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A. BACKGROUND Mushrooms (fungi) more we find around us. Fungus thrives especially in the rainy season because the fungus likes damp habitats. Some mycologists divide fungi into two groups based on body shape, they are fungi (mold) and yeasts (yeast). Vegetative body molds shaped like long filaments branching threads called hyphae. Hyphae will stretch and absorb food from the surface of the substrate (where the fungus lives), while the mushrooms in groups of yeasts are unicellular (single-core), round or oval shape. Morphological observations are very important for the identification and determination. This morphological observation is even more important than the physiological observations. There are several ways or methods of making observations in a hanging drop slide or culture. For morphological observations can be made in macroscopic and microscopic observations.

B. OBJECTIVE 1. Develop students ability and skill in doing fungi cultivation and isolation from variety source. 2. Develop students ability in introducing diversity of fungi based phenotype characteristic. 3. Develop students ability in introducing yeast cell form. 4. Develop students ability in distinguishing viable and dead yeast cell. 5. Develop students ability in counting yeast cell death percentage.

C. PROCEDURE a. Observation of fungi macroscopic Observe the macroscopic such as colour, texture and colony surface; radial lines form colony centre to colony edge (radial furrow); zoning (present/absent); growing zone (present/absent); colony reverse color.

b. Yeast morphology Object glass and close glass is cleaned with alcohol.

One drop of methylene blue 0, 1% is put and takes it in middle of object glass. One ose of pure culture Saccharomyces cerevisae that has age 24 hours is put aseptically and mix it with methylene blue 0, 1% dye in the object glass. Close it by using close glass and keep it nothing air bubbles. Observe by using microscope with low magnification and then with medium magnification. Dead yeast cell is colored blue, while viable yeast cell is transparent. Draw the yeast cell. Number of viable and dead yeast cell is counted in the field of view. Repeat it until 2 fields of view. Percentage of death = {Average of B / (Average A + Average B)} x 100%

D. RESULT AND ANALYSIS a. Result Attached

b. Analysis

E. CONCLUSION 1. There are 4 genus of fungi based phenotype characteristic; they are Zygomycotina, Basidiomycotina, Ascomycota and Deuteromycotina. 2. Yeast cell is Aspergillus oryzae which has septet hyphae and branch mycelium, usually transparent, and also has conidiophores swell into vesicles at the tip. 3. Difference of viable and dead yeast cell is viable yeast cell is colored blue and like points in medium, while dead yeast cell is transparent. 4. Counting yeast cell death percentage is used certain formula like below. Percentage of death = {Average of B / (Average A + Average B)} x 100% F. REFERENCES Coyne, Mark S. 1999. Soil Microbiology: An Exploratory Approach. USA : Delmar Publisher Dwidjoseputro, D., 1989. Dasar-Dasar Mikrobiologi. Malang: Djambatan.

Hadiotomo, Ratna Siri., 1993. Mikrobiologi Dasar Dalam Praktek. Jakarta: Gramedia Jawetz, E., 1995. Mikrobiologi Edisi 16. Jakarta: EGC Jawetz, E., Melnick, J.L., Adelberg, E.A., 2005. Mikrobiologi Kedokteran Edisi 20, Terjemahan oleh Nani Widarini. Jakarta: EGC Madigan MT, Martinko JM, Brock TD. 2009. Brock Biology of Microorganisms. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Pelczar, M.J., 1988. Dasar-dasar Mikrobiologi. Jakarta: UI Press Postlethwait dan Hopson. 2006. Modern Biology. Texas: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Pelczar, Michael J. 1999. Microbiology. USA : Mc Graw Hill Syamsuri, Istamar. 2004. Biologi. Jakarta: Erlangga. Volk, Wesley A dan Margareth F. Wheeler., 1998. Mikrobiologi Dasar Jilid I. New York: Wesky- Publishing Company. Waluyo, Lud. 2004. Mikrobiologi Umum. Malang: UMM Press Winarni, Endang. 2007. Biologi 3. Jakarta: Esis.

ATTACHMENT OF MICOLOGY a. Fungi Macroscopic Morphology Colony 1 Up


Colony 2 Up Bottom

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Colony Observing Colour Texture Surface Radial Furrow Zoning Growing Zone Reverse Color

Colony 1 Grayed blackish Like carpet Mounting Present Absent Absent Grayed blackish

Colony 2 Yellow - White Smooth threads Flat Absent Absent Present Yellow

b. Counting Yeast Lifetime (Age) 0 48 243 119 Number Viable 439 154 36 112 Dead 62 96