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# Introduction Gears are machine elements used to transmit rotary motion between two shafts, normally with a constant

ratio. The pinion is the smallest gear and the larger gear is called the gear wheel.. A rack is a rectangular prism with gear teeth machined along one side- it is in effect a gear wheel with an infinite pitch circle diameter. In practice the action of gears in transmitting motion is a cam action each pair of mating teeth acting as cams. Gear design has evolved to such a level that throughout the motion of each contacting pair of teeth the velocity ratio of the gears is maintained fixed and the velocity ratio is still fixed as each subse uent pair of teeth come into contact. !hen the teeth action is such that the driving tooth moving at constant angular velocity produces a proportional constant velocity of the driven tooth the action is termed a con"ugate action. The teeth shape universally selected for the gear teeth is the involute profile. #onsider one end of a piece of string is fastened to the \$% of one cylinder and the other end of the string is fastened to the \$% of another cylinder parallel to the first and both cylinders are rotated in the opposite directions to tension the string&see figure below'. The point on the string midway between the cylinder ( is marked. As the left hand cylinder rotates ##! the point moves towards this cylinder as it wraps on . The point moves away from the right hand cylinder as the string unwraps. The point traces the involute form of the gear teeth.

The lines normal to the point of contact of the gears always intersects the centre line "oining the gear centres at one point called the pitch point. )or each gear the circle passing through the pitch point is called the pitch circle. The gear ratio is proportional to the diameters of the two pitch circles. )or metric gears &as adopted by most of the worlds nations' the gear proportions are based on the module. m * &(itch #ircle %iameter &mm'' + &,umber of teeth on gear'. In the -.A the module is not used and instead the %iametric (itch (d is used d p * &,umber of Teeth' + %iametrical (itch &inches'

(rofile of a standard /mm module gear teeth for a gear with Infinite radius, 0ack .

\$ther module teeth profiles are directly proportion . e.g. 1mm module teeth are 1 x this profile 2any gears trains are very low power applications with an ob"ect of transmitting motion with minimum tor ue e.g. watch and clock mechanisms, instruments, toys, music boxes etc. These applications do not re uire detailed strength calculations. Standards AG2A 133/-#45 or AG2A-1/3/-#45 )undamental 0ating factors and #alculation 2ethods for involute .pur Gear and 6elical Gear Teeth 7. 89:-8;/44:, I.\$ /91<-/;/445...pur and helical gears. %efinitions and allowable values of deviations relevant to corresponding flanks of gear teeth 7. 89:-5;/44=, I.\$ /91<-1;/44=...pur and helical gears. %efinitions and allowable values of deviations relevant to radial composite deviations and runout information 7. I.\$ :99:-/;/44: ..#alculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears. 7asic principles, introduction and general influence factors 7. I.\$ :99:-1;/44:..#alculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears. #alculation of surface durability &pitting'
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7. I.\$ :99:-9;/44:..#alculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears. #alculation of tooth bending strength 7. I.\$ :99:-5;1339..#alculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears. .trength and uality of materials

If it is necessary to design a gearbox from scratch the design process in selecting the gear si>e is not complicated - the various design formulae have all been developed over time and are available in the relevant standards. 6owever significant effort, "udgment and expertise are re uired in designing the whole system including the gears, shafts, bearings, gearbox, and lubrication. )or the same duty many different gear options are available for the type of gear, the materials and the uality. It is always preferable to procure gearboxes from speciali>ed gearbox manufacturers

Terminology - spur gears %iametral pitch &d p '...... The number of teeth per one inch of pitch circle diameter. 2odule. &m' ...... The length, in mm, of the pitch circle diameter per tooth. #ircular pitch &p'...... The distance between ad"acent teeth measured along the are at the pitch circle diameter Addendum & h a '...... The height of the tooth above the pitch circle diameter. #entre distance &a'...... The distance between the axes of two gears in mesh. #ircular tooth thickness &ctt'...... The width of a tooth measured along the are at the pitch circle diameter. %edendum & h f '...... The depth of the tooth below the pitch circle diameter. \$utside diameter & % o '...... The outside diameter of the gear. 7ase #ircle diameter & % b ' ...... The diameter on which the involute teeth profile is based. (itch circle dia & p ' ...... The diameter of the pitch circle. (itch point...... The point at which the pitch circle diameters of two gears in mesh coincide. (itch to back...... The distance on a rack between the pitch circle diameter line and the rear face of the rack. (ressure angle ...... The angle between the tooth profile at the pitch circle diameter and a radial line passing through the same point.

!hole depth...... The total depth of the space between ad"acent teeth.

Spur Gear Design The spur gear is is simplest type of gear manufactured and is generally used for transmission of rotary motion between parallel shafts. The spur gear is the first choice option for gears except when high speeds, loads, and ratios direct towards other options. \$ther gear types may also be preferred to provide more silent low-vibration operation. A single spur gear is generally selected to have a ratio range of between /;/ and /;: with a pitch line velocity up to 15 m+s. The spur gear has an operating efficiency of 4<-44?. The pinion is made from a harder material than the wheel. A gear pair should be selected to have the highest number of teeth consistent with a suitable safety margin in strength and wear. The minimum number of teeth on a gear with a normal pressure angle of 13 degrees is /<. The preferred numbers of teeth &,' are as follows /1 /9 /8 /5 /: /< 13 11 18 15 1< 93 91 98 9< 83 85 53 58 :3 :8 =3 =1 =5 <3 <8 43 4: /33 /13 /83 /53 /<3 133 113 153 Materials used for gears 2ild steel is a poor material for gears as it has poor resistance to surface loading. The carbon content for unhardened gears is generally 3.8 ? &min' with 3.55 ? &min' carbon for the pinions. %issimilar materials should be used for the meshing gears - this particularly applies to alloy steels. Alloy steels have superior fatigue properties compared to carbon steels for comparable strengths. )or extremely high gear loading case hardened steels are used the surface hardening method employed should be such to provide sufficient case depth for the final grinding process used.

Material

Notes Ferrous metals @ow #ost easy to machine with high damping @ow cost, reasonable strength Good machining, can be heat treated

applications @arge moderate power, commercial gears (ower gears with medium rating to commercial uality (ower gears with medium rating to commercial+medium uality

#ast Iron #ast .teels (lain-#arbon .teels Alloy .teels .tainless .teels &Aust' .tainless .teels &2art'

6eat Treatable to provide highest 6ighest power re uirement. )or strength and durability precision and high precision Good corrosion resistance. ,on- #orrosion resistance with low power magnetic ratings. -p to precision uality 6ardenable, 0easonable corrosion resistance, magnetic Non-Ferrous metals @ight weight, non-corrosive and good machineability @ow cost, non-corrosive, excellent machinability Bxcellent machinability, low friction and good compatibility with steel @ow to medium power ratings -p to high precision levels of uality @ight duty instrument gears up to high precision uality low cost commercial uality gears. Auality up to medium precision )or use with steel power gears. Auality up to high precision

Aluminum alloys 7rass alloys 7ron>e alloys 2agnesium alloys ,ickel alloys Titanium alloys %i-cast alloys .intered powder alloys

@ight weight with poor corrosion @ight weight low load gears. Auality resistance up to medium precision @ow coefficient of thermal expansion. (oor machinability 6igh strength, for low weight, good corrosion resistance @ow cost with low precision and strength @ow cost, low uality, moderate strength Non metals .pecial gears for thermal applications to commercial uality .pecial light weight high strength gears to medium precision 6igh production, low uality gears to commercial uality 6igh production, low uality to moderate commercial uality

Acetal &%elrin

!ear resistant, low water absorption @ow cost, low uality, moderate strength

@ong life , low load bearings to commercial uality 6igh production, low uality to moderate commercial uality 8

(henolic laminates

,ylons

## ,o lubrication, no lubricant, absorbs water

@ong life at low loads to commercial uality .pecial low friction gears to commercial uality

(T)B

## @ow friction and no lubrication

Equations for basic gear relationships It is acceptable to marginally modify these relationships, e.g., to modify the addendum + dedendum to allow #entre %istance ad"ustments. Any changes modifications will affect the gear performance in good and bad ways... Addendum 7ase #ircle diameter #entre distance #ircular pitch #ircular tooth thickness %edendum 2odule ,umber of teeth \$utside diameter (itch circle diameter !hole depth&min' Top land width&min' h a * m * 3.9/<9 p %b * d.cos a * & d g C d p' + 1 p * m. ctt * p+1 h f * h - a * /,15m * 3,94=4 p m * d +n >*d+m % o * &> C 1' x m d * n . m ... &d g * gear D d p * pinion ' h * 1.15 . m t o * 3,15 . m

Module m! The module is the ratio of the pitch diameter to the number of teeth. The unit of the module is millimeters. 7elow is a diagram showing the relative si>e of teeth machined in a rack with module ranging from module values of 3,5 mm to : mm

## The preferred module values &in mm' are

3,5 3,< /.3 /,15 : < /3 /1 /,5 1,5 /: 13 9 8 5 83 53

15 91

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Normal "ressure angle #n! An important variable affecting the geometry of the gear teeth is the normal pressure angle. This is generally standardi>ed at 13o. \$ther pressure angles should be used only for special reasons and using considered "udgment. The following changes result from increasing the pressure angle 0eduction in the danger of undercutting and interference 0eduction of slipping speeds Increased loading capacity in contact, sei>ure and wear Increased rigidity of the toothing Increased noise and radial forces

Gears re uired to have low noise levels have pressure angles /5o to/=.5o \$ontact %atio The gear design is such that when in mesh the rotating gears have more than one gear in contact and transferring the tor ue for some of the time. This property is called the contact ratio. This is a ratio of the length of the line-of-action to the base pitch. The higher the contact ratio the more the load is shared between teeth. It is good practice to maintain a contact ratio of /.1 or greater. -nder no circumstances should the ratio drop below /./. A contact ratio between / and 1 means that part of the time two pairs of teeth are in contact and during the remaining time one pair is in contact. A ratio between 1 and 9 means 1 or 9 pairs of teeth are always in contact. .uch as high contact ratio generally is not obtained with external spur gears, but can be developed in the
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meshing of an internal and external spur gear pair or specially designed non-standard external spur gears. (Rgo2 - Rgb2 )1/2 + (Rpo2 - Rpb2 )1/2 - a sin E contact ratio m = p cos E 0 go * % go + 1..0adius of \$utside %ia of Gear 0 gb * % gb + 1..0adius of 7ase %ia of Gear 0 po * % po + 1..0adius of \$utside %ia of (inion 0 pb * % pb + 1..0adius of 7ase %ia of (inion p * circular pitch. a * & d gC d p '+1 * center distance.

## Spur gear Forces& torques& 'elocities ( "o)ers

) * tooth force between contacting teeth &at angle pressure angle E to pitch line tangent. &,' ) t * tangential component of tooth force &,' ) s * .eparating component of tooth force * (ressure angle d / * (itch #ircle %ia -driving gear &m' d 1 * (itch #ircle %ia -driven gear &m' F / * Angular velocity of driver gear &0ads+s' F 1 * Angular velocity of driven gear &0ads+s' > / * ,umber of teeth on driver gear > 1 * ,umber of teeth on driven gear ( * power transmitted &!atts' 2 * tor ue &,m' G * efficiency

## Tangential force on gears ) t * ) cos E

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.eparating force on gears ) s * ) t tan E Tor ue on driver gear T / * ) t d / + 1 Tor ue on driver gear T 1 * ) t d 1 + 1 .peed 0atio * F / + F 1 * d 1 + d / * > 1 +> / Input (ower ( / * T/ .F / \$utput (ower ( 1 * G.T / .F 1

Spur gear Strength and durability calculations %esigning spur gears is normally done in accordance with standards the two most popular series are listed under standards above; The notes below relate to approximate methods for estimating gear strengths. The methods are really only useful for first approximations and+or selection of stock gears &ref links below'. H %etailed design of spur and helical gears is best completed using the standards. 7ooks are available providing the necessary guidance. .oftware is also available making the process very easy. A very reasonably priced and easy to use package is included in the links below &2itcalc.com' The determination of the capacity of gears to transfer the re uired tor ue for the desired operating life is completed by determining the strength of the gear teeth in bending and also

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the surface durability, i.e., of the teeth & resistance to wearing+bearing+scuffing loads ' .. The e uations below are based on methods used by 7uckingham..

7ending The basic bending stress for gear teeth is obtained by using the Le is for!u"a # * )t + & ba. m. I '

) t * Tangential force on tooth * !t &alJo used' in K,L # * Tooth 7ending stress &2(a' b a * )ace width &mm' * ) &in some books' I * @ewis )orm )actor m * 2odule &mm' ,ote; The @ewis formula is often expressed as # * )t + & ba. p. y ' !here y * I+ and p * circular pitch

!hen a gear wheel is rotating the gear teeth come into contact with some degree of impact. To allow for this a velocity factor is introduced into the e uation. This is given by the 7arth e uation for milled profile gears. M v * :,/ + &:,/ CN ' N * the pitch line velocity in m+s and when d is in m+s,
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## N * d.F+1 \$r when d is in mm, N * dn+:3,333

&m+s'

&m+s'

,ote; This factor is different for different gear conditions i.e., M v * & 9.35 C N '+9.35 for cast iron, cast profile gears. The @ewis formula is thus modified as follows

## # * M v.)t + & ba. m. I '

In general, for AG2A .T0B.. BA-ATI\$, MN * KA C &133 N'/+1L7 + A !here 7 * 3,15 &/1 O AN'1+9 and A * 53 C 5: &/-7' P * K!t+&bmtQ'L &M\$ MN M. M6 M7' &/8-/:'

M\$ * The \$verload )actor, &)igures /8-/= and /8-/<' MN * The %ynamic )actor, &B ./8-1=' M. * The .i>e )actor, &M. * 3,<899 Kbmt &I'/+1L3.3595 ' M6 * Mm * The @oad %istributRon )actor, and M7 * The 0im-Thickness )actor. /8-/3.

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.urface %urability This calculation involves determining the contact stress between the gear teeth and uses the 6er> )ormula # w * 1.) + & .b .l ' # w * largest surface pressure ) * force pressing the two cylinders &gears' together l * length of the cylinders &gear' b * halfwidth *

d / ,d 1 Are the diameters for the two contacting cylinders. \$ /, \$ 1 (oisson ratio for the two gear materials B / ,B 1 Are the IoungSs 2odulus Nalues for the two gears To arrive at the formula used for gear calculations the following changes are made ) is replaced by ) t+ cos d is replaced by 1.r l is replaced by ! The velocity factor M v as described above is introduced. Also an elastic constant T B is created

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!hen the value of B used is in 2(a then the units of #p are U 2(a * M(a The resulting formula for the compressive stress developed is as shown below

The dynamic contact stress c developed by the transmitted tor ue must be less than the allowable contact stress .e. &V * E.'. ,ote; Nalues for Allowable stress values .e and TB for some materials are provided at Gear Table r/ * d/ sin E +1 r1 * d1 sin E +1 Important ,ote; The above e uations do not take into account the various factors which are integral to calculations completed using the relevant standards. These e uations therefore yield results suitable for first estimate design purposes only...

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Design "rocess To select gears from a stock gear catalogue or do a first approximation for a gear design select the gear material and obtain a safe working stress e.g Iield stress + )actor of .afety. +.afe fatigue stress

%etermine the input speed, output speed, ratio, tor ue to be transmitted .elect materials for the gears &pinion is more highly loaded than gear' %etermine safe working stresses &uts +factor of safety or yield stress+factor of safety or )atigue strength + )actor of safety ' %etermine Allowable endurance .tress .e .elect a module value and determine the resulting geometry of the gear -se the @ewis formula and the endurance formula to establish the resulting face width If the gear proportions are reasonable then - proceed to more detailed evaluations If the resulting face width is excessive - change the module or material or both and start again

The gear face width should be selected in the range 4-/5 x module or for straight spur gears-up to :3? of the pinion diameter.

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Internal Gears Advantages; /. Geometry ideal for epicyclic gear design 1. Allows compact design since the center distance is less than for external gears. 9. A high contact ratio is possible. 8. Good surface endurance due to a convex profile surface working against a concave surface. %isadvantages; /. 6ousing and bearing supports are more complicated, because the external gear nests within the internal gear. 1. @ow ratios are unsuitable and in many cases impossible because of interferences. 9. )abrication is limited to the shaper generating process, and usually special tooling is re uired.

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## *e)is form factor&I.

Table of @ewis )orm )actors for different tooth forms and pressure angles
,o Teeth

*oad Near Tip of Teeth /8 /+1 deg + y 13 deg )% + y 13 deg .tub 15 deg + y + y

## @oad at ,ear 2iddle of Teeth

/8 /+1 deg + y

13 deg )% + y

/3 // /1 /9 /8 /5 /: /= /< /4 13 1/ 11 19 18 15 1: 1= 1< 14 93 9/ 91 99 98

3,/=: 3,35: 3,13/ 3,3:8 3,1:/ 3,3<9 3,19< 3,3=: 3,/41 3,3:/ 3,11: 3,3=1 3,1<4 3,341 3,154 3,3<1 3,1/ 3,3:= 3,185 3,3=< 3,9// 3,344 3,1== 3,3<< 3,955 3,//9 3,8/5 3,/91 3,889 3,/8/

3,119 3,3=/ 3,1:8 3,3<8 3,918 3,/39 3,149 3,349 3,9== 3,/1

3,19: 3,3=5 3,1=: 3,3<< 3,994 3,/3< 3,93= 3,34< 3,944 3,/1= 3,8:< 3,/84 3,185 3,3=< 3,1<4 3,341 3,984 3,/// 3,91 3,155 3,3</ 3,145 3,348 3,9: 3,/31 3,8/5 3,/91 3,84 3,/5:

## 3,/9= 3,539 3,/:

3,1:8 3,3<8 3,931 3,34: 3,9:< 3,//= 3,981 3,/34 3,88: 3,/81 3,5/1 3,/:9 3,1= 3,3<: 3,93< 3,34< 3,9== 3,/1 3,951 3,//1 3,854 3,/8: 3,511 3,/:: 3,598 3,/=

## 3,9<: 3,/19 3,9:/ 3,//5 3,8=/ 3,/5

3,/31 3,949 3,/15 3,9:4 3,//= 3,8</ 3,/59 3,588 3,/=9 3,84 3,/5: 3,559 3,/=:

3,1<4 3,341 3,91: 3,/38 3,944 3,/1= 3,9== 3,/1 3,141 3,349 3,99

3,/35 3,838 3,/14 3,9<8 3,/11 3,84: 3,/5< 3,554 3,/=< 3,943 3,/18 3,531 3,/: 3,5:5 3,/<

## 3,14: 3,348 3,999 3,/3: 3,83< 3,/9

3,931 3,34: 3,99= 3,/3= 3,8// 3,/9/ 3,94: 3,/1: 3,534 3,/:1 3,5=1 3,/<1 3,935 3,34= 3,98 3,/3< 3,8/: 3,/91 3,831 3,/1< 3,5/5 3,/:8 3,5< 3,/<5

## 3,511 3,/:: 3,5<8 3,/<:

3,9// 3,344 3,98< 3,/// 3,81: 3,/9: 3,8/1 3,/9/ 3,51< 3,/:< 3,5<< 3,/<= 3,9/8 3,/ 3,951 3,//1 3,89 3,/9= 3,8/= 3,/99 3,598 3,/= 3,541 3,/<<

3,9/: 3,/3/ 3,955 3,//9 3,898 3,/9< 3,81/ 3,/98 3,59= 3,/=/ 3,544 3,/4/ 3,9/< 3,/3/ 3,95< 3,//8 3,89= 3,/94 3,815 3,/95 3,58 3,91 3,/3/ 3,9:/ 3,//5 3,88 3,/8 3,/=1 3,:3: 3,/49

## 3,814 3,/9= 3,558 3,/=: 3,:// 3,/48

3,911 3,/3/ 3,9:8 3,//: 3,889 3,/8/ 3,899 3,/9< 3,58= 3,/=8 3,:/= 3,/4: 3,918 3,/39 3,9:= 3,//= 3,885 3,/81 3,89: 3,/94 3,55 3,91: 3,/38 3,9=/ 3,//< 3,88= 3,/81 3,88 3,/8 3,/=5 3,:19 3,/4<

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## 95 9: 9= 9< 94 83 89 85 53 55 :3 :5 =3 =5 <3 43 /33 /53 133 933 0ack

3,91= 3,/38 3,9=9 3,//4 3,884 3,/89 3,889 3,/8/ 3,55: 3,/== 3,:99 3,13/ 3,914 3,/35 3,9== 3,/1 3,99 3,/35 3,9< 3,85/ 3,/88 3,88: 3,/81 3,554 3,/=< 3,:94 3,139

3,/1/ 3,858 3,/85 3,884 3,/89 3,5:9 3,/=4 3,:85 3,135 3,:5 3,13=

3,999 3,/3: 3,9<8 3,/11 3,855 3,/85 3,851 3,/88 3,5:5 3,/<

3,995 3,/3= 3,9<: 3,/19 3,85= 3,/85 3,858 3,/85 3,5:< 3,/</ 3,:55 3,13< 3,99: 3,/3= 3,9<4 3,/18 3,854 3,/8: 3,85= 3,/85 3,5= 3,/</ 3,:54 3,1/

3,994 3,/3< 3,94= 3,/1: 3,8:= 3,/84 3,8:8 3,/8< 3,5=8 3,/<9 3,::< 3,1/9 3,98 3,/3< 3,944 3,/1= 3,8:< 3,/84 3,8:< 3,/84 3,5=4 3,/<8 3,:=< 3,1/: 3,83< 3,/9 3,8=8 3,/5/ 3,8== 3,/51 3,5<< 3,/<= 3,:48 3,11/ 3,/59 3,8<8 3,/58 3,54: 3,/4 3,=38 3,118

3,98: 3,//

## 3,951 3,//1 3,8/5 3,/91 3,8<

3,955 3,//9 3,81/ 3,/98 3,8<8 3,/58 3,84/ 3,/5: 3,:39 3,/41 3,=/9 3,11= 3,95< 3,//8 3,815 3,/95 3,8<< 3,/55 3,84: 3,/5< 3,:3= 3,/49 3,=1/ 3,19 3,9: 3,//5 3,814 3,/9= 3,849 3,/5= 3,53/ 3,/54 3,:/ 3,/48 3,=1< 3,191

3,9:/ 3,//5 3,899 3,/9< 3,84: 3,/5< 3,53: 3,/:/ 3,:/9 3,/45 3,=95 3,198 3,9:9 3,//: 3,89: 3,/94 3,844 3,/54 3,534 3,/:1 3,:/5 3,/4: 3,=94 3,195 3,9:: 3,//= 3,881 3,/8/ 3,539 3,/: 3,5/: 3,/:8 3,:/4 3,/4= 3,=8= 3,19<

3,9:< 3,//= 3,88: 3,/81 3,53: 3,/:/ 3,51/ 3,/:: 3,:11 3,/4< 3,=55 3,18 3,9=5 3,//4 3,85< 3,/8: 3,5/< 3,/:5 3,59= 3,/=/ 3,:95 3,131 3,==< 3,18< 3,9=< 3,/1 3,9< 3,94 3,8:9 3,/8= 3,518 3,/:= 3,585 3,/=9 3,:8 3,598 3,/= 3,558 3,/=: 3,:5 3,:: 3,138 3,=<= 3,15/ 3,13= 3,<3/ 3,155 3,1/ 3,<19 3,1:1

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