.0244
0.0244
0.0243
0.0244
0.0242
0.0242
0.0243
0.0242
0.0242
0.0241
0.0241

0.0267
0.0265
0.0262
0.0261
0.0259
0.0257
0.0255
0.0254
0.0252
0.0250
0.0249
0.0248
0.0247
0.0243
0.0243
0.0242
0.0240
0.0240
0.0238
0.0237
0.0236
0.0234
0.0232
0.0231
0.0231
0.0230
0.0228
0.0228
0.0228
0.0226
0.0225
0.0225
0.0224
0.0224
0.0223
0.0222
0.0222
0.0222
0.0221
0.0219
0.0219
0.0219
0.0218
0.0218
0.0218
0.0217
0.0216
0.0216
0.0216
0.0214

-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0165
-0.0012
0.0095
0.0165
0.0188
0.0194
0.0192
0.0191
0.0189
0.0189
0.0189
0.0186
0.0185
0.0185
0.0184
0.0183
0.0183
0.0181
0.0180
0.0180
0.0179

840
850
860
870
880
890
900
910
920
930
940
950
960
970
980
990
1000
1010
1020
1030
1040
1050
1060
1070
1080
1090
1100
1110
1120
1130
1140
1150
1160
1170
1180
1190
1200
1210
1220
1230
1240

5.32
5.31
5.31
5.31
5.31
5.30
5.30
5.31
5.30
5.30
5.30
5.30
5.30
5.28
5.30
5.29
5.29
5.29
5.29
5.29
5.27
5.30
5.29
5.29
5.30
5.29
5.29
5.29
5.29
5.30
5.29
5.29
5.29
5.28
5.29
5.30
5.29
5.29
5.29
5.30
5.29

4.94
4.94
4.93
4.93
4.93
4.91
4.92
4.90
4.90
4.89
4.89
4.89
4.89
4.88
4.87
4.87
4.87
4.89
4.86
4.85
4.85
4.85
4.87
4.85
4.85
4.85
4.84
4.84
4.84
4.83
4.83
4.84
4.83
4.83
4.82
4.82
4.82
4.82
4.81
4.82
4.81

4.47
4.45
4.45
4.44
4.43
4.41
4.41
4.40
4.39
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.37
4.36
4.36
4.35
4.34
4.33
4.33
4.34
4.32
4.31
4.31
4.30
4.30
4.29
4.29
4.29
4.27
4.28
4.28
4.26
4.26
4.25
4.26
4.26
4.25
4.24
4.24
4.23
4.23

0.0242
0.0241
0.0241
0.0241
0.0241
0.0241
0.0241
0.0241
0.0241
0.0241
0.0241
0.0241
0.0241
0.0239
0.0241
0.0240
0.0240
0.0240
0.0240
0.0240
0.0238
0.0241
0.0240
0.0240
0.0241
0.0240
0.0240
0.0240
0.0240
0.0241
0.0240
0.0240
0.0240
0.0239
0.0240
0.0241
0.0240
0.0240
0.0240
0.0241
0.0240

0.0214
0.0214
0.0213
0.0213
0.0213
0.0212
0.0213
0.0211
0.0211
0.0210
0.0210
0.0210
0.0210
0.0210
0.0209
0.0209
0.0209
0.0210
0.0208
0.0207
0.0207
0.0207
0.0209
0.0207
0.0207
0.0207
0.0207
0.0207
0.0207
0.0206
0.0206
0.0207
0.0206
0.0206
0.0205
0.0205
0.0205
0.0205
0.0204
0.0205
0.0204

0.0178
0.0177
0.0177
0.0176
0.0175
0.0174
0.0174
0.0173
0.0172
0.0171
0.0171
0.0171
0.0170
0.0169
0.0169
0.0168
0.0168
0.0167
0.0167
0.0168
0.0166
0.0165
0.0165
0.0165
0.0165
0.0164
0.0164
0.0164
0.0162
0.0163
0.0163
0.0162
0.0162
0.0161
0.0162
0.0162
0.0161
0.0160
0.0160
0.0159
0.0159

Table 3: Shows the conversion of the reactants for Tank 1 , Tank 2 and Tank 3

Time (sec)

Xa1

Xa2

10

Xa3

1.5858

1.6841

1.8083

10

1.5858

1.6841

1.8083

20

1.5858

1.6841

1.8083

30

1.5007

1.6841

1.8083

40

1.0909

1.2366

1.8083

50

0.9206

0.6276

1.8083

60

0.7742

0.3729

1.8083

70

0.5560

0.0528

1.8083

80

0.3751

-0.1460

1.8083

90

0.2421

-0.2952

1.8083

100

0.0718

-0.3697

1.8083

110

0.0159

-0.3760

1.8083

120

-0.0506

-0.3946

1.8083

130

-0.0613

-0.3760

1.8083

140

-0.0560

-0.3573

1.8083

150

-0.0533

-0.3356

1.8083

160

-0.0453

-0.3200

1.8083

170

-0.0427

-0.3014

1.8083

180

-0.0347

-0.2921

1.8083

190

-0.0320

-0.2672

1.8083

200

-0.0240

-0.2548

1.8083

210

-0.0214

-0.2455

1.8083

220

-0.0187

-0.2299

1.8083

230

-0.0134

-0.2144

1.8083

240

-0.0081

-0.2020

1.8083

250

-0.0027

-0.1957

1.8083

260

-0.0001

-0.1864

1.8083

270

0.0052

-0.1740

1.8083

280

0.0106

-0.1616

1.8083

290

0.0132

-0.1491

1.8083

300

0.0185

-0.1398

1.8083

310

0.0185

-0.1305

1.8083

320

0.0265

-0.1243

1.8083

330

0.0292

-0.1150

1.8083

340

0.0318

-0.1087

1.8083

350

0.0345

-0.0994

1.8083

11

360

0.0398

-0.0870

1.8083

370

0.0425

-0.0839

1.8083

380

0.0452

-0.0746

1.8083

390

0.0452

-0.0652

1.8083

400

0.0531

-0.0590

1.8083

410

0.0531

-0.0528

1.8083

420

0.0558

-0.0466

1.8083

430

0.0585

-0.0373

1.8083

440

0.0638

-0.0342

1.8083

450

0.0664

-0.0280

1.8083

460

0.0691

-0.0249

1.8083

470

0.0718

-0.0093

1.8083

480

0.0744

-0.0093

1.8083

490

0.0797

-0.0031

1.8083

500

0.0851

0.0031

1.8083

510

0.0877

0.0062

1.8083

520

0.0851

0.0124

1.8083

530

0.0877

0.0186

1.8083

540

0.0930

0.0217

1.8083

550

0.0930

0.0280

1.8083

560

0.0957

0.0373

1.8083

570

0.1037

0.0404

1.8083

580

0.1037

0.0435

1.8083

590

0.1090

0.0466

1.8083

600

0.1090

0.0528

1.8083

610

0.1090

0.0559

1.8083

620

0.1117

0.0528

1.8083

630

0.1143

0.0621

1.8083

640

0.1143

0.0652

1.0593

650

0.1170

0.0652

0.5343

660

0.1223

0.0715

0.1892

670

0.1223

0.0715

0.0791

680

0.1223

0.0746

0.0497

690

0.1276

0.0777

0.0607

700

0.1250

0.0777

0.0644

710

0.1276

0.0808

0.0718

12

720

0.1276

0.0839

0.0754

730

0.1276

0.0901

0.0754

740

0.1303

0.0901

0.0864

750

0.1330

0.0901

0.0938

760

0.1303

0.0963

0.0938

770

0.1356

0.0963

0.0975

780

0.1356

0.0963

0.1048

790

0.1330

0.0994

0.1048

800

0.1356

0.1025

0.1121

810

0.1356

0.1056

0.1158

820

0.1383

0.1056

0.1195

830

0.1383

0.1119

0.1231

840

0.1356

0.1119

0.1268

850

0.1383

0.1119

0.1342

860

0.1383

0.1150

0.1342

870

0.1383

0.1150

0.1378

880

0.1383

0.1150

0.1415

890

0.1409

0.1212

0.1488

900

0.1409

0.1181

0.1488

910

0.1383

0.1243

0.1525

920

0.1409

0.1243

0.1562

930

0.1409

0.1274

0.1599

940

0.1409

0.1274

0.1599

950

0.1409

0.1274

0.1635

960

0.1409

0.1274

0.1672

13

Conductivity of the reactants in each tank

Concentration
(mol/dm3)
Conductivity mS

0.0400
0.0300

7.00
6.00
0.0200
5.00
0.0100
4.00
3.00
0.0000
2.00
1.00 0
-0.0100
0.00
-1.00
-0.02000

200

400

200

400

600

600

800

800

1000

1000

1200

1400

1200

Time
(secs)
Time
(sec)
Tank1 1
Tank

Tank
Tank
2 2

Tank
Tank
3 3

Figure 3: shows the concentration changes with time in Tank 1 , Tank 2 and Tank 3.

Figure 4: shows the conductivity changes with time in Tank 1 , Tank 2 and Tank 3 till reaching
the steady state.

14

1400

Conversion of the reactants


2.0000

Conversion

1.5000
1.0000
0.5000
0.0000
-0.5000 0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

-1.0000
Time (sec)
Tank 1

Tank 2

Tank 3

Figure 5: shows the conversion of the reactants with time in Tank 1 , Tank 2 and Tank 3 .

Sample calculations:
To prepare 0.05 M NaOH
Equation 1: Molarity = moles
Volume

= (0.05) * (2 L) = 0.1 mol

Equation 2: Mass = (0.1 mol )*(40g/mol) = 4 g


To prepare 0.05 M Ethyl acetate
Equation 3:
M1*V1 = M2* V2
11.3 mL* V1 = 0.05*2000 mL
V1 = 8.84 mL
Equation 4: Initial concentration of NaOH
a = Fa * a
Fa +Fb
=

77.3
* 0.05
77.3+59.6

= 0.028 mol/dm3

15

1400

Equation 5: NaOH conductivity


a0 = 0.195(1+0.0184(298-294))* 0.028 mol/dm3
a0 = 5.86 x 10-3 = 5.86 mS
Equation 6: Final sodium acetate conductivity
C = 0.07(1+0.0248(298-294))* 0.028 mol/dm 3
C = 2.15 x 10-3 = 2.15 mS
Equation 7: NaOH concentration at any time t
at = (a - a ) * ( - 1) +a
( - )
From Appendix A the steady conductivity of 1 is = 5.29 mS
+ 0.028 = -0.0164 mol/dm3

a0 = (0 0.028) * (5.86 5.29 )

(5.86 -2.15)
a1 = (0 0.0241) * (5.86 5.29 )

+ 0.0241 = -0.0165 mol/dm3

(5.86 -2.15)

a2 = (0 0.0204) * (5.86 5.29 )

+ 0.0204 = -0.0165 mol/dm3

(5.86 -2.15)
Equation 8: NaOH conversion
Xa1 = a0 at = 0.028 -0.0164 = 1.5858

a0

0.028

Xa2 = a0 at = 0.0241 - -0.0165 = 1.6841

a0
Xa3 =

0.028

a0 at = 0.0204 - - 0.0165 = 1.8083

a0

0.0204

Equation 9 : Reaction rate constant


Volume of the reactor = 702 mL

16

K=Fa + Fb *a - a1
V
a1
=77.3 mL/min + 59.6 mL/min * 0.028 mol/dm3 - (-0.0164) mol/dm3
702 mL
0.0164 mol/dm3
= 32.19 min -1

Discussion:
The experiment shows the conduction of NaOH has a high conductivity
shown from the initial conductivity was 5.82. This is true since NaOH is an
ionic compound and has charges therefore it has a high conductivity [4] .The
initial concentration of NaOH was calculated to be 0.028 mol/dm 3 before
the reaction. After switching on the CSTR reactor the conductivity after the

17

reaction of NaOH with ethyl acetate. This shows that the conductivity have
been decreasing from tank 1 to tank 2 to tank 3. Tank 1 had a conductivity
of 5.29 mS and have been decreasing since the Na had been reacted with
ethyl acetate to form Sodium acetate ending up with a conductivity of 4.23
mS. Therefore the conductivity has been decreasing with time as shown in
Figure 3.
The concentration tank 1 is decreasing since the NaOH had been reactiong
and eventually used up as shown in the readings in table 2, the
concentration in Tank 3 0.0159 mol/dm3 as shown in figure 4 , the
concentration of tank 3 had the lowest concentration.
The conversion of NaOH at tank 1 is 1.5858 which is the lowest comparing
it to the conversion of tank 2 and tank 3 which are 1.6841 and 1.8083
respectively. That shows the percentage conversion of NaOH that had
converted to sodium acetate is the highest. As shown in figure 5, Tank 3 it
was constant until reaching time 700 s , the conversion had been
decreasing reaching a steady state and the reactants concentration are
constant.
The reaction rate constant was calculated in equation 9 showing

K to be 32.19

min -1 .

Conclusion and recommendation:


This experiment revealed that the conversion of reactants decreases with
time and eventually stops, reaching equilibrium and enabling us from
finding the rate constant.

18

Inaddition this experiment has shown that the conductivity is dependent on


the concentrations of the reactants and the products that formed.
The rate of the reaction was a little bit long which is K to be 32.19 min -1 . If
we increased the temperature [5]or increased the concentration of NaOH,
the reaction rate constant will be faster per min.
The source error that have effected the result reading in the conductivity is
that the apparatus wasnt clean since an insect was in the tank reactors.
The apparatus should also be thorouly cleaned and covered for coming
trials to make sure that no dust particles are trapped inside the reactor
since these can affect the result.
The readings would have been more accurate if isolation was covered
around the tank reactors to maintain the temperature since the temperature
effects the rate constant.

References
[1]

http://encyclopedia.che.engin.umich.edu/Pages/Reactors/CSTR/CSTR.html
-08/04/2014
[2]

http://www.qu.edu.qa/engineering/chemical/lab_facilities/che_labIII.php-08/04/2014

19

[3]

German-Jordanian university-reaction engineering and heat transfer lab manualpage15.

[4]

http://www.nuigalway.ie/chemistry/documents/ssclecture5lfj.pdf

[5]

http://bouman.chem.georgetown.edu/S02/lect4/lect4.htm-08/04/2014

20

Appendix A
Elapse
d
Time

0:00:0
0
0:00:1
0
0:00:2
0
0:00:3
0
0:00:4
0
0:00:5
0
0:01:0
0
0:01:1
0
0:01:2
0
0:01:3
0
0:01:4
0
0:01:5
0
0:02:0
0
0:02:1
0
0:02:2
0
0:02:3
0
0:02:4
0
0:02:5
0
0:03:0
0
0:03:1
0
0:03:2
0
0:03:3
0

Feed 1
Flowrate
[cm/min
]

Feed 2
Flowrate
[cm/min
]

Stirrer
Speed
[%]

Ta
Reactor

Hydroxide
Concentration

Acetate
Concentratio
n

Tank 1
Conductivity

Tank 2
Conducti
vity

[mol/dm]

[mol/dm]

[mS]

[mS]

Temp.
[C]

C
uc

[m

14.1

20.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

0.00

0.00

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

0.00

0.00

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

0.00

0.00

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

0.00

0.00

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

0.00

0.00

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

0.00

0.00

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

0.00

0.00

77.2

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

0.00

0.00

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

0.00

0.00

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

0.00

0.00

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

0.31

0.00

77.2

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

1.82

1.41

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

2.44

3.32

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

2.98

4.12

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

3.78

5.13

77.2

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

4.44

5.75

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

4.93

6.22

77.2

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.56

6.46

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.76

6.47

77.2

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

6.01

6.53

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

6.04

6.47

77.4

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

6.03

6.42

21

0:03:4
0
0:03:5
0
0:04:0
0
0:04:1
0
0:04:2
0
0:04:3
0
0:04:4
0
0:04:5
0
0:05:0
0
0:05:1
0
0:05:2
0
0:05:3
0
0:05:4
0
0:05:5
0
0:06:0
0
0:06:1
0
0:06:2
0
0:06:3
0
0:06:4
0
0:06:5
0
0:07:0
0
0:07:1
0
0:07:2
0
0:07:3
0
0:07:4
0
0:07:5
0
0:08:0
0
0:08:1
0

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

6.02

6.35

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.99

6.30

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.98

6.24

77.4

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.95

6.21

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.94

6.13

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.91

6.09

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.90

6.06

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.89

6.02

77.4

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.87

5.97

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.85

5.93

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.83

5.91

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.82

5.88

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.80

5.84

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.78

5.80

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.77

5.76

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.75

5.73

77.2

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.75

5.70

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.72

5.68

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.71

5.65

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.70

5.63

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.69

5.61

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.67

5.57

77.2

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.66

5.56

77.4

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.65

5.53

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.65

5.50

77.4

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.63

5.48

77.4

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.63

5.46

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.62

5.44

22

0:08:2
0
0:08:3
0
0:08:4
0
0:08:5
0
0:09:0
0
0:09:1
0
0:09:2
0
0:09:3
0
0:09:4
0
0:09:5
0
0:10:0
0
0:10:1
0
0:10:2
0
0:10:3
0
0:10:4
0
0:10:5
0
0:11:00
0:11:10
0:11:20
0:11:30
0:11:40
0:11:50
0:12:0
0
0:12:1
0
0:12:2
0
0:12:3
0
0:12:4
0
0:12:5
0
0:13:0
0
0:13:1
0
0:13:2

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.61

5.41

77.4

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.59

5.40

77.3

59.8

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.58

5.38

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.57

5.37

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.56

5.32

77.2

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.55

5.32

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.53

5.30

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.51

5.28

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.50

5.27

77.4

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.51

5.25

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.50

5.23

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.48

5.22

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.48

5.21

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.47

5.18

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.44

5.17

77.3
77.3
77.3
77.4
77.3
77.4
77.4

59.6
59.6
59.7
59.6
59.6
59.6
59.6

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0

0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05

0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05

5.44
5.42
5.42
5.42
5.41
5.40
5.40

5.16
5.15
5.13
5.12
5.13
5.10
5.09

0
0
0
0
0
0
1

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.39

5.09

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.37

5.07

77.2

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.37

5.07

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.37

5.06

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.35

5.05

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.36

5.05

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.35

5.04

77.3
77.4

59.6
59.6

100
100

25.0
25.0

0.05
0.05

0.05
0.05

5.35
5.35

5.03
5.01

4
4

23

0
0:13:3
0
0:13:4
0
0:13:5
0
0:14:0
0
0:14:1
0
0:14:2
0
0:14:3
0
0:14:4
0
0:14:5
0
0:15:0
0
0:15:1
0
0:15:2
0
0:15:3
0
0:15:4
0
0:15:5
0
0:16:0
0
0:16:1
0
0:16:2
0
0:16:3
0
0:16:4
0
0:16:5
0
0:17:0
0
0:17:1
0
0:17:2
0
0:17:3
0
0:17:4
0
0:17:5
0
0:18:0

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.34

5.01

77.2

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.33

5.01

77.2

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.34

4.99

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.32

4.99

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.32

4.99

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.33

4.98

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.32

4.97

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.32

4.96

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.31

4.96

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.31

4.94

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.32

4.94

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.31

4.94

77.2

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.31

4.93

77.4

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.31

4.93

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.31

4.93

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.30

4.91

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.30

4.92

77.4

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.31

4.90

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.30

4.90

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.30

4.89

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.30

4.89

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.30

4.89

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.30

4.89

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.28

4.88

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.30

4.87

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.87

77.4
77.4

59.6
59.6

100
100

25.0
25.0

0.05
0.05

0.05
0.05

5.29
5.29

4.87
4.89

4
4

24

0
0:18:1
0
0:18:2
0
0:18:3
0
0:18:4
0
0:18:5
0
0:19:0
0
0:19:1
0
0:19:2
0
0:19:3
0
0:19:4
0
0:19:5
0
0:20:0
0
0:20:1
0
0:20:2
0
0:20:3
0
0:20:4
0
0:20:5
0
0:21:0
0
0:21:1
0
0:21:2
0
0:21:3
0
0:21:4
0
0:21:5
0

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.86

77.4

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.85

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.27

4.85

77.4

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.30

4.85

77.4

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.87

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.85

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.30

4.85

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.85

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.84

77.5

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.84

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.84

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.30

4.83

77.4

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.83

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.84

77.4

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.83

77.4

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.28

4.83

77.4

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.82

77.6

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.30

4.82

77.4

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.82

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.82

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.81

77.3

59.7

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.30

4.82

77.3

59.6

100

25.0

0.05

0.05

5.29

4.81

25

Appendix B
Sodium
Hydroxi
de
Feed
Conc.
[mol/d
m]
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03

Ethyl
Acetate
Feed
Conc.
[mol/dm
]

Sodium
Acetate
Final
Conc.
[mol/dm
]

Sodium
Hydroxid
e
Final
Conc.
[mol/dm
]

Final
Sodium
Acetate
Conductivi
ty
[mS]

Initial
Sodium
Hydroxide
Conductivi
ty
[mS]

Final
Sodium
Hydroxide
Conductivi
ty
[mS]

0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

1.58
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70

4.25
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.90

0.00
1.36
1.35
1.35
1.36
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.36
1.35
1.34
1.35
1.34
1.35
1.34
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.36
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.34

26

Final
Conductivi
ty
[mS]
1.58
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.04
3.04
3.04
3.04
3.05
3.04
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.04
3.04
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.04
3.04
3.04
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.04

0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70

27

5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.90
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91

1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.34
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.36
1.36
1.35
1.35
1.36
1.34
1.34
1.36
1.34
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.36
1.35
1.35
1.34
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.36
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.36
1.35
1.36
1.36
1.35
1.34
1.34
1.35
1.36
1.35
1.36

3.04
3.04
3.05
3.04
3.04
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.04
3.04
3.05
3.04
3.05
3.05
3.04
3.06
3.04
3.05
3.04
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.04
3.04
3.04
3.05
3.05
3.05

0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.69
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.69
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70

28

5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.92
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.92
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91
5.91

1.34
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.34
1.36
1.35
1.36
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.36
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.36
1.35
1.35
1.36
1.34
1.35
1.36
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.37
1.34
1.35
1.36
1.35
1.35
1.36
1.35
1.37
1.35
1.35
1.34
1.35
1.35

3.04
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.04
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.04
3.05
3.05
3.04
3.04
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.06
3.04
3.05
3.05
3.04
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.06
3.05
3.04
3.04
3.04
3.05