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STEFAN KUDELSKI -Prilly, Switzerland Telephone: 021 245593 (Lausanne) NAGRA II Operating Instructions 1.

CONTROLS

Right knob: Starting and stopping Stop Complete stop: the motor stops and the amplifier is off. ON B Amplifier on -position for testing and making adjustments. ON E Motor and amplifier on -working position for recording and playback Attention! In the ON B and ON E positions the batteries are being used. Do not leave the button in these positions unnecessarily. The knob is turned clockwise to stop the recorder; on B the motor stops, but the amplifier is on. If one rewinds the tape in this position with the selector left on RECORD, the tape will be acted upon by the recording and erasing heads (unless the tape is removed from its channel) and the recording will be irreparably damaged. As a precaution, one should therefore always move the right-hand knob to STOP and the s.elector to PLAY after each recording, before rewinding the tape, Middle knob: This is the selector switch which determines the machine function. RECORD S Recording with low frequencies attenuated. Gives a crisper and clearer sound than the next position, RECORD M. In the RECORD S position, low-frequency ambient noises, e.g., sound of automobile, airplane, and boat engines which are rich in low frequencies, are strongly attenuated.

The low frequencies are not perceived as loud by our ear which is not sensitive in this range of the spectrum, but the recorder hears them all, and they can saturate the tape and cover other sounds that one wishes to record. The RECORD S position is also useful in enclosed spaces which have a pronounced echo or low-frequency resonance. RECORD M This is the usual work position. The recording is linear from 50 to 12,000 Hz, according to C.C.I.R. Playback through the built-in speaker, this position permits to listen to the recordings to check their contents and quality. Playback through an external amplifier. The output jacks of NAGRA must be connected to the amplifier. Depending on the amplifier used, one can connect it to the high impedance output, obtaining approx. 0.7V eff for a normally recorded tape. The input impedance. The amplifier should be greater than 50 k . This is the value typical for the pick-up connections of regular radio receivers. A low impedance output is provided near the handle. The load should have an impedance of 3 .or more. The maximum level is then approx. 20 m V. The black terminal is the ground. The centre terminal is directly connected to the NAGRA chassis, and should be used for connecting the shield when a 3-wire cable is used.

PLA Y M PLAY S

Left knob: Volume Control This knob controls the amplifier sensitivity. During playback it determines the level of the output, i.e., the sound volume. During recording, it adjusts the sensitivity of the instrument to the intensity of the sound source (see " Recording").

Erasing: To obtain best recordings, it is necessary to use virgin tape or tape which has been erased on a machine having a high frequency erasing head (which is the case for all quality machines powered from the mains), or by a bulk erasing device. If one is short of virgin tape, one can erase the tape on NAGRA. The selector switch must be turned to the red point. The background noise of the recording will be significantly higher, but still acceptable for many applications. The background noise of a tape erased on NAGRA is lower when the tape is of good quality and was not much used.

Vu-meter: (Modulation meter) This instrument is attached to the left side of NAGRA and serves to measure the modulation amplitude, i.e., the recording intensity, as well as the state of the batteries and the pre-magnetization (bias) level. Its function is selected by a switch next to it, the positions of which are: Double yellow dot: Measurement of the recording level. The needle must not enter the red zone, in which the tape becomes saturated. For speech it is permissible to occasionally penetrate into the red zone. For music, and especially for very high notes, it is better to set the recording level somewhat lower to assure that the needle never reaches the red zone. Green dot: Measurement of high-frequency pre-magnetization (bias). The needle should indicate 0 situated between the red and green zone. An error of one unit can be tolerated. The pre-magnetization level is adjusted using a potentiometer located in" the right rear corner of the panel, after unscrewing its protective cap. This check should be carried out every 3 to 5 hours during recording and playback, and

always before an important recording. Pre-magnetization is on only when the instrument is in the recording position and when the amplifier is in the ON B or ON E position. If the pre-magnetization is too strong the tone will be muffled. If it is too weak, the tone will be crisp but somewhat distorted. If the pre-magnetization is very inadequate, only the modulation peaks will be recorded and very distorted. One should of course adjust the pre-magnetization each time the batteries are changed. Red dot: Voltage measurement of the high-tension batteries (the two rectangular 67.5 V batteries (Eveready 467, Ray-o-Vac 4367, Burgess XX 45, R.C.A. VS 016, Philco P 67, Batrymax B 101). The needle should read the red zone and even beyond. If the needle reaches only the green zone, the batteries must be changed.

White dot: Voltage measurement of the heater batteries. These batteries are D cells of 1.5 V (Eveready 95q;D,R.0-Vac 2 LP, Burgess 2R, R.C.A. VS 036 D, Leclanch 300, etc.) .As is the case for high-voltage batteries, these batteries must also be changed when the needle indicates below the red zone. It is important to change both heater batteries at the same time. The new batteries must be of the same make and come from the same production run. If it is not the case, they will be used up more rapidly. The batteries are introduced with the positive pole first (downwards) with the machine open and lying on its cover. It is convenient to make these checks with the machine in the ON B position (in which the tape is not running) and on RECORD M or S (which is necessary for the green dot). To check the modulation level, the selector must be set to the double yellow dot. Run reserve indicator: On the front panel there is an indicator consisting of a scale and a needle. On the scale there is a green point corresponding to the spring being fully wound and a red point.

When the needle reaches the red point, the run reserve is only 30 to 45 seconds, and the machine must be rewound. If one wants to avoid speed variations during rewinding, NAGRA must be rewound avoiding jolts. If, during an expedition, you want to reduce a risk of failure, it is recommended not to wind the spring beyond the green point, where the stop is not yet reached. Spring breakage occurs always when the spring is wound to the stop. Microphone input NAGRA II has a universal microphone input which makes it possible to use microphones of different impedance. To connect a microphone to NAGRA one has to remove the bottom and set the orange point of the switch located on the motor to: The green dot: high impedance input (5 M ) for crystal microphones and microphones having a builtin high impedance transformer. The high impedance input is used mainly with so-called amateur microphones. It does hot permit the use of cables longer than several meters. The yellow dot: 50 input. This is the input used most often with dynamic and band microphones. Cable length may reach 100 m. The black dot: 10 input. For microphones having this impedance (melodium 75 A, etc.). The red dot: for NAGRASTATIC condenser microphone. Care should be taken not to connect other microphones when the switch is on this position, as the microphone could be damaged. The contacts of the microphone connector are numbered. 1 is ground, red (NAGRASTATIC), 2 is + 1.5 V for heaters of the microphone preamplifier, and 3 is for the high voltage.

The NAGRASTATIC condenser microphone gives the best fidelity. Dynamic microphones are however preferable when reliability is more important than sound quality, as dynamic microphones are most robust. Band microphones can also give very good sound quality. Their use is nevertheless very limited, as they deteriorate rapidly. A gust of wind can extend or even tear their band. Crystal microphones are generally inexpensive and of low quality. There exist high quality models, but their price is then comparable to the price of the NAGRAST ATIC. Crystal microphones deteriorate however when the ambient temperature exceeds 60C. which can occur in a car left in sun. Tape threading: and rewinding: To thread the tape, it is necessary to open the rubber pressure roller, which presses against the capstan and the felt pad. One does it by turning to the right the knob in the rear centre of the base plate. The tape runs from the right spool to the left spool following an S- shaped path. A guide roller and the head are located in the-upper loop of the S, while the capstan is in the lower loop. One must not forget to thread the tape through the tension arm, i.e., through the eyelet of the steel wire, which controls the brake of the feed spool located between the guide roller and head assembly, and the feed spool. The tape can be wound with the non-shiny sensitive oxide surface facing inwards or outwards. One can use both types but the spool must be placed accordingly. The non-shiny layer must face

the magnetic head. If the tape is wound with the oxide facing outwards, the feed spool turns clockwise. In the other case, take care that the tape does not get caught between the tension arm and its stop. Before operating the recorder, it is necessary to close the gate by turning it to the left, so that the tape is pressed between the capstan and the rubber roller. To rewind the tape one can remove the tape from its path (which is advisable to do when the whole spool is to be rewound) or just to release the- pressure roller. A rewind handle is supplied with the machine. It is placed in the opening in the bottom and locked by pressing. One must turn towards the left if the sensitive layer is wound inwards and towards the right if it is wound outwards. When the machine is put away, the guide roller should be open so that it does not get deformed. It is also advisable to remove the batteries from the machine if it is not going to be used for several months, as they may leak, especially if they have been used. Miscellaneous The machine should be protected from shocks (such as caused by luggage handling in airports), sudden temperature changes, sand, water, etc. In general, NAGRA should be treated like a professional camera. From time to time one should check that the magnetic head is not dirty and, if necessary, clean it with solvent (such as carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, acetone, benzene, alcohol, etc.). Care must be taken not to soak the felt with the solvent, which might make it sticky or even unglue it. Double track NAGRA's magnetic head records only on the upper half of the tape. If necessary, the other track can be used as well by flipping the spools like a typewriter ribbon.

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STEFAN KUDELSKI (Lausanne) 39 Route de Cossonay Prilly, Switzerland

Telephone: 021245593 Cable: Nagrakudelski Lausanne

NAGRA llb Portable Magnetic-TapeRecorder

Operation ofNAGRA lIb is similar to that ot NAGRA II' except for the following:
1. Starting: To start the machine, press the right knob and turn it to the left. In position ON B the motor is running, but not the tape. In position ON E the tape is running as well his arrangement makes for clean starts. It replaces closing the gate in NAGRA II. Contact is made as soon as the knob is pressed 2 Outputs (on the top rear of the machine): Green: high-impedance output, 1V Orange: 10 .10 mV Yellow: 10 .0.3 mV Black: Common ground Red: high-impedance (100 k ) input, 50 mV For playback on has to set the selector to PLAY S. 3 Heater batteries (1.5V) must be inserted positive pole up, in contrast to NAGRA II. Dismantling tools are attached to the loudspeaker magnet. To reach them it is necessary to unscrew an insulating panel.