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Assignment: Unit : 3 Change Management Extended Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership


Deiorder Harrington


Sajid Hussain Jatoi

College: Grafton College of Management and Science

Context: Introduction of Assignment Context of Assignment AC 1.1 Research and Review three different approaches of model of Change management AC. 1.2 Evaluate three different approaches and relevance, AC 1.2 Explaining why they are appropriate to your organization and other organizations. Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 5 Page 6

1.3 Assess the value of using strategic intervention techniques in organization 2.1 Examine the need for Strategic change within your organization

Page 7 Page 8

2.2 Assessment of the factors that are driving the need for change within Tesco
changing market

Page 8
Page 9

2.3 Assessment of the resource implications of an organization that does not respond to a 3.1 Develop systems to involve stakeholders in the planning of changing and show how you would evaluate these systems strategy for managing resistance to change 3.2 Develop a change management strategy with stakeholders and how you would create a 4.1 Develop appropriate models for change 4.2 Planning to apply the change by using Kotters model 4.3 Develop an appropriate measure for monitor progress Bibliography

Page 10 Page 12 Page 13 Page 13 Page 16 Page 17


Task 1
1st Model:

AC 1.1 Research and Review three different approaches of model of Change management

Kurt Lewins 3 phases Change Theory

Lewin 3 steps of Change theory model thats states that in 1940s and today that are accepted change management theory. The main concept of this theory expressed in 3 words, Unfreeze, Freeze and Move. In this theory, Lewin want to say that, forget everything that you have done before and now we want to do new or this going to. In any organization of the world that have Group of people, Technology and Process and every possible change in organization affects all those above related components of organization. Bhatt (2000), mentioned, the most important in any organization is, human resource and as Process is 20 percent, Technology is 10 percent and knowledge of Managers 70 percent of the effort required. Lewin described these below three stages of change as: 1. Unfreeze Many people make lot of effort to reject change. In order to comply this policy or tendency, a period of unfreezing should be taken through inspiration or motivation. 2. Transition or Change Once change is started or commenced, the company moves in transition period that may last for few time. Leadership and reassurance is mandatory for the process time to be successful. 3. Refreeze After implementation and acceptance of change, the company will becomes stable, and people refreezes they will be operated under the new guidelines. 2nd Model : Adkar

Adkar, 2001 describes that make a group or team of your staff and have individual goals and every one work hard to achieve his goal. Every team member have awareness that what is happening and what we have to do and work according to their desires. If any team member have difficulty to achieving his target encourage him/her and give him feedback, trainings, techniques and sit down with

him and discuss with the problem which happens with your staff member.

3rd Model:

John P. Kotter Eight Steps of Change Model

John Kotter, causes change to become a campaign. Employees will ready for change if leaders convince them for the urgent need for change to happen. There are eight steps are highly commented by Process as mentioned below: 1. Increase of the urgency for change If you want to change that happen, it must that whole organization support it - Start discussions with staff, give staff motivational reasons to start talking and thinking about the change to occur - identify the opportunities that should exploited 2. Build a team dedicated to change. To help motivate staff that change need to be happen, find and fuel good and best effective leaders in your company or organization: - Identify good leaders in your company - Ask for motivational commitment from that people

- Check your team weak points and make sure you have a good mix of group of people from different regions and standards (Process Policy .2012). 3. Create the vision for change. You need to have a clear vision that people can understand the purpose that what you're asking them to do: - identify the values that are main for the change - Make a short summary that explain where are you seeing as the future of the organization or company - Develop a strategy to execute the plan or vision 4. Communicate the need for change. What you will do with your plan or vision will determine that you will successful or not and you will find many other sources of the company for communications competing against yours: - Addressing people's concerns - and there will be concerns - At every opportunity, talk about your change plan and vision - Tie your plan and vision to operations- training, reviews and hiring process...

- Leading from front by example (Process Policy, 2012). 5. Empower staff with the ability to change. Remove obstacles to empower people to execute your plan and vision: - Identify the true change leaders - Identify those people that are resisting change and help them see needs - identify and reward those people they are making change happen - to remove barriers - human and any kind of other (Process Policy, 2012). 6. Create short term goals.

Success motivations - give people a taste of success: - Reward those people they help to meet the vision of the company (Process Policy, 2012). 7. Stay persistent. Real change runs not quickly keep always looking for improvements and betterment: - After every win, analyze that what you have done right and what went wrong - make goals to continue that what you've gained (Process Policy, 2012). 8. Make the change permanent. Make the change stick! - Tell success and motivational stories - Include important values when recruiting or training staff - Talk about success every chance you get

AC. 1.2 Evaluate three different approaches and relevance, Evaluating these three different approaches Adkar, Kotter and Kurt Lewins change management relevance between them is everyone has given his own approach but relevance that I found between them is mentioned below: if existing structure is good then set proper planning and strategies to achieve targets everyone has his own role and target and help him whenever he need or find any difficulty upgrade and trained your team members or staff of structure for change management then you can easily get your results dont expect too many results from your staff in early time or stages Work like a family in your change managements structure of your company or organization.

Give awareness to your staff about that why you want to change in your company and they should be agreed for that Everyone try hard and work hard to change happened Change can only worked when every team member of your company or organization fulfill his responsibility or obtained his target.

AC 1.2 Explaining why they are appropriate to your organization and other organizations.

MacKinsey, 2012, states that companies or organizations in developed Asia more likely their peers to say current situations in their countries have worst and that future conditions will progress to improve. Across many regions, more concerns have emerged: Companies or Organizations in developed economies that are much more look like than they in August to insufficient support from the government (thats a lack of fiscal or monetary policies that support their economic and business activities) as a risk to d growth. There are so many types of organization or companies such as corporations, governments, , armed forces, charities, nonprofit , nongovernmental organizations NGOs corporations, partnerships, cooperatives, , international organizations and universities. To assess the relevance of mentioned change management theory models in deferent types of organizations, types of changes can be appropriate factors to understand the necessity of change in the current economic situation.

The types of Change models in the current economic situation Organizational -wide

This type of change that is much more applicable by Kotters can be recruit for a major restructuring or Right sizing, mostly in small size of companies or armed forces because its expensive. Subsystem

This contain addition or removal of a service or product or re-organization of an appropriate department, or implementation of a process and could be useful for companies, governments and other types of organizations if it comply with Lewins three Steps. This model could be applicable for current scenario of economic situation. Incremental

Continuously progress to the quality of system, it does not cost the company or organizations a lot and it flows within the size or structure insensibly, in this Kotters easy model is applicable each time for transition. Remedial In this change can be tries to progress the low performance of a product or the whole organization or company. It deals with current mistakes or problems in company or organization so it is a type of an emergency project. As it is about to improve the level of regard can be the Kurt Lewins, because of its absolute focus on change management. Developmental Development in some companies or organizations like retailers and universities are directly to customers, they need to make and develop their products gradually in accordance to the demands and success of their products. Thus change development as a complex project can be implemented by with a big and a long term theory like John.P. Kotters eight steps theory. Unplanned In this type of change CEOs have a serious challenge, because in this you may expect unpredicted change like resignation or death of the previous CEO like the cases that happened with Tesco , Apple and Argos. In this Unfreeze, move and refreeze model of Lewins the matter of urgency could be efficient.

performance and not the size or structure, it is not cost a lot. Thus the better theory in this

1.3 Assess the value of using strategic intervention techniques in organization It is planned, focused, and deliberate effort to improve and progress the business or organizations growth, relevance, viability. This is a systematic implementation of change is intended to impact business beliefs, basics, attitudes, cultural values and challenges. In the current economic business structure, In addition, strategic intervention is often used to facilitate change in organizational or companys structure to more effectively compete or come technology, merging shrinking- expanding and ensuing challenges. Intervention is the framework for implementation of change for designed to create overcome outcomes, as well as, positive impact on the stability of organization or company. Change interventions techniques are unique for each and every business and organization. Strategy is that which delivers results for one business or organization for environment, need is not necessarily deliver same or similar results for another, or even within existing same industry. Business in growth and stability hinges on continuously innovation and intervention; closer to the opponents within rapidly changing environment; e.g., , global competitor, markets,

customer retention, global initiatives, employee incentive, technology adoption, resource

management, work culture. Change should be innovative intervention and the name of the

game. It has worth noting that normally there are a no. of interventions techniques of any one

scenario or situation. The trick is to find the intervention that is best suits the environment and available resources of the business. The aim of intervention is to improve business growth of an organizational or company performance (BizShifts-Trends, 2012).

Task 2
2.1 Examine the need for Strategic change within your organization I have chosen my Organization TESCO and since it was revealed on 17th February 2013, its a sample of Tesco every days Value. Tescos Beef burgers contained 29% meat of find out the reason "what happened " (BBC. 2013) scenario and said: "We Tesco and our suppliers have let customers down and we apologies for that; "So we are doing promise. We find out that what exactly happened and, when we did, we'll come back and also tell you; "we will do work harder than ever with all our Tesco suppliers to make sure this will never happens twice." The company also states to the customers they had any contaminated items at house can return them to any Store of Tesco for a complete and full refund. In the regard to the threatening problem, Tesco has faced at that moment, an urgent and emergency change would be necessary and mandatory for the company. In regard to the suppliers first of all Tesco must make sure that all items and products from the suppliers prepare the whole staff members involving the eliminate process. And another thing is that, a mitigation emprise can rescue to the Tesco from being stuck in the Market for vortex of bad reputation and standard within the market. Because of that a long term period strategy can help full for the Tesco to influence its customers forgetting all the issues. Then they make policy that totally remove its all meat products for a time being and gradually and slowly bring all meat products back and contributing with valid and true suppliers. in question immediately withdrawn and raised from the sale. For that, it is important to quickly In the response to this Business scandals, BBC also announced that, Tesco own the all horse, the supermarket said Supplier of Tesco had let customers down and also promised to

2.2 Assessment of the factors that are driving the need for change within Tesco
can assess in the need for changes in Tesco. Political Factors Using PEST analysis, P= Political, E= Economic, S= Social and T= Technological factors

British Prime Minister David Cameron speaking in the parliament condemned on the situation is "a completely un-acceptable for state of affairs" and he also called for an urgent and quickly investigation by Britain's Food Standards Agency (BBC. 2013). Thus it was necessary for the Tesco to be ready for any legal actions or own the responsibility of that issue. And many customers may complain for claim of compensation and return. Economic Factors

News of the meat of horse contamination was followed by a lay down in the Tescos

shares wiping in millions pound off its marketplace value (BBC. 2013). Also the discovery on meat of horse DNA in Tesco's values, beef burgers that week not only stuck at its "trusted grocer and supplier" brand foundations but also land it smack back in the low cost pack among Aldi
and Liddle (Telegraph. 2013). It means that Tesco is facing a slump in sales, and it could be

imperative to change some managerial activities in the company and to create a crisis and emergency team to handle the financial issues. Social Factors

As Prime Minster David Cameron mentioned in speech that people in our state have

been very concerned to read on this morning, when they thought they were buying beef

burgers, and they were buying something else that had meat of horse in it (BBC, 2013), the customers and people loyalty and the global standard of the Tesco would be -vely impressed. As he further said that society plays a vital role in the marketplace, losing the customers satisfaction will effect on Tescos trade in a very wide range. Tesco should make an active effort for compensating the injured perceptions of the society which they needs a strategic change in direct marketing and as well as in social media. Technological Factors grocery retailer within the sales of well over 2 billion, it must respond to the coming new technological changes in the market. Tablets Computers, smartphones and laptops are developing every day and as these are effective channels for sales online shopping between the Tesco and customers, it should always coping to the fast pace changing world of technology. 2.3 Assessment of the resource implications of an organization that does not respond to a changing market As Tesco Company has grown to be the worlds largest and more profitable online

ASDA in respect of having an appropriate increase in profit more than 6 percent last year (The Guardian. 2012), the recent Mumdex report reveals that almost 1/2 of mums were planning to spend at least as possible on Christmas last year and 48% believes ,their financial situation would be worsen in 2013, Fair trade research also stated that 40% of people are now actively looking out ethically-sourced item despite strained house hold finances (Retail Gazzet, 2013). In regard this fact Asda needs to regard the upcoming coming GDP and make a 2nd that of its rival Tesco with more than 30 percent in UK. reasonable low in its items of sales. Also Asda with market share of percent17.6 is ranked the Thus Asda, in regard to increase its market share and values, should develop its items as well as its customers by means of increasing in the no. of its small stores. Regard of this the resources, redundancies, new buildings in different areas and regions of the UK and refurbishment of them gradually. resource implications of this development can be increase of its financial resources, physical

Task 3
3.1 Develop systems to involve stakeholders in the planning of changing and show how you would evaluate these systems In regard of stakeholders, there are 3 types of stakeholders.

1 Internal in which managers, staff, and workers, and 2nd External in which society


Government, charities, Customers, and 3rd connected type in which suppliers and shareholders. To involve each type of stakeholders in Tesco Company for the planning of the change is a best explained to referring by the following graph.


Figure three Stages of stakeholder involvement in the process of change

stakeholders of Tesco and need to be involved in planning of change process to the level of cocreating. The degree of Tescos involvement is main external stakeholders customers, and other hand has to be limited for testing, whereas the Tescos shareholders and suppliers is need to involved in the process of change planning to the extent of selling. Moreover, decisions and think makers may empower the market mandate and surveys in market research institutes so as they to early perceive emergent groups stakeholder and their claims, (Zimmermann, 2011 page 225) in regard to reflect their stand points regarding their change initiatives in Tesco. change present above only overall framework and the process of involvement of stakeholders differ in each individual circumstance is depending on the nature of the employees change. Its important to take note of the system to involve stakeholders in the planning for

According to the above graph, managers and employees are as the main internal

Evaluation of Systems to Involve Stakeholders in Change Planning

The system that is suggested for Tesco to involve stakeholders in planning for change

(Figure 3) that shows an efficient method for developing an active and effective change plan and contributes to its efficient implementation. The system that proposes the involvement of


managers and employees in planning of change process to the extent of co-creating that involves engaging in in-deep and depth dialogue and developing joint situation analysis. The degree of involvement that shows Tescos main external stakeholders customers,

and on 2nd hand is decided to limited for testing that involves simulates, pilot interventions, and testing, because of the customers thinking and approach of the issue from a narrow (Pride et al, 2009).

viewpoint i.e. they expect a huge and greater value with no consideration to resources required The system that suggested for Tesco states that companys shareholders need to be

involved in the change planning for the extent of selling, they need to inform about change proposals through the various change communication channels. 3.2 Develop a change management strategy with stakeholders and how you would create a strategy for managing resistance to change power of each and every stakeholder division, as well as, the level of their interest in change project. As a general rule, Company suggested to deal with stakeholders on the basis of the below figure as it has been suggested by Willmot and Murphy (2010):
Figure No.4. Interest/ Power dealing grid with stakeholders

Strategy change management of Businesss with stakeholders depends on the level of

According to the mentioned above figure, stakeholders of Tescos with high interest and high level of power such as shareholders and employees need to be closely managed in relation to change initiatives. Low level of interest and high level of power stakeholders, such as customers and on the other hand, there is need to be kept satisfied by the companys management.


Another group of stakeholder that has low power but high level of interest, such as suppliers need to be kept informed about the progress and process of change initiatives through many communication channels. The type of stakeholders that have low level of interest and low power, changes within Tesco, such as general people need to be monitored with less efforts and resources. Hereby, Tesco, regarding the interest/power grid, can managed the resistance of change

by consistently keeping all different categories of companys stakeholders involved in change

project. Tescos strategy of handling the mentioned mandatory for change, the meat of horse in beef burger scandal, can be to strictly involve its employees and to mitigate the condemned brands implications and then to keep its customers that have low level of interest and high level of power on the business, satisfied and finally ban the trespasser supplier.

Task 4
4.1 Develop appropriate models for change

Please refer to the part Task 1 AC 1.1,

4.2 Planning to apply the change by using Kotters model Regarding Tesco faced a critical situation, its a necessary to take a quickly action against that issue. Among all 3 mentioned models of change 1st Step : Create a sense of Urgency For change to be happen, it helps if the entire company actually wants it. Make a sense of things going. In regard of change Tesco should: Identify threats, develop scenarios that shows what may happen in the future. Identify opportunities that should be or could be, exploited. people talking and thinking. strengthen their argument. Start honest and true discussions, and give a dynamic and convincing reasons to let Request support from outside stakeholders, customers and industry of people to urgency on the need for change. This can help Tesco to spark the starting motivation to get


2nd Step: Form Powerful Coalition Tesco should convince public that change is a necessary. This often or may takes visible support and strong leadership, key people within Tesco. That is not enough to just managing change Tesco has to lead it by example and: Identify the honest leaders in organization. Ask for an emotional commitments from those key people that you have choose. Working on building a team within change coalition. Checking for weak areas of the team, and make sure that Tesco has a good mix of people from different level and departments within company.

3rd Step: Create a goal or Vision for Change

Have a clear vision that help each and every one understand that why Tesco is asking them to do something. When people see themselves for what and why Tesco trying to achieve, then the directives they give them tend to make more sense. Tesco should identify the values that are centralized to the change through:

Making a short summary (not more than 1 or 2 sentences) that captures what you "see" as the future of your company. Create a strategy to execute that vision Ensure that its change coalition can explain the vision in two minutes or less
Often practicing "vision speech" of Tesco

4th Step: Communicate for the Vision

Tesco can demonstrate the kind of behavior, it can be from others by: talking often and as many times as possible about its vision of change
Honestly and openly addressing public anxieties

and concerns

Implementing its goal or vision to all aspects of operations from training to performance and reviews. Tie each and everything support and back to the vision Lead by example

5th Step: Remove Barriers or Obstacles


Tesco should: Employ, or Identify change leaders they have main role to deliver the change. systems to make sure they are in line with its goal or vision. Examine and reward people they are working hard for to make change happen.
Recognize those people they are resisting the change, and try

Look at its company structure, performance and job descriptions, and compensation

hard to help them to see

what's needed.

Take possible action to immediate remove barriers (physical or otherwise).

6th Step: Create a short term Goals or wins Tesco should need to: Set non early targets that are too expensive. Tesco should want to be able to justify that what is investment in each and every project. Thoroughly analyses the potential of cons and pros of targets. If Tesco doesn't get any success with an early goal which they have set, then it can hurt its whole and complete change initiative. Reward those people who try their best and help Tesco to meet the targets.

7th Step: Build for the Change In order to keep looking Tescos improvement should: identify that what went right & what is need to improve after every win Set targets to continue building pace on the momentum that achieved Keep their ideas fresh by hiring new change leaders and agents for their change coalition

8th Step: Anchor for the Change in Corporate Culture

In the last, to ensure any change stick and it should become part of the Tescos core. It's more important, Tescos leaders continue to support and back the change. Thus Tesco should: Talk more about progress that should be continuously and tell success stories about the process of change, and repeat those stories as well that are relate to Tescos success Include the change values and aims when training and hiring new staff. Publicly identify key members of its change coalition and ensure the rest of the staff old and new remember their contributions as well and when time comes reward them.


Develop plans to replace those true and key leaders of change as long as they move on. This can help to ensure that their legacy and work is not ever been lost or forgotten.

4.3 Develop an appropriate measure for monitor progress In regard evaluation then the Outcome based evaluation is the common form, but there are many others that including goal basis and process based assessments. Outcome measurement is method to measure that how projects make a real difference in the field of businesses. As the taken project is strategically change for the need of mitigating the applying of recent scandal of Tesco, some outcomes may be reflected on business. Outcome based evaluation is a way to identify, if a project or program has achieved its vision or goals or not. The organized process of making or developing program using OBE helps to establish clear advantages (outcomes), to measure those benefits, clarify the individuals or groups, in which the programs advantages are intended (audience target).

OBE (Outcome Based Evaluation) will answer (UTAH, 2012): Whos your target of audience? What type of sources are needed? Whenre the sources that needed? Where do we get the sources? What actions do we need to be take and taken? How can my patrons give advantage?


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