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A GUIDE TO DRAINS DEMONSTRATION EXAMPLES PART 1 STANDARD HYDRAULIC MODEL CALCULATIONS

Geoffrey OLoughlin and Bob Stack July 2011

1. Introduction
This guide will help you to navigate through the examples that can be run with the DRAINS demo program. This version has all the features of DRAINS, but cannot model more that five pipes or open channels, five sub-catchments and one irregular open channel link. There are also limitations on the changes that can be made to detention basins, culverts and storage routing models. The examples are divided into ones that run with the DRAINS standard hydraulic model, which are discussed here, and those for the premium hydraulic model, which are covered in Part 2 of the Guide. The standard model applies unsteady flow hydraulics to pipe and open channel flows, with simpler calculations for overflows. The premium model applies unsteady modelling to pipes, open channels and overflow routes. (These models replace an earlier hydraulic procedure called the basic model, which is now obsolete,) You can refer to the Help system installed with DRAINS, and the DRAINS manual is available as a PDF file from www.watercom.com.au. DRAINS is updated regularly and the latest version can be downloaded from the Watercom website. A DRAINS Viewer program is provided free. This enables persons reviewing or checking models to inspect inputs and results from any DRAINS model file.

2. What DRAINS Does


DRAINS was originally developed as a general-purpose Windows application to design and analyse piped urban stormwater drainage systems. Additional capabilities have been added, including a choice of hydrological and hydraulic models. DRAINS can apply: (a) ILSAX hydrology, and rational method and storage routing procedures, to convert rainfall inputs to stormwater runoff; (b) extensive hydraulic procedures, to route flow hydrographs through pipes, overflow routes and open channels, calculating hydraulic grade lines and other characteristics; (b) detention basin routing. DRAINS allows you to enter data describing a drainage system graphically, using drawing tools or transfers from CAD, GIS, digital terrain modelling (DTM) programs and spreadsheets. It calculates rates of stormwater runoff from catchment areas during storms and directs flows through the drainage system model. In design runs it sets pipe sizes and invert levels to prevent excessive spilling from pits. In analysis runs, it simulates the behaviour of drainage networks and indicates areas where flooding occurs. Components and layouts of systems can be changed and additional runs made to improve drainage designs.

3. Installation
DRAINS works on PCs running the Microsoft Windows operating systems from 95 to Windows 7. It can be installed by clicking on DrainsSetup.exe and following the instructions in the Installation procedure, inserting the password DEMO. This will install the program and example files described below in a C:\Program Files\Drains\Demo folder on your PC. The program can be uninstalled using Uninstall a program option in the Control Panel.

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4. Using DRAINS
On most PC systems the installation process will put a DRAINS icon on the Programs folder in your Start menu, and you can start DRAINS by clicking on this. If this icon is not present, you can create Shortcut icon on your Desktop linking to the program in the folder C:\Program Files\Drains\Demo\Program. Clicking on this icon starts the program. A window with a large blank space appears. At the top there are seven menus and a toolbar:

Using options from the menus, you can set up and run a DRAINS model in four steps: (a) using options in the Project menu to define hydrological models, rainfall patterns and other parameters, to set up storms for design and analysis, and to establish data bases for pipes, pits and overflow routes; (b) setting out a drainage network using the drawing tools from the toolbar, or inputting drawing, spreadsheet or GIS file data using options in the File and Edit menus, (c) saving the data using File menu options, and then performing calculations in Design and Analysis runs initiated in the Run menu; (d) reviewing the results using options from pop-up menus for individual components and the View menu; and printing and exporting results to spreadsheets, drawing and GIS programs using the File and Edit menus. You can copy various graphs and tables to a spreadsheet or word processor via the Windows clipboard. You can also produce long section drawings of the pipe system for export to CAD programs. The DRAINS toolbar contains drawing tools, grouped into nodes, links and sub-catchments. If you click on one of these, the cursor will change to a pencil, which can be used to place that component in the drawing window. For, example, you can use the pit and node tools:

to draw two drainage pits and an outlet node, as shown below:

These can be connected by pipes, by selecting the pipe tool and clicking at the beginning and end points of each pipe. Overflow paths can be added as poly-lines, and the names of components (containing question marks to start with) can be dragged to more convenient locations.

Sub-catchments can then be added, making sure that they touch the pits:

In this way, a connected drainage network can be constructed, with nodes at the outlets. The components and their names can be moved by dragging them around the screen. A pipe, channel or overflow route can be moved as a single unit by dragging near its centre, or its ends can be moved individually.

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Data for components is entered and edited using property sheets, which appear when you right click on a component, and select Edit Data from the pop-up menu, as shown below.

Figure 1 Pop-Up Menu and Property Sheet for a Pit

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5. Design and Analysis Methods


Design
If you were to apply DRAINS to a greenfields subdivision drainage system design, you might work out the plan of the system on a paper plan, or more likely, using a CAD or DTM program. You might also use the links between DRAINS and the DTMs 12d, MX and Autodesk Advanced Road Design for this purpose. You would then set up a DRAINS model, probably with a background showing street layout and cadastral data. You would probably start with a pre-existing base file that already contains the hydrological, rainfall, pipe, pit and overflow route information that you need, in data bases accessible from the Project menu. It is likely that the pipe layout and background would be imported from a suitable CAD file. Following procedures in design manuals such as Australian Rainfall and Runoff (Institution of Engineers Australia, 1987) you would set up a set of minor storms, which define the conditions that are to be addressed in sizing drainage systems. You would also set up a set of major storms, to be used to check that the system 'fails safe' in severe conditions. Minor storms may have average recurrence intervals (ARIs) of 2 to 20 years, while major storms are usually 100 year ARI. After running the DRAINS model using the design method, and checking this with an analysis using minor storms, you could transfer the system data (containing the data entered through property sheets, plus designed pipe sizes and invert levels, and x-y coordinates of pits and nodes) to a spreadsheet program using the option in the Edit menu, and copy this on to a worksheet labelled "Data". The results of the design run using minor storms could be transferred to another worksheet labelled 'Design' or 'Minor'. After inspecting the design results, you could then run DRAINS with the major storms to check that the system operates safely in large storm events, and transfer the results from these to another worksheet labelled 'Analysis' or 'Major'. The three worksheets provide the documentation for the design. You could then produce long sections of selected pipelines, and transfer these to a CAD program as a DXF file. If you were using a DTM program, you could transfer data directly from DRAINS and use the more elaborate drawing facilities that they provide. Designing for infill developments where there are constraints imposed by existing developments and infrastructure is a more complicated process, and it may not be possible to use the automatic procedures that apply in greenfields design. Since DRAINS operates quickly, and changes are easily made, it can be used to arrive at a solution by trial and error searching. Examples 1 to 5, 7, 11 and 12 show various design situations and methods.

Analysis
Analysis techniques, involving the simulation of flows from catchments and their passage through drainage networks, are used as part of design procedures in DRAINS, and can also be applied to established stormwater drainage systems, determining whether parts of these have the capacity to carry flowrates from various storms, and defining possible overflow rates and flow characteristics. DRAINS offers two methods of assessing established drainage systems the standard hydraulic model, which provides quick estimates suitable for most assessments, and the premium hydraulic model that provides more rigorous and detailed modelling of surface flows, as discussed in Part 2 of this Guide. Modelling existing systems requires more hydrological and hydraulic information than the design of new systems. Information for setting up models to analyse established drainage systems will come from plans, inspection sheets, aerial photographs, survey data and other sources held by a council or drainage authority, and from its asset data base and GIS. A GIS, CAD or DTM program will be needed for defining sub-catchment boundaries and areas and other inputs.

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Sites will need to be inspected and unusual drainage configurations will have to be set up in DRAINS. It may take a lot of work to set up a file for a large, complicated system, but once this is established, it can easily be updated and re-run, becoming a tool for assessment of drainage system adequacy, especially in the consideration of flood-affected development sites. The spreadsheet output in DRAINS, which can also act as a data input, can be used to facilitate the editing of data, and for transferring data and results to data base and GIS programs. See Examples 6 and 8 for analysis applications. Also note that analysis is used for checking in all the design examples.

Broad-Scale Modelling of Rural and Urban Catchments


The storage routing option in DRAINS allows users to model large catchments in a similar manner to the "runoff routing" programs, RORB, RAFTS and WBNM, using catchments and the stream reaches that connect them as non-linear storage flow routing elements. These can be used to determine flows at many points within a catchment. In a typical rural study, the model would be set up on the basis of catchment topography and the pattern of the stream network. If gauging data were available, the model would then be calibrated by adjusting the routing parameters for the selected model type until there was good agreement between the hydrographs produced by the model and gauged catchment hydrographs. Following this, the model could then be applied with larger design floods to assess the flows at critical locations. The facilities in DRAINS expand on those available in earlier programs, because it is possible to run some sub-catchments with ILSAX hydrology and others with storage routing hydrology at the same time. Situations such as an urban drainage system influenced by tailwater from a large stream can be consistently modelled. DRAINS also offers the choice of modelling stream hydraulic grade lines exactly by specifying open channels, or by routing flows through a routed stream reach. See Examples 9 and 10 for applications of storage routing models.

6. Example Files using the Design Procedure


These are installed together with the DRAINS program. From DRAINS, example files can be read using the Open option in the File menu. They are located in the folder C:\Program Files \Drains\Demo\Datafiles. When examining and running them, you can open on-line Help at any time by pressing the F1 key, or selecting Contents from the Help menu. We recommend that you test the features of DRAINS by going through these examples, which all work within the limitations mentioned at the beginning of these notes. You can then alter the examples or set up some simple systems to extend your understanding.

Example 1 - Major/minor design for a small drainage system at Gymea, Sutherland Shire, NSW (File Gymea ILSAX Example - Standard.drn)
The DRAINS main window shown in Figure 2 presents a system of five pipes and six pits or nodes against the background of a street and cadastral (property) data. The land is assumed to slope from top to bottom. A property sheet defining the inputs for one of the sub-catchments is also shown. Two storms have been defined. A 5 year ARI, 25 minute design storm is used in a design run with ILSAX hydrology to establish pipe sizes and invert levels, and in an analysis run to check these in a major 100 year ARI storm. The design procedure is based on a method from the Queensland Urban Drainage Manual, 1992 that defines the pit sizes needed to safely limit the flowrates along each overflow route. Initially, the names of pipes start with ?? because pipe diameters and invert levels have not been entered in the property sheet. This partial entry of data is permitted because a Design run will determine appropriate pipe diameters and invert levels.

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Names of Components

Figure 2 DRAINS Main Window showing Gymea System and Rainfall Pattern After a Design run is made and results are expected, the designed systems can then be used in an Analysis run employing a 100 year ARI, 25 minute storm to check the adequacy of this system during a major storm. Figure 3 shows that the names of components have been changed to colour-coded numerical results, such as peak flowrates through pipes and maximum water levels at pits. Significant concerns addressed in the design are avoiding flows over road low points at the two sag pits, and preventing excessive flows along street gutters or channels. This analysis was performed using the standard hydraulic model. With the demonstration version of DRAINS it is also possible to run the premium hydraulic model, which provides more accurate results for surface flows, such as flows along overflow routes and ponding of water at sag pits.

Peak SubCatchment Flowrate (black)

Peak Pipe Flowrate (blue)

Peak HGL Levels (green) Peak Overflow Flowrate (red)

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Figure 3 Output from an Analysis Run with Minor Storms Following a Design Run Results can be inspected using options in the pop-up menu to display flow hydrographs, HGL plots and long-sections, as shown in Figure 3. Then the designed system can be modelled in an analysis run with a 100 year ARI, 25 minute storm to check the adequacy of the system during a major storm. The analysis in Figure 3 was performed using the standard hydraulic model. With the demonstration version of DRAINS it is also possible to run the premium hydraulic model, which provides more accurate results for surface flows such as flows along overflow routes and ponding of water at sag pits. To explore the example, we suggest that you follow these steps: In the Project menu, examine the Hydrological Model, Rainfall Data and other options, cancelling each dialog box or property sheet to ensure that the data is not changed. Right click on a component and select Edit Data to view the property sheet data for that component Run the Design option in the Run menu and inspect the results from the 5 year ARI storm. (Peak flows for sub-catchments, pipes and overland flow paths and water levels at pits are presented as colour-coded numbers.) Run the Advanced Design (pits and pipes) option in the Run menu, Select Analyse major storms and Analyse minor storms from the Run menu and inspect the results for the 100 year ARI storm. For individual pits and pipes, use the pop-up menu to examine hydraulic grade line positions and flow hydrographs. Check the Long section option. You can also use the Export DXF Long Section option in the File menu to specify a route (such as Pipe A.1 to Outlet) and send a DXF drawing of a pipe long section to a CAD program, as shown below.

Figure 4 Pipe Long Section Plot Produced by DRAINS

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Check the overflow route flow characteristics by opening the pop-up menu for each overflow route and inspecting the last page in its property sheet. This provides a view of the nominated overflow cross-section and statistics of flow. Slope and contributing downstream sub-catchment area can be varied to determine flow characteristics all along the route. From the Edit menu select the Copy Data to Spreadsheet and Copy Results to Spreadsheet options. Paste this data into a blank spreadsheet and examine the tables, which provide documentation of the results of the run.

The background used in this model was imported into DRAINS from a DXF file created in a CAD program, shown in Figure 5. This was used to determine pipe lengths and sub-catchment areas.

Layers Sub-Catchment

Figure 5 DXF File Related to the Gymea DRAINS Example To transfer a background to DRAINS you must open DRAINS as a new model, and from the File menu, select the option Import / Import DXF File and import the file Gymea Base Drawing.dxf from the folder containing the examples. You will be asked to nominate layers for pits, pipes and a background. (In the original DXF file, pits are drawn as circles and pipes as lines.) Both components and background appear, and the background colour can be changed using an option in the View menu.

Example 2 - Major/minor design for the system at Gymea, Sutherland Shire, NSW, using the rational method (File Gymea Rational Method & ERM Example - Standard.drn with rational method hydrological model chosen)
This is the same pipe and catchment system as in Example 1. The rational method procedure from Australian Rainfall and Runoff (1987) has been selected. The Hydrological Models and Rainfall Data inputs in the Project menu are different, as are the data for the sub-catchments. The calculation procedure includes a search process to explore calculated flows at different times, thus avoiding partial area problems with the rational method.
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Results are similar in most respects to those from Example 1, although the calculated peak flows are lower, being calculated from rectangular rainfall blocks rather than the Australian Rainfall and Runoff rainfall patterns used by the ILSAX model. As with the first example, you can export results to a spreadsheet and produce long-sections, such as that shown in Figure 6.

Design Criteria

Figure 6 Major Storm Results from Gymea Rational Method Example, with Street Flow Display

Example 3 - Major/minor design for the System at Gymea, NSW, using the Extended Rational Method (File Gymea Rational Method & ERM Example - Standard.drn with the ERM hydrological model chosen)
This method, shown in Figure 7, was developed to model detention basins using a method that was consistent with the rational method, since it is usually impossible to adjust an ILSAX model to match rational method peak flows for a range of average recurrence intervals and storm durations. The operation of the model is almost exactly the same as when using ILSAX hydrology. When Australian Rainfall and Runoff storm burst patterns are used this method will generally produce higher peak flowrates than the rational method peak flows.

Example 4 - Multiple storm analysis using part of an example from Australian Rainfall and Runoff (File Penrith ARR87 Example Standard.drn)
This example, shown in Figure 8, includes the top five pipes in the pipe drainage design example from Chapter 14 of Australian Rainfall and Runoff (Institution of Engineers, Australia, 1987). It is similar to Example 1, except that eight 2 year ARI design storms are used in the Design run and eight 100 year ARI storms are used for Analysis. In addition, overland flow paths in the sub-catchments are defined in more detail, using a constant time + kinematic wave calculation, rather than a constant time of entry. We suggest that you explore the drainage system and results in the same way as for the first example.

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Figure 7 Extended Rational Method Results with Output of Results

Figure 8 Penrith Example with an Overflow Route Hydrographs

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Example 5 - An On-Site Stormwater Detention System at Sydney, NSW (File Sydney OSD Example - Standard.drn)
This example involves a property drainage system for a dual occupancy development on a 800 m2 house lot with an on-site stormwater detention (OSD) storage at the outlet, shown in Figure 9.

Pre-Development Model

Figure 9 Sydney OSD Example showing Routing Results for a Three Design Storms The land falls from west to east. A new house is to be constructed in a backyard. The detention basin is situated on and near the driveway running past the original dwelling, located to the right. Flows in and out of the basin are through pipes. Invert levels must be specified for the pipes entering or leaving the detention basin, but other pipes can be designed by DRAINS. In this example UPVC pipes are selected from the Pipe Database. You can add additional pipe and pit types to the data base from the Edit menu. Actually, two systems are presented the pre-development situation, represented by a single subcatchment and node located to the left, and the more detailed, post-development situation. DRAINS allows separated systems to run side by side with the same hydrological model and rainfall data, to make easy comparisons. Three storms are used in Design and three in Analysis. The storage is defined by an elevation-surface area table, which can be prepared in a spreadsheet and pasted into DRAINS. (A Utility Spreadsheet, downloadable from www.watercom.com.au, can be used to prepare various inputs to DRAINS, such as rainfall patterns, hydrographs and rating curve (elevation vs flowrate) relationships. The storages, orifice sizes and other factors can be varied to arrive at the most efficient design. Preand post development results can be compared storm by storm, as the worst case result may be misleading. Note how DRAINS deals with the high-level or overflow outlet from a detention basin. These are controlled by information specified for the overflow path, rather than for the basin itself. This example is set up with a high early discharge pit. You can run the model with and without this to see the difference it makes.

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Example 6 - A Model of an Established Drainage System near Brisbane, Queensland (File: Beenleigh Existing Example - Standard.drn.)
This example shows how DRAINS can be applied in the modelling of an established stormwater drainage system, where overland flows are blocked by fences and other barriers. A detention basin is used to model an unintended stormwater storage area located behind commercial buildings. The DRAINS model is shown in Figure 10. The location is occupied by small factory and warehouse units. The fall of land is from the north-west to the south-east. The site shown hatched represents a building re-development that has shut off an overland flow path, causing surface stormwater to pond beside the building and to escape by two possible routes. This situation is modelled as a detention basin with one low-level pipe outlet and two high-level weir outlets. All pipe inverts must be fully specified, and the run is made as an Analysis run with major storms. One of the pipes has a rectangular cross-section. Note how overflow routes are linked via a node.

Figure 10 Beenleigh Example showing Detention Basin Routing The run with major storms determines the division of flows as they escape from the trapped ponding area along the two escape routes. You can export data and results to spreadsheet.

Example 7 - Mixed Pipe and Open Channel System at Bendigo, Victoria, with a Detention Basin (File Bendigo Trunk Drain Example Standard.drn)
This system, shown in Figure 11, involves pipe and artificial channel links including a detention basin. Pipes connect into open channels via nodes, for which surface levels must be specified, so that design can proceed. This capability of integrating varied components and systems is one of the most powerful features of DRAINS.

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Figure 11 Bendigo Mixed Pipe and Open Channel Model with a Detention Basin

Example 8 - Hypothetical Open Channel System at Bowen, Queensland, with a Culvert, Bridge and Irregular Channel Reach (File Bowen Channel & Stream Example - Standard.drn)
This example shows how DRAINS can calculate the afflux occurring at culverts and bridges, and determine water surface profiles along irregular channel sections. The system is shown in Figure 12.

Figure 12 Bowen Stream Model with a Culvert, Bridge and Irregular Open Channel

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With the standard or premium hydraulic models, only one cross-section is specified for the irregular channel. For greater accuracy, the reach could be divided into segments, but this is not done here as the limit of five channels available with the Demonstration version of DRAINS would be exceeded. The standard and premium hydraulic models give the same results for this system.

Example 9 - Rural Catchment at Shepparton, Victoria, modelled using RORB type storage routing procedures (File Shepparton RORB Rural.drn)
This model is set up for a purely rural catchment using the RORB type of storage routing model. The hydrological model and sub-catchment data entry are different to those for ILSAX models. Some data is entered in the sub-catchments and some in the stream reaches. Reaches do not have levels specified. They only route flows and hydraulic grade levels are not provided. Detention basins can be added, and the model can be linked to open channels that are completely-defined. When the model runs, it produces hydrographs as shown in Figure 13 and indicates clearly the degree of flow routing that takes place in each reach.

Figure 13 Shepparton RORB Model showing Non-Linear Routing Results The examples also include variations on this Shepparton model using RAFTS and WBNM hydrology.

Example 10 - A Model that Mixes ILSAX and WBNM Storage Routing Models (File Bowral Rural-Urban Example - Standard.drn)
This example shows how DRAINS can apply two hydrological models in the same model. A small urban area is modelled using ILSAX hydrology, while the stream to which it drains is modelled using WBNM hydrology. In the calculations, both hydrological models are operated at the same time step.

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Figure 14 Bowral Example combining ILSAX and WBNM Hydrology Here the stream levels do not define a tailwater level for the pipe system, but this can be done by adding open channel sections into which the WBNM model flowrates can be directed. Water levels will be calculated in these and will define a variable tailwater level for pipe systems.

Example 11 - Queensland Urban Drainage Manual Procedures (File South Pine River Rational Method Example with US Flow Paths.drn)
This rational method example, shown in Figure 15, transposes the earlier Gymea example to the Brisbane area, adding nodes and overflow routes above the top pit of each pipe branch. These additional components allow the designer to assess approach flows to pits at the tops of pipelines. It also demonstrates the QUDM (Queensland Urban Drainage Manual) procedure for determining pit pressure change coefficients. Once a set of flowrates are calculated, a procedure in the Run menu can be applied to adjust the coefficients using charts from QUDM, providing details of the chart and look-up values used. A special Check HGL spreadsheet output sets out results, including those from the overflow routes at the tops of branches, and a spreadsheet converter can be used to set out results in formats required by Queensland councils, as shown in Figure 16.

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Indicates how much of the catchment flow occurs along this flow path

Figure 15 South Pine Rivers Example showing Approach Flow Characteristics

Figure 16 Rational Method Outputs in QUDM Formats

Example 12 - Property Drainage Example (File Merimbulah Apartment - Standard.drn)


This example describes a property drainage system with downpipes modelled as nodes and sloping downpipes as pipes. The surface levels at nodes can be roof gutter levels or ground surface elevations. Since both above- and below-ground pipelines may need to be designed, it is necessary to specify the invert levels and size of the first pipe in each branch. As shown in Figure 17, pipe long-sections may show roof gutter or surface levels, with the Survey Levels... option in the Pipe property sheet being used to add points that clarify the long section plots by showing the edges of buildings.

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Figure 17 Design of an Apartment Building Piped Drainage System, showing Long-Section

7. Exploring DRAINS
DRAINS is being constantly augmented, and contains additional features that have not been described here. After looking through the examples, you might investigate DRAINS further by varying the data specified in the examples or by creating examples of your own, within the limits imposed in this demonstration version. Updated versions will be posted on the website, www.watercom.com.au, from which the DRAINS Manual and design aids can be downloaded. For additional information, and to obtain the DRAINS Viewer, please phone or fax enquiries to Bob Stack on (02) 6649 8005 or e-mail bobstack@watercom.com.au. Information on training workshops held in state capitals can be obtained from Geoffrey O'Loughlin on 0438 383 841 and geoff.oloughlin@tpg.com.au.

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