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Diversity of Life

Bio Notes- Diversity of Life Test

11/19/2011 11:53:00 AM

Determining how species are related: Goal of modern classification: assign species to a taxa (category) such that their classification reflects morphological similarities and evolutionary history Ancestor: organism from which other groups of organisms are descended If common ancestor is shared, species are closely related Eg. Family canidae- share elongated snouts, 5 toes on front feet and four on back (includes dogs, wolves, foxes) Likely had a common ancestor (eg grey wolf- common ancestor of domestic dog)

Evidence of relationships among species Three main types: Anatomical evidence- determine common ancestor through morphological similarities Physiological- studying biochemistry of organisms, look at proteins they make (gives an idea of the genes they have). Through comparing proteins, degree of genetic similarity can be determined DNA evidence- genes are made of DNA, and with improvements in technology, scientists can properly classify organisms through DNA examination. This is the most accurate form of evidence. Eg. Fungi was thought to be more closely related to plants but DNA evidence shows it is more similar to animals

Phylogenic Tree- branching diagram used to show evolutionary relationships among species

Species Concepts Scientists cant decide what a species is, so have species concepts. There are three main types of species concepts: 1. Morphological Species Concept: focus on body shape, size, and structural features to compare organisms. Advantage: simple, so most widely used Disadvantage: challenge to decide how much difference is too much, since all organisms vary to some degree 2. Biological Species Concept: defines species by whether two organisms can produce fertile offspring Advantage: widely used by scientists Disadvantage: cant be applied in all cases, eg. Asexual reproduction, extinct animals 3. Phylogenic Species Concept: focuses on species evolutionary history

Advantage: can be applied to extinct species, and uses information from DNA analysis Disadvantage: evolutionary history not known for all species

Naming and Classifying Species Use binomial nomenclature, a two part name consisting of the genus name and the species name Genus name usually noun in Latin or Greek Species name usually an adjective in Latin or Greek Developed by Carl Von Linne/ Carolus Linneas Also developed hierarchal system for classification (nested system) Each category known as a rank, called a taxon As you move down ranks, Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Eukaryotic Kingdoms Order Family Genus Species Kindgom Nutrition Cell Wall Reproduction becomes more specific

Protista

Autotrophs and heterotrophs

Cellulose in some, some lack cell wall Cellulose Chitin No cell wall

asexual and sexual

Plantae Fungi Animalia

Autotrophs Heterotrophs Heterotrophs

Sexual Sexual Sexual

Classifying Types of Biodiversity Species Diversity Variety and abundance of species in a given area

Genetic Diversity Variety of heritable characteristics (genes) in a population of interbreeding individuals Genes: genetic material that controls expression and inheritance of traits Population: group of individuals of same species at specific place at specific time Gene pool: all genes of all individuals in population Genetic diversity within a species is always greater than within a population because gene pool will be larger (contain more combinations of genes) Why so important? Resistance to disease Survival against changing environmental conditions Conservation biology

Ecosystem Diversity Variety of ecosystems in the biosphere Composed of biotic and abiotic factors Because of diversity among organisms and abiotic factors, Earth varies a lot physically and chemically, so VERY rich ecosystem diversity Important because of ecosystem services: benefits experienced by organisms provided by sustainable ecosystems Ecosystems with greater species diversity more likely to reliably provide important ecosystem services, and demonstrate more resilience (ability to maintain equilibrium despite outside disturbances to ecosystem)

Viruses A structure that contains strands of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protective protein coat. They cannot live independently of cells, and are classified by organisms they infect. They are not formally considered an organism.

Anatomy: Capsid: outer protein that surrounds genetic material of a virus. It a) protects nucleic acid from enzyme digestion, and b) provides proteins to allow attachment to host cells Tail sheath: a needle-like part of virus that penetrates cell wall of bacteria like a needle to inject the viral nucleic acid into the host cell Tail fiber: like landing gear, it helps the cell attach to the bacterium surface Genome: complete DNA or RNA sequence

Differences bacteria and viruses:

between

Viruses arent formally considered an organism, as without a host cell they cant sustain themselves, reproduce, synthesize proteins, or generate energy Viruses have no organelles, just a protein coating around the genome Viruses are 1000x smaller (10nm to 1 micrometre)

Lytic Cycle: Attachment: protein on surface of virus binds to protein receptors on the surface of the host cell membrane Entry: virus injects genetic material into host cell and breaks down host cells DNA Replication: host cell makes more of viruss RNA or DNA and creates protein using nutrients from within host cell Assembly: new viral particles are produced

Lysis and release: host cell bursts open and releases new viral particles, rupturing cell wall/membrane. It can create up to 100-200 new virus cells per cycle lethal cycle: kills host cell performed by bacteriophages- bacteria killers

Lysogenic Cycle: Provirus formation- viral DNA becomes part of host cells chromosomes Bacterium reproduces normally, copying prophage and transmitting it to daughter cells Many cell divisions produce colony of infected bacteria Occasionally, prophage exits bacterial chromosome initiating lytic cycle * Viruss genetic material enters host cells chromosome but is not activated until later - lies dormant

Retroviruses Any virus that inserts a DNA copy of its genome into a host cell in order to replicate Life Cycle: Cell membrane and viral membrane fuse Reverse transcriptase turns one RNA strand into DNA using nucleotides. It has poor proofreading so often makes mistakes RNA is reverse-transcribed again into double stranded DNA New double stranded DNA is inserted into the host chromosome by going through nuclear membrane Messenger RNA that is made by new double stranded DNA is sent out of the nucleus mRNA makes viral proteins using ribosomes in the endoplasmic reticulum 2 mRNA and viral proteins bud off cells surface, creating a new virus Proteins are digested and a new virus matures Bacteria Diversity: Rods (bacilli), spheres (coccus) and spirals (spirillum) On their own- mono, in lines- strepto, in clusters- staphylo, double- diplo

Prokaryote structure: Unicellular 1/10th of eukaryotic cell in size (~ 1 micron) No membrane bound organelles, only ribosomes Circular chromosome, naked DNA not wrapped around proteins

Test 2Theory of Endosymbiosis

11/19/2011 11:53:00 AM

Theory of how eukaryotic cells became able to make energy (chloroplasts and mitochondrion)

Pretty much the cell eats (engulfs) a bacteria that performs cellular respiration, and that eaten bacteria became a mitochondrion

Evidence:

Suggests that chloroplasts and mitochondria were once free-living organisms

Their membranes both resemble those of living prokaryotes Their ribosomes looks much more like prokaryotic ribosomes than elsewhere in the eukaryotic cell

They reproduce by binary fission Each contains a circular chromosome, and many gene sequences match those of living prokaryotes.

Protist Kingdom Eukaryotes who are not animals, plants or fungi Ridiculously diverse, so much that classifying them is a challenge because it doesnt represent an evolutionary relationship between all members o Paraphyletic: fit into different phylogenetic places

Fully diverse: uni/multicellular, auto/heterotrophs, a/sexual reproduction, pathogenic/beneficial, sessile/mobile

Move with flagellum, cilia, or pseudopods (amoeba) o Pseudopod: part of the body that is like slimy jello, that the amoeba extends out, causing the rest of the body to follow

Animal-like Protists- Protozoans Heterotrophs, predators, and many are parasitic Eg. Amoebas, paramecium, flagellates, sporozoans

Plant-like Protists Autotrophs, photosynthesize (have chloroplasts) Eg. Algae (red/green/brown), Euglenoids, Diatoms, Dinoflagellates

Fungi-like Protists Plasmodial slime mould, cellular slime mould, or water moulds Heterotrophs but rather than ingesting other organisms

Parasitic protists: sporozoans- malaria, Giardia, trypanosomes Beneficial protists: phytoplankton- produce 90% of atmospheric O2 through photosynthesis, zooplankton- key ecological role at base of marine food web (food for lots of animals)

Fungi - predominant body form: mycelium-tangled mass of branched filaments called hyphae - flowering body is like the part of the thing that we see like a legit mushroom Classification A. Imperfect Fungus- mould penicillin, cyclosporine, thrush throat infection B. Chytrids- unicellular, aquatic, eg. What causes potato wart C. Zygospores- multicellular, terrestrial, common moulds D. Sac Fungi- Develop small finger-like sacs called asci, eg. Yeast, truffles, fungal component of most lichen E. Club Fungi- mushrooms, puff balls, stinkhorn

Plants Had to overcome 4 main challenges to adapt to terrestrial life: o o o o Desiccation (drying up) Transporting fluids from place to place Physical support Reproductive/dispersial strategies

To overcome, they developed the following strategies: o o Waxy, waterproof cuticle with openings called stomata Vascular tissue to conduct fluids (veins and arteries of plants) o Xylem- transports water and inorganic nutrients Phloem- transports organic products of photosynthesis

Rigid stems and other support structures evolved to hold leaves up to the sun (cell wall, stems, woody tissue)

Reproductive strategies where water is not needed like seeds (pollination, attractive colours, sap)

Non-vascular Plants Bryophtyes: Cant grow tall, b/c no vascular tissue to provide support or transport Cuticle on upper surface only, water enters through lower pores

No true roots Mosses, liverwort, hornwort

Vascular Plants- Tracheophytes More complex, grow larger than bryophytes

Without seeds: Club mosses, ferns, horsetails Ferns reproduce with a spore of water, although they can survive drier conditions because they have true roots, more resilient leaves, and better developed vascular tissue

With Seeds: Land plants that evolved were adapted due to woody tissues (lent strength to plants so they could grow tall), more complex vascular tissue (enabled water and nutrients to be carried to new heights), and seeds and flowers (dont need a film of water to reproduce) The seed: drought resistant reproductive package that houses a dormant plant embryo (partially developed plant able to grow into a mature one) and a supply of food (cotyledon). A hard outer seed coat covers both the embryo and the cotyledon

Gymnosperms (vascular plants, with seeds, naked seed) Fist plants to evolve seeds Seeds arent enclosed in a covering- most develop uncovered on scales within cones Coniferophyta- conifers o o o o Male and female gametes produced on different cones The gametes produces pollen in the male and the egg in the female The male cone: soft, short-lived, closed pinecone Female cone: hard, longer lasting, made of scales on which the egg develops

Angiosperms (vascular plants with needs that flower) Produce seeds enclosed in fruit and the male and female gametophytes are reduced to a few cells living on the plant (ovum and pollen) Flowers are used to attract insect pollinators, fruit used to attract herbivores that can disperse seeds

Monocot (vascular plants with seeds that flower that have one

cotyledon) Vascular bundles: scattered One cotyledon Flowers in multiples of three Mature leaves usually parallel

Dicot (vascular plants with seeds that flower that have two cotyledons) Vascular bundles arranged in a ring 2 cotyledons Flowers in multiples of 4 or 5 Usually net-like leaves

So their classification goes: Vascular tissue? (if no, bryophytes. If yes, tracheophytes.) Seeds? (if no, mosses, horsetails. If yes,well they have no name) Naked seeds or flowering? (If naked, gymnosperms. If flowering, angiosperms) One or two cotyledons? (if one, monocot. If two, dicot.)

Animals Characteristics Heterotrophs Multicellular- complex bodies No cell walls- allows active movement Sexual reproduction- no alternation of generations, no haploid gametophyte

Animal Phyla:

Symmetry Coelom Segmentation Body


Porifera none no no soft

Other
No tissues or organs

Examples
Sponges

Cnidaria

radial

no

no

soft

Specialized tissues, no organs

Jellyfish, coral, sea anemone Flatworm, tapeworm

Patyhelminthes

bilateral

no

no

soft

Start of cephalization

Nematoda

bilateral

Sort of (pseudocoelmate)

no

soft

Start of digestive system

Roundworm

Annelida

biltaeral

yes

Inside and out

soft

Distinct head and organs

Segmented worms, leeches Clams, slugs, snails, squid

Mollusca

bilateral

yes

no

Soft, shells

Stomach, head, or hatchet footed

Anthropoda

bilateral

yes

Specialized segments

exoskeleton

Most successful phylum

Spiders, scorpions

Echinodermata

radial

yes

no

endoskeleton

Can regenerate parts

Sea urchin, starfish

Chordata

bilateral

yes

yes

endoskeleton

backbone

Humans, birds, dogs

Vertebrae Subgroups

Fish Body Bony or cartilaginous, with scales Gas exchange Gills to get O2

Amphibians Legs, moist skin, bony skeleton Lungs and diffusion through skin

Reptiles Dry skin, scales, armour

Aves Feathers and wings, follow bones

Mammals Hair, specialized teeth Lungs, diaphragm

Lungs

Efficient lungs and air sacs

Heart

2 chambers

3 chambers but some mixing

3 chambers, less mixing

4 chambers, no mixing

4 chambers, 2 loops

Ecto/endotherm Fertilization Development

Ectotherm External External,

Ectotherm External External, in

Ectotherm Internal External in

Endotherm Internal External in

Endotherm Internal Internal in

amniotic egg

aquatic egg

amniotic egg(leathery)

amniotic egg

uterus or pouch

Other

Joined, paired appendages

Metamorphosis

Claws for defense

Specially designed to fly Hawk, eagle

Birth live young Humans, kangaroos

Examples

Trout, shark, salmon

Frog, salamander

Dinosaur, turtle, lizard

Sub-groups of Mammals (it just never ends!) Monotremes: Egg laying mammals Lack placenta and true nipples Eg. Platypus

Marsupials: Pouched mammals, offspring feed from nipples in pouch Short lived placenta Koala, kangaroo, opossum

Placental True placenta, nutrient and waste filter Shrews, bats, whales, humans

Biodiversity Crisis Current decline in the genetic, species and ecosystem diversity that may represent a mass extinction Common threats to species today include: o o o o o Habitat destruction Invasive species Illegal trade Pollution Climate change

Scientists study the impact of climate change by examining long-term data, exposing small ecosystems to artificial climates, and by making predictions and seeing if it comes true

Climate Change

Affects raindeer and caribou by causing less growth/access to lichens, resulting in less food

Also interrupts migration matterns and reproduction patterns

Climate Change and Habitat Affects average temperature Mountains- shifts ecosystems further up the mountain as they try to stay in the right temperature, and some sill go extinct Means more competition for food

Climate Change and Reproduction Many species follow temperature-sex determination where temperature determines sex If temperature rises, there will be too many males and too few females If population is over 75% male it cant survive

Climate Change, Plant and Animal Pollinators Pollination relationships may lose their matched timing, because It may make plants or insects become active earlier than normal An insect may emerge but the flowers may not be ready, and when they are there may be to few insects around

Climate Change and Aquatic Ecosystems Increasing the temp. can affect freshwater organisms Can cause growth rates of invertebrates to increase, insects to emerge earlier, malefemale ratios to change Decrease appetite and growth of fish in summers but opposite in winter