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Running head: POLITICAL SCIENCE

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The Law

September 4, 2012

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A bill is the text of the law offered for adoption and prepared for the introduction into

the legislative body or referendum. The bill preparation process includes the decision-making

concerning its development, text development, discussion and completion of an original

project, and its coordination with all the interested bodies and organizations. After the

preparatory stage is completed, a bill is submitted to the legislative body for consideration as

a legislative initiative. According to the subject of a legislative initiative, bills are subdivided

into governmental, deputy, etc.

“There are two types of bills - public and private. A public bill is one that

affects the public generally. A bill that affects a specified individual or a

private entity rather than the population at large is called a private bill. A

typical private bill is used for relief in matters such as immigration and

naturalization and claims against the United States” (Sullivan: 2007).

The president can offer the legislative ideas in the annual “Message to the Nation”,

and the ordinary citizens can send their petitions to the Congress (the 1 st amendment to the

US Constitution). However, the right to directly initiate the bill belongs only to the

congressmen.

The bill can be presented both by the member of the House of Representatives, and by

the Senator. For this purpose, the member of the House of Representatives drops the bill in a

special box at a tribune, and the Senator passes it over to the secretary of the Senate, or

represents it. If the Senator represents the bill himself, any of the other senators can object to

the bill consideration; in this case, the presentation of the bill is postponed to the next day.

After that, the bill is sent to the committees. Therefore, the bill consideration in the

committees is the most important stage of its passing. The destiny of the bill is solved in the

committees. If the bill is very important, the committees or subcommittees can appoint public

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hearings. The representatives of the organizations and the state departments are invited to the

discussions of the bill.

If the bill has been sent to the subcommittee, the final meeting (markup) of the

subcommittee

is

held

after

the

discussions

and

public

hearings.

The

opinions

of

subcommittee members

are

listened for the last time, and

voting takes place. The

subcommittee can give a positive response to the committee in the form of a favorable

resolution with amendments or without them, or the negative one.

In this

case, the

subcommittee can 1) draw a negative (unfavorable) resolution; 2) pass the bill over to the

committee without the recommendation or 3) to recommend the committee to postpone the

bill for an uncertain time (table).

The president signs all bills, but if they do not do it within 10 days, the bill becomes

the law automatically. The president can impose a suspensive veto on the bill. In this case,

they apply their objections to the bill and send it to the House, which suggested the bill.

When the veto of the president is overridden, the bill automatically becomes the law and does

not require the second signature of the president. Then, the law is officially published;

otherwise, it is considered to be void, and is not introduced.

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Open

Congress.

(2009).

“How

References

a

Bill

Becomes

a

Law”.

Available

at:

http://www.opencongress.org/wiki/How_a_bill_becomes_a_law

Sullivan, J.V. (2007). “How Our Laws Are Made”. House of Representatives. 110 th

Congress,

1 st

Session.

Available

at:

110hdoc49/pdf/CDOC-110hdoc49.pdf

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CDOC-