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Introduction

Positivism is a philosophy of science that assumes a specific epistemological, ontological, and methodological perspective. Auguste Comte was the first to lay out the positivist position for sociology arguing that (1) social phenomenaor social facts, as Durkheim would call themexternal and observable to individuals were amenable to empirical, scientific analysis and, thus, the goal for a positivist social science would be (2) to discern the abstract, social laws that undergirded these observable facts; (3) to not focus on causes, especially ultimate causes, but rather the natural relations between phenomena; and (4) to produce a body of cumulative knowledge that could guide social engineers, analogous to physics or chemistry guiding mechanical or electrical engineers. Since Comte, positivism has evolved. Contemporary positivists, as well as their critics, assign different meanings and emphases to a relatively wide range of practices and philosophical positions, which has produced some confusion as to what positivism is or is not. Given the negative connotation that positivism tends to have in many contemporary sociological circles, especially outside the United States, each section of this bibliography will include one or two critical pieces linked to the sections theme. Additionally, a later section, Commentary and Critique, will provide seminal works that underscore the diversity in critiques of positivist sociology. Perhaps the most important charge leveled against positivism is that it dominates the discipline and especially the most prestigious journals, in spite of the fact that positivism has many different contemporary methodological and epistemological meanings. Nevertheless, a few core elements can be isolated that underscore all positivisms. First, sociology is and should be a science, in that only those social facts external and observable by scientific methods and instruments are to be studied. Second, and closely related, sociological inquiry should be objective, value-neutral inquiry distinguishable from religious, moral, political, or philosophical inquiry. Third, the methods and instruments should be reliable, verifiable, and precise; though there is not a distinct set of methods to which positivists adhere, many positivists (often called methodological positivists) subscribe to quantitative analyses. Fourth, theories should be abstract, generalizable statements with clearly defined concepts linked by their relationship. Though few positivists speak of laws, most believe the goal of theory is to explain a class of phenomena. Fifth, the ultimate goal is cumulative, objective knowledge of the social world, its properties, and its dynamics.

General Overviews of Classical Positivism


No clear bifurcation between classical or contemporary positivism can be delineated. Perhaps arbitrary, positivist thought from Comte (Comte 1968) through Logical Positivism (Carnap 1934,Ayers 1959) may be termed classical, as elements continue to inform positivism today, yet these scholars are generally not referred to or employed in contemporary defenses of or writings on positivism. Comtes philosophy was central to the sociological work of both Spencer (Spencer 1897) and Durkheim (Durkheim 1982). Both social scientists accepted the belief that there was an empirical world and that scientific methods should be employed to observe it; both wrote a text specifically on methods, with Spencer 1961 focused on the use of historical-comparative methods to generate first principles. Durkheim 1982 did not prescribe a particular method, but cogently argued that social facts were distinct phenomena apart from psychological facts and established the logic behind scientific inquiry. During the classical phase of sociology, in Europe and the United States, most social scientists took for granted sociology as a science. For instance,Sorokin 1959 contains a general theory of stratification and mobility that tacitly assumes these phenomena have some unchanging identifiable qualities. Or, consider Sumner and Keller 1927, a herculean effort to compile data on every known society so that all sociologists would draw from the same place and cumulative knowledge could be established. Comtes vision, which explicitly or implicitly informed sociology, was eventually abandoned with the rise of Logical Positivism (Carnap 1934, Ayers 1959). In essence, Logical Positivists emphasized methodology over theory, logic over abstraction, and verification. In many ways, Logical Positivism shaped what is

called methodological positivism today in that they conflated empirical generalizations with theoretical statements. Max Webers statement on sociological methods (Weber 1946) provides a critique of positivism, while at the same time laying the foundations for modern interpretivism in sociology. On the other hand, Popper 2002 offers one of the

more cogent and respected philosophy of science critiques of positivism. Ayers, A. J., ed. 1959. Logical Positivism. New York: Dover. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An edited book of essays by the most relevant Logical Positivists. Find this resource:

Carnap, Rudolf. 1934. The unity of science. London: Kegan Paul. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A typical example of a Logical Positivist argument. In particular, Carnap focuses on what is often called the unity of science or the epistemological, ontological, and methodological position that all external, observable phenomena are amenable to scientific measurement. Found in Comtes so -called Hierarchy of the Sciences, the unity of science position has undergirded the argument that sociology is a science. Find this resource:

Comte, Auguste. 1968. System of positive polity. 4 vols. New York: Burt Franklin. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Comtes complete and ultimate statement on positivism and the social sciences. Though all four volumes inform the reader, of special importance to his philosophy are the first one hundred pages or so. Originally published 1851 1854. Find this resource:

Durkheim, Emile. 1982. The rules of sociological method, and selected texts on sociology and its method . New York: Free Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in 1895. Durkheims text on methods, focused principally on the epistemological and ontological foundations of a positivist social science. Find this resource:

Popper, Karl. 2002. The logic of scientific discovery. London: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in 1934. A classic philosophy of science work that questions the tenets of Logical Positivism, while offering a critical examination of the assumptions of scientific inquiry. Find this resource:

Sorokin, Pitirim. 1959. Social and cultural mobility. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in 1927. An example of a formal theoretical work with ubiquitous, abstract propositions regarding stratification and inequality in human societies. Though often a forgotten text, numerous general contemporary theories of stratification and empirical studies appear to verify many of Sorokins propositions. Find this resource:

Spencer, Herbert. 1897. The principles of sociology. New York: Appleton. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation As was typical of positivists, the search for the most basic elements or principles of a science was an important step in building a cumulative body of knowledge. Spencers efforts have slowly become recogni zed in some corners of contemporary sociology, but they are exemplary of 19th-century positivism. Find this resource:

Spencer, Herbert. 1961. The study of sociology. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in 1873. Spencers positivist text on sociological methods. Find this resource:

Sumner, William Graham, and Albert G. Keller. 1927. The science of society. 4 vols. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

A qualitative data set that is cross-cultural with the intention of giving social scientists a common body of data to draw from and speak to each other through. Find this resource:

Weber, Max. 1946. Methods of the social science. In From Max Weber: Essays in sociology. Edited by H. Gerth and C. W. Mills, 5561. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Webers methodological statement highlighting the concept Verstehen and the interpretivist approach. Find this resource:

General Overviews of Contemporary Positivism


Contemporary sociological positivism is different from classical positivism in that (1) it has become far more refined in the face of severe criticism since the 1960s and 1970s (Turner 1985,Cohen 1989, Lenski 1991) and (2) like the rest of sociology, it too has suffered to a degree from eclecticism (Wacquant 1994). Nevertheless, it remains the takenfor-granted mode of knowledge production (Heidtman, et al. 2000), knowingly and unknowingly, for many American sociologists and has had as much an effect on contemporary American sociology (Alexander 1982) as any other epistemology. Many of these texts, and others like them, were written against the backdrop of criticisms coming from cultural Marxism (Giddens 1975), the Frankfurt school (Adorno, et al. 1976), and the emergence of ardent cultural social scientific epistemologies (e.g., Geertz 1972).

Adorno, Theodor, Hans Albert, Ralf Dahrendorf, Jurgen Habermas, Harald Pilot, and Karl Popper. 1976. The positivist dispute in German sociology. London: Heinemann. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A book of essays debating methods and epistemology in the social sciences, as well as the role that values should play. In particular, the Frankfurt school (e.g., Adorno and Habermas) challenged what they called critical rationalism (e.g., Popper), arguing that positivism was an extension of bourgeois capitalism. Find this resource:

Alexander, Jeffrey C. 1982. Positivism, presuppositions, and current controversies. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A critical text on the state of sociology and positivism in the 1980s. With a new wave of theorists emerging in the 1980s, the discourse surrounding sociological theory was not about theory, but about various debates such as positivism versus constructivism, macro versus micro, agency versus structure, objectivism versus subjectivism. This text represents one of the entry points into these large theoretical discussions. Find this resource:

Cohen, Bernard P. 1989. Developing sociological knowledge. Chicago: Nelson-Hall. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Cohen offers a text oriented toward positivist methods and their logical underpinnings, while defending the unity of science and the goal of cumulative knowledge. Less theoretical positivism, Cohens work offers the social scientist an alternative to bland texts on social science methods, by blending method, philosophy of science, and theoretical framing in an efficacious manner. Find this resource:

Geertz, Clifford. 1972. Thick description: Toward an interpretive theory of culture. In The interpretation of cultures. By Clifford Geertz, 333. New York: Basic Books. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Geertzs treatise on social scientific methods and theory argues that interpretivism and science are not incommensurate. Find this resource:

Giddens, Anthony. 1975. Positivism and sociology. London: Heinemann. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A blend of realism and cultural Marxism, Giddens presents a critical look at positivism in sociology. Find this resource:

Heidtman, Joanna, Kinga Wysienska, and Jacek Szmatka. 2000. Positivism and types of theories in sociology. Sociological Focus 33.1: 126. DOI: 10.1080/00380237.2000.10571154Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Heidtman offers a fresh look at the social sciences by arguing that theoretical sociology does not have to be positivistic. Positing a quasi-stage model of theoretical development, this work attempts to de-couple positivism from theory-building in an interesting and thought-provoking manner Find this resource:

Lenski, Gerhard. 1991. Positivisms futureand sociologys. Canadian Journal of Sociology16.2: 187195. DOI: 10.2307/3341273Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Lenski offers a cogent and ardent defense of positivism as the epistemological position of sociology. Written as a rebuttal to an earlier piece attacking positivism, this paper defines positivism and proceeds to examine and debunk numerous assumptions made by its critics. The epistemological debates of the 1980s gave way to a strange eclecticism in the 1990s, but the debate was never really settled. Find this resource:

Turner, Jonathan H. 1985. In defense of positivism. Sociological Theory 3.2: 2430. DOI: 10.2307/202222Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation One of the most ardent proponents of positivism, Turner lays out a reasoned argument for the positivist project in sociology. One of the few contemporary theorists who draws directly from Comte, Turner defines and describes what positivism is and then elucidates the different types of theoretical strategies that sociologists use to build scientific sociological theory. Find this resource:

Wacquant, Loic J. D. 1994. Positivism. In The Blackwell dictionary of twentieth-century social thought. Edited by William Outhwaite and Tom Bottomore, 495498. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A terse review of positivism for the student who needs a quick and basic review. Wacquant maintains that there have been, at least, twelve different kinds of positivism; he briefly addresses each one. Find this resource:

Theoretical Positivism
As noted in the Introduction, positivism begins with the goal of building abstract, generalizable, and preferably, testable theories. They are abstract in the sense that the concepts are generic, yet operationalizable; they are generalizable in that the theoretical statements should capture some process, relationship, or dynamic that occurs regardless of time or place; and they are testable in that scientific methods should determine the scope and efficacy of the theory, in that it should be the best explanation for a given set of facts. Some types of sociological theory are more amenable to positivist theory than others; in particular, analytic modeling (Turner 2004) and formal propositions (Blumberg 1984, Hawley 1986). In the immediate section, the reader is directed toward some general theoretical texts that demonstrate positivist theorizing and its range. In the subsections that follow, specific examples will be provided for the aforementioned subtypes of positivist theorizing (e.g., analytic modeling). It is worth noting a few common threads: (1) though microsociological theories can be positivist (see Experimental Social Psychology for an example), more often than not they are macro in orientation; (2) because the goal is generalizability, these theories are often induced from historical-comparative methods and not quantitative analyses (Collins 1975, Lenski 1988); (3) all of these theories aim to isolate and explain generic forces, mechanisms, processes, and/or structural arrangements (Collins 1990, Abrutyn and Turner 2011). Seidman 1991 offers a postmodernist critique of positivist theory. See also Eisenstadt 1964.

Abrutyn, Seth, and Jonathan H. Turner. 2011. The old institutionalism meets the new institutionalism. Sociological Perspectives 54.3: 283306. DOI: 10.1525/sop.2011.54.3.283Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Abrutyn and Turner offer a general theory of four macro-institutional dynamics that shape the environment in which organizations and clusters of organizations act and interact. Treating institutional environments as real, they provide a generic set of principles that underlie the four institutional dynamics they highlight. Find this resource:

Blumberg, Rae Lesser. 1984. A general theory of gender stratification. In Sociological theory. Edited by Randall Collins, 4274. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using ethnographic and anthropological data, Blumberg posits a very parsimonious and generic theory of gender stratification. Rooted in the distant past, Blumbergs intentions are to explain variation across contemporary societies by delineating the mechanismsin propositional formby which women gain or lose political and economic power. Find this resource:

Collins, Randall. 1975. Conflict sociology: Towards an explanatory science. New York: Academic Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A rebuke of functionalism, this work offers a general theory of social action and organization through a conflict sociologists lens. The title of the text refers to its ultimate aims: an explanatory science. Find this resource:

Collins, Randall. 1990. Market dynamics as the engine of historical change. Sociological Theory 8.2: 111135. DOI: 10.2307/202200Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This paper, like Turner 2004, offers the reader an explanation for social change via market forces. Generic and abstract, it offers a predictive model that conceptualizes the growth of meta-markets on top of markets as the principal destabilizing force. With each meta-market, economies grow shakier until they collapse like dominoes, only to start anew. Find this resource:

Eisenstadt, S. N. 1964. Institutionalization and change. American Sociological Review 29.2: 235247. DOI: 10.2307/2092126Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Eisenstadt offers a general theory of institutional change rooted in the generic conditions necessary for special corporate actorsinstitutional entrepreneursto emerge and succeed. Though less systematic than other examples, this work presents a theoretical framework meant to explain the first political entrepreneurs in China or Mesopotamia five thousand years ago as well as political (or other types of) entrepreneurs today. Find this resource:

Hawley, Amos H. 1986. Human ecology: A theoretical essay. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Hawley offers a general theory of human ecology. His unit of analysis is the population, and through formal propositions he offers an abstract, universal theory of ecological dynamics. In particular, he identifies the material constraints on population growth. Find this resource:

Lenski, Gerhard. 1988. Rethinking macrosociological theory. American Sociological Review53.2: 163171. DOI: 10.2307/2095685Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Lenskis work identifies the macro-level as the principal level of social analysis for a science of society. He carefully explicates what needs to be done to achieve a cumulative body of sociological knowledge, while pointing to his own theoretical work as examples of positivist sociology. Find this resource:

Seidman, Steven. 1991. The end of sociological theory: The postmodern hope. Sociological Theory 9.2: 131 146. DOI: 10.2307/202074Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The seminal position of postmodernism toward sociological theory, or scientific sociology, Seidman argues for social theories, or for eclectic, pluralist theory that is open to metaphysical, humanist concerns. Seidman rejects sociology as a science capable of generating laws, as he argues that there is a yawning gap between theory and empirical reality. Find this resource:

Turner, Jonathan H. 2004. Toward a general sociological theory of the economy. Sociological Theory 22.2: 229246. DOI: 10.1111/j.0735-2751.2004.00214.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Turner offers a general theory conceptualizing economy as a sphere of social action. Both a description of the basic elements of all economies and an explanation of the central properties and dynamics of economies, this work assumes something that is macro and cannot be seen or touched like a person or a building is real, external, and amenable to empirical analysis.

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ANALYTIC MODELING

Some theories employ diagrams meant to visually represent the causal or temporal ordering of a theorys concepts, or in the case of network theory, the connectedness of nodes or actors. Some examples of the former include Jonathan Turners three-volume work (Turner 2010a, Turner 2010b, and Turner 2011) on the principles of sociology, which tries to conceptualize the macro, micro, and meso levels respectivelyin terms of generic dynamics, formal propositions, and models meant to capture these dynamics and propositions. Others have used this same theoretical strategy to explain the evolution of political systems (Abrutyn and Lawrence 2010). A slightly different modeling strategy has been used by capture processes as diverse as identity control theory (Burke 1991) or the rise and fall of world-systems found in the iteration model inChase-Dunn and Hall 1997. As an example from network theories, Moody and White 2003provides models meant to capture and analyze structural cohesion as described by numerous classical sociologists.

Abrutyn, Seth, and Kirk Lawrence. 2010. From chiefdom to state: Toward an integrative theory of the evolution of polity. Sociological Perspectives 53.3: 419442. DOI: 10.1525/sop.2010.53.3.419Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An example of the blending of historically based empirical questions in this case, the rise of the first states five thousand years agowith analytic modeling. In particular, Abrutyn and Lawrence look to integrate a gradualist theory of political evolution with punctuated, rapid evolutionary change. Using modeling techniques similar to those of Jonathan Turner, Abrutyn and Lawrence produce a generic theory of political evolution. Find this resource:

Burke, Peter J. 1991. Identity processes and social stress. American Sociological Review56.6: 836849. DOI: 10.2307/2096259Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Burkes general theory of identity control includes a theoretical model meant to capture the process by which persons and their environment interact. Find this resource:

Chase-Dunn, Christopher, and Thomas D. Hall. 1997. Rise and demise: Comparing world-systems. Boulder, CO: Westview. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Chase-Dunn and Hall offer a generic model meant to explain the rise and fall of all world-systems since human societies began trading with each other. Find this resource:

Moody, James, and Douglas R. White. 2003. Structural cohesion and embeddedness: A hierarchical concept of social groups. American Sociological Review 68.1: 103127. DOI: 10.2307/3088904Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Moody and White provide a typical example of how network theorists model the social world and then proceed to test these models. Find this resource:

Turner, Jonathan H. 2010a. Theoretical principles of sociology: Macrodynamics. Vol. 1. New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The first volume in Turners three-volume effort to offer sociology a set of first principles. Spanning his career, Turner draws from a wealth of sources to identify the basic structural and cultural elements of the macro, their interrelations, and the dynamics that universally exist across time and place. The inspiration for this effort comes clearly from Comtes and Spencers call for a set of laws and generalizations that capture the social phenomena unique to sociological inquiry. Find this resource:

Turner, Jonathan H. 2010b. Theoretical principles of sociology: Microdynamics. Vol. 2. New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The second volume in Turners three-volume set focuses on the basic microdynamics ubiquitous to human societies. In particular, Turner emphasizes role, status, transactional needs, and emotional dynamics, among others. Find this resource:

Turner, Jonathan H. 2011. Theoretical principles of sociology: Mesodynamics. Vol. 3. New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The final volume in Turners three-volume set focuses on meso-level dynamics like integration and differentiation. Find this resource:

FORMAL PROPOSITIONAL THEORIZING

Some theoretical positivists use formal propositions to elucidate a theoretical system. While many, like Jonathan Turner, combine propositional theory with analytic modeling, a number of sociologists prefer building theories through propositions that can be easily operationalized and tested. Generally, these types of theories have been constructed in mid-range areas, such as the general theory of law as a social fact in Black 1976, the theory of religion and religious evolution inStark and Bainbridge 1996, the principles of solidarity in Hechter 1987, and the general theory of gender stratification in Collins, et al. 1993. Others, like Blau 1977, attempt to construct a more general model of social organization. Abrutyn 2009 on institutional autonomy and Fligstein and McAdam 2011 on strategic action fields demonstrate the recent efforts to construct general theories of social change.

Abrutyn, Seth. 2009. Toward a general theory of institutional autonomy. Sociological Theory27.4: 449465. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9558.2009.01358.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Abrutyn offers a new take on an old process through a series of formal propositions. Reconceptualizing the idea of differentiation, this work introduces, clarifies, and expounds on the idea of institutional autonomy, a process by which institutional entrepreneurs can secure independence from other strata and carve out physical, temporal, social, and symbolic space. Find this resource:

Black, Donald. 1976. The behavior of law. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Black offers the reader what he calls pure sociology, or a set of propositions meant to explain the dynamics of law, as well as legal systems, detached from a historical time or place. Find this resource:

Blau, Peter M. 1977. A macrosociological theory of social structure. American Journal of Sociology 83.1: 26 54. DOI: 10.1086/226505Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Blau conceptualizes the macro-level of social reality as comprising two intersecting parameters: nominal categories (e.g., age, sex, race) and graduated categories (e.g., income, power). Using these two parameters, he posits a set of propositions that can provide the sociologist with a view of the social structure of any society of interest. Find this resource:

Collins, Randall, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, Rae Lesser Blumberg, Scott Coltrane, and Jonathan H. Turner. 1993. Toward an integrated theory of gender stratification. Sociological Perspectives 36.3: 185216. DOI: 10.2307/1389242Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation One of the most complete theories of gender stratification in sociology. A series of propositions meant to replace the myriad gender theories by identifying the three blocks of causesthe gendered organization of production, the gendered organization of reproduction, and what its authors term sexual politicsand two outcomesgender resource mobilization and gender conflicts. Find this resource:

Fligstein, Neil, and Doug McAdam. 2011. Toward a general theory of Strategic Action Fields.Sociological Theory 29.1: 127. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9558.2010.01385.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A recent example of formal propositional theories, this work provides the reader with a general theory of Strategic Action Fields, or spaces in which incumbent groups struggle against challengers over the definition of the situation and reality and access to resources. The theory builds on neo-institutional theories of fields while integrating the social movements literature. Find this resource:

Hechter, Michael. 1987. Principles of group solidarity. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

A rational-choice perspective on the dynamics of group solidaritye.g., the causes of solidarity, the free-rider problem, the consequences of solidarity, and so on. Find this resource:

Stark, Rodney, and William Sims Bainbridge. 1996. A theory of religion. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Stark and Bainbridge offer a total theory of religion in propositional format. Their theory addresses everything from religious change to predictions of when monotheism would replace or dominate polytheism. Find this resource:

Positivism in Subfields
Many subfields in sociology are positivist in theory and/or in methodology. Generally speaking, positivist methods have come to embrace quantitative methodologies, though both world-systems analysis and neo-evolutionary sociology use a wide variety of methods that include historical-comparative, archaeological, ethnographic, and even some from the biological sciences. Many scholars in these fields are not embroiled in the debates surrounding positivism, and perhaps if asked, many would not even label themselves positivists but rather social scientists. In some ways this supports the claims of positivists challengers (see Commentary and Critique). Though any number of areas can be elucidated as positivist, four examples are drawn from as exemplary: experimental (or hard) social psychology (Burke 2006) for its experimental methods and use of quantitative techniques; the sociology of suicide as representing the use of quantitative methods and the adherence to cumulative knowledge (Stack 2005); historical sociologies, especially world-systems analysis, which use historical, archaeological, and quantitative methods to examine macro-historical patterns of change, elucidate cause-and-effect, and discover law-like forces, even if these laws are constrained to a particular epoch (e.g., Wallerstein 1974). Finally, biosocial/neo-evolutionary sociology looks to apply, within varying degree, biological concepts and processes to sociocultural change in order to (1) explain why human societies emerged, (2) isolate the principal, generic forces of sociocultural evolution, and (3) posit general, abstract theories of social change (e.g., Sanderson 2007). All of these areas begin with the assumptions that (a) the external world is measurable, (b) scientific methods of one sort or another can be used to measure the observable phenomena of interest, and (c) knowledge in their subfield cumulates over time.

Burke, Peter J., ed. 2006. Contemporary social psychological theories. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A comprehensive review of the most common and prolific experimental social psychological theories, including Identity Control Theory, Affect Control Theory, Distributive Justice, and Exchange Theory. Find this resource:

Sanderson, Stephen K. 2007. Evolutionism and its critics: Deconstructing and reconstructing an evolutionary interpretation of human society. Boulder, CO: Paradigm. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A cogent review of old evolutionary theories, criticisms of these theories, and updated social scientific evolutionism in light of these criticisms. Sanderson, at the end, posits a general theory of evolutionary materialism, fashioned in part from anthropologist Marvin Harriss work and founded on four basic material forces: economic, ecological, demographic, and technological. Find this resource:

Stack, Steven. 2005. Suicide in the media: A quantitative review of studies based on nonfictional stories. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 35.2: 121133. DOI: 10.1521/suli.35.2.121.62877Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A review of three decades of suicide suggestion studies, presenting the accumulation of knowledge on suicide. Though this review, as well as this area, is not particularly special, it provides an example of a subfield in sociology where epistemological questions are taken for granted and cumulative knowledge is the implicit goal. Find this resource:

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1974. The rise and future demise of the world capitalist system: Concepts for comparative analysis. Comparative Studies in Society and History 16.4: 387415. DOI: 10.1017/S0010417500007520Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Wallersteins initial statement on world-systems analysis, which assumes that the modern global economic system obeys a set of laws that determine its cyclical growth and contraction, as well as explaining the rise and fall of hegemonic nation-states. Find this resource:

EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

Since the early 1970s, social psychology has undergone numerous changes, none, however, more closely aligned with a positivist epistemology than experimental social psychology. Notably, experimental social psychologists use laboratory experiments and (often sophisticated) quantitative methods whenever possible. Nearly every theoretical tradition is accompanied by research programs in which the purveyors and their students test and retest microsociological principles and dynamics to establish the scope conditions for their theories and to build cumulative, objective bodies of knowledge concerning affect (Heise 1977), exchange and power (Cook and Emerson 1978), status beliefs and expectations (Ridgeway 2001), emotions in exchange (Lawler 2001), and identities and emotions (Stets, et al. 2008).

Cook, Karen S., and Richard M. Emerson. 1978. Power, equity, and commitment in exchange networks. American Sociological Review 43.5: 721739. DOI: 10.2307/2094546Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A seminal piece on Exchange Theory that provides common experimental methodological practices for Exchange Theorists. Find this resource:

Heise, David. 1977. Social action as the control of affect. Behavioral Sciences 22:163177. DOI: 10.1002/bs.3830220303Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A seminal piece on Affect Control Theory that includes methodological issues. Find this resource:

Lawler, Edward J. 2001. An affect theory of social exchange. American Journal of Sociology107.2: 321352. DOI: 10.1086/324071Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Lawlers integration of ritual-emotion literature with exchange theories is presented in a paper that offers hypotheses and methodological concerns. Find this resource:

Ridgeway, Cecilia L. 2001. Inequality, status, and the construction of status beliefs. In The handbook of sociological theory. Edited by J. H. Turner, 323340. New York: Kluwer/Plenum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An example of the extension of a theoretical areain this case, Status Beliefs Theory building on Status Expectation States Theory. Find this resource:

Stets, Jan E., Michael J. Carter, Michael M. Harrod, Christine Cerven, and Seth Abrutyn. 2008. The moral identity, moral emotions, and the normative order. In Social structure and emotion. Edited by Dawn T. Robinson and Jody Clay-Warner, 227252. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An example of the intersection of laboratory research with focus group data collection. Building on Identity Control Theory (ICT), Stets, et al. attempt to extend ICTs scope to include person identities such as the Moral Identity. Find this resource:

SOCIOLOGY OF SUICIDE AS A CASE STUDY

Normal science, as Thomas Kuhn called it, refers to chains of research that build cumulative knowledge about a subject with the belief that the phenomenon of interest is observable, that scientific methods can measure it, and that our understanding can be enhanced through continued study and expansion of theory and methods. The Sociology of Suicide is one such area among many in which most sociologists do not question whether they are doing science or how to do it, but rather are focused on building knowledge for policy and theoretical implications. Like any positivist

endeavor, the line of research begins with a theoretical and methodological center (Durkheim 1951), and proceeds to test, retest, and elaborate the original theoretical argument (Pescosolido and Georgianna 1989, Gibbs 2000). Furthermore, the study of suicide also demonstrates how scientific sociology can expand in the face of incongruent evidence. Durkheim posited that suicide was not the result of imitation, but mounting empirical evidence has suggested that the publicizing of celebrity suicides in newspapers or on television leads to spikes in aggregate suicide rates (Phillips 1974, Stack 1987), while suicide can spread through personal role models like friends or family members (Bjarnason and Thorlindsson 1994, Bearman and Moody 2004). Though Durkheims original theses remain central to the study of suicide, new evidence has led to a shift in the sociology of suicide to accommodate previously incongruent evidence.

Bearman, Peter S., and James Moody. 2004. Suicide and friendships among American adolescents. American Journal of Public Health 94.1: 8995. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.94.1.89Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The further examination of the relationship between a friends suicidal behavior and the likelihood of those who are exposed engaging in suicidal behavior as well. Bearman and Moody find that not only do suicidal thoughts spread across friends, but at least among girls, suicidal behaviors may, too. Find this resource:

Bjarnason, Thoroddur, and Thorolfur Thorlindsson. 1994. Manifest predictors of past suicide attempts in a population of Icelandic adolescents. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior24:350358. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The expansion of Phillipss original findings from celebrity suicides to the spread of suicides via personal role models further reflects the goal of cumulation of sociological knowledge. Bjarnason and Thorlindssons work, in general, can be characterized as a reconciliatory project teasing out the relationships between Durkheim and suicide suggestion. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Durkheim, Emile. 1951. Suicide: A study in sociology. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in 1897. The seminal sociological piece that became the foundation for the sociological study of suicide. Essential to all subfields, the classical statement becomes convention for those who do not study the area. Thus, Durkheims Suicide has become taken-for-granted truth about suicide, despite the depth of the subfield. Find this resource:

Gibbs, Jack. 2000. Status integration and suicide: Occupational, marital, or both? Social Forces 79.2: 363 384. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Another example of normal science, with Gibbss goal being the further elucidation of how integrative factors work to protect or facilitate suicide. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Pescosolido, Bernice, and Sharon Georgianna. 1989. Durkheim, suicide, and religion: Toward a network theory of suicide. American Sociological Review 54.1: 3348. DOI: 10.2307/2095660Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A classic example of testing and expanding a body of literature, this paper employs a different method from that of Durkheim to further elucidate how religion and integration protect against suicide. Find this resource:

Phillips, David P. 1974. The influence of suggestion on suicide: Substantive and theoretical implications of the Werther effect. American Sociological Review 39:340354. DOI: 10.2307/2094294Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Phillips offers evidence that some suicides can spread through imitation or social learning, or what is now called suicide suggestion. Phillipss work finds itself within the Durkheimian tradition, but begins the process of diversifying the sociology of suicide. Find this resource:

Stack, Steven. 1987. Celebrities and suicide: A taxonomy and analysis, 19481983. American Sociological Review 52.3: 401412. DOI: 10.2307/2095359Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

An example of normal science, this work represents one of the many studies that test and refine Phillipss initial conclusions. Find this resource:

HISTORICAL POSITIVISM

Though historical positivists rarely use mathematical methods, many employ causal and predictive language rooted in law-like models (Sanderson 1999). The actions of nation-states (Collins 1981) or complexes of nation-states embedded within geopolitical or global economic systems (Frank and Gills 1996, Chase-Dunn 1998) are generally the units of analyses, with the assumption that these actors make decisions, orient themselves toward each other, and can be studied using scientific methods.

Chase-Dunn, Christopher. 1998. Global formation: Structures of world-economy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Chase-Dunn posits a general theory of world-systems meant to explain the rise and demise of all world-systems and not just the modern capitalist one, as well as describing the generic features of a world-system. Find this resource:

Collins, Randall. 1981. Long-term social change and the territorial power of states. In Sociology since midcentury: Essays in theory cumulation. By Randall Collins, 71108. New York: Academic Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Collins offers a precise theory explaining the geopolitical expansion of nation-states while proposing the limits to this type of growth and the consequences for surpassing these limits. Often cited as one of the few sociological works that correctly predicted future events, Collins would apply this theory to the former Soviet Union, accurately predicting its demise and the underlying reasons. Find this resource:

Frank, Andre Gunder, and Barry K. Gills. 1996. The world system: Five hundred years or five thousand? New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Challenging Wallersteins belief in a unique capitalist world -system, Frank and Gills posit that the world-system has been around much longer, but the hegemonic state and those states in the core and periphery have shifted over time with changes in political and economic structures. Find this resource:

Sanderson, Stephen K. 1999. Social transformations: A general theory of historical development . Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Sanderson posits a theory of sociocultural evolution meant to explain the growth in size, scale, and complexity of human societies from hunter-gatherer times to modernity. Using four material dimensions ecological, demographic, economic, and technologicalSanderson examines each stage of human evolution and explains which dyna mic or dynamics were of paramount importance to transformative change. Find this resource:

NEO-EVOLUTIONARY AND BIOSOCIAL

Neo-evolutionary/biosocial sociology focuses on a wide range of questions: What evolutionary forces drive social change? (Turner and Maryanski 2009); What is the unit of evolution and the unit of adaptation/selection? (Lenski 2005); Where do societies come from? (Turner 2000); How does biology interact with sociocultural reality? (Udry 2000, Blute 2010). These scholars consider sociology a science and argue that basic sociocultural processes like Meads taking the role of the other would benefit from understanding neurobiol ogical structures like mirror neurons or hormones like cortisone. For historical and sociocultural reasons, this area remains one of the more criticized in sociology (Miller and Costello 2001; Kennelly, et al. 2001).

Blute, Marion. 2010. Darwinian sociocultural evolution: Solutions to dilemmas in cultural and social theory . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511804755Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Part review, part synthesis, this work cogently argues a Darwinian-based theory of sociocultural evolution. Pointing to memes as the sociocultural equivalent to genes, Blute posits a theory of competition and cultural reproduction, as well as reviewing numerous empirical studies over a broad range of disciplines to support her theoretical argument. Find this resource:

Kennelly, Ivy, Sabine Merz, and Judith Lorber. 2001. What is gender? American Sociological Review 66:598 605. DOI: 10.2307/3088925Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Also a critical response to Udrys biosociology. Find this resource:

Lenski, Gerhard. 2005. Ecological-evolutionary theory. Boulder, CO: Paradigm. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A general theory of sociocultural evolution that posits a stage model of human evolution based on subsistence technologies (e.g., hunter-gatherer, industrial) linked to the actual unit of selection: the meme, or cultural equivalent to the gene. Find this resource:

Miller, Elanor, and Carrie Young Costello. 2001. The limits of biological determinism. American Sociological Review 66:592598. DOI: 10.2307/3088924Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A critical response to Udrys specific findings and, in general, to biosociological methods and theory. Find this resource:

Turner, Jonathan H. 2000. On the origins of human emotions: A sociological inquiry into the evolution of human affect. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using neuroanatomical, archaeological, paleontology, and ethnographic data, Turner returns to the classic sociological question: Where do human societies come from? Tracing the development of emotions, Turner argues that sociality and social organization are a product of the evolution of complex emotional palettes. Find this resource:

Turner, Jonathan H., and Alexandra Maryanski. 2009. On the origins of societies by natural selection. Boulder, CO: Paradigm. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Turner and Maryanski advance a theory of sociocultural evolution based on group selection, which examines how Darwinian evolutionary forces shaped the earliest human societies, while examining how these eventually gave way to Lamarckian selection pressures, or evolution by human creativity and cultural innovation. Find this resource:

Udry, J. Richard. 2000. Biological limits of gender construction. American Sociological Review65:443457. DOI: 10.2307/2657466Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A seminal paper on the use of natural scientific methods to elucidate some links between biological environment and sociocultural development. Ultimately, Udry demonstrates how biological forces shape the outer limits of gender. Find this resource:
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Commentary and Critique


By the 1960s, functionalism and positivisms tenuous hold on American sociology was slipping. The rapidly expanding microsociology of Herbert Blumer (Blumer 1956) had already called into question the foundations of statistical analyses, but soon positivism would be attacked from all fronts (see also Gouldner 1970). At first, these challenges came from feminists like Dorothy Smith (Smith 1973) and postmodernists like Foucault, Lyotard, and Baudrillard. Yet, by the 1980s, sociology had become pluralistic in theory and method, with rival epistemologies rapidly filling the vacuum left as positivists retreated. In particular, critical realism (Steinmetz 2005), postpositivism

(Alexander and Colomy 1998), hermeneutics (Reed 2011), cultural-Marxism/post-structuralism (Bourdieu 1977), and a historical-comparative approach (Bryant 2000) offered sociologists alternative epistemological foundations, theoretical and methodological orientations, and arguments outlining why positivism had failed, why sociology was not a hard science but a human science, and why objectivity, disinterestedness, and laws were imposs ible or, at the very least, not necessary.

Alexander, Jeffrey C., and Paul Colomy. 1998. Traditions and competition: Preface to a postpositivist approach to knowledge accumulation. In Neofunctionalism and after. Edited by Jeffrey C. Alexander, 2549. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A theoretico-historical analysis of the shift from a positivist frame-of-reference to a Neofunctionalist postpositivism. The text focuses on the underlying processes of traditions giving way to heterodoxies, ultimately ending with some new synthetic epistemology, which Alexander and Colomy outline. Find this resource:

Blumer, Herbert. 1956. Sociological analysis and the variable. American Sociological Review21.6: 685690. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Blumers American Sociological Association Presidential Address questions t he validity and utility of quantitative analysis in the social sciences. Find this resource:

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1977. Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511812507Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Bourdieus classic work challenging positivism, the notion that social sciences can be objective, and that social scientists are somehow disinterested, detached observers. Find this resource:

Bryant, Joseph M. 2000. On sources and narrative in historical social science: A realist critique of positivist and postmodernist epistemologies. British Journal of Sociology 51.3: 489523. DOI: 10.1080/00071310050131639Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A cogent argument for a historical-comparative sociology predicated on critical realism versus positivist or postmodern alternatives. Find this resource:

Gouldner, Alvin W. 1970. The coming crisis of Western sociology. New York: Avon. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A seminal text challenging methodological positivism in particular, as well as the Parsonsian deductive typologizing that was hegemonic in sociology in the 1960s. Gouldner argues that objectivity is illusory, and presses sociologists to acknowledge their biases by crafting a more reflexive sociology. Find this resource:

Reed, Isaac Ariail. 2011. Interpretation and social knowledge: On the use of theory in the human sciences. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226706726.001.0001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Reed cautiously rejects positivism while evaluating three competing modes of knowing: realist, normative, and interpretive. The underlying goal is to examine whether hermeneutics, or interpretation, can indeed produce a cumulative body of social knowledge that can be used to understand and not explain social reality. Find this resource:

Smith, Dorothy E. 1973. Womens perspective as a radical critique of sociology. Sociological Inquiry 44.1: 7 13. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-682X.1974.tb00718.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Epitomizing the rapidly growing feminist sociology, Smith questions whether positivism and its mathematical methods are not simply an extension of male, patriarchal dominance in science. Smith offers alternative epistemological foundations for a less gendered sociology. Find this resource:

Steinmetz, George, ed. 2005. The politics of method in the human sciences: Positivism and its epistemological others. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Steinmetzs introductory chapter offers (1) a general review of the alternative implicit and explicit epistemologies that have replaced or challenged positivism and (2) a set of historical narratives of how the struggle between positivism and other epistemologies in various social sciences played out, while the edited volume itself elucidates and evaluates these alternatives in relationship to positivism. Find this resource:
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Introduction
In addition to forever changing the lives of hundreds of millions of people, the collapse of communism presented a unique opportunity to social scientists, especially to political scientists. Almost thirty countries suddenly found themselves in the midst of a transition at approximately the same ti me and with at least one very strikingly similar precondition: decades of communist rule. For people who study comparative politics, it is harder to think of a better research background. This review focuses on five areas of scholarship that are related to the emergence of democracy in eastern Europe. The first examines the actual process of democratization, from the literature on the collapse of communism to the emergence of what followed it. The second then looks at the opinions held by citizens in these newly democratic statestoward democracy itself, economic and social policies, their new political institutions, and what would become the future for most of the region: membership in the European Union (EU). The next section covers the activity that distinguishes new democracies most clearly from their predemocratic regime types: elections and voting. The fourth section examines the other ways that citizens in post-communist countries have made their views heard, through social movements in protests. The final section concludes with what has been perhaps the most pressing policy issue faced in the post-communist political space since the 1990s, which is the question of post-communist economic reform.

The Collapse of Communism and Questions of Transition


The first question tackled by the new field of post-communist politics was arguably the last one to be considered by studies of communism: Why exactly did communism collapse? Large debates in the field include the extent to which this was preordained by inherent tensions within communist regimes or whether it was due to specific developments and decisions that were inevitable, which particular tensions within communism were responsible for its demise, and why collapse occurred when it did. Following the collapse of communism, the immediate question arose of what came next. Claus Offe famously referred to this as the specter of a triple transition, including liberalization/democratization, the settling of borders (i.e., the making and breaking of states), and economic reform. The first twoliberalization/democratization and the making and breaking of states are addressed in this section; the issue of economic reform is taken up in the final section on Post-Communist Political Economy.

WHY DID COMMUNISM COLLAPSE?

Probably the biggest debate over the collapse of communism concerns its inevitability. Kornai 1992, Verdery 1996, Roeder 1993, and Solnick 1998 all point to inherent tensions within the communist system that brought about its demise, with the former two concentrating more on economic contradictions and the latter two on governance. Conversely, Szelenyi and Szelenyi 1994questions the notion that communism was doomed and instead highlights exogenous factors leading to its collapse. Finally, Kuran 1991 provides an explanation for why regimes with such an apparently strong basis of support could crumble so quickly.

Kornai, Jnos. The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Kornais argument for why communism collapsed highlights that the regimes overpromised economic goodies, were particularly susceptible to having economic failures become a crisis of the system, did not really harness their citizens abilities in their rewarding loyalty over talent, and suffered from the lack of self-correcting checks and balances that may be inevitable under top-down systems. Find this resource:

Kuran, Timur. Liberalization and Democratization in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe . Now Out of Never: The Element of Surprise in the East European Revolution of 1989. World Politics44.1 (1991): 748. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Provides a theoretical argument for why regime opposition can apparently materialize out of nowhere based on the simple idea that people who dislike a regime may have different thresholds for how many other people they need to see expressing this sentiment publicly before they too will choose to do so. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource: Roeder, Philip G. Red Sunset: The Failure of Soviet Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Roeder argues that the collapse of the Soviet Union was due to the constitution that insulated the state completely from the control of the populace. This led to a cycle of alternative collective and directive leadership that proved rather stable, but it had the perverse effect of limiting the states ability to adapt to the very social change that it sought to foster in society. Find this resource:

Solnick, Steven Lee. Stealing the State: Control and Collapse in Soviet Institutions. Russian Research Center Studies 89. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Solnick explains the collapse of the Soviet Union as a classic principal agent problem: When either the authority of a supervisor is questioned or it becomes unclear whether those property rights still exist, the agent can began to steal everything. This is exactly what happened in the Soviet Union: Everyone rushed to steal assets before it was too late, literally stealing the state itself (p. 7). Find this resource:

Szelenyi, Ivan, and Balazs Szelenyi. Why Socialism Failed: Toward a Theory of System Breakdown. Theory and Society 23.2 (1994): 211231. DOI: 10.1007/BF00993815Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Questions the growing belief that communism was inevitably doomed to fail and instead points out five specific reasons why it did fail: exogenous economic development, Gorbachevs decision not to support hardliners in eastern Europe, breakdown among elites, growing space for opposition elites, and the rise of mass opposition. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Verdery, Katherine. What Was Socialism, and What Comes Next? Princeton Studies in Culture/Power/History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Verdery argues that the inherent tension in communism was that shortages in the communist system coupled with its reliance on redistribution to stay in power led to contact with the capitalist world, which then led to both growing debt and growing realism of the inherent inability of the socialist countries to compete with capitalist countries, which led to more of a drive for reform. Find this resource:

DEMOCRATIZATION AND LIBERALIZATION

A number of interesting themes have emerged from the study of democratization and liberalization in the postcommunist world. Building on prior work on democratization in Latin America, bothPrzeworski 1991 and Stark and Bruszt 1998 characterize democratization as a strategic interaction between the existing regime and opposition forces. A question that has been raised repeatedly, especially in the case of Russia, is why democratization

happened when it did as opposed to at other periods in history, a topic taken up in both McFaul 2001 and Fish 1995. Finally, Offe 1991shows the classic statement of post-communist transitions as presenting a triple challenge, forcing states to simultaneously confront democratization, economic reform, and questions of national borders. Fish, M. Steven. Democracy from Scratch: Opposition and Regime in the New Russian Revolution . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Fish presents the story of the collapse of communism and the emergence of competitive politics in Russia in the 1990s from the vantage point of the emergence of autonomous groups in civil society. The book provides a contrast to more elite-driven stories of transition by arguing for the importance of opposition in society. Find this resource:

McFaul, Michael. Russias Unfinished Revolution: Political Change from Gorbachev to Putin . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book explores why, at the time of writing, two Russian attempts at democratization had failed (the Gorbachev period and the First Russian Republic [19911993]) and one had apparently succeeded (the Second Russian Republic). His argument is that two points are particularly important: the size of the contested area and the relative power of the actors. Find this resource:

Offe, Claus. Capitalism by Democratic Design? Democratic Theory Facing the Triple Transition in East Central Europe. Social Research 58.4 (1991): 865892. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Offe introduces the concept of the triple transition (from command economies to market -based economies; from single-party rule to pluralism; and resolving issues statehood) and focuses especially on the chicken-and-egg question of economic reform and democratization. Find this resource:

Przeworski, Adam. Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Classic theoretical text on what democracy is (states where parties lose elections, give up power, and stick around to contest future elections), how it can emerge from authoritarian regimes, and how it can be sustained. Features the democracy game, wherein opposition is made up of reformers and radicals and the regime is made up of hardliners and moderates. See especially chapters 1 and 2. Find this resource:

Stark, David Charles, and Lszl Bruszt. Postsocialist Pathways: Transforming Politics and Property in East Central Europe. Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Stark and Bruszt also advocate thinking of the transition as a strategic interaction but use a simpler model than Przeworski. Their main argument is that perceptions of the strength of an opponentboth across and within the divide (they adopt the same hardliner/reformist vs. moderate/radical framework but are more interested in the former)that matters, not the actual strength. Find this resource:

THE MAKING AND BREAKING OF STATES

Turning to the second of the triple transitions, we find a rich array of different theoretical arguments that have been put forward to explain the striking finding that Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union all stable states for almost seven decadescollapsed in such quick progression (as well as why Russia did not follow them). Bunce 1999 concentrates on the institutional structure of federal-national states, while Beissinger 2002 focuses on nationalist movements. Asking the question of why Russia did not collapse something that at the time did not look as foreordained as it might now appear in retrospectTreisman 1999 focuses on the strategic decisions of the Russian central government to buy off the regions most likely to succeed, whileHale 2005 points to the existence of a core ethnic region.

Beissinger, Mark R. Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse of the Soviet State. Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511613593Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In telling the story of the collapse of the Soviet Union, Beissinger identifies three variables for predicting how nationalist movements are likely to evolve: structural facilitation, institutional constraints, and event -generated influences. He also focuses on three processes by which people become converted to a nationalist -secessionist movement: bandwagonning, repulsion, and conversion. Find this resource:

Bunce, Valerie. Subversive Institutions: The Design and the Destruction of Socialism and the State . Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation After dismissing rival explanations, Bunce argues the breakup of Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia can best be explained by the institutional structure of federal-national states under socialist rule. Yugoslavia turns violent while the others do not because in Russia and Czechoslovakia the center was powerful enough that the dominant republic did not get its own national institutions because it did not need them. See especially chapters 5 and 6. Find this resource:

Hale, Henry E. The Makeup and Breakup of Ethnofederal States: Why Russia Survives Where the USSR Fell. Perspectives on Politics 3.1 (2005): 5570. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Hale suggests that the main feature distinguishing the breakup of the Soviet Union from other examples of state collapse is that it was pushed by Russia, its dominant central power. He proposes that this for this to occur a core ethnic region was necessary, one that could (1) serve as a source of dual power; (2) cause insecurity in other, smaller regions; and (3) facilitate the reimagining of a new, separate identity. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Treisman, Daniel. After the Deluge: Regional Crises and Political Consolidation in Russia . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The puzzle of this book is why Russia did not break up, as opposed to the USSR, which did. Treismans answer invokes the metaphor of a bank run: He argues that the Russian center prevented a bank run (all the regions leaving) by buying off those who were most likely to leave. Find this resource:
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Public Opinion and Political Attitudes


Post-communist countries represent fertile ground for research on the subject of public opinion formation. On the one hand, it is an opportunity for scholars to observe how public opinion evolves in new democracies and in the absence of strong partisan attachments on the part of citizens. On the other hand, there are also so many new aspects of politics on which citizens suddenly have the opportunity (need) to form opinions. This section starts with research on the most general attitudes about politics in transition countries whether or not citizens support democracy generallyand then proceeds to general attitudes about social and economic policy and evaluation of institutions and finally to a specific policy question that has faced many of the transition countries: attitudes toward the EU and prospective membership in the EU. These are of course not the only subjects of public opinion formation on which we could focus, but these four do run the gamut nicely from more general to more specific questions of opinion formation, as well as hitting on some of the most important substantive topics as well.

DEMOCRACY

Two major themes predominate in the study of attitudes toward democracy in post-communist countries. First, scholars have questioned whether or not there is a post-communist predisposition against democracy. Dalton 1994 (in Germany); Gibson, et al. 1992 (in Russia); andWhitefield and Evans 1999 (in the Czech Republic and Slovakia) all conclude there is not, although Kullberg and Zimmerman 1999 notes that in Russia support for

democracy is stronger among elites than among the mass populace. The second major question is what separates post-communist supporters of democracy from its opponents. Evans and Whitefield 1995suggests that while economic evaluations may be important, political evaluations of both contemporary political developments are important as well.

Dalton, Russell. Communists and Democrats: Democratic Attitudes in the Two Germanies.British Journal of Political Science 24.4 (1994): 469493. DOI: 10.1017/S0007123400006967Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Comparison of attitudes toward democracy in East and West Germany in the early 1990s. Somewhat surprisingly, authors find that support for democracy is as strong, if not stronger, among citizens of East Germany. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Evans, Geoffrey, and Stephen Whiteeld. The Politics and Economics of Democratic Commitment: Support for Democracy in Transition Societies. British Journal of Political Science 25.4 (1995): 485514. DOI: 10.1017/S0007123400007328Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Responding to claims that support for democracy in post-communist countries is largely a function of economic conditions, Evans and Whitefield find that both perceptions of the economy and evaluation of how well the political system works affect support for democracy, and, of the two, evaluations of the political system are more important. Analysis is conducted using surveys from Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Gibson, James, Raymond Duch, and Kent Tedin. Democratic Values and the Transformation of the Sov iet Union. Journal of Politics 54.2 (1992): 329371. DOI: 10.2307/2132030Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An early article attempting to assess whether there is likely to be resistance to democracy and democratizations because of Russian political culture. On the basis on a 1990 survey in Moscow, the authors conclude that there was widespread support for democracy in Moscow and note that support was stronger among the better educated, the young, and males. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Kullberg, Judith, and William Zimmerman. Liberal Elites, Socialist Masses, and Problems of Russian Democracy. World Politics 51.3 (1999): 323358. DOI: 10.1017/S0043887100009102Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Drawing on parallel elite and mass surveys, the authors examine the divide between the Russian elite and mass opinion in terms of support for liberal democracy. They find that, in the early to mid-1990s, while Russian elites were overwhelmingly supportive of liberal democracy, the mass populace was much more divided. Available online for purchase or by subscription. A follow-up survey is analyzed by Zimmerman in Slavophiles and Westernizers Redux: Contemporary Russian Elite Perspectives, Post Soviet Affairs 21.3 (2005): 189209. Find this resource:

Whiteeld, Stephen, and Geoffrey Evans. Political Culture Versus Rational Choice: Explaining Responses to Transition in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. British Journal of Political Science 29.1 (1999): 129154. DOI: 10.1017/S000712349900006XSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Contrasts competing explanations for support for democratic norms from political culture and rational choice approaches (i.e., responses to recent experiences, evaluations, and circumstances) and finds the latter better supported by empirical data from Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL POLICY

Unlike work on attitudes toward democracy, the literature on attitudes toward economic and social policy in postcommunist countries is less coherent as a field. Fortunately, two good reviews of this literature are available in Evans 2006 and Whitefield 2002. One big question has been whether traditional conceptions of left right policy cleavages from established democracies can be easily imported into the post-communist context. Markowski 1997 suggests that differences in the conception of leftright self-placement in four east central European countries suggests that they cannot, while Evans and Whitefield 1998 is more optimistic in the case of Russia. Examining a different form of

convergence, Anderson and OConnor 2000 suggests that, over time, the former East Germans attitudes about the state of the economy are becoming more a function of objective economic conditions, much as we would expect to see in more established democracies.

Anderson, Christopher, and Kathleen OConner. System Change, Learning and Public Opinion about the Economy. British Journal of Political Science 30.1 (2000): 147172. DOI: 10.1017/S0007123400000077Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using data from East Germany in the early 1990s, the authors find that East Germans attitudes about the economy are increasingly likely to reflect actual objective economic conditions as time passes, suggesting that learning about the state of the economy is occurring. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Evans, Geoffrey. The Social Bases of Political Divisions in Post-Communist Eastern Europe.Annual Review of Sociology 32 (2006): 245270. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123144Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Review of work on societal cleavages in transition countries. Concludes that the social bases of politics in transition countries are similar to those found in the West. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Evans, Geoffrey, and Stephen Whiteeld. The Evolution of Left and Right in Post -Soviet Russia. EuropeAsia Studies 50.6 (1998): 10231042. DOI: 10.1080/09668139808412579Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Analysis of the evolution of the conception of left and right in Russia in the mid-1990s. The authors find that there are two fundamentally different ways of conceptualizing the leftright spectrum in Russia: an economic dimension and a social dimension (which incorporates disputes over political rights). Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Markowski, Radoslaw. Political Parties and Ideological Spaces in East Central Europe. Communist and Post-Communist Studies 30.3 (1997): 221254. DOI: 10.1016/S0967-067X(97)00006-8Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using data from Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, Markowski argues that it is difficult to import a simple conception of leftright self-placement into post-communist countries, as illustrated in part by the fact that he finds substantial difference in leftright conceptualization across the four different post-communist countries. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Whiteeld, Stephen. Political Cleavages and Post-Communist Politics. Annual Review of Political Science 5 (2002): 181200. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Literature review of work on political cleavages in post-communist countries. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

INSTITUTIONS

Two questions dominate the admittedly small literature on the question of post-communist trust in political institutions. The first is whether or not trust in political institutions is lower in the post-communist world. While an early study of support for democratic legislatures did not initially find this to be the case (Mishler and Rose 1994), subsequent studies almost uniformly point toward the existence of a trust deficit (Sapsford and Abbott 2006, Shlapentokh 2006, Pop-Eleches and Tucker 2011). The second question regards what explains variation in trust in political institutions. Interestingly, neither Mishler and Rose 1997 nor Pop-Eleches and Tucker 2011 find this to be a function of being socialized under communism, instead pointing toward evaluations of current economic and political conditions.

Mishler, William, and Richard Rose. Support for Parliaments and Regimes in the Transition toward Democracy in Eastern Europe. Legislative Studies Quarterly 19.1 (1994): 532. DOI: 10.2307/439797Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

In six east European countries, Mishler and Rose find that the support for democratic legislatures is remarkably high and particularly so among those paying more attention to politics, those more satisfied with the state of the economy, and those supportive of the regime. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Mishler, William, and Richard Rose. Trust, Distrust and Skepticism: Popular Evaluations of Civil and Political Institutions in Post-Communist Societies. Journal of Politics 59.2 (1997): 418451. DOI: 10.2307/2998171Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors examine trust in fifteen institutions and nine central and eastern European post-communist countries. They find trust to be more of a factor of evaluations of post-communist economic and political performance than legacies of socialization under communism. Availableonline for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Pop-Eleches, Grigore, and Joshua A. Tucker. Communist Legacies and Political Values and Behavior: A Theoretical Framework with an Application to Political Party Trust. Working Paper 2010, vol. 250. Madrid: Juan March Foundation, Center for Advanced Study in the Social Science, 2011. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors demonstrate that there is a party-trust deficit among post-communist citizens but that this is due not so much to living through communism as it is to the economic conditions and institutional arrangements found in postcommunist countries. Find this resource:

Sapsford, Roger, and Pamela Abbott. Trust, Condence and Social Environment in Post -Communist Societies. Communist and Post-Communist Studies 39.1 (2006): 5971. DOI: 10.1016/j.postcomstud.2005.12.003Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examining levels of trust in eight post-Soviet republics, the authors find that trust in political institutions lags behind already low levels of trust in people in general as well as trust in relatives and friends. Moreover, trust is lower is societies in which the transitional experience was more sudden and dramatic. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Shlapentokh, Vladimir. Trust in Public Institutions in Russia: The Lowest in the World. Communist and Post-Communist Studies 39.2 (2006): 153174. DOI: 10.1016/j.postcomstud.2006.03.004Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Shlapentokh demonstrates that Russians hold very little trust in most political and social institutions: Only Putin and the Church are trusted by more than 40 percent of the population; the two branches of the Russian legislature are trusted by only 10 percent of the population. Availableonline for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

EU MEMBERSHIP

The primary question in the comparative literature on attitudes toward EU membership in post-communist countries is whether theories designed for assessing attitudes toward the EU in western European and most specifically the types of utilitarian theories associated with work by Matthew Gabel are also appropriate for post-communist countries. Alone among the works in this section, Tverdova and Anderson 2004 finds empirical support for utilitarian propositions. In the other works, economic success (see Tucker, et al. 2002; Doyle and Fidrmuc 2006; Herzog and Tucker 2010), attitudes toward the market economy (see Cichowski 2000; Tucker, et al. 2002), and support for democracy and particular political parties (Cichowski 2000, Markowski and Tucker 2005) are found to be more important determinants of support for EU membership in post-communist countries. Taken together, these findings suggest that EU membership in post-communist countriesat least up until admission to the EUmeant something very different than it did in established democracies, namely that it was seen as a guarantee against the rolling back of the transitions away from communism.

Cichowski, Rachel A. Western Dreams, Eastern Realities: Support for the European Union in Central and Eastern Europe. Comparative Political Studies 33.10 (2000): 12431278. DOI: 10.1177/0010414000033010001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Cichowski applies standard models of support for EU in western European countries to five post-communist countries using 1996 data. Finds little support for utilitarian arguments and more support for the idea that attitudes toward

democracy, capitalism, and political partisanship determine EU membership. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Doyle, Orla, and Jan Fidrmuc. Who Favors Enlargement? Determinants of Support for EU Membership in the Candidate Countries Referenda. European Journal of Political Economy22.2 (2006): 520543. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2005.09.008Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Relying on survey data and aggregate voting in referenda on EU membership in seven post-communist countries, the authors find that support for EU membership is more likely among those likely to benefit from economic liberalization and less likely among citizens likely to benefit from increased redistribution. The authors conclude that EU membership is seen as a guarantee of the transition to a market economy. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Herzog, Alexander, and Joshua A. Tucker. The Dynamics of Support: The WinnersLosers Gap in Attitudes toward EU Membership in Post-Communist Countries. European Political Science Review 2.2 (2010): 235 267. DOI: 10.1017/S1755773909990282Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Building on the analysis in Tucker, et al. 2002, the authors extend the data analysis to include fifty-seven surveys across the same ten prospective post-communist member states from 1991 to 2003. Again, strong empirical support for the contention that economic winners are more likely to support EU membership than economic losers is uncovered, but dynamic trends are analyzed as well. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Markowski, Radoslaw, and Joshua A. Tucker. Pocketbooks, Politics, and Parties: The 2003 Polish Referendum on EU Membership. Electoral Studies 24.3 (2005): 409433. DOI: 10.1016/j.electstud.2004.10.011Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Relying on both macro- and micro-level analyses of the 2003 referenda on EU membership, the authors find that support for EU membership among Poles is strongest among economic winners, those voting for pro-EU parties in the previous election, and those who are interested in politics and are ideological moderates. Demographic variables are much less informative. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Tucker, Joshua A., Alexander Pacek, and Adam Berinsky. Transitional Winners and Losers: Attitudes Toward EU Membership in Post-Communist Countries. American Journal of Political Science 46.3 (2002): 557571. DOI: 10.2307/3088399Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Relying on survey data from ten prospective post-communist EU member states in 1996, the authors find that economic winners are more likely to support EU membership than economic losers, as are supporters of the market economy. The authors suggest that EU membership is therefore primarily seen as a guarantee of the transition to a market economy. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Tverdova, Yuliya V., and Christopher J. Anderson. Choosing the West? Referendum Choices on EU Membership in East-Central Europe. Electoral Studies 23.2 (2004): 185208. DOI: 10.1016/S0261-3794(02)00057-4Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Relying on survey data from six post-communist potential EU member states in 1996, the authors conclude that preference for EU membership is not simply a matter of preferring the West but rather a mix of utilitarian concerns with a more general internationalist outlook. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Elections, Voting, and Parties


One of the most interesting features of the post-communist experience from the perspectives of scholars of political behavior has been the opportunity to observe the development of voting behavior from scratch. Despite the existence of some holdover post-communist parties and some interwar successor parties, many of the parties and almost all of the electoral rules that have emerged in post-communist countries are indeed new. Furthermore, the vast majority of all voters have been participating in truly competitive multiparty elections for the first time in their lives. Rarely does history afford us an opportunity to observe multiple generations simultaneously being given the

opportunity to form new party allegiances. Scholars have of course noticed these opportunities, and a rich literature related to elections and voting has developed in the first two decades of the study of post-communist politics. This section is devoted to that literature and is divided into six categories based on both the institutions and the behaviors associated with elections. The first section tackles electoral systems and rules; the second, political parties; the third, general voting studies; the fourth, economic voting; the fifth, turnout; and the final, studies of partisanship.

ELECTORAL SYSTEMS AND RULES

The most comprehensive overview of electoral system design and reform in post-communist countries is found in Birch, et al. 2002. However, Kenneth Benoit and othersin shorter, article-length pieces (see Benoit and Schiemann 2001 and Benoit and Hayden 2004)also make a contribution by showing how post-communist political developments can shed light on theories that are not often testable in established democracies; here the contention is that legislators will act in their own self-interest in reforming electoral laws, a topic that previously seemed to be largely studied in the context of Japan. Bochsler 2009 makes a nice addition to the small literature on the effects of mixed electoral systems. In a similar vein, Moser 1999 examines the effect of electoral rules on party system development in the post-communist context. (Readers should note that there are many, many more articles on the effects of institutions on party system development in post-communist countries, a topic that is not included as a separate subheading here but that is addressed in the literature on the emergence of new Political Parties).

Benoit, Ken, and Jacqueline Hayden. Institutional Change and Persistence: The Evolution of Polands Electoral System 19892001. Journal of Politics 66.2 (2004): 396427. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is similar to Benoit and Schiemann 2001 but set in a dynamic framework, exploring multiple changes to the Polish electoral law and employing more quantitative analysis, such as the proportion of members of given parliaments voting for changes in a particular electoral law. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Benoit, Kenneth, and John W. Schiemann. Institutional Choice in New Democracies: Bargaining over Hungarys 1989 Electoral Law. Journal of Theoretical Politics 13.2 (2001): 153182. DOI: 10.1177/0951692801013002002Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors trace the evolution of Hungarys original electoral law and find strong evidence for their vote maximizing hypothesis, which has two observable implications: (1) Parties favor rules that maximize their seats, and (2) when parties information changes about how they would do under a given set of rules, they should update their preferences over electoral rules accordingly. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Birch, Sarah, Frances Millard, Marina Popescu, and Kieran Williams. Embodying Democracy: Electoral System Design in Post-Communist Europe. One Europe or Several? series. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Overview of electoral design and reform in eight post-communist countries during the first decade of post-communist politics. Find this resource:

Bochsler, Daniel. Are Mixed Electoral Systems the Best Choice for Central and Eastern Europe or the Reason for Defective Party Systems? Politics & Policy 37.4 (2009): 735767. DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-1346.2009.00196.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Boshclers basic argument is that while mixed systems in new democracies have been presented as a best of all possible worlds solution that combines the drive toward smaller, more manageable numbers of parties of single member districts with proportional representation, they instead can cause problems in new democracies because they make strategic voting harder. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Moser, Robert. Electoral Systems and the Number of Parties in Postcommunist States. World Politics 51.3 (1999): 359384. DOI: 10.1017/S0043887100009114Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Moser compares the effects of single-member district and proportional representation systems across established Western democracies and new post-communist democracies and finds the effects of such systems on the nature of the party system differ across the two. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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POLITICAL PARTIES

The citations in this section can be divided into three categories. First, there are two reference books: Bugajski 2002 provides the history of all post-communist political parties, as well as categorizes the parties into different typological categories, and Benoit and Laver 2007 provides expert surveys as to the position of political parties across a wide variety of issues. Second,Kitschelt 1992 and Hale 2005 ask whether there are any peculiarities about post-communist parties, with the former suggesting ideological orientation and the latter the competition for the benefits supplied by parties in Russia. Finally, both Grzymala-Busse 2002 and Ishiyama 1999address a type of party peculiar to post-communist politics: the communist era successor party. Both seek to answer the question of why some communist successor parties have succeeded while others have failed.

Benoit, Kenneth, and Michael Laver. Party Policy in Modern Democracies. Routledge Research in Comparative Politics 19. London: Routledge, 2007. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The book that accompanies the data set of the expert surveys conducted by Benoit and Laver on party positions and issue salience in both western and eastern Europe. Find this resource:

Bugajski, Janusz. Political Parties of Eastern Europe: A Guide to Politics in the Post-Communist Era. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2002. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The guide to political parties in post-communist countries in the first decade of post-communist politics. A virtual encyclopedia and undoubtedly a necessity for any endeavor to code political parties in the region. Find this resource:

Grzymala-Busse, Anna Marie. Redeeming the Communist Past: The Regeneration of Communist Parties in East Central Europe. Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511613388Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The goal of this book is to explain successes and failures of communist successor parties. The authors theoretical argument is that communist-era practices lead to variation in elite resources, which lead to variation in transformation strategies, which in turn lead to successful or unsuccessful regeneration. Cases include Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic. See especially the Introduction and chapter 1, pp. 168. Find this resource:

Hale, Henry. Why Not Parties? Electoral Markets, Party Substitutes, and Stalled Democratization in Russia. Comparative Politics 37.2 (2005): 147166. DOI: 10.2307/20072880Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Hale argues that we should think about political parties in terms of supply and demand. Candidates demand resources to help them get elected, and parties usually supply this. But in some instances, other institutions can supply these needs, which is what happened in Russia. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Ishiyama, John T., ed. Communist Successor Parties in Post-Communist Politics. Huntington, NY: Nova Science, 1999. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Collection of chapters on the successes and failures of communist successor parties in a variety of different postcommunist countries. Find this resource:

Kitschelt, Herbert. The Formation of Party Systems in East Central Europe. Politics and Society 20.1 (1992): 750. DOI: 10.1177/0032329292020001003Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Kitschelt argues that there are two axis of political competition: economic (from redistribution/regulation to laissezfaire) and social (from cosmopolitan to conservative/nationalistic). In a remarkably prescient article, given its publication date is 1992, Kitschelt suggests that while in established democracies parties congregate around an axis

from redistribution and cosmopolitianism to laissez-faire and conservative, in post-communist countries they congregate around the opposite axis, from cosmopolitan/laissez-faire to redistributive/conservative. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

GENERAL VOTING BEHAVIOR

One strand of general works on voting behavior has attempted to explain particular election results (see McFaul 1997) or voting in individual countries (see White, et al. 1997; Colton 2000;Wittenberg 2006). As time has passed, more comparative work has appeared, such as Kitschelt, et al. 1999 on citizen party linkages; Tavits 2005 on electoral volatility; and Pop-Eleches 2010 on waves of anti-incumbency voting. Finally, Tucker 2002 provides an overview of the first decade of research on elections and voting in post-communist countries.

Colton, Timothy J. Transitional Citizens: Voters and What Influences Them in the New Russia . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In this book, Colton applies the classic funnel of causality approach used in The American Voterto the study of voting behavior in Russian elections but adapts the order of causality to take account of the transitional context. Find this resource:

Kitschelt, Herbert, Zdenka Mansfeldova, Radoslaw Markowski, and Gabor Toka. The Structuring of Party Competition. In Post-Communist Party Systems: Competition, Representation, and Inter-Party Cooperation. By Herbert Kitschelt, Zdenka Mansfeldova, Radoslaw Markowski, and Gabor Toka, 157222. Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Extremely detailed study of citizen-party linkages and their effects on party competition in Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria. Introduces theoretical arguments whereby the nature of late communist rule in each country eventually leads to the type of post-communist political competition that emerges. Find this resource:

McFaul, Michael. Russias 1996 Presidential Election: The End of Polarized Politics. Hoover Institution Press Publication 442. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 1997. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Detailed study of 1996 Russian presidential elections, which McFaul calls the last post-communist election in which Russians were still asked to choose between communism and a post-communist alternative. Also known for its detailed depiction of the (brilliant) Yeltsin. Find this resource:

Pop-Eleches, Grigore. Throwing Out the Bums: Protest Voting and Unorthodox Parties after Communism. World Politics 62.2 (2010): 221260. DOI: 10.1017/S0043887110000043Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Pop-Eleches makes a first attempt at tackling what is becoming one of the most important puzzles of post-communist electoral politics: the failure of incumbent parties to win reelection. He documents successive waves of elections, whereby reformists replace communists, post-communists replace reformists, and then antiestablishment parties are turned to when voters run out of reformist/post-communist options. Also provides a useful new typology for these antiestablishment parties. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Tavits, Margit. The Development of Stable Party Support: Electoral Dynamics in Post -Communist Europe. American Journal of Political Science 49.2 (2005): 283298. DOI: 10.1111/j.0092-5853.2005.00123.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Tavits examines electoral volatility across fifteen east European post-communist democracies. She finds that volatility initially increases before declining after approximately ten years pass and that both institutions and economic performance affect volatility as well. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Tucker, Joshua A. The First Decade of Post-Communist Elections and Voting: What Have We Studied, and How Have We Studied It? Annual Review of Political Science 5 (2002): 271304.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Review article of every article published on post-communist elections and voting from 19902000 in eight general political science journals and eight post-communist area studies journals. Addresses both trends in the literature (e.g., more than half the articles examine Russian elections) and substantive topics of interest. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

White, Stephen, Richard Rose, and Ian McAllister. How Russia Votes. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House, 1997. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Based on the voluminous surveys carried out by Richard Rose and colleagues, this book examines voting behavior in the early Russian elections of the post-communist era. Find this resource:

Wittenberg, Jason. Crucibles of Political Loyalty: Church Institutions and Electoral Continuity in Hungary . Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511510465Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Wittenberg presents an incredibly in-depth analysis of the extent to which prewar voting patterns in Hungary are reflected in post-communist elections, as well as an explanation, focusing on the role of the church, for why these patterns persist in some areas but not in others. Find this resource:

ECONOMIC VOTING

The literature on economic voting in post-communist countries has adapted two rather distinctive features. First, a good deal of the work has utilized cross-regional variation in election results (Pacek 1994; Bell 1997; Fidrmuc 2000; Jackson, et al. 2003; Tucker 2006), as opposed to the cross-national or cross-individual (i.e., survey-based) studies that make up the vast majority of economic voting studies elsewhere. Second, studies of economic voting in post-communist countries generally have not been focused on the vote for incumbent parties so much as they are focused on the vote for particular types of parties (e.g., pro- and antireform parties; see Fidrmuc 2000 and Jackson, et al. 2003) or New Regime and Old Regime parties (see Tucker 2006 andOwen and Tucker 2010), or even on all parties contesting a given election (see Bell 1997). Indeed, only Roberts 2008 resembles a typical study of economic voting in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, featuring a cross-national analysis of the effect of economic conditions on the vote for incumbent parties.

Bell, Janice. Unemployment Matters: Voting Patterns during the Economic Transition in Poland, 1990 1995. Europe-Asia Studies 49.7 (1997): 12631291. DOI: 10.1080/09668139708412499Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article looks at the role of economics in the 1991 and 1993 Sejm elections and the 1990 and 1995 presidential elections in Poland, as well as the precise impact that unemployment and income have on elections. The articles main conclusion is that there is a strong relationship between unemployment and voting, which explains the rise in support for the Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (SLD) across these elections. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Fidrmuc, Jan. Economics of Voting in Post-Communist Countries. Electoral Studies 19.23 (2000): 199 217. DOI: 10.1016/S0261-3794(99)00048-7Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Fidrmuc uses regional-level data to examine the effect of economic conditions on election results in nine elections from four east-central European countries. He finds that high levels of unemployment reduce support for parties favoring economic reform but that areas of the country with larger numbers of entrepreneurs and service sectors are more likely to support proreform parties. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Jackson, John E., Jacek Klich, and Krystyna Poznanska. Economic Transition and Elections in Poland. Economics of Transition 11.1 (2003): 4166. DOI: 10.1111/1468-0351.00139Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Relying on both aggregate and survey-level data across three Polish elections, the authors argue that de novo firm creation plays an important role in providing votes for proreform parties. Find this resource:

Owen, Andrew, and Joshua A. Tucker. Past Is Still Present: Micro-level Comparisons of Conventional vs. Transitional Economic Voting in Three Polish Elections. Electoral Studies29.1 (2010): 2539. DOI: 10.1016/j.electstud.2009.10.003Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A follow-up to Tucker 2006 that tests the predictions of the transitional identity and referendum models at the micro level using survey data from three Polish national elections. It continues to find strong support for the transitional identity model, although more nuanced observations about short-term and long-term economic evaluations are added. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Pacek, Alexander. Macroeconomic Conditions and Electoral Politics in East Central Europe. American Journal of Political Science 38.3 (1994): 723744. DOI: 10.2307/2111604Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The first real comparative study of economic voting in post-communist countries, Pacek examines the effect of economic conditions on both election results and turnout in early post-communist elections. He also begins the trend of using regional-level data to study the phenomenon of economic voting in the post-communist context. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Roberts, Andrew. Hyperaccountability: Economic Voting in Central and Eastern Europe.Electoral Studies 27.3 (2008): 533546. DOI: 10.1016/j.electstud.2008.01.008Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Alone among the studies here, Roberts relies on aggregate-level data from national election results and finds support for the claim that there is a relationship between the state of the economy and incumbent performance. However, this relationship is between losing more and fewer votes; good economic conditions still result in incumbents being punished by voters, just not as badly as when the economy performs poorly. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Tucker, Joshua A. Regional Economic Voting: Russia, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic, 19901999. Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511616136Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines the effect of economic conditions on election results in twenty elections from five post-communist countries using regional-level data. Finds empirical support for a transitional identity model that predicts that New Regime parties will do better in areas of the country with better economic conditions and Old Regime parties will do better in areas of the country with worse economic conditions. Find this resource:

TURNOUT

In a surprisingly underresearched topic, the comparative analysis on turnout in post-communist elections has largely focused on the question of whether declining turnout since the first founding elections ought to be interpreted as a sign of disenchantment with democracy or the emergence of normal politics. Both Kostadinova 2003 and Pacek, et al. 2009 find evidence consistent with the second of these explanations; Pacek, et al. 2009 further specifies this as a general stakes-based theory whereby citizens are more likely to participate in more important elections, as is the case throughout established democracies. Bohrer, et al. 2000 reverses the causal arrows and tackles the question of who benefits from higher turnout rates.

Bohrer, Robert E., Alexander C. Pacek, and Benjamin Radcliff. Electoral Participation, Ideology, and Party Politics in Post-Communist Europe. Journal of Politics 62.4 (2000): 11611172. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A comparative study of fifteen post-communist countries from 1990 to 1995; the authors find that increased turnout benefits left parties, particularly the successor communist parties, while adversely affecting conservative and nationalist parties. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Kostadinova, Tatiana. Voter Turnout Dynamics in Post-Communist Europe. European Journal of Political Research 42.6 (2003): 741759. DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.00102Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Relying on cross-national data from fifteen post-communist countries from 1990 to 2000, Kostadinova tests the impact of electoral sequence, institutional arrangements, party systems, and the economy on turnout. Find this resource:

Pacek, Alexander C., Grigore Pop-Eleches, and Joshua A. Tucker. Disenchanted or Discerning: Voter Turnout in Post-Communist Countries. Journal of Politics 71.2 (2009): 473491. DOI: 10.1017/S0022381609090409Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Relying on cross-national data from 137 presidential and parliamentary elections from nineteen post-communist countries, the authors contrast empirical support for a disenchantment theory of variation in turnout with a stakes based theory that posits that voters will be more likely to participate in more important elections. Much stronger empirical support is found for the stakes-based approach. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

PARTISANSHIP

As the study of partisanship expands beyond the shores of the United States, one important question has been whether partisanship is weaker in new democracies. Thus some of the first work on partisanship in post-communist countries attempted to ascertain whether there actually is partisanship in these new democracies (see Miller and Klobucar 2000) and, if so, how to measure it (see Brader and Tucker 2001). Suggestions that partisanship is not the same thing in post-communist countries as it is in the West can be found in Rose and Mishler 1998, which suggests that post-communist citizens are more likely to exhibit negative party identification than positive party identification, and in Colton and Hale 2005, which finds that partisanship is much less stable in Russia than in the United States. Brader and Tucker 2001 and Brader and Tucker 2008, however, find that theories that explain partisanship in the United States can also help explain the development of partisanship in Russia. Moreover, in Brader and Tucker 2009, experimental evidence is presented to show that even at the high-water mark of Putinism in Russia, partisan cues still played a role in public opinion formation. Readers interested in the development of partisanship are also recommended to look over the citations in the general voting behavior section, especially Kitschelt, et al. 1999 and Tavits 2005 (cited under General Voting Behavior).

Brader, Ted, and Joshua A. Tucker. The Emergence of Mass Partisanship in Russia, 19931996. American Journal of Political Science 45.1 (2001): 6983. DOI: 10.2307/2669360Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors suggest that partisanship in new democracies is better measured using behavioral measures, such as repeatedly giving the same answer to survey questions than simply self-reported questions. With these measures in hand, they find that partisanship increased dramatically in Russia from 1993 to 1995 and that these new partisans are behaving in ways we would expect from the literature on partisanship in established democracies. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Brader, Ted, and Joshua A. Tucker. Pathways to Partisanship: Evidence from Russia. Post-Soviet Affairs 24.3 (2008): 138. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors use survey data from the 19951996 Russian elections to explore five potential pathways to partisanship suggested by the literature on partisan identification in established democracies: political motivation and ability, voting experience, exposure to politics, civic motivations, group pressures, and immersion in social networks. Find this resource:

Brader, Ted, and Joshua A. Tucker. Whats Left Behind When the Partys Over: Survey Experiments on the Effects of Partisan Cues in Putins Russia. Politics and Policy 37.4 (2009): 843868. DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-1346.2009.00201.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using experimental evidence, the authors demonstrate that partisan cues increase support for public policy proposals and make it more likely that respondents will adopt a position on an issue that mirrors their partys preferred position (opinion taking), as well as increase the likelihood that respondents will adopt a position on a given issue at all (opinion giving). Find this resource:

Colton, Timothy, and Henry Hale. Partisanship in Transition: The Case of the Russian Federation, 1995 2004. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC, 1 September 2005.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Drawing on an extremely valuable panel survey that tracked Russian respondents over the course of a decade, Colton and Hale find that Russians display very high degrees of instability in their self-reported partisanship. They suggest that at least some of this instability is due to the rise of Putinism. Find this resource:

Miller, Arthur H., and Thomas F. Klobucar. The Development of Party Identification in Post -Soviet Societies. American Journal of Political Science 44.4 (2000): 667686. DOI: 10.2307/2669274Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Millier and Klobucar use survey data from Russia and Ukraine to demonstrate that despite the fact that voters are dissatisfied with political parties in these countries, majorities in both countries do indeed express a partisan preference and that citizens in these countries are in fact making sense of the party system. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Rose, Richard, and William Mishler. Negative and Positive Party Identification in Post -Communist Countries. Electoral Studies 17.2 (1998): 217234. DOI: 10.1016/S0261-3794(98)00016-XSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Rose finds that in post-communist countries, citizens are more likely to have a negative identification with a party (i.e., a party they would never support) than a traditional positive identification. Somewhat prophetically, he suggests this will lead to parties being voted in and out of office frequently. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Social Movements and Protest


The collapse of communism was heralded by the taking to the streets of citizens throughout the communist world, although these patterns varied cross-nationally. That being said, this burst of citizen activity was in some ways quite unexpected, given the atomization of social life and destruction (or at the very least infiltration) of most parts of civil society under communism. Not surprisingly, scholars of post-communist politics have been interested in what we can learn about protest and social movements from the collapse of communism, as well as what we can learn about the legacies of communism for protest and social movements in the post-communist era. Furthermore, scholars were again taken by surprise in the second decade of post-communism when a series of populaces not particularly known for political activism rose up to protest electoral fraud in what would become known as the Colored Revolutions. This in turn prompted a flurry of academic work on these particular events. With this in mind, this section is divided into two parts, one on social movements and protest in post-communist countries outside the Colored Revolutions and one featuring literature on the Colored Revolutions.

SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND PROTEST

The emerging literature on social movements and protest in post-communist countries is primarily focused on one of two questions. One question is what explains variation in protest patterns across countries. Answers include resources available to societal actors (Ekiert and Kubik 1997), totalitarian versus authoritarian legacies (Bernhard and Karakoc 2007), and the nature of the post-communist regime (Robertson 2007). A second question is whether social movements are somehow weaker in post-communist countries and to what extent this is due to communist-era legacies. Howard 2003 argues this is exactly the case in terms of civil society (i.e., that it is weaker and that this is a legacy of communism), while Crowley 2004 makes similar arguments in terms of labor movements.

Bernhard, Michael, and Ekrem Karakoc. Civil Society and the Legacies of Dictatorship. World Politics 59.4 (2007): 539567. DOI: 10.1353/wp.2008.0001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In comparing post-communist countries with other new democracies, Bernhard and Karakoc find that totalitarian and authoritarian regimes have different effects on the prevalence and nature of civil society in democratic regimes that follow them. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Crowley, Stephen. Explaining Labor Weakness in Post-Communist Europe: Historical Legacies and Comparative Perspective. East European Politics and Societies 18.3 (2004): 394429.

DOI: 10.1177/0888325404267395Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Crowley argues that labor is weaker as a social and political force in post-communist countries than in western Europe and that this is largely due to institutional and ideological legacies of communism. Find this resource:

Ekiert, Grzegorz, and Jan Kubik. Contentious Politics in New Democracies: East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia, 198993. World Politics 50.4 (1997): 547581. DOI: 10.1017/S004388710000736XSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Argues that neither the type of transitional path away from communism nor relative deprivation explains variation in protest across four post-communist countries. Instead, the most important factors are (1) institutional access to power; (2) prior protest repertoires; and (3) resources available to protestors, either through outsiders or from experiences under communism. Availableonline for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Howard, Marc Morj. The Weakness of Civil Society in Post-Communist Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Argues that there is less civil society (defined as participation in civic organizations) in post-communist countries. This is due to the distrust of organizations, the experience of working through private and informal networks from living under communism, and a real dissatisfaction with the new political and economic system. See especially chapters 1 (pp. 115) and 4 (pp. 5791). Find this resource:

Robertson, Graeme. Strikes and Labor Organization in Hybrid Regimes. American Political Science Review 101.4 (2007): 781798. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using an original dataset on strikes and protest by labor organizations in Russia, Robertson demonstrates empirical support for a new theory proposing that in semiauthoritarian regimes, labor protests occur when they are in the interest of powerful elite actors or during truly desperate economic times. Find this resource:

THE COLORED REVOLUTIONS

In the immediate aftermath of the Colored Revolutions (Serbia, Georgia, Ukraine, and Kyrgyzstan), a number of articles appeared that attempted to explain this rather unexpected phenomena. Interestingly, all took different approaches, thus allowing readers to gain a variety of insights into these events. McFaul 2005, in the first of these published pieces, highlights seven key similarities across all the different revolutions. Bunce and Wolchik 2006 focuses on the leaders of the opposition movements, while Tucker 2007 focuses on the ordinary citizens who participated in the protests. In a different twist, Way 2005 suggests that the Orange Revolution in Ukraine was not so much a success of the opposition as it was a failure of an unconsolidated authoritarian regime. Finally, Beissinger 2007 makes the case that the Colored Revolutions are but one example of modular political phenomena.

Beissinger, Mark R. Structure and Example in Modular Political Phenomena: The Diffusion of Bulldozer/Rose/Orange/Tulip Revolutions. Perspectives on Politics 5.2 (2007): 259276. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Beissinger applies the theory of modular political phenomena (i.e., action based on emulating the actions of others) to the Colored Revolutions. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Bunce, Valerie, and Sharon Wolchik. International Diffusion and Postcommunist Electoral Revolutions. Communist and Post-Communist Studies 39.3 (2006): 283304. DOI: 10.1016/j.postcomstud.2006.06.001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Bunce and Wolchik approach the Colored Revolutions through the lens of the leaders of these electoral revolutions, paying particularly close attention to the rise of collaborative networks among international democracy promoters. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

McFaul, Michael. Transitions from Postcommunism. Journal of Democracy 16.3 (2005): 519.

DOI: 10.1353/jod.2005.0049Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation McFaul looks for similarities across the countries that experienced successful colored revolutions and finds that these include semiautocratic regime, unpopular incumbents, united and organized opposition, the ability to quickly create the perception that election results were falsified, enough independent media to inform citizens of a falsified vote, a political opposition capable of mobilizing tens of thousands, and divisions within intelligence forces and/or the military police. Find this resource:

Tucker, Joshua A. Enough! Electoral Fraud, Collective Action Problems, and Post-Communist Colored Revolutions. Perspectives on Politics 5.3 (2007): 535551. DOI: 10.1017/S1537592707071538Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The author focuses on the role of individual protestors in the Colored Revolutions, arguing that massive electoral fraud provides a particularly compelling theoretical solution to the collective action problems faced by citizens living under oppressive regimes by simultaneously lowering the potential costs of protests and raising the potential benefits (i.e., the bums actually can be thrown out). Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Way, Lucan. Kuchmas Failed Authoritarianism. Journal of Democracy 16.2 (2005): 131145. DOI: 10.1353/jod.2005.0037Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Way looks at the Orange Revolution in Ukraine not as an example of successful protest by the opposition but rather a failure of a weak, unconsolidated, authoritarian regime to prevent the success of that protest. Find this resource:
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Post-Communist Political Economy


Although it probably warrants its own separate bibliography, we must make at least a small nod to the wide-ranging literature that has appeared on the subject of post-communist political economy. With the caveat that we are just scratching the surface here, this section is divided into two parts. The first returns to the final piece of Offes original triple transition: the politics of economic reform. While this subject has bee n explored in great detail in the literature on Latin American politics as well, it is safe to say that the literature on post-communist politics has made a major contribution to the development of this field. The second section is then loosely labeled po st-communist political economy and is used to identify a few particularly important works of political economy that feature post -communism but move beyond the original question of the politics of economic reform.

POLITICS OF ECONOMIC REFORM (EARLY POST-COMMUNIST POLITICAL ECONOMY)

The primary question of the literature on the politics of economic reform concerns why some countries succeeded in reforming their economies while others did not and why reforms took the form they did in different countries. At the basis of this literature is Przeworski 1991 and the conception of the J-curve, which leads to the notion that reformists need some degree of political isolation to carry out reforms successfully. Hellman 1998 turns this idea on its head, arguing that it is precisely political isolation of the early winners that is most threatening to economic reform.Frye 2002, in turn, suggests moving the focus away from the winners and losers of economic reform and instead to the degree of political polarization between reformists and ex-communists.Fish 1997 also advocates attention to political outcomes, but in his case the key explanatory variable is the result of the first democratic elections. Shifting the focus slightly, Murrell 1993 calls attention to the importance of the actual economic strategy of reform by suggesting gradualist approaches are likely to be more successful than shock therapy. Finally, Przeworski 1996 returns attention to the micro-level dynamics of support for economic reform by demonstrating that while Poles did in fact lash out against the government for high levels of unemployment, they were surprisingly willing to tolerate inflation as part of the reform process.

Fish, Steven. The Determinants of Economic Reform in the Post-Communist World. East European Politics and Societies 12.1 (1997): 3178. DOI: 10.1177/0888325498012001002Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Fish argues that political outcomes determine the ultimate success of economic reform, pointing specifically to the results of the first competitive multiparty elections. This election determines the radicalness of the initial economic reforms, the fate of the ex-communists, and the emergence of genuine noncommunist opposition parties.

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Frye, Timothy. The Perils of Polarization: Economic Performance in the Post -Communist World. World Politics 54.3 (2002): 308337. DOI: 10.1353/wp.2002.0008Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The basic argument here is set up in opposition to both the Przeworski 1991 J-curve and theHellman 1998 politics of partial reform and proposes instead that the key factor in economic success is political polarization between reformists and serious ex-communists. Evidence is provided from ten years worth of cross -national growth rates. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Hellman, Joel. Winners Take All: The Politics of Partial Reform in Postcommunist Transitions. World Politics 50.2 (1998): 203234. DOI: 10.1017/S0043887100008091Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In response to Przeworski, Hellman suggests that the key to economic success is not insulating the winners from economic reform so they can continue to pursue reforms but instead that doing just this will allow the early winners the power to freeze economic reform in a partial reform context whereby these early winners continue to extract rents while the rest of society suffers. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Murrell, Peter. What is Shock Therapy? What Did it do in Poland and Russia? Post-Soviet Affairs 9.2 (1993): 111140. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article lays out a theoretical distinction between shock therapy and gradualism as approaches to economic reform. Empirically, Murrell argues there was more shock in Russia than in Poland. Find this resource:

Przeworski, Adam. The Political Dynamics of Economic Reform. In Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. By Adam Przeworski, 136187. Studies in Rationality and Social Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Introduce the now-famous conception of the politics of economic reform as a J-curve: an initial period of time whereby reform makes the economy worse than it otherwise would have been without reform, before it eventually bottoms out and rebounds to eventually exceed the prereform status quo and greatly exceed expected economic performance had reforms not been implemented. Find this resource:

Przeworski, Adam. Public Support for Economic Reforms in Poland. Comparative Political Studies 29.5 (1996): 520543. DOI: 10.1177/0010414096029005002Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Przeworski identifies a fundamental challenge of economic reform in transition countries as the fact that governments need to reform the economy in order to promote long-term economic welfare but that we expect citizens will turn against the government as economic conditions deteriorate in the early stages of reform. He tests whether this is the case for Polish citizens and finds that it largely is for unemployment but that Polish citizens are actually willing to tolerate high inflation as a necessary part of economic reform. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

POLITICAL ECONOMY IN POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

This section arguably has less coherence than any of the previous sections, because it is not organized around a particular theme so much as it is an entire subfield of research. Readers should instead consider it simply as a listing of a number of interesting works on post-communist political economy, including the establishment of markets (Frye 2000); the phenomenon of Russian oligarchs (Guriev and Rachinsky 2005); the nature of economic identities (Herrera 2005); the importance of de novo firm creation (Jackson, et al. 2005); the relationship between corruption and governance (Darden 2008); the importance of tax policy for political and economic development (Gehlbach 2008); and the political determinants of the decision to enter International Monetary Fund (IMF) programs (PopEleches 2008).

Darden, Keith. The Integrity of Corrupt States: Graft as an Informal State Institution. Politics & Society 36.1 (2008): 3559. DOI: 10.1177/0032329207312183Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Drawing on both a cross-national study and in-depth analysis of Ukraine, Darden argues that graft and corruption can in certain circumstances enhance the control of state hierarchies, especially insofar as state officials who do not obey leaders instructions can be threatened with criminal prosecution. Find this resource:

Frye, Timothy. Brokers and Bureaucrats: Building Market Institutions in Russia . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Study of the establishment of five market institutions in Russia, addressing the question of why some groups are better able to govern themselves than others. Find this resource:

Gehlbach, Scott. Representation through Taxation: Revenue, Politics, and Development in Postcommunist States. Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511510106Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Gehlbach uses variation in tax policy across the former Soviet Union and east-central Europe to explain the difference in political and economic outcomes across the two regions. Find this resource:

Guriev, Sergei, and Andrei Rachinsky. The Role of Oligarchs in Russian Capitalism. Journal of Economic Perspectives 19 (2005): 131150. DOI: 10.1257/0895330053147994Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Guriev and Rachinsky lay out a systematic definition of what exactly is meant by oligarch in the Russian context and then demonstrate the oligarchic firms actually do better in Russia than nonoligarchic firms but worse than international firms. In the spirit of Hellman 1998, cited underPolitics of Economic Reform, the authors find that oligarchic firms are supportive of some economic reforms but oppose others. Find this resource:

Herrera, Yoshiko. Imagined Economies: The Sources of Russian Regionalism. Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Herrera argues that we should think of economic identities as similar to nationalist identities and therefore as something that can be constructed by elites when it suits their political interests. This, in turn, provides new insight into the extent to which regional demands in Russia are a function of economic interests. Find this resource:

Jackson, John E., Jacek Klich, and Krystyna Poznanska. The Political Economy of Polands Transition: New Firms and Reform Governments. Political Economy of Institutions and Decisions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511510182Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The book argues that de novo firm creation is the major engine that drives successful economic reform in Poland through both political and economic mechanisms. Find this resource:

Pop-Eleches, Grigore. Crisis Is in the Eye of the Beholder: Economic Crisis and Parti san Politics in Latin American and East European International Monetary Fund Programs. Comparative Political Studies 41.9 (2008): 11791211. DOI: 10.1177/0010414008317950Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Pop-Eleches explores the factors that promote lead governments to enter IMF rescue programs in eastern Europe and Latin America and suggests that this is not merely a function of external factors but rather also a result of the partisan composition of the government. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

Introduction
Karl Marx (b. 1818d. 1883) and his lifelong collaborator Friedrich Engels (b. 1820 d. 1895) developed a body of thought that would inspire major social movements, initiate revolutionary social change across the globe, and provide the foundation for many socialist or communist governments. More recently, Marxisms political influence has waned, with most of the formerly communist regimes undergoing significant change. It is important, however, to separate out Marxism as a system of ideas in the social sciences from Marxism as a political ideology and the foundation for revolutionary social movements and as a governing philosophy. Marxist ideas have influenced many fields of thought and indeed have played a particularly important role in the development of the discipline of sociology. Classical sociological theorists such as mile Durkheim (b. 1858 d. 1917) and Max Weber (b. 1864d. 1920), for example, developed their theories of society in conversation with the works of Karl Marx. However, as it evolved in the United States and western Europe in the middle parts of the 20th century, sociologys dialogue with Mar xian propositions declined. For example, the widely influential norm-oriented functionalist sociology of Talcott Parsons (b. 1902 d. 1979) had little engagement with Marxist thought. In the aftermath of the large-scale social struggles of the 1960s and 1970s, however, sociologists around the world increasingly embraced a historically oriented approach to knowledge and in many cases found in the classics of Marxism a source of inspiration. Debates and controversies over Marxism continue to shape the development of sociology up to the present time, although neo -Marxism is less influential today than it was twenty-five years ago. Nonetheless, serious students of sociology have to have some familiarity with some of the classical ideas and theorists of Marxism, and Marxist theories continue to influence some parts of the discipline today.

General Overviews
It is hardly surprising, given its historical significance, that hundreds of general overviews of Marxism have been written. As a body of thought and a political movement, Marxism can be synthesized from many points of view. McLellan 1974 offers an ideal introduction through an examination of the life and ideas of Marx himself. Draper 1977 and Draper 1978 focus more squarely on the relationship between Marxism and politics. In the case of Marxist sociology,Bottomore 1984 provides a historical analysis of the relationship between Marxism and sociology.Lefebvre 1968s contribution provides a more advanced introduction. Mandel 1970 is a good place to start for students interested in Marxist economic theory (which is shaped by sociological insights far more than its neoclassical competitors). Foley 1986 develops more formalized models for understanding the basic contributions of Marxs political economy. Finally, Ollman 1976 offers an excellent overview of Marxs philosophical concept of alienation. Bottomore, Tom. 1984. Sociology and socialism. New York : St. Martins Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A collection of essays that examine the historical relationship of Marxist theory to sociological thought, highlighting in particular the ways in which the growth of sociology has reflected an ongoing dialogue with Marxism. Find this resource: Draper, Hal. 1977. Karl Marxs theory of revolution. Vol. 1, State and bureaucracy. New York: Monthly Review Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is a thorough, wide-ranging, and easy-to-comprehend exegesis of Marx and Engels writings on democracy and their approach to politics. It is part of a five-volume collection on a range of central concepts and debates in Marxian theory. Find this resource:

Draper, Hal. 1978. Karl Marxs theory of revolution. Vol. 2, The politics of social classes. New York: Monthly Review Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This excellent follow-up to Volume 1 continues with a clear and wide-ranging exegesis of Marx and Engels, focused squarely on the question of social classthe class structure, classes in history, and classes and revolution. Find this resource:

Foley, Duncan K. 1986. Understanding capital: Marxs economic theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

This clear and short book reviews the core contributions of all three volumes of Marxs major economic treatise, Capital. This is a very useful resource for those who engage with Marxs political economy. Find this resource:

Lefebvre, Henri. 1968. The sociology of Marx. New York: Pantheon. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Seeks to uncover the systematic contributions to sociology in the writings of Karl Marx, including Marxs contributions to social theory, the sociology of knowledge, political sociology, and class analysis. Originally published in French in 1966. Find this resource:

Mandel, Ernest. 1970. An introduction to Marxist economic theory. New York: Pathfinder. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This short book offers a concise exploration of the basic concepts in Marxs political economy. Find this resource:

McLellan, David. 1974. Karl Marx: His life and thought. London: Harper & Row. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is a key biography of Marx, situating his core theoretical contributions in his social and intellectual milieu. Find this resource:

Ollman, Bertell. 1976. Alienation: Marxs conception of man in a capitalist society. 2d ed. Cambridge Studies in the History and Theory of Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is the most thorough exploration of Marxs concept of alienationthe condition of human beings in capitalist societyin the English language. Find this resource:
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Resources
There are a few resources available for understanding Marxism and Marxian debates. The first is the website Marxists.org, which offers a huge archive of writings by leading figures in Marxism. Also, Bottomore 1991 is an excellent dictionary of Marxian terms that offers concise explanations on a very wide range of concepts relevant to Marxian sociology.

Bottomore, Tom B., ed. 1991. A dictionary of Marxist thought. 2d ed. Malden: Blackwell. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A scholarly dictionary, with the key terms and concepts of Marxism defined and explicated. Find this resource:

Marxists.org. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This extraordinary Internet archive makes available the writings of almost 600 socialist and/or anticapitalist thinkers, from the 19th century up to the present. All writings are free to view and download. Find this resource:

Journals
There are a large number of journals oriented toward Marxian research and political commentary. Many of these journals are political in nature and are organized by Marxian or socialist organizations. While several of these offer good analysis, we have included only journals with a specifically academic character and that are in English. These include Critical Sociology,Historical Materialism, Journal of Agrarian Change, Journal of World-Systems Research, Monthly Review, New Left Review, Rethinking Marxism, and Socialist Register.

Critical Sociology. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published as the Insurgent Sociologist, this journal publishes work from Marxist, post-Marxist, and feminist perspectives. Find this resource:

Historical Materialism. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An interdisciplinary journal that explores and develops the explanatory potential of Marxian theory. Find this resource:

Journal of Agrarian Change. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is the leading Marxian journal of agrarian political economy. Find this resource:

Journal of World-Systems Research. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The leading journal of world-systems analysis. Not Marxist, per se, this journal encourages submission from a range of theoretical traditions, including Marxism. Find this resource:

Monthly Review. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A long-running interdisciplinary Marxian journal, founded by the Marxist economists Paul Sweezy and Leo Huberman in 1949. Well known for engaging with contemporary political controversies. Find this resource:

New Left Review. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The premier journal of Marxist thought in the world. Interdisciplinary in character and theoretical tradition, as its contributions draw on a large range of intellectual traditionsfrom Marxism to post-Marxismanimated by an attention to contemporary political developments and intellectual debates. Find this resource:

Rethinking Marxism. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An interdisciplinary journal that aims to engage with the challenges facing Marxism and the global left. Find this resource:

Socialist Register. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An interdisciplinary Marxian journal that serves as an annual survey of movements and ideas. Each issue is thematically organized. Find this resource:

Key Writings of Marx and Engels for Sociologists


Karl Marx (b. 1818d. 1883) and Friedrich Engels (b. 1820d. 1895) established a personal and intellectual collaboration that lasted a lifetime and produced an enormous output (the collected works of Karl Marx are over fifty volumes). This output generated the founding contributions to Marxism. The texts identified here provide some of their core contributions, especially those of interest to sociologists. These texts provide key introductions to the writings of Marx and Engels on capitalism and philosophy (Marx 1988, Marx 1998), historical materialism (the Marxist theory of history; Marx and Engels 1998a), the political economy of capitalism (Marx 1976, Marx 1991), the family and the state (Engels 2010), and capitalism and politics (Marx 2004, Marx and Engels 1998b).

Engels, Friedrich. 2010. The origin of the family, private property, and the state. London: Penguin Press.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is the first materialist attempt at providing an account of the development of social relations from ancient society to antiquity. Originally published in 1844. Find this resource:

Marx, Karl. 1976. Capital. Vol. 1. Translated by Ben Fowkes. New York: Vintage Books. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Marxs magnum opus. The defining work of Marxist political economy, sociologists will find the most use in the following sections: The Commodity (chapter 1), The General Formula for Capital, The Concept of Relative Surplus Value, Simple Reproduction, The Transformation of Surplus Value into Capital, The General Law of Accumulation, and The Secret of Primitive Accumulation. Originally published in 1867. Find this resource:

Marx, Karl. 1988. Economic and philosophical manuscripts of 1844. Translated by Martin Milligan. New York: Prometheus. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation These are posthumously published notebooks that grapple with Hegels economics and philosophy. This book is most often used because of its chapter Estranged Labor(pp. 6984), which develops Marxs core ideas concerning alienation. Originally published in 1844. Find this resource:

Marx, Karl. 1991. Capital. Vol. 3. London: Penguin. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Published posthumously, Volume 3 makes further critical contributions to Marxs political economy. The key section is Part Three: The Law of the Tendential Fall in the Rate of Profit a formal statement of Marxs theory of economic crisis. Originally published in 1894. Find this resource:

Marx, Karl. 1998. Theses on Feuerbach. In The German ideology. By Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Amherst, NY: Prometheus. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation These are eleven short theses on the work of Feuerbach that offer a critique of both materialism and idealism. In a matter of two pages, these theses provide Marxs core criticisms of the philosophy of his time. The theses conclude with one of Marxs most memorable phrases, The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point is to change it. Originally published in 1845. Find this resource:

Marx, Karl. 2004. Eighteenth brumaire of Louis Bonaparate. New York: International. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in Die Revolution, a monthly publication, this work constitutes the best application by Marx of historical materialism to a concrete political situation. Utilizing a class analysis, Marxs explains the 1851 coup detat of Louis Bonaparte and in turn demonstrates how competing classes and class fractions shaped political history. Originally published in 1852. Find this resource:

Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. 1998a. The German ideology. Amherst, NY: Prometheus. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In addition to being a polemic against many of the prominent philosophers of the time, this work provides their only major exposition of the materialist theory of history. It also includes a famous section on ruling class-ideologies. First published from 18451846. Find this resource:

Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. 1998b. The Communist manifesto. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The most-read of the classical contributions. This was written as a political tract for mass consumption and as such is both easy to grasp and presents their core insights in a tight and literary style. This is an ideal first introduction to classical Marxism. Originally published in 1848. Find this resource:
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Classical Marxism After Marx


Most of the Marxian theorists in the generation after Marx and Engels would play important roles in their respective national Communist parties. For example, V. I. Lenin (b. 1870 d. 1924) founded the Bolshevik Party in Russia. Edward Bernstein (b. 1850d. 1932) was a leading theoretician in the Social-Democratic Party in Germany, the largest Marxist party in the world before World War I. Trotsky (b. 1879 d. 1940) would play a leading role in the Russian Revolution. Rosa Luxemburg (b. 1871d. 1919) was an influential voice of left-wing Marxism in the context of the Social-Democratic Parties of both Poland and Germany. As such, the questions that the next generation engaged with reflected world-historic developments absent in the period of Marx and Engels. The rise of workingclass struggles and Communist political parties put political and programmatic questions on the theoretical agenda more than ever before (Lenin 1987, Luxemburg 2004, Trotsky 1972, Trotsky 2007). The uneven development of capitalism led to a re-theorization of the peasantry (Lenin 1987, Kautsky 1988). Hilferding 1981 provides a novel and influential theory of the role of finance in the evolution of capitalism. Bernstein 1961 argues that the socialist movement should use a reformist strategy relying on elections and the steady transformation of capitalism rather than seeking a radical break through revolutionary upheavals. The outbreak of World War I pushed Marxian intellectuals to theorize the process of imperialism (Lenin 1987,Luxemburg 2004). The possibility of revolution led many to return to the revolutions of the past for clues into the way forward (James 1989).

Bernstein, Eduard. 1961. Evolutionary socialism: A criticism and affirmation. New York: Schocken. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A founding statement of the social-democratic tradition within Marxism, Bernstein argued that, in contrast to classical Marxisms insistence on the inevitability of the collapse of capitalism as the context for a socialist revolution, socialism could be built from within capitalism (and taking advantage of democratic political institutions). This position would come to be known as the revisionist thesis, and it was deeply controversial among German Marxists . Originally published in 1899. Find this resource:

Hilferding, Rudolf. 1981. Finance capital: A study of the latest phase of capitalist development. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This work considers the relationship between the growing power of banks, economic monopolization, and the use of state-military power to expand markets. It contains almost every major point made by Bukharin and Lenin in their respective writings on imperialism. Originally published in 1910. Find this resource:

James, C. L. R. 1989. The black Jacobins. New York: Vintage. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A brilliant Marxian account of how the French Revolution (1789) led to a breakdown of French rule in the French colony of Saint Dominique. Using a class-based account, the author shows how the revolution in Saint Dominique produced the first free nation in the Caribbean in 1803, Haiti. Originally published in 1938. Find this resource:

Kautsky, Karl. 1988. The agrarian question. London: Zwan. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is an exposition of major changes in European and American agriculture. Here, Kautsky analyzes situations in which the capitalist mode of production is dominant but precapitalist forms of production are able to coexist. This work counters Lenins The Development of Capitalism in Russia (Honolulu, HI: University Press of the Pacific, 2004; first published in Russian in 1899), which argues that capitalism was proletarianizing the Russian peasantry. Originally published in 1899. Find this resource:

Lenin, Vladimir I. 1987. Essential works of Lenin. Edited by Henry M. Christman. New York: Dover. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Key introductory readings are selections from What Is to Be Done?, which begins to develop a theory of revolutionary organization; Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, which popularizes Hilferdings theory of imperialism; and The State and Revolution, which argues that the capitalist state cannot be captured but instead must be destroyed for revolution to be successful. First published from 1929 to 1939. Find this resource:

Luxemburg, Rosa. 2004. The Rosa Luxemburg reader. Edited by Peter Hudis and Kevin B. Anderson. New York: Monthly Review Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Luxemburgs key works in this volume are the selections from The Accumulation of Capital, where she begins to develop a theory of imperialism that articulates the mechanisms of primitive accumulation; Social Reform or Revolution, where she argues against Bernsteins reform -oriented socialism; and The Mass Strike, where she articulates a theory of spontaneous mass action. First published from 1906 to 1913. Find this resource:

Trotsky, Leon. 1972. The revolution betrayed: What is the Soviet Union and where is it going? New York: Pathfinder. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book constitutes the core of Trotskys critique of Stalin and the Stalinist model of socialism that was developing in the Soviet Union from the late 1920s on. Originally published in 1936. Find this resource:

Trotsky, Leon. 2007. The history of the Russian Revolution. Chicago: Haymarket. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This study of the Russian revolution is a key in the Marxian pantheon, offering a challenging interpretation of the weakness of the tsarist regime and revolution more broadly. Originally published in 1930. Find this resource:

Marxism After World War II


Marxism moved in a variety of directions after World War II. One important development was that ties between leading Marxist thinkers and the working-class movements weakened. Most of the major contributions to Marxian theory were made by academics, in many cases removed from political parties or social movements. This is a decisive shift relative to earlier periods. Largely freed from direct connection to socialist political movements, Marxist theorists pushed the boundaries of the Marxist tradition in new and unexpected ways. In this section, we survey some of the major new directions within Marxian theory: the so-called Western Marxist tradition, the new Marxist historiography, structural Marxism, Marxist political economy, Marxism in the less developed world, and Marxism feminism.

WESTERN MARXISM

Western Marxism refers to the group of intellectuals critical of classical Marxism who sought to develop new ways of understanding how capitalism developed new cultural underpinnings that tended to produce a kind of false consciousness among the working class. The writings of the young Lukcs, Lukcs 1971, and Gramsci 1971s prison writing provide foundational insights (with Gramscis influence being felt much later than Lukcss). The most prominent members of this generation of Marxists were associated with the Frankfurt School (e.g., Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, and Herbert Marcuse). Wiggershaus 1995 provides an intellectual history of the Frankfurt School, while Horkheimer and Adorno 2002 and Marcuse 1964 represent two classical contributions. Habermas 1975 is sometimes viewed as a direct descendent of the Frankfurt School, and his work on the legitimation crisis represents the most Marxian of his considerable body of work. Jay 1984 provides an overview of the entire tradition through the lens of the concept of totality, while Anderson 1976 develops a critique from a standpoint of classical Marxism.

Anderson, Perry. 1976. Considerations on Western Marxism. London: NLB. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A brilliant and searing indictment of the Western Marxist tradition, focused around the theme of the abandonment of classical questions of class power and socialist transformation in favor of a cultural critique of capitalism. Find this resource:

Gramsci, Antonio. 1971. Selections from the prison notebooks. Edited by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Smith. New York: International. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Gramsci develops the critical concept of hegemony to account for how and why workers sometimes align themselves with capitalists or fascists. Gramsci also provided a language for moving beyond the classical Marxist account of the state as an instrument of bourgeois domination to an ensemble of ideological and social institutions that helped to obscure the true nature of capitalism. Originally published from 1929 to 1935. Find this resource:

Habermas, Jrgen. 1975. Legitimation crisis. Boston: Beacon. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Among the most political work of Habermass vast oeuvre, this text seeks to fundamentally reshape classical Marxisms notion of crisis by arguing that while contemporary capitalist regimes are capable of solving economic crises, they do so at the expense of undermining the legitimacy of capitalism. Find this resource:

Horkheimer, Max, and Theodor W. Adorno. 2002. Dialectic of enlightenment. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This classical work develops the critique of modernity. Among the most influential publications of the Frankfurt School of critical theory, the authors draw on a comparison of Nazi Germany and the American culture industry to argue that reason has triumphed to the point of irrationality. Originally published in 1947. Find this resource:

Jay, Martin. 1984. Marxism and totality. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A comprehensive overview of the writings of Western Marxists, organized around the question of totality (the notion that social systems are interconnected entities). Find this resource:

Lukcs, Georg. 1971. History and class consciousness. Translated by Rodney Livingstone. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book engages with the processes of rationalization and reification. In it, Lukcs argues that all classes have a class consciousness that has to be actively realized. According to his argument, the working class is the first class that has the potential to achieve true class consciousness, because only it can actively overcome capitalism. Originally published in German in 1923. Find this resource:

Marcuse, Herbert. 1964. One-dimensional man: Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. Boston: Beacon. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Marcuses famous work offers a cultural criticism of capitalist society resting on the idea that consumerism leads individuals to repress their desire for freedom in favor of work. The working class has been absorbed into capitalism through the spread of consumerism; Marcuse argued that only the truly marginalized, and the young, could lead the revolutionary struggles of the future. Find this resource:

Wiggershaus, Rolf. 1995. The Frankfurt School: Its history, theories, and political significance . Translated by Michael Robertson. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The standard account of the Frankfurt School. First published in German in 1986. Find this resource:

THE NEW MARXIST HISTORIOGRAPHY

Marxism has, from its origins in the writings of Marx and Engels, had a deeply historical component that seeks to theorize historical epochs in terms of material forces. The mass uprisings of the 1960s pushed a new generation of historians to think through a history from belowwhat came to be known as social history. Up to that point, political and economic history was largely told from the top down, that is, from the perspective of elites and their organizations. In shifting the emphasis, key historians from both sides of the Atlantic developed a body of work that made common working peopletheir work lives, their organizations, and their cultural and social experiences the

primary lens through which to formulate a new historiography. The new historians produced a rich literature covering ancient history (Croix 1998), the transition from feudalism to capitalism (Brenner 1985, Dobb 1947), the rise of the modern state (Anderson 1974), the development and decline of workers organizations ( Brou 2006, Montgomery 1987), the culture of capitalism (Thompson 1966), and global history (Hobsbawm 1996).

Anderson, Perry. 1974. Lineages of the absolutist state. London: NLB. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This work is a key Marxist contribution to the scholarship on the rise of the state. The author argues that the age of absolutism had its origins in the crisis of feudalism. The threats of peasant uprisings in the countryside and merchant dominance in the city drove the Western European nobility to strengthen the Crown. This alliance provided the foundations for the rise of the absolutist state. Find this resource:

Brenner, Robert. 1985. Agrarian class structure and economic development in pre-industrial Europe. In The Brenner debate. Edited by T. H. Aston and C. H. E. Philpin, 1063. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511562358Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article is a critical contribution to the study of the transition from feudalism to capitalism. In it, Brenner makes the case that the origins of capitalism lie in changes in English agriculture. Find this resource:

Brou, Pierre. 2006. The German Revolution, 19171923. Edited by Ian Birchall and Brian Pierce. Translated by John Archer. Chicago: Haymarket. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is the definitive account of the failed workers revolution in Germany, the largest workers uprisi ng in an advanced capitalist country. The story is told from the position of the revolutionaries themselves and their many, and fracturing, organizations. Originally published in 1971. Find this resource:

Croix, G. E. M. de Ste. 1998. The class struggle in the ancient Greek world: From the archaic age to the Arab conquests. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Croix provides the most thorough historical materialist analysis of Antiquity to date. It demonstrates that processes of class struggle were critical to the rise of democracy in Greece and the decline of the Greek city-state in the Roman Empire. Originally published in 1981. Find this resource:

Dobb, Maurice. 1947. Studies in the development of capitalism. New York: International. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A pivotal history of the transition from feudalism to capitalism that finds the roots of capitalism in England. Specifically, it argues that changes in the structure of production and class relations account for the rapid development of English capitalism. Find this resource:

Hobsbawm, Eric. 1996. The age of extremes: A history of the world, 19141991. New York: Vintage. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Gives a global history of the short 20th century (19141991) from a Marxian perspective. Find this resource:

Montgomery, David. 1987. The fall of the house of labor: The workplace, the state, and American labor activism, 18551925. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511528774Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book is a key contribution to the study of the American working class from the end of the Civil War to the mid1920s. It argues that the decline of labor power in the United States is associated with the loss of shop-floor control by unions. Find this resource:

Thompson, E. P. 1966. The making of the English working class. New York: Vintage. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Thompsons book is both pivotal and leading in the new Marxist historiography. In it, he aims to show that the English working class, 17801832, made itself and constituted its own class consciousness through traditional values of

solidarity, Methodism, and mutuality. The book can be read as a counter to highly structural accounts of class. Originally published in 1963. Find this resource:

STRUCTURALIST MARXISM

For a brief period in the 1960s and 1970s, a brand of Marxism identified with the French philosopher Louis Althusser gained wide interest in sociology. As part of the larger structuralist movement in French philosophy and social science Althusser (Althusser 2001, Althusser 2005;Althusser and Balibar 1971) provided a language for scientific Marxism, dismissing the early critical writings of Marx in favor of the later, mature Marx of Capital. Althussers bestknown adherents, such as Poulantzas 1973, went on to make major contributions to the study of politics. However, a devastating critique of Althusser was launched by E. P. Thompson 1996. Anderson 1983 also offers a unique critique and assessment of structuralist Marxism.

Althusser, Louis. 2001. Lenin and philosophy, and other essays. New York: Monthly Review Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Contains the important and controversial essay Ideology and Ideological State Apparatus, which explores state power and the levels of society that reinforce it (the family, education, and so on), along with other pieces on Leninist thought. Originally published in 1971. Find this resource:

Althusser, Louis. 2005. For Marx. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Considered the founding text of structuralist Marxism. Most notable in this collection of essays are Althussers ideas of an epistomological break between the young and mature Marx and his concept of dialectics, which he terms contradiction and overdetermination. Originally published in French in 1965. Find this resource:

Althusser, Louis, and tienne Balibar. 1971. Reading capital. New York: Pantheon. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This edition contains essay contributions from both Althusser and Balibar. It consists of an intensive rereading of Marxs Capital that seeks to reestablish Marxism as a viable philosophical position. Originally published in French in 1968. Find this resource:

Anderson, Perry. 1983. In the tracks of historical materialism. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An intellectual history of the development of Marxism after the large-scale social struggles of 1968. Anderson deals critically, but sympathetically, with structuralist Marxism and its offshoots. Find this resource:

Poulantzas, Nicos. 1973. Political power and social classes. London: NLB. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A leading text in the structuralist Marxist literature, Poulantzas seeks to develop a Marxian theory of the capitalist state. He introduces the concept of relative autonomy of the state, which has remained central to Marxian debates in state theory. Originally published in French in 1968. Find this resource:

Thompson, E. P. 1996. The poverty of theory and other essays. London: Merlin Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A searing criticism of structuralist Marxism by the British Marxist historian. Originally published in 1978. Find this resource:

MARXIST POLITICAL ECONOMY

A group of scholars in the 1960s and 1970s began to reformulate and reapply Marxs political economy to their contemporary contexts. These thinkers were forced to grapple with questions and situations that Marx did not fully foresee or comprehend. Cardoso and Vern 1979, Frank 1967, and Emmanuel 1972 broke heavily with orthodox Marxist theories of imperialism to develop a new account of global inequality based on unequal exchange. Baran 1957 and Baran and Sweezy 1966 also largely broke with orthodox Marxist political economy to theorize the American capitalism of their ageone that they believed was characterized by monopoly control by large firms. Mandel 1975 applies a more orthodox Marxist analysis to the new global context.

Baran, Paul A. 1957. The political economy of growth. New York: Monthly Review Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A classical approach to capitalist development and underdevelopment. It demonstrates how surplus is used and reinvested. Find this resource:

Baran, Paul A., and Paul M. Sweezy. 1966. Monopoly capital: An essay on the American economic and social order. New York: Monthly Review Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book made a major contribution to Marxian political economy. In prior work on capitalist accumulation, Marxian scholars assumed competition between firms in their model. Baran and Sweezy, however, analyze capitalist accumulation in the context of monopolization and do not rely on earlier Marxian concepts such as surplus value. Find this resource:

Cardoso, Fernando Henrique, and Enzo Faletto Verne. 1979. Dependency and development in Latin America. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Provides a periodization of Latin American economic development, focusing in particular on the transition from the focused development of internal markets to the rise of global trade in the postwar era. In the 1979 postscript, the authors reexamine their original hypothesis in view of later developments. Cardoso would later become the two-term president of Brazil. Originally published in 1966. Find this resource:

Emmanuel, Arghiri. 1972. Unequal exchange: A study of the imperialism of trade . London: NLB. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This influential analysis of modern forms of imperialism argues that free trade between capitalist countries is often unequal, to the systematic determinant of poor countries. He goes on to argue that these unequal exchanges explain the bulk of economic world inequality. Find this resource:

Frank, Andre Gunder. 1967. Capitalism and underdevelopment in Latin America: Historical studies of Chile and Brazil. New York: Monthly Review Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Argues that the key to understanding the plight of countries in the global periphery is to look at their economic relationship with more developed countries. Trade relations with wealthy capitalist countries have locked less developed countries into economic activities that employ high levels of exploitation and low wages in order to produce very cheap goods for consumers of wealthier countries. Find this resource:

Mandel, Ernest. 1975. Late capitalism. Revised ed. London: NLB. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In this work, the author aims to characterize the main dimensions of the capitalist accumulation of his time. Late capitalism, which is heavily reliant on fluid flows in financial markets, advances beyond the two previous phases of capitalist accumulation, market capitalism and monopoly capitalism. Mandel offers a wide-reaching theory of the long waves of economic development that draws heavily from Kondratieff. Originally published in 1972. Find this resource:

MARXISM IN THE LESS DEVELOPED WORLD

Marxist theory primarily developed in the West and as a theory of capitalism in its most developed form. But Marxism was also drawn upon by Marxist thinkers elsewhere, particularly in China (under Mao) and in response to the wave of revolutionary and anticolonial struggles in Latin America and Africa. While Mao wrote on a range of topics (Mao 1971) a number of key texts to be translated into English took on a very practical and political nature. After all, anticolonial struggles and revolutions were happening in less developed countries across the globe. Guevara 2006drew on his own experience as a leader of the Cuban revolution to write a book aimed at revolutionary movements in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Debray 1967 is a pivotal work that analyzes and synthesizes the prevailing strategic analyses of revolutionary movements in Latin America. Fanon 1963 revolutionized both the practice and the theorizing of Third World and black liberation movements. Finally, Freire 2006 the nature of education and studies of pedagogy by challenging the view that the poor cannot use education as an instrument of social change.

Debray, Rgis. 1967. Revolution in the revolution? New York: Grove Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Considered the primer for revolutionary movements in less developed countries. Find this resource:

Fanon, Franz. 1963. The wretched of the earth. New York: Grove Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A canonical book in black liberation theory and actual black liberation and anti-colonial struggles. Using a Marxian analysis, Fanon penetrates the culture of the colonized, and offers some suggestions on how to navigate the path to liberation. Originally published in 1961. Find this resource:

Freire, Paulo. 2006. Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using a Marxian framework, this proposes a new pedagogy in which the roles of teacher and student are shifted in order to best effect change in society. Originally published in 1976. Find this resource:

Guevara, Che. 2006. Guerilla warfare. New York: Ocean Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Draws out lessons from the Cuban Revolution for revolutionary movements in other less developed countries, by the famed revolutionary leader. Originally published in 1961. Find this resource:

Mao Tsetung. 1971. Selected readings from the works of Mao Tsetung. Peking: Foreign Languages Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Offers a sampling of Maos large output of theoretical writings. Key selections include, On Practice, On Contradiction, On the Correct Handling of Contradictions among the People, and Where Do Correct Ideas Come From? Find this resource:

MARXIST FEMINISM

Classical Marxism paid some attention to the woman question, as it was known, but provided little room for treating gender independently of class. In the 1970s, feminist scholars challenged the neglect of gender and gendered dynamics in sociology and other fields. A particularly interesting attempt to synthesize Marxist and feminist ideas emerged, known as Marxist-feminist or, more commonly, socialist-feminism. The theory was a striking attempt to build an integrated radical theory without reducing the centrality of inequality to class. The classical statements were those of Mitchell 1966, Rubin 1974, and Hartmann 1976, while Hartmann 1978 provides a classical assessment of the unhappy marriage between Marxism and feminism. A collection of contemporary debates motivated by Hartmanns essay can be found in Sargent 1978. A later collection of writings on the socialist-feminism debate can be found in Hansen and Philipson 1990. Jackson 1999 offers a more recent review.

Hansen, Karen V., and Ilene J. Philipson, eds. 1990. Women, class, and the feminist imagination: A socialistfeminist reader. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An excellent collection of writings by socialist-feminist scholars, including both classical contributions, empirical efforts to test the theory, and some of the major debates on central topics such as the labor market, family life, socialistfeminist political organizations, and issues of race and gender. Find this resource:

Hartmann, Heidi. 1976. Capitalism, patriarchy, and job segregation by sex. Signs 1:137169. DOI: 10.1086/493283Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Argues that capitalist labor markets have been heavily shaped by the system of patriarchy, in which women workers are systematically disadvantaged and provide a body of low-wage workers. Find this resource:

Hartmann, Heidi. 1978. The unhappy marriage of Marxism and feminism: Towards a more progressive union. In Women and revolution: A discussion of the unhappy marriage of Marxism and feminism . Edited by Lydia Sargent, 141. Boston: South End. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A classical essay that challenges the idea that Marxisms privileging of class inequality can coexist in an emancipatory theory that takes gender inequality seriously. Hartmann argues that class inequality and gender inequality are of equal significance, and the intertwining of gender and class inequality produces a dual system of oppression. Find this resource:

Jackson, Stevi. 1999. Marxism and feminism. In Marxism and social science. Edited by Andrew Gamble, David Marsh, and Tony Tant, 1134. London: Macmillan. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A more recent overview of the complicated relationship between feminist and Marxist theory. Find this resource:

Mitchell, Juliet. 1966. Women: The longest revolution. New Left Review 40:1137. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation One of the earliest and classical statements of the problem of gender in the neo-Marxist tradition. Engages a number of topics that go far beyond the classic woman question, including sexuality and the problems of production and reproduction. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Rubin, Gayle. 1974. The traffic in women: Notes on the political economy of sex. In Towards an anthropology of women. Edited by Rayna R. Reiter, 157210. New York: Monthly Review Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A classic anthropological essay that traces male domination to its historical roots in the trafficking of women in premodern societies. Draws insights from Engels, Levi-Strauss, and Freud to suggest some universal aspects of gender inequality. Find this resource:

Sargent, Lydia, ed. 1978. Women and revolution. Boston: South End. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Contains a number of critical responses to Heidi Hartmanns landmark essay, The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism. Find this resource:

Contemporary Neo-Marxian Sociology


The relationship between Marxism and sociology is a complex one, as noted earlier. A significant segment of graduate students entering the discipline in the 1960s and 1970s, in the context of social upheaval, embraced Marxism as a means to make sense of the world and challenge reigning orthodoxies. While no major subfield was left untouched by the Marxian revival in sociology, several subfields commanded the bulk of the research. We summarize the major contributions of neo-Marxists in this section. These included class structure and class analysis, political sociology, the sociology of work, international political economy, cultural studies, and urban studies.

OVERVIEWS

Early surveys of Marxist sociology as it emerged in the Anglo-American world from the 1970s on can be found in Flacks 1982 and Burawoy 1982. A longer and more contemporary view can be found in Burawoy and Wright 2002s sweeping statement, authored by the two most famous North American Marxists. Good collections of essays can be found in Shaw 1985; Bottomore and Goode 1983; and, most recently, Gamble, et al. 1999.

Bottomore, Tom, and Patrick Goode, eds. 1983. Readings in Marxist sociology. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This useful book of essays and excerpts highlights the core areas in which Marxism has relevance for sociology. They include theory, social formations, classes, politics, culture and ideology, development, imperialism, and socialism. Find this resource:

Burawoy, Michael. 1982. Introduction: The resurgence of Marxism in American sociology. In Special issue: Marxist inquiries: Studies of labor, class, and states. Edited by Michael Burawoy and Theda Skocpol. American Journal of Sociology 88:S1S30. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A superb and useful introduction to a unique collection of articles in a special issue of one of the flagship journals of American sociology, at the high-water mark of interest in Marxism in the Anglo-American sociology. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Burawoy, Michael, and Erik Olin Wright. 2002. Sociological Marxism. In Handbook of sociological theory. Edited by Jonathan Turner, 459486. New York: Plenum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An attempt to capture the field of sociological Marxism as it stands, with a particular focus on reconstructing the classical core and tracing through its modern evolution by later Marxists (including th e authors themselves). Find this resource:

Flacks, Richard. 1982. Marxism and sociology. In The left academy: Marxist scholarship on American campuses. Edited by Bertell Ollman and Edward Vernoff, 952. New York: McGraw Hill. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Another valuable survey of the state of Marxist sociology in the early 1980s. Nicely conveys the excitement of that era. Find this resource:

Gamble, Andrew, David Marsh, and Tony Tant, eds. 1999. Marxism and social science. London: Macmillan. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This edited volume is very wide in scope. It covers the relationship between Marxism and a number of critical theoretical fields, such as postmodernity and feminism. In addition, it explores the role of Marxist theory in understanding a large number of substantive areas, such as the state, democracy, ecology, and globalization. Find this resource:

Shaw, Martin, ed. 1985. Marxist sociology revisited: Critical assessments . London: Macmillan. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A collection of essays assessing the state of the relationship between Marxism and sociology, primarily in the AngloAmerican world, in the mid-1980s. Find this resource:

MARXIAN CLASS STRUCTURE AND ANALYSIS

The study of social class has been a central theme in the revival of Marxist sociology since the 1970s. Wrights (Wright 1985, Wright 1997) work addresses the boundary problem raised in classical Marxism by the rise of the middle class, while Gouldner 1979 advances a class analysis of the intelligentsia. Bonacich 1972 is a classical treatment of the problem of divisions among the working class along ethnic lines. Offe and Wiesenthal 1985 develops an argument that capitalist class actors have an inherent organizational advantage over the poor. Wood

1986criticizes the turn away from class in the writings of post-Marxists. Katznelson 1981 tackles the question of American exceptionalismthat is, why American workers appear to identify less with their class than workers abroad.

Bonacich, Edna. 1972. A theory of ethnic antagonism: The split labor market. American Sociological Review 37:547559. DOI: 10.2307/2093450Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This important article argues that ethnic conflicts have class foundations. Find this resource:

Gouldner, Alvin Ward. 1979. The future of intellectuals and the rise of the new class. New York: Macmillan. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Gouldner argues that the history of capitalism is one in which intellectuals, by which he means professionals and managers as well the cultural intelligentsia of writers, artists, and professors, have been gradually coming to assert their power over the economic bourgeoisie. This new class is, in Gouldners view, well on its way to displacing the old class (the bourgeoisie) as the ruling class in the modern world. Find this resource:

Katznelson, Ira. 1981. City trenches: Urban politics and the patterning of class in the United States. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book broadly asks why the American experience of class is so unique. It argues that American urban politics has been governed by a logic that stresses ethnicity, race, and territoriality, rather than class. Find this resource:

Offe, Claus, and Helmut Wiesenthal. 1985. Two logics of collective action. In Disorganized capitalism: Contemporary transformations of work and politics. Edited by Claus Offe, 170220. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article makes a critical contribution to the study of class and class capacities. It argues that working people face much larger constraints on collective action then their better-positioned counterpartsemployers. Find this resource:

Wood, Ellen Meiksins. 1986. The retreat from class: A new true socialism. London: NLB. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book provides a Marxian critique of post-Marxist theorists who have sought to reconsider the primacy of class. Find this resource:

Wright, Erik Olin. 1985. Classes. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Wrights attempt to spell out a new model of the class location of individuals in middle -class positions by distinguishing three types of assets (capital, skills, organizational power) that individuals may possess, singularly or in combination. Empirically tests the implications of the model with opinion and income data from Sweden and the United States. Find this resource:

Wright, Erik Olin. 1997. Class counts: Comparative studies in class analysis. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Drawing on survey data from twelve countries, Wright offers a major exploration of the impact of class location across a range of outcomes, such as attitudes, family and friendship patterns, class and gender, and social mobility. Find this resource:

MARXISM AND POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

The single most widely debated concept in the revival of Marxism in sociology is that of the state or, more particularly, the capitalist state. Prior Marxian analysis treated the state in largely functionalist terms, compelled to preserve capitalism. For neo-Marxian sociologists, renewed interest in the state meant breaking out of the standard functionalist view of the state. Barrow 1993provides an overview and introduction. The essays by Block 1987 in the

1970s and 1980s were a classical attempt to theorize the conditions under which capitalist states could become autonomous from capitalist class interests. Miliband 1969 provides the classical instrumentalist theory of the state. Therborn 1978 develops a systematic typology of state and class relationships, while Poulantzas 1978 argues that contemporary states are divided along class lines. The rise of the welfare state has occasioned considerable debate among Marxists. Esping-Andersen 1990 is the standard power resources model, highlighting the role of class power in producing different types of welfare states, while OConnor 1973s classic argument points to the revolutionary potential in welfare-state formation. Finally, Lachmann 2000 points to the important role of conflicts between political and economic elites in the transition from feudalism to capitalism and the rise of the state.

Barrow, Clyde. 1993. Critical theories of the state: Marxist, neo-Marxist, post-Marxist.Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book provides a useful overview of Marxist, neo-Marxist, and post-Marxist theories of the state. The author develops a useful typology of radical theories of the capitalist state that identifies critical areas of overlap and difference among them. Find this resource:

Block, Fred L. 1987. Revising state theory: Essays in politics and postindustrialism. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In the chapter The Ruling Class Does Not Rule: Notes on the Marxist Theory of the State, the author provides the most innovative attempt to specify the mechanisms that account for the relative autonomy of the state from capital. He argues that the tendency for the state to act in the interests of employers is an outcome of the struggle between three actors: capitalists, workers, and state managers. Find this resource:

Esping-Andersen, Gsta. 1990. The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book provides a critical contribution to the study of welfare states in advanced Western societies. EspingAndersen argues that there are three major types of welfare regimes that correspond to the particular histories of the countries that support them. Find this resource:

Lachmann, Richard. 2000. Capitalists in spite of themselves: Elite conflict and economic transitions in early modern Europe. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Develops an innovative account of the rise of the absolutist state and the transition from capitalism to feudalism by focusing on conflicts within the elite: landlords, clergy, officeholders, and kings. In the aftermath of the Reformation, elites found themselves embracing capitalism in order to preserve their privileges from rivals. Find this resource:

Miliband, Ralph. 1969. The state in capitalist society. New York: Basic Books. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book constitutes the key instrumentalist account of the capitalist state. It provides a thorough empirical account of the British state that seeks to show that reforms are unlikely in contexts in which capitalist interest are so thoroughly dominant. Miliband shows that in terms of their class origins, career trajectories, and ideological dispositions, state bureaucrats tended willingly to ally with capital. Find this resource:

OConnor, James. 1973. The fiscal crisis of the state. New York: St. Martins Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Argues that the rise of the welfare state creates a set of societal demands for benefits, which in turn leads to inevitably fiscal imbalances, which eventually threaten the existence of capitalism itself. Find this resource:

Poulantzas, Nicos. 1978. State, power, socialism. London: NLB. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation While he retains the analysis of the relative autonomy of the state, Poulantzass later work breaks from his earlier structuralist Marxism that regarded the state as only having economic, repressive, and ideological functions. Here he argues that there is no pre-set form of the capitalist state and instead that the state is shaped by class struggle.

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Therborn, Gran. 1978. What does the ruling class do when it rules? State apparatuses and state power under feudalism, capitalism and socialism. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Develops a systematic typology of the critical differences between the state in feudalist, capitalist, and socialist societies, with a special focus on the differences in class power found under each. Find this resource:

MARXISM AND THE SOCIOLOGY OF WORK

Marx wrote widely on the nature of work. However, prior to the neo-Marxist resurgence in sociology, relatively few Marxists had taken up these themes; the predominant drift in the study of industrial sociology was toward a much more positive (albeit not uncritical) view of the labor process in contemporary capitalism. Optimism about shop-floor satisfaction and class compromise pointed to by industrial sociology hardly captured the underlying dynamics of persistent workplace conflict.Braverman 1974s pivotal work largely reintroduced a critical analysis of shop -floor processes.Burawoy 1979 and Edwards 1979 were largely responsible for incorporating and extending Braverman in the academy. Both Lee 1998 and McKay 2006 built on Burawoys analysis to study work life in less developed countries. Fantasia 1988s work asks about the historical nature of class consciousness, and Seidman 1994 asks how class-oriented workers movements are made under different historical conditions. Silvers recent contribution (Silver 2003) puts work and labor conflict into a global and long-term perspective and tries to identify some of the macro causes for the rise and fall of labor movements.

Braverman, Harry. 1974. Labor and monopoly capital: The degradation of work in the twentieth century. New York: Monthly Review Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This very influential work revitalized the study of the labor processes from a Marxian perspective. Braverman argues that capitalism incrementally reduces a workers control over the work process by deepenin g the division of labor and separating the conception of work tasks from its execution. Find this resource:

Burawoy, Michael. 1979. Manufacturing consent: Changes in the labor process under monopoly capitalism. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Uses ethnography of the shop-floor to explain a missing component of Bravermans account: how is workers consciousness shaped at work? He finds a collective striving among workers to achieve levels of production above 100 percent in a piece-rate system as the basis for status hierarchies in the shop, which had the consequence of increasing antagonisms between workers while decreasing conflict with management. Find this resource:

Edwards, Richard. 1979. Contested terrain: The transformation of the workplace in the twentieth century. New York: Basic Books. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This work provides an analysis of the varieties of control at work in historical terms. According to Edwards, the form control takes is largely governed by workplace conflict and the economics of the firms operation. He identifies three historically successive forms of shop-floor control: simple, technical, and bureaucratic. Find this resource:

Fantasia, Rick. 1988. Cultures of solidarity: Consciousness, action, and contemporary American workers. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This innovative work challenges the notion that American workers lack class consciousness. Instead it shows the contingent and historical character of the development of class consciousness. Find this resource:

Lee, Ching Kwan. 1998. Gender and the South China miracle: Two worlds of factory women. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Lees study of the labor process shows how labor markets interact with gender to create a distinct set of outcomes in two manufacturing firms in China. In one case, a plant in Shenzhen, women workers are predominantly single and migrant. In the other case, in Hong Kong, women workers are predominantly married. According to Lee, these variations produce different management strategies for control, constructions of gender, and forms of collective action. Find this resource:

McKay, Steven C. 2006. Satanic mills or silicon islands? The politics of high-tech production in the Philippines. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book utilizes Burawoys framework in The Politics of Production (London: Verso, 1985) to identify distinct types of work regimes in high-tech factories in the Philippines but suggests critical variation in the logics of control depending on the nature of the product that the firm manufactures (i.e., capital-intensive or labor-intensive), the nature of production (i.e., complex or deskilled), and the gendered dimensions of the labor pool that the factory draws on. Find this resource:

Seidman, Gay W. 1994. Manufacturing militance: Workers movements in Brazil and South Africa, 1970 1985. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This comparative analysis of South African workers and Brazilian workers asks how two countries that are so different could produce two labor movements committed to the broader working class, as opposed to more narrow sectoral interests. Seidmans study shows that state policies, which increased demand for skilled workers but simultaneously degraded the positions of the skilled alongside the nonskilled urban poor, generated general animosity toward the state. Find this resource:

Silver, Beverly. 2003. Forces of labor: Workers movements and globalization since 1870. Cambridge studies in comparative politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This spatially and temporally wide-ranging work argues that there is a long-term pattern across the globe in which, as production expands, workers power expands and labor unions eventually begin to develop and challenge for a greater share of profits. Find this resource:

GLOBALIZATION AND INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY

Classical Marxists after Marx explicitly theorized processes of economic and political globalization, paying special attention to the role of imperialism. However, with the rise of Stalinism and socialism in one country and the decline of revolutionary movements after the failed German revolution in 1923, Marxists wrote less and less about the global dimension of capitalism. With the explosion of anticolonial struggles in Africa, Asia, and Latin America in the 1960s, Marxist political activists increasingly considered the role of the Third World. This interest helped drive a new generation of neo-Marxian sociologists to interrogate the global dimension of capitalism. Two main currents emerge in the literature: world-systems theory (Arrighi 1994, Arrighi and Silver 1999,Wallerstein 1974) and orthodox Marxism (Brenner 1977, Brenner 2006, Harvey 2007, Wood 2005).Brewer 1990 offers a particularly useful overview of Marxian theories of international political economy and imperialism in particular.

Arrighi, Giovanni. 1994. The long twentieth century: Money, power, and the origins of our times. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is a large study of global capitalism. It argues that recurring configurations of business and state organizations lead systemic cycles of accumulation. According to the author, these cycles take the form of large-scale expansions of capitalism into new areas of the globe, capital reaching the limit of this approach, and the subsequent transfer of capital into high finance. Find this resource:

Arrighi, Giovanni, and Beverly J. Silver. 1999. Chaos and governance in the modern world system. Minnesota: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In this book, the authors present a theory of the rise and fall of world hegemons. According to the argument, financial expansions lead to declining strength of the world hegemons power, resulting in global chaos, followed by a transformation in the national bloc of business and state organizations that will emerge as the new hegemonic power. Find this resource:

Brenner, Robert. 1977. The origins of capitalist development: A critique of neo-Smithian Marxism. New Left Review 104:2592. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is an extensive critique of world-systems theory and the dependency school from an orthodox Marxist perspective. It is a major contribution to the debate about global capitalism. Availableonline by subscription. Find this resource:

Brenner, Robert. 2006. The economics of global turbulence: The advanced capitalist economies from long boom to long downturn, 19452005. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is a large-scale survey of the world economy from 1950 to the early 2000s. It argues that the sources of capitalist crises on a global level are overproduction and overcompetition. According to the author, both processes have been responsible for the long-term crisis since the early 1970s. Find this resource:

Brewer, Anthony. 1990. Marxist theories of imperialism: A critical survey. 2d ed. London: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780203003817Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This overview provides a very useful introduction to the core Marxian contributions to the study of imperialism. It is a must for those who are interested in a Marxian approach to geopolitics. Find this resource:

Harvey, David. 2007. A brief history of neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This survey of global economic practice since the 1970s tells the story of the rise and implementation of an approach to political and economic policy known as neoliberalism. Find this resource:

Wallerstein, Immanuel M. 1974. The modern world-system I: Capitalist agriculture and the origins of the European world-economy in the sixteenth century. New York: Academic. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book initiated a large research program around what came to be called world-systems theory. The main argument is that the world is broken down into different zones: the core, semiperiphery, and periphery. These zones exist in an unequal and exploitative relationship because of unequal exchanges generated through trade. Find this resource:

Wood, Ellen Meiksins. 2005. Empire of capital. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Wood offers a new theory of imperialism. According to the author, as distinct from past historical experiences of empire, modern empire has come to reflect the social relations that are at the core of capitalism. Find this resource:

MARXISM AND CULTURE

In recent decades, building on the work of Western Marxism (see Western Marxism) but also responding to the renewal of the subfield of cultural sociology, Marxist studies of culture and cultural processes have bloomed. Williams 1978 provides an important early study of the rise of the dominant cultural forms in the West, while his later work (Williams 1983 provides an overview of, and offers new directions for, cultural materialism. One strand of Marxist analysis of culture has been in the area of ideology; Parekh 1982 provides a useful overview of Marxs theory of ideology. Harvey 1990 and Jameson 1991 both offer strong critiques of the postmodernist turn in social theory. Harris 1992 develops an account of Gramscis influence on cultural studies. Zukin 1989 offers a classical treatment of how the ebb and flow of capitalist dynamics open up new spaces for the definition of what is chic. McChesney 2008, with the eye of a political economist, analyzes the reasons the American media are dominated by corporate interests.

Harris, David. 1992. From class struggle to the politics of pleasure: The effects of Gramscianism on cultural studies. New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A study of the influence of Gramsci on cultural studies, ranging from youth movements to the mass media and the cultural politics of the contemporary state. Find this resource:

Harvey, David. 1990. The condition of postmodernity: An inquiry into the origins of cultural change. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This offers an innovative critique of postmodernism. It argues that it is a cultural effect of late capitalism. A global economy that compresses time and space by shifting from Fordist production methods to more flexible and global methods also radically transforms culture. Find this resource:

Jameson, Fredric. 1991. Postmodernism, or, the cultural logic of late capitalism . Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A critique of postmodernism from a Marxian perspective. This work started with a famous and widely discussed, 1984 article in the New Left Review. It links cultural changes and postmodernism to the rise of multinational capitalism. Find this resource:

McChesney, Robert. 2008. The political economy of the media: Enduring issues, emerging dilemmas. New York: Monthly Review Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Demonstrates how business and political elites mobilize their resources in order to consolidate control over media institutions and how this undermines democracy. Find this resource:

Parekh, Bhikhu. 1982. Marxs theory of ideology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A systematic attempt at understanding the concept of ideology within Marxs larger theoretical vision. It situates Marxs understanding of ideology within his understanding of truth and obje ctivity. Find this resource:

Williams, Raymond. 1978. Marxism and literature. London: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Extends the authors earlier work by analyzing major Marxist contributions to the study of literature. The author develops his own account by articulating a theory of cultural materialism. Find this resource:

Williams, Raymond. 1983. Culture & society: 17801950. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A major Marxist contribution to grapple with the emerging questions in the sociology culture. It explores how the concept of culture developed in the West out of the Industrial Revolution, rooting these developments in class dynamics. Originally published in 1958. Find this resource:

Zukin, Sharon. 1989. Loft living: Culture and capital in urban change. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This study of the transformation of lower Manhattan from a derelict former industrial zone into one of the most expensive and chic places to live in the world links cultural change with the political economy of cultural forms. Find this resource:

MARXISM AND URBAN STUDIES

In the 1970s, Marxist scholars began to take seriously both how cities were run and the issues of space. Harvey 2009 and Castells 1979 were early pioneers of Marxian works that grappled with the nature of the city. Harvey 1989 provides a useful overview of his large output concerning the city. Lefebvre 1992 argues that modes of production also corresponded to certain social uses of space. More recently, Davis 2006 identifies the materialist tools for understanding the class history of a city. Smith 1996 theorizes the processes of gentrification, and Wacquant 2007identifies the relationship between capitalist development and marginalization of disadvantaged subgroups. Finally, Brenner 2004 identifies how state power and the subnational level have changed since the 1970s.

Brenner, Neil. 2004. New state spaces: Urban governance and the rescaling of statehood . Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Whereas most studies of the state focus on the national or transnational level, this book looks at the transformation of subnational state spaces, such as cities, since the 1970s. He argues that state power has been drastically rescaled. Find this resource:

Castells, Manuel. 1979. The urban question. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A classic in Marxian urban studies. This utilizes an Althusserian framework to understand the function of cities in social, symbolic, and economic terms. Originally published in 1972. Find this resource:

Davis, Mike. 2006. City of quartz: Excavating the future in Los Angeles. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using a Marxian framework, the author reconstructs the history of Los Angeles. Originally published in 1991. Find this resource:

Harvey, David. 1989. The urban experience. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An introduction to Harveys influential work on urbanism. Find this resource:

Harvey, David. 2009. Social justice and the city. Athens: Univ. of Georgia Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Probably the leading figure in the new Marxian urbanists. This major contribution identifies the material forces that produce cities, urban planning, and policy. It asks if there is a relationship between social justice and space, answering with an affirmative. Originally published in 1973. Find this resource:

Lefebvre, Henri. 1992. The production of space. Translated by Donald Nicholson-Smith. Oxford: Blackwell. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book widened the scope of Marxist theory into the realm of space and has deeply influenced contemporary urban theory. In it, Lefebvre contends that space is a social product and that there are many modes of production of space. Originally published in 1974. Find this resource:

Smith, Neil. 1996. The new urban frontier: Gentrification and the revanchist city . London: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book theorizes the processes of urban gentrification. Find this resource:

Wacquant, Loc. 2007. Urban outcasts: Towards sociology of advanced marginality . Cambridge, MA: Polity. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This ties the relationship of advanced capitalist development to urban marginalization of American blacks and French immigrants in the banlieue. An influential work in critical urban studies that places a heavy emphasis on the role of capitalism in inequality. Find this resource:
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New Directions in Marxian Social Science


As Communism crumbled in the Soviet Union and eastern Europe in the late 1980s, a wave of reassessments of the Marxist project appeared. These can be grouped into four broad categories: post-Marxism, analytical Marxism, utopian radical Marxism, and works that specifically sought to reassess the Soviet experiment. Therborn 2008 provides a general and critical survey of the trajectory of Marxism and the post-Marxist approaches that branched off it.

Therborn, Gran. 2008. From Marxism to post-Marxism? London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A survey covering the recent trajectory of Marxist theory and social science since the fall of Communism, with a chapter devoted to emerging trends including many of the ones identified in the section. Find this resource:

POST-MARXISM

In the context of declining social movement in the late 1970s, a new group of radical thinkers drastically shifted away from the economic and class-based framework of Marxism. On the one hand, these post-Marxists came to see themselves in partial argument with Marxian theory (Bourdieu 1984, Laclau and Mouffe 2001). On the other hand, they more and more incorporated ideas from psychoanalysis ( iek 2009), cultural studies (Hardt and Negri 2000, Robinson 2000), and postmodernism (Derrida 2006). This group of thinkers contributed to the broader cultural turn in history and the social sciences in the late 1980s and 1990s.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1984. Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. Translated by Richard Nice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The great French sociologist has a long and complicated relationship with Marxism. In particular, one of the guiding themes of Bourdieus work has been the role of class reproduction, that is, how children of different classes have great difficulty escaping their class of origin. In this classical work, Bourdieu argues that cultural tastes are defined by and reinforce power relationships in society. Class is an important determinant for cultural practice. Originally published in 1979. Find this resource:

Derrida, Jacques. 2006. Specters of Marx: The state of debt, the work of mourning and the new International. Translated by Peggy Kamuf. London: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Derridas first serious statement on Marx. This poses a theory of deconstruction that posits the possibility of many Marxisms. Originally published in 1993. Find this resource:

Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri. 2000. Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Argues that while classical colonialism and the state have withered away, a new empire has taken its place. According to the authors only the multitude can challenge the diffuse web of sociopolitical forces that now covers the globe. Find this resource:

Laclau, Ernesto, and Chantal Mouffe. 2001. Hegemony and socialist strategy. 2d ed. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A pivotal work in post-Marxism. This book traces the discursive roots of class and subverts the primacy of economic relations in the Marxian framework. Originally published in 1985. Find this resource:

Robinson, Cedric J. 2000. Black Marxism: The making of the black radical tradition. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Not a part of the post-Marxist tradition per se. However, this work challenges the Marxian emancipatory framework as an unsubstantial way to understand black people and black experiences. The author argues that a critical analysis of the history of black radicalism must be traced to the traditions of Africa and the specific experiences of blacks in the West. Originally published in 1983. Find this resource:

iek, Slavoj. 2009. The sublime object of ideology. The Essential iek. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A post-Marxist take on the concept and process of ideology. Originally published in 1989. Find this resource:

ANALYTICAL MARXISM

Analytical Marxism developed as an alternative to and critique of existing dialectical Marxism and post-Marxism in the 1980s. Its aim was to revitalize Marxism by emphasizing clarity and rigor in constructing social theories and historical explanations concerning subjects that carried a lot of ideological baggage. In particular, the tools of contemporary analytical philosophy (Cohen 2000) and neoclassical economics (Roemer 1982) were brought to bear in justifying Marxian understandings. A number of the most well-known analytical Marxist works applied rational choice theory to Marxism, rejecting its holistic assumptions; see especially Przeworski 1985 and Elster 1985. Collections of analytical Marxist writings can be found in Roemer 1986 and Carver and Thomas 1995, while Mayer 1994 provides an overview and critique.

Carver, Terrell, and Paul Thomas, eds. 1995. Rational choice Marxism. University Park: Pennsylvania Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This short collection includes founding essays of analytical Marxism such as, Wrights What is Analytical Marxism? and Carlins Rational Choice Marxism. It also includes critical responses by Michael Burawoy, Ellen Meiksins Wood, and Michael Goldfield, among others. Find this resource:

Cohen, G. A. 2000. Karl Marxs theory of history: A defence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is the founding text of analytical Marxism. Here, Cohen attempts nothing short of defending historical materialism using the tools of analytical philosophy. Originally published in 1978. Find this resource:

Elster, Jon. 1985. Making sense of Marx. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using the analytic tools of contemporary social science and philosophy of the time, Elster tries to assess what is viable in Marxs system. In conclusion, he argues for the need for a microfounda tion of social action while criticizing functionalism and teleology in Marx. Find this resource:

Mayer, Thomas F. 1994. Analytical Marxism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An overview and critique of the major works of the analytical Marxist group. Find this resource:

Przeworski, Adam. 1985. Capitalism and social democracy. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using rational choice assumptions, this book explores socialist strategies. It shows that workers have incentives in the maintenance of capitalism in a way that undermines revolutionary agendas. Reform strategies also face electoral limitations because of the relatively small size of the working class. Find this resource:

Roemer, John. 1982. A general theory of exploitation and class. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

This book uses game theory and neoclassical economics to articulate a theory of exploitation. Against Marxist orthodoxies, it argues that a labor theory of value is not necessary to explain class and exploitation. Find this resource:

Roemer, John, ed. 1986. Analytical Marxism. Studies in Marxism and social theory. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A key edited work containing examples of the major writings of the analytical Marxists. Find this resource:

UTOPIAN RADICAL MARXISM

Following the collapse of state socialism, a number of leading Marxists turned to utopian investigations. In their survey of sociological Marxism, Burawoy and Wright 2002 (seeContemporary Neo-Marxian Sociology) urge both theoretical and empirical investigations of real utopias, as Wright 2010, the leader in the field, called them. A number of thinkers sought to develop blueprints for alternatives to capitalism, such as participatory economics (Albert 2003) or market socialism (Roemer 1994). Others identified institutional changes such as basic income (Van Parijs 1992) or labor exchange networks (Offee and Heintz 1992). Still others have emphasized the importance of thinking about alternatives in a context of historic defeat for the left (Harvey 2000, Wallerstein 1998). On balance, this current of scholarship emphasizes the need for radical social science to think critically about what concrete alternatives to capitalism would be like.

Albert, Michael. 2003. Parecon: Life after capitalism. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Lays out a framework for participatory economics as an alternative to capitalism. The framework is built on the ideal values of democracy, solidarity, equity, and diversity. Find this resource:

Harvey, David A. 2000. Spaces of hope. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Through a study of the city, this book argues that we can and indeed must use utopian imaginations that challenge the idea that there is no alternative to capitalism. Harvey poses an alternative, which he terms dialectical utopianism. Find this resource:

Offe, Claus, and Rolf Heintze. 1992. Beyond employment: Time, work, and the informal economy . Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Explores labor exchange networks as an alternative to conventional labor markets. Find this resource:

Roemer, John. 1994. A future for socialism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The fall of the Soviet Union raised doubts about the viability of state socialism. One alternative that has long engaged some Marxian scholars has been the idea of market socialism, the development of a socialist model that still relies heavily on market mechanisms of distribution. This book is the major contribution to that debate. Find this resource:

Van Parijs, Philippe, ed. 1992. Arguing for basic income: Ethical foundations for a radical reform. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Contributors John Baker, Brian Barry, Alan Carling, Michael Freeden, Robert Goodin, Andre Gorz, Bill Jordan, Richard Norman, Claus Offe, Guy Standing, Hillel Steiner, and Philippe Van Parijs debate the need for a basic universal income. Find this resource:

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1998. Utopistic, or historical choices of the twenty-first century. New York: New Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Poses ideas about the worlds future in light of the history of the 20th century. Find this resource:

Wright, Erik Olin. 2010. Envisioning real utopias. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The leading figure among the recent trend in radical utopian studies, Wright has sponsored a series of collective works advocating new forms of utopian thinking. This represents a culmination of that project. It develops a framework for understanding a variety of concrete and emancipator alternatives to capitalism. Find this resource:

REASSESSING THE SOCIALIST EXPERIENCE

The collapse of the socialist project occasioned both reassessments of what happened and hard thinking about the implications for the future of Marxism. Blackburn 1991 contains a major set of essays by leading Marxist scholars and thinkers reassessing the future of socialism in the wake of the collapse of Communism in eastern Europe. Kornai 1992 and Burawoy and Luccs 1994provide classical treatments of the inner workings of the state socialist economy. Eyal et al. 1998develops a class analysis of the pathways out of state socialism. Kharkhordin 1999 offers a remarkable post-Marxist and Foucaultian treatment of the cultural life of Soviet Communism.Linden 2009 provides a critical and comprehensive overview of Marxist debates on the nature of the Soviet Union since 1917.

Blackburn, Robin, ed. 1991. After the fall: The failure of Communism and the future of socialism. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Written in the aftermath of the 1989 upheaval, this collection includes essays by such luminaries as Eric Hobsbawm, Jrgen Habermas, E.P. Thompson, Ralph Miliband, Fredric Jameson, Gran Therborn, and Norberto Bobbio. Find this resource:

Burawoy, Michael, and Jnos Lukcs. 1994. The radiant past: Ideology and reality in Hungarys road to capitalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Based on studies in both the machine and steel industries in Hungary between 1983 and 1990, the authors consider the transition from socialism to capitalism from the viewpoint of the working class. Find this resource:

Eyal, Gil, Ivn Szelnyi, and Eleanor Townsley. 1998. Making capitalism without capitalists: Class formation and elite struggles in post-Communist central Europe. London: Verso. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A novel approach to the transition from socialism to capitalism in post-communist Central Europe. It shows how capitalism emerged without actual capitalists. Find this resource:

Kharkhordin, Oleg. 1999. The collective and the individual in Russia: A study of practices. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A study of how Soviet Communism relied on public rituals of self-examination and critique that have no parallel in modern Western societies. The system of societal surveillance, critical to the perpetuation of party rule, found its firmest footing in Russia because it could draw on Russian orthodox cultural traditions. Find this resource:

Kornai, Jnos. 1992. The socialist system: The political economy of Communism . Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The classical work on the political economy of socialism, emphasizing the economics of scarcity as a critical (and ultimately social) aspect of the failure of socialist economies to keep pace with their capitalist competitors. Find this resource:

Linden, Marcel van der. 2009. Western Marxism and the Soviet Union: A survey of critical theories and debates since 1917. Chicago: Haymarket.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This text provides a critical overview of debates among Marxists on the nature of the USSR since 1917. Originally published in 2007. Find this resource:

Critiques
Marxism as both a system of thought, and as the foundation for Soviet-style Communism, has generated an immense critical literature, both in the academy and outside of it. In this section, we identify a few of the most important such critiques, as well as those that have been especially important for sociology. Philosophical criticisms of Marxism can be found in Kolakowski 2008 andWalicki 1995. Bell 2000 and Selznick 1952 provide sociologically grounded critiques. Gouldner 1985 focuses on the contradictions in Marxism as a movement of intellectuals but claiming to speak for the working class. Van den Berg 1988 criticizes neo-Marxian theories of politics and the state.

Bell, Daniel. 2000. The end of ideology: On the exhaustion of political ideas in the fifties. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Bell argues that the demise of Marxism as a critical challenger to capitalism heralds the beginnings of an era in which political controversy will concern fewer global questions. Although sometimes mistakenly read as implying that all conflict will disappear, Bells essay in fact provides a sociologically informed critique of the Marxist tradition. The new edition contains a useful introduction by David Plotke that situates Bells contribution alongside other critical assessments of Marxism. Originally published in 1960. Find this resource:

Gouldner, Alvin Ward. 1985. Against fragmentation: The origins of Marxism and the sociology of intellectuals. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This explains the rise of Marxism as rooted in the interests of middle-class intellectuals, not the working class. Nearly all of the Marxist leaders were the products of middle-class upbringings with no direct connection to the working class. As a consequence, Gouldner argues, Marxisms dirty little secret is that it was never a working -class movement to begin with. Find this resource:

Kolakowski, Leszak. 2008. Main currents of Marxism: The founders, the golden age, the breakdown . Vols. I III. New York: Norton. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An outstanding philosophical case against Marxism. This is considered the definitive work. Originally published in 1978. Find this resource:

Selznick, Philip. 1952. The organizational weapon: A study of Bolshevik strategy and tactics . Santa Monica: Rand. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A critique of Marxist strategies for seizing control of organizations, in some cases non-Marxist, by use of a particular set of tactics that undermine internal democracy. Find this resource:

Van den Berg, Axel. 1988. The immanent utopia: From Marxism on the state to the state of Marxism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A comprehensive critique of the Marxist theory of the state, beginning with Marx and Engels through the work of Poulantzas and the revival of Marxist state theory in the 1970s. Find this resource:

Walicki, Andrzej. 1995. Marxism and the leap to the kingdom of freedom: The rise and fall of the Communist utopia. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Monumental study arguing that the seeds of the Communist distortion of Marxs emancipatory vision can in fact be traced to the anomalies and assumptions of the classical writings. Find this resource:
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ntroduction
Although Marxism has had a good deal to say about historically evolving structures that transcend national borders, the relationship between Marxists and the academic discipline of international relations (IR) has not been straightforward. Constituted by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in thethird quarter of the 19th century as a critical and holistic methodology, Marxism maintains that political relationships are conditioned by, and can only be comprehended in their connection to, modes of surplus extraction. By contrast, IR, arising half a century later, manifests the distinctions between economics and politics, between domestic and foreign, and between world economy and world order. The key terms in Marxist IR discourse, historically, have been imperialism, dependency, hegemony, and empire. One of the defining periods in the development of Marxist thought on international relations occurred immediately before and during World War I, when imperialism emerged as the master term, a place it yielded, following World War II, to dependency. In the 1990s and the 2000s, however, an interest in imperialism returned, although the term competed for primacy with hegemony, favored especially by authors from the world-systems and neo-Gramscian schools, and with empire, a term given a distinctive twist in the best-selling book of that name. There are several distinguishing features of Marxist approaches to international relations. First, they subject prevailing categories, such as anarchy or the balance of power , to critique, seeking to uncover their historical and sociological foundations. Second, as a materialist philosophy, Marxism accords explanatory primacy to a societys mode of production as the key to understanding its systems of power and belief. Third, Marxist approaches tend to conceive of society dialectically, as a totality whose contradictions yield continual change. Contradictions within historical processes are conceptualized at high levels of abstraction (e.g., between productive forces and a particular configuration of production relations) as well as in the form of real historical struggles. A final defining feature of Marxist thought is that the purpose of understanding the international system is wedded to that of its radical transformation.

Textbooks and Readers


There are no textbooks geared specifically to the teaching of Marxist international relations (IR), but a wide variety of student-friendly books and book chapters fills the gap. These include chapters in standard IR textbooks, such as Burchill, et al. 2001, Rupert 2007a, and Rupert 2007b, which provide accessible introductions to the subject. The closest approximation to textbooks are, on theories of imperialism, Anthony Br ewers classic survey (Brewer 1990) and, on internationalpolitical economy , Bill Dunns Global Political Economy (Dunn 2009). A number of collections of 19th- and 20th-century Marxist writings on imperialism and dependency exist; the most comprehensive and/or judicious collections are Chilcote 2000 and Cain and Harrison 2001. Alison Ayers has edited a notable collection of essays on neo-Gramscian IR theory (Ayers 2008). Finally, for a window onto 21st-century debates on Marxist IR, the indispensable reader is Anievas 2010. Anievas, Alexander. Marxism and World Politics : Contesting Global Capitalism. London: Routledge, 2010. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Fourteen essays by scholars involved in the major debates of the 2000s. Themes include the renaissance of historical materialism in IR theory; geopolitics of capitalist modernity; relationship between capitalism and the international system; Gramsci, passive revolution, and transnational capital; uneven and combined development. Find this resource: Ayers, Alison J., ed. Gramsci, Political Economy, and International Relations Theory: Modern Princes and Naked Emperors. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Edited collection of critical reflections upon neo-Gramscian theory, including essays by Alfredo Saad-Filho and Mustapha Kamal Pasha. Find this resource:

Brewer, Anthony. Marxist Theories of Imperialism: A Critical Survey. 2d ed. London: Routledge, 1990.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The best-known English-language textbook on imperialism. Panoramic survey of the field. Includes excurses on nonMarxist theories, such as free trade imperialism. Find this resource:

Burchill, Scott, Richard Devetak, Andrew Linklater, Matthew Paterson, Christian Reus-Smit, and Jacqui True. Theories of International Relations. 4th ed. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave, 2001. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Includes chapter on Marxism by Andrew Linklater; also Richard Devetak on Marxian currents within critical theory. Find this resource:

Cain, Peter J., and Mark Harrison, eds. Imperialism: Critical Concepts in Historical Studies. 3 vols. London: Routledge, 2001. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The most comprehensive compilation of writings on imperialism, largely but not exclusively Marxist. Vol. 1: Marxs journalistic writings on India; excerpts from Kautsky, Hilferding, Lenin, and Bukharin. Vol. 2: excerpts from dependency and world-systems theorists, including Immanuel Wallerstein and Samir Amin. Vol. 3: cultural critiques; of only tangential relevance to IR. Find this resource:

Chilcote, Ronald H., ed. Imperialism: Theoretical Directions. Amherst, NY: Humanities, 2000. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Student-friendly reader, including sections on legacies of Marx and Lenin, dependency theory, and essential texts by Paul Baran, Amilcar Cabral, A. G. Frank, Fernando Enrique Cardoso, and Prabhat Patnaik. Find this resource:

Dunn, Bill. Global Political Economy: A Marxist Critique. London: Pluto, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation International political economy (IPE) textbook. Comprehensive but concise. Surveys global political economy, with sections on the various IPE theories, including critical IPE and Marxism; also sections on international financial institutions and global governance. Find this resource:

Rupert, Mark. Marxism. In International Relations Theory for the Twenty-First Century: An Introduction. Edited by Martin Griffiths, 3546. London: Routledge, 2007a. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A short introduction by an eminent scholar from the neo-Gramscian school of IR. Find this resource:

Rupert, Mark. Marxism and Critical Theory. In International Relations: Discipline and Diversity. 2d ed. Edited by Tim Dunne, Milja Kurki, and Steve Smith, 148165. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007b. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Another short introduction by this eminent scholar from the neo-Gramscian school of IR. Find this resource:
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Online Library
A well-organized, accessible and ever-expanding nonprofit public library, the Marxists Internet Archive contains the writings of some six hundred authors in forty-five languages. The stated aim is to maintain an archive of any and all writings which are Marxist or relevant to the understanding of Marxism and can be lawfully published. Includes a students section, a searchable encyclopedia, and special subject sections, covering, inter alia, anti-imperialism in Africa, war and military science, and political economy. Generally very reliable, but there are occasional scanningrelated typographical errors (e.g., capitalism jives for capitalism lives).

Marxists Internet Archive. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Contains the writings of some six hundred authors in forty-five languages, with the aim to maintain an archive of any and all writings which are Marxist or relevant to the understanding of Marxism and can be lawfully published. Find this resource:

Journals
Some research on Marxist international relations (IR) is published in general IR journals that otherwise are more often concerned with international political economy or organizations. For example, the Cambridge Review of International Affairs devoted a special issue to Marxist IR theory in 2007. The Journal of World-Systems Research regularly publishes IR-related articles by Marxist and neo-Marxist authors. Long-standing British-based journals include Capital and Class and New Left Review, as well as International Socialism, which organizes the annual Marxism conference in London. Their North American counterparts of note include Socialist Register and Monthly Review. A later arrival is Historical Materialism, which holds annual conferences in London and Toronto.

Cambridge Review of International Affairs. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Based at the Centre for International Studies at Cambridge University. Vol. 20, no. 4 (2007) contains numerous articles on Marxist IR by Alex Callinicos, Justin Rosenberg, Kees van der Pijl, and others. Find this resource:

Capital and Class. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation London-based journal established by the Conference of Socialist Economists. Published landmark articles, e.g., on the state debate in the 1970s, and Peter Burnhams critique of neo -Gramscian IR theory. Holds occasional conferences and workshops. Find this resource:

Historical Materialism. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Quarterly journal of Marxist thought, with emphasis upon theory. Has carried Marxism-IR articles by Bob Sutcliffe and Sam Ashman, inter alia. Publishes a book series, with several titles on Marxism-IR topics, notably China Mievilles Between Equal Rights: A Marxist Theory of International Law and Tony Smiths Globalisation: A Systematic Marxian Account. Find this resource:

International Socialism. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Quarterly journal linked to the British Socialist Workers Party. Has published Marxism-IR pieces by Mike Kidron and Alex Callinicos, among others. Holds regular seminars in London and elsewhere. Linked to Bookmarks Publications, with several titles on Marxism-IR issues, notably John Newsingers The Blood Never Dried: A Peoples History of the British Empire. Find this resource:

Journal of World-Systems Research. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation US-based journal dedicated to the development and dissemination of research on topics relevant to world-systems analysis. Encourages interdisciplinary contributions. Find this resource:

Monthly Review. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation US-based Marxist bimonthly journal founded in 1949 and edited since then by six individuals: Paul Sweezy, Leo Huberman, Harry Magdoff, Ellen Meiksins Wood, John Bellamy Foster, and Robert W. McChesney. Dedicated to developing monopoly capital, stagnationist, and super -imperialist analyses of the world system. Find this resource:

New Left Review. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

British/US-based monthly socialist journal rooted in the postwar New Left. Perry Anderson is the major figure. Has published Marxism-IR pieces by Christopher Bertram and Peter Gowan, among others. Linked to Verso Books, a publisher with a particular strength in international history. Find this resource:

Socialist Register. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Annual journal rooted in the postwar New Left. Edited by Leo Panitch, Colin Leys, and others. Special IR issues include Global Flashpoints (2008), The Empire Reloaded (2005), The New Imperial Challenge (2004), and New World Order? (1992). Find this resource:

Advocates and Critics


The intellectual interests of the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx and his lifelong collaborator Friedrich Engels, cover a wide range of disciplines. The most notable of these are philosophy and political economy, but the subject matter of what was later to become known as international-relations studies is present too. Their followers included a number of European communists and social democrats who, writing in the run-up to or immediate aftermath of World War I, advanced influential theories of imperialism and world order. Throughout its history, Marxism has exhibited factious tendencies, dividing into a number of currents, of which official Communism (sometimes referred to as Stalinism), Eurocommunism, Maoism, Trotskyism, and Western Marxism are the best known.

KARL MARX AND FRIEDRICH ENGELS

The contributions made by Marx and Engels to the field of international relations (IR) did not take the form of a systematic inquiry, but are present in various guises throughout their oeuvre. In The Communist Manifesto (Marx and Engels 1983) one finds an early statement on world-historical proclivities of the capitalist mode of production: its dynamism, expansionism, subordination of agrarian regions to industrialized states, and the drive to subsume other modes of production. In the Grundrisse (Marx 1993). Marx elaborates upon these theses and notes that the tendency to create the world market is directly given in the concept of capital itself (p. 408). The most complete development of Marxs position appears in Capital (Marx 19761981). Although sometimes presumed to be an analysis of capitalism within a nation-state, its three volumes in fact proffer a conceptual apparatus designed to comprehend the essential features of the capitalist mode of production, considered in the abstract. They include analysis of those laws of accumulationincluding capital concentration, centralization, and competition that were to become centerpieces in later Marxist theorization of imperialism. Marx and Engels did write upon the nature and form of state power, albeit not systematically. The core contention is that it is in the direct relationship of the owners of the conditions of production to the immediate producers that we find the hidde n basis of . . . the political form of the relationship of sovereignty and dependence, in short the specific form of state ( Capital, Vol. 3, p. 927). In Marxs account, capitalism is a system built upon a unique relationship of production between owners of means of production and free workerssuch that the exploitation relation does not rely upon direct coercion within structures of personal obligation or ownership. The reconstitution of surplus extraction as a private activity, as economics, enables the redefinition of political power as a public communal space. The kernel of this theory appeared in Marxs early writings, such as A Contribution to the Critique of Hegels Philosophy of Right (Marx 1977), and was developed in later works. In addition to theorizing capital and the state, Marx and Engelss writings explore a range of IR -relevant themes, including the origins and nature of nationalism, the relationship between bourgeois revolution and war, and the history of empires (Austria-Hungary, Ottoman, czarist Russia). A touchstone in recent discussion has been Marxs journalistic writings on India, in which he addresses questions of economic progress and national revolt (Marx 1973).

Marx, Karl. A Contribution to the Critique of Hegels Philosophy of Right. In Critique of HegelsPhilosophy of Right. Edited by Joseph OMalley, 129142. London: Cambridge University Press, 1977. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Early theorization of the relationship between state and civil society. First published in 1844. Find this resource:

Marx, Karl. Articles on India and China. In Surveys from Exile. Political Writings 2. Edited by David Fernbach 301-333. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1973. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Contributions to the New York Daily Tribune, detailing Britains plundering of the Indian subcontinent and exhorting its indigenous inhabitants to throw off the English yoke. Originally published in 1853. Find this resource:

Marx, Karl. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Translated by Ben Fowkes. 3 vols. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 19761981. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Marxs masterwork, in three volumes. Begins with the commodity form and moves incrementally toward more concrete levels of determination. Marxs intention of adding further volumes dealing with, inter alia, the state and the world market, remained unfulfilled. Originally published in 1863. Find this resource:

Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. Manifesto of the Communist Party. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1983. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Foundational text of the communist movement; a call to arms. Noted for its visionary analysis of the globalization drive inherent in capital. Originally published in 1848. Find this resource:

Marx, Karl. Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy. Translated by Martin Nicolaus. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1993. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A central work in Marxs oeuvre; in certain respects a draft of Capital. Originally published in 18571858. Find this resource:

THEORIZING IMPERIALISM

Writing in an age of relative peace between the Great Powers, imperialism and war were secondary concerns for Marx and Engels. But the next generation of Marxist theorists was born into a different era, marked by globalization, nationalism, protectionism, mercantilism, and war. Imperialism had come into common usage, referring to the militaristic turn in the foreign policies of the Great Powers, and they made it their own. Common to most of them was the general contention that capitalism, in Rosa Luxemburgs words, was sweeping away all superannuated, precapitalistic methods of production and society such that capitalist -geopolitical expansion was no longer about the partition of the globe but its repartition (Luxemburg 1951). The seminal text was Finance Capital (Hilferding 1981), by the Austrian Social Democrat Rudolf Hilferding. Basing his observations largely upon Germany and its neighbors, but also the United States, Hilferding explored the links between new business organization, capital export, and geopolitical rivalry. Upon the outbreak of World War I, the Second International of socialist parties overturned its longstanding opposition to war. Karl Kautsky produced a controversial article, Kautsky 1970, that mooted the prospect of postwar ultra-imperialism, whereby the major powers would agree to bury their differences and form the geopolitical equivalent of a cartel. For Marxist theory, the implication was that inter-imperialist conflict was contingent, rather than an essential trait of capitalist geopolitics. In response to the outbreak of war, Lenin produced his famous pamphlet Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (Lenin 1964). Imperialism, for him, is conceptualized as a new phase of capitalism in which a new mercantilism yields a rivalrous, militaristic international order. Contemporaneously with Lenin, Nikolai Bukharin developed a similar, albeit more systematically theorized, position (Bukharin 1973). If uneven development lay at the heart of Lenins understanding of imperialism, it was also to become a central concern for their fellow Bolshevik Leon Trotsky. Whereas Marx and Engels had anticipated that late-developing capitalist nations would see in the m ost advanced nation, Britain, a picture of their own future,Trotsky 1971 argued otherwise. Conditions in Russia hardly seemed propitious for industrialization. And yet backwardness is not without advantages. Institutions and practices that are successful elsewhere can be emulated. Technologies developed laboriously by others can be rapidly assimilated. Under pressure of military competition with more advanced powers, development in Russia involved the combination of different stages, producing amalgams of the archaic and the ultramodern: uneven and combined development. Resort was made to state power, a central element in what the Italian revolutionary Antonio Gramsci referred to as passive revolution ( Gramsci 1971, Gramsci 1995).

Bukharin, Nikolai. Imperialism and World Economy. London: Merlin, 1973. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Pamphlet, by one of the Bolshevik partys most original thinkers, designed to explain the capitalist nat ure of World War I and to refute Kautsky. Pioneering disquisition on the interaction between national economic consolidation and

the internationalization of capital. Criticized for overstating tendencies to international conflict, state capitalism, and suppression of domestic competition. Originally published in 1915. Find this resource:

Gramsci, Antonio. Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci. Translated by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1971. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Writings from prison by the Italian Communist Party leader. Of interest to IR in particular due to the concepts passive revolution and hegemony. The latter, used by Lenin to indicate proletarian political leadership, is adapted by Gramsci to refer to domination through combined force and consent, and extended, albeit rarely, to international relations, such as French attempts to establish hegemony in 19th-century Europe. Originally published in 19291935. Find this resource:

Gramsci, Antonio. Further Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Edited and translated by Derek Boothman. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1995. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Includes treatments of prewar European hegemony, the rise of the United States, colonialism, and tariff policy. Originally published 19291935. Find this resource:

Hilferding, Rudolf. Finance Capital: A Study of the Latest Phase of Capitalist Development . Translated by Morris Watnick and Sam Gordon. London: Routledge, 1981. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Theorizes the new phase of capitalism dominated by corporations and cartels, entailing subordination of industry to finance, with banks as orchestrators, encouraging monopolization and a defensive approach domestically, but exporting offensives abroad. Imperialism as the policy of finance capital. Predicts war between Germany and Britain/France. Originally published in 1910. Find this resource:

Kautsky, Karl. Ultra-imperialism. New Left Review 59 (1970): 4146. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Article originally published in Die Neue Zeit, written upon outbreak of World War I. Proposes that a likely outcome of the war is the peaceful federation of the Great Powers. Criticized for predicting the end of imperialist conflict and competitive arms buildup. Originally published in 1914. Find this resource:

Lenin, Vladimir Ilych. Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism: A Popular Outline. In Collected Works. Vol. 22. By Vladimir Ilych Lenin. Moscow: Foreign Languages, 1964. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Polemical intervention designed to explain causes of World War I and reorient the socialist movement. Its original contribution is the idea of international conflict as an inescapable companion of modern capitalist development; geopolitics of uneven economic development and its political consequences. Criticized for assuming capitalism was in its death throes, and for overemphasizing the five trends. Originally published in 1916. Find this resource:

Luxemburg, Rosa. The Accumulation of Capital. Translated by Agnes Schwarzschild. London: Routledge, 2003 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Weighty intervention into Marxist economic and IR theory by the German Communist leader. Particularly relevant to IR in its focus on the relationship between capitalist states and the noncapitalist periphery the former, as a bloc, has an existential imperative to dominate the latter. Also explores how weaker states become integrated into the world capitalist system on disadvantageous terms. Originally published in 1913. Find this resource:

Trotsky, Leon. History of the Russian Revolution. New York: Pathfinder, 1971. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Trotskys magnum opus. In essence, a detailed historical account of the 1917 revolutions, but the discussion of their causation contains seminal thoughts on uneven and combined development: how Russias economic backwardn ess relates to the nature of the international system, leading to the skipping of historical stages. Originally published in 1930.

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VARIETIES OF MARXISM

Following the revolutionary experiment of the Bolsheviks, a security-minded Stalinist regime emerged in Russia, as chronicled in The Communist Movement (Claudn 1975). It played the diplomatic game according to the same rules that had been normalized and perfected over the course of the 19th century: that, in a multipolar order, each Great Powers primary interest lies in establishing and maintaining its own sphere of influence, with international order being upheld fundamentally by power balancing. Marxism -Leninism continued to guide Soviet policy but was refashioned as boosterism for Soviet industrialization. Given the distancing of social democratic parties from Marxism, the mantel of orthodoxy, for the entire historical period from World War II until the fall of the Be rlin Wall, was claimed by Soviet Communism. Orthodox Communism itself displayed fractious tendencies. In the 1960s and 1970s there emerged two currents of note: Maoism, in power in China and influential in India (Dirlik, et al. 1997), and Eurocommunism, with geographical centers in southern Europe and Japan (Azcrate 1978). Maoisms criticisms of the orthodoxy centered upon the Soviet Unions imperialist relationship with countries o f the South, while Eurocommunists balked at Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia, sought autonomy for their own national parties relative to the leadership claims of the Soviet party, and criticized Stalinist intransigence toward mainstream social democratic and conservative parties. The final significant politically organized branch of Marxism, Trotskyism, diverged from the orthodoxy in the 1920s over the question of the construction of socialism in one country (Callinicos 1990). In the second and third quarters of the 20th century, Marxisms intellectual influence was most pronounced in philosophical and cultural domains. This phenomenon has been described, by Anderson 1979and others, as Western Marxism.

Anderson, Perry. Considerations on Western Marxism. London: Verso, 1979. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Synoptic essay in intellectual history. Charts the evolution of Marxist theory following the retreat of the revolutionary movements of 19171923. Includes discussion of Louis Althusser, Theodor Adorno, Lucio Colletti, Antonio Gramsci, Georg Lukacs, Herbert Marcuse, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Galvano Della Volpe. Find this resource:

Azcrate, Manuel. What is Eurocommunism? In Eurocommunism. Edited by G. R. Urban, 1331. London: Temple Smith, 1978. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Brief, straightforward introduction to Eurocommunism by a leading member of the Spanish Communist Party. Also available online. Find this resource:

Callinicos, Alex. Trotskyism. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press, 1990. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Student-friendly introduction. Includes discussion of the theories of permanent revolution and state capitalism. Also available online. Find this resource:

Claudn, Fernando. The Communist Movement: From Comintern to Cominform. Translated by Brian Pearce and Francis MacDonagh. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1975. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Comprehensive chronicle of the Stalinization of the communist movement by a leading member of the Spanish Communist Party. Find this resource:

Dirlik, Arif, Paul Healy, and Nick Knight, eds. Critical Perspectives on Mao Zedongs Thought. 2d ed. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1997. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Collected essays, accessible in nature, presenting and critically reevaluat ing Maos thought. Conceptually, they share common ground in viewing Maoism as a form of revolutionary Marxism specific to the Third World. Find this resource:

CRITICS OF MARXISM

Marxist writing on international relations (IR) was, through most of the 20th century, synonymous with theories of imperialism. Criticism came in the form of alternative theories of imperialism, notably those published by the Austrian economist and political scientist Joseph Schumpeter (Schumpeter 1951), and by the economic historians John Gallagher and Ronald Robinson (Gallagher and Robinson 1953). From IR theorists, Marxism has faced criticism from three main directions. One, addressed by the English school theorist Martin Wight, is the suggestion that it is deterministic and reductive, in the sense that political events and actors are seen as epiphenomena of underlying socioeconomic structures (Wight 1966). A second, related criticism, advanced by Anthony Giddens, among others, is that Marxism accords an unjustifiable explanatory primacy to one sphere, the economy (Giddens 1985). The third criticism postulates that Marxist concepts in general, and those of class and mode of production in particular, are not appropriate for the international arena. It is advanced primarily in works by realists, such as Waltz 1959 andKublkov and Cruickshank 1980, who privilege the state as the sole valid unit of analysis in IR. Some works by IR theorists, of which Linklater 1990 is a noteworthy representative, find much to admire in Marxism but propose its merger with other philosophical traditions to create a more analytically powerful hybrid.

Gallagher, John, and Ronald Robinson. 1953. The Imperialism of Free Trade. Economic History Review 6.1 (1953): 115. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0289.1953.tb01482.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Criticizes Marxist explanations of imperialism as economistic, and argues that a major impetus for colonial conquest was strategic. Find this resource:

Giddens, Anthony. A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism. Vol. 2, The Nation-State and Violence. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 1985. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Study of social change and world order by a neo-Weberian historical sociologist. Includes critique of historical materialism for proposing a single overriding dynamic of transformation in interpreting the nature of modernity. Particularly appropriate for graduate students. Find this resource:

Kublkov, Vendulka, and Albert Cruickshank. Marxism-Leninism and Theory of International Relations. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Critique of Marxist international-relations discourse from a realist perspective. Find this resource:

Linklater, Andrew. Beyond Realism and Marxism: Critical Theory and International Relations . Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1990. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Sympathetic critique of Marxism, proposing that Marxian and Kantian philosophical approaches be interwoven to provide the foundation for a critical IR theory. Find this resource:

Schumpeter, Joseph A.. The Sociology of Imperialism. 1951. Joseph A. Schumpeter, Sociology of Imperialism, in Richard V. Clemence, ed., Essays of Joseph A. Schumpeter(Cambridge: Addison-Wesley Press, 1951) Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A classic text, although not widely available. First printed in 1919. Theorizes imperialism as the product not of capitalism but of the militaristic proclivities of agrarian landed classes, coupled with the financial interests of monarchies. Predicts that imperialism will disappear. Find this resource:

Waltz, Kenneth N. Man, the State, and War: A Theoretical Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1959. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Standard text in IR, by a prominent neorealist scholar. Marxism features as an example of theories that locate causes of war in the internal organization of states and is criticized for denying the inevitable logic of power struggles within an anarchical system.

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Wight, Martin. Why is There No International Theory? In Diplomatic Investigations: Essays in the Theory of International Politics. Edited by Herbert Butterfield and Martin Wight, 1734. London: Allen & Unwin, 1966. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Seminal essay by distinguished representative of the English school of international relations. Argues that Marxism is wedded to economic determinism and makes no systematic contribution to international theory. Find this resource:
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Contemporary Marxism
In the final third of the 20th century, historical materialist thinking in international relations (IR) flourished. In the 1960s, the focus was on socioeconomic relations between the first and third worlds, as explored by dependency and world-systems theories. The 1970s witnessed a revival of Marxist writing on imperialism and state theory. In the 1980s a closer dialogue with IR developed, thanks initially to the work of neo-Gramscian theorists. The defining debate in 1990s social theory concerned globalization, and Marxists participated vigorously in it. In the 21st century, historical materialist IR experienced a renaissance, with renewed interest in theories of imperialism and uneven and combined development, as well as debates on the relationship between capitalism and territoriality, and on the past, present, and future of US hegemony.

DEPENDENCY THEORY AND WORLD-SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

In the first quarter of the 20th century, the brunt of Marxist theorization of the international concerned the relations between the Great Powers. Over the following fifty years, as former colonies gained political independence, hopes grew that this would yield economic catch-up, but over time little evidence of this could be discerned. This prompted some economistsMarxists such as Baran (see Baran 1978) and Amin (see Amin 1976) and non-Marxists such as Andr Gunder Frankto investigate the blockages. Frank preferred the term dependency to imperialism, and whereas for Lenin uneven development had referred to the fluctuating economic fortunes between competing nation-states, Frank understood it to refer to the North-South gap. While Marx and Engels had only intermittently considered the question of the domination of the agrarian South by the industrialized North, the dependency theorists gave it their undivided attention. Through their lens, the history of colonial and other techniques of power projection had structured the world economy and the states system in hierarchical form, generating the underdevelopment of economies of the periphery, as well as their dependency on and exploitation by those of the core. The most systematic and influential theorization of core -periphery exploitation was advanced in the 1970s by Immanuel Wallerstein. His world-systems analysis draws heavily upon Braudel, Marx (and Marxists such as Baran), and Karl Polanyi. Published in three volumes, Wallerstein 19741989 provides a conceptual apparatus designed to comprehend the entire history of capitalism, focusing on the international division of labor, differential regimes of labor control, and the role of hegemonic states in creating a political structure to sustain global accumulation. The worldsystems paradigm has been further developed by others, notably Giovanni Arrighi, with his pathbreaking works on hegemony and hegemonic cycles (Arrighi 2010 and Arrighi and Silver 1999). Numerous critiques of world-systems analysis have been penned, the earliest and most enduring of which is Brenner 1977.

Amin, Samir. Unequal Development: An Essay on the Social Formations of Peripheral Capitalism . Translated by Brian Pearce. Hassocks, UK: Harvester, 1976. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in French as Le dveloppement ingal (Paris: Minuit, 1973). Classic treatise on core-periphery economic relations by an Egyptian Maoist economist. Maintains that social systems are born and die at the periphery, and that central and peripheral capitalism have distinct origins and structures. Best known for its theory of unequal exchange. Find this resource:

Amin, Samir. Imperialism and Unequal Development Hassocks, UK: Harvester, 1977. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in French as Limperialisme et dveloppement ingal (Paris: Minuit, 1976). A refinement and defense of Amins theory on the imperialist character of international trade. Find this resource:

Arrighi, Giovanni. The Long Twentieth Century: Money, Power, and the Origins of Our Times. New ed. London: Verso, 2010. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A creative adaptation of Wallersteinian hegemonic cycles. Drawing also upon Braudel and Marxian crisis theory, Arrighi narrates an analytical narrative of economic cycles threaded into hegemonic succession (Venice-GenoaNetherlands-Britain-United States), each phase of which expresses a Pirennian pendulum of economic freedom and economic regulation. Find this resource:

Arrighi, Giovanni, and Beverly J. Silver. Chaos and Governance in the Modern World System. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Important development of Arrighis theses on hegemonic transitions in history, changes in the intercivilizational balance of power, and the interaction between geopolitics and high finance. Predicts systemic chaos as US hegemony declines. Find this resource:

Baran, Paul. The Political Economy of Growth. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1978. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An original development of Marxism and a challenge to the modernization approach to development. Proposes that imperialist penetration of underdeveloped countries had destroyed earlier social formations and distorted their subsequent development, creating lasting conditions of dependency. Adumbrates a theory of unequal exchange between advanced regions of the world economy and the rest. First published in 1957 (New York: Monthly Review). Find this resource:

Brenner, Robert. The Origins of Capitalist Development: A Critique of Neo-Smithian Marxism.New Left Review 104 (1977): 2592. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Seminal critique of world-systems analysis by a distinguished economic historian. Contends that Wallerst eins definition of capitalism as a trade-based division of labor displaces class relations from the center of analysis, leading to a misconstrual of capitalisms history. Find this resource:

Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Modern World System. 3 vols. New York: Academic Press, 19741989. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The founding statement of world-systems analysis, in three volumes. Vol. 1 (1974): Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. Vol. 2 (1980): Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World-Economy, 16001750. Vol. 3 (1989): The Second Era of Great Expansion of the Capitalist World-Economy, 17301840s. Find this resource:

Wallerstein, Immanuel. World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Useful introduction to the world-systems approach, aimed at students and the general reader. Find this resource:

INTERNATIONAL HISTORY

International relations (IR) scholarship draws upon an array of historical research too vast and diverse to merit treatment in this bibliography. However, given the importance that Marxist IR theorists attribute to the socioeconomic underpinnings of the modern international system, some of the key historiographical texts that have contributed to Marxists understanding of three world-historical developmentsthe transition from feudalism to capitalism, the global expansion of capitalism, and its differentiation into core and peripheral zones should be mentioned and are listed below. All three developments are part of the purview of Chris Harmans world history (Harman 2008). Anderson 1979 and Brenner 2003 are classic texts on the transition from feudalism, while the guiding thread in Hobsbawms tetralogy (Hobsbawm 2005) is the consolidation and extension of capitalist society. Wolf 2010, Williams 1994, Blackburn 1997, andDavis 2001 deal with various aspects of the making of the Third World.

Anderson, Perry. Lineages of the Absolutist State. London: Verso, 1979. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Comparative survey of the nature and development of absolutist states in Europe. Originally published in 1974. Find this resource:

Blackburn, Robin. The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492 1800. London: Verso, 1997. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A comprehensive and meticulous treatment of slavery and the slave trade, including its role in the making of world capitalism. Find this resource:

Brenner, Robert. Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict and Londons Overseas Traders, 15501653. London: Verso, 2003. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Brenners magnum opus. Establishes the central role of colonial merchants and colonization in the transition to capitalism in England. Brenners work is foundational for the political Marxist current around Ellen Wood, Benno Teschke, and Hannes Lacher. Originally published in 1993. Find this resource:

Davis, Mike. Late Victorian Holocausts: El Nio Famines and the Making of the Third World . London: Verso, 2001. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A weighty but readable book exploring the influence of liberal economics and liberal imperialism on the great famines (India, China, Brazil, Africa) of 18761902. Broadens out to an analysis of the processes whereby the West pulls away from the rest. Find this resource:

Harman, Chris. A Peoples History of the World: From the Stone Age to the New Millennium. London: Verso, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Weighty but lucid and accessible. Breathtaking historical scope and analytic depth. Influential among Trotskyist IR scholars such as Alex Callinicos. Originally published in 1999. Find this resource:

Hobsbawm, Eric. The Making of the Modern World. 4 vols. London: Folio Society, 2005. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Influential modern world history in four volumes: The Age of Revolution 17891848, The Age of Capital 1848 1875, The Age of Empire 18751914, and The Age of Extremes 19141991. Find this resource:

Williams, Eric. Capitalism and Slavery. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The classic account, by the prime minister of Trinidad, of the role of slavery and the slave trade in providing the finance that fuelled Britains industrialization, and British capitalists and merchants links to the triangular trade. Originally published in 1944. Find this resource:

Wolf, Eric R. Europe and the Peoples without History. New ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Accessible treatment of the encounter between Europe and the native peoples of the Americas, Africa, and Asia by an esteemed anthropologist. Demonstrates that non-European peoples were active participants in the encounter, not passive or unchanging. First published in 1982. Find this resource:
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NEO-GRAMSCIAN APPROACHES

Neo-Gramscianism, one of the best-known schools within contemporary Marxist international relations (IR), was, ironically, founded by an individual, Robert Cox, who disavows the label neo-Gramscian and rejects the central tenets of Marxian theory. Coxs pioneering essays (Cox 1981) contributed to the wider ideational turn in IR theory and ignited interest in Gramscian terms, notably hegemony. Over subsequent decades Cox, Stephen Gill (Gill 1993), William Robinson (Robinson 2004), Mark Rupert (Rupert 1995), Adam Morton (Morton 2007), and others have developed an approach that challenges the reification of state power characteristic of mainstream IR, and that identifies structures of class relations as determinants of forms of state and world order notably, that US Fordism, by creating a Pax Americana conducive to globalization, enabled the emergence of a transnational capitalist class that, in turn, has given rise to an era of decentered and deterritorialized power. The most ambitious project by a neoGramscian theorist is Kees van der Pijls trilogy (van der Pijl 2007), the goal of which is to broaden the purview of IR to include relations between all communities occupying separate spaces and dealing with each other as outsiders. Testifying to the influence of the neo-Gramscian current, numerous critiques have been published, including Burnham 1991 and Budd 2007.

Budd, Adrian. Transnationalist Marxism: A Critique. Contemporary Politics 13.4 (2007): 331347. DOI: 10.1080/13569770701822870Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A brief but well-judged critique, identifying neo-Gramscianisms failure to adequately specify the underlying causal mechanisms of changing world orders, and subjecting the transnationalist thesis to meticulous refutation. Find this resource:

Burnham, Peter. Neo-Gramscian Hegemony and the International Order. Capital and Class15.3 (1991): 73 93. DOI: 10.1177/030981689104500105Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An early and influential critique. Neo-Gramscian theory is taken to task for its Weberian pluralism, for overestimating the importance of ideas, and for underestimating the perdurable power of nation-states. Find this resource:

Cox, Robert W. Social Forces, States and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory. Millennium 10 (1981): 126155. DOI: 10.1177/03058298810100020501Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Seminal essay introducing Marxian critical theory to the study of IR, emphasizing theoretical reflexivity, the creative role of human consciousness, the social theory of the state, and the engagement of social criticism in support of practical transformative political activity. Find this resource:

Gill, Stephen, ed. Gramsci, Historical Materialism and International Relations . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The volume that launched neo-Gramscianism as a school, with theoretical essays by Robert Cox, Stephen Gill, and Mark Rupert. Major themes are global governance and US hegemony. Area studies of East Asia, southern and eastern Europe, and Latin America. Find this resource:

Morton, Adam David. Unravelling Gramsci: Hegemony and Passive Revolution in the Global Political Economy. London: Pluto, 2007. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A complex and sophisticated book. Theoretical focus upon hegemony, passive revolution, and uneven development. Includes insightful reflections upon neoliberalism, state formation, and practices of resistance. Find this resource:

Robinson, William I. A Theory of Global Capitalism: Production, Class, and State in a Transnational World . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The most important contribution of the neo-Gramscian thesis on the rise to hegemony of a globalist economic-political bloc. Interprets US military interventions as acts on behalf of transnational capital. Find this resource:

Rupert, Mark. Producing Hegemony: The Politics of Mass Production and American Global Power. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An important contribution, criticizing the neglect by orthodox IR theories of the nexus of material production and power, and offering a Gramsci-influenced account of the development of US hegemony. Find this resource:

van der Pijl, Kees. Modes of Foreign Relations and Political Economy. Vol. 1, Nomads, Empires, States. London: Pluto, 2007. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation First volume of a trilogy dealing with, inter alia, foreign relations of empires and tribal encounters. Second volume examines foreign relations in myth, religion, and philosophy. Third volume will analyze modern IR theories as instances of Anglophone hegemony. Find this resource:

IMPERIALISM

For much of the period since World War II, the central terms in Marx-influenced treatments of the international have been dependency and hegemony, with comparatively little reference being paid to the early-20th-century theories of imperialism. Two decades stand out as exceptions. One was the 1970s, which saw important works on imperialism, including Kiernan 2005 (first published in 1978; listed under The United States: Hegemony, Empire, Imperialism), Kidron 1974,Arrighi 1983, and Magdoff 1978. The other was the 2000s, which saw a spate of publications that developed and adapted the work of prewar Marxists. They include outstanding works by established scholars such as David Harvey (Harvey 2003) and Alex Callinicos (Callinicos 2009), as well as contributions by younger academics, of which Tobias ten Brinks Geopolitik (ten Brink 2008) is a splendid example. The intervening decades were relatively sparse, with some exceptions, notably the Chilcote 1999, an edited collection. Debates have revolved around the nature of US power and the continued relevance of the Lenin-Bukharin thesis: Is the relative peace that has prevailed since 1945 a testament to an ultra-imperialist moment within capitalist geopolitics or to the contingent fact that this period, in contrast to the previous multipolar system, witnessed the rise of a hegemon? A related debate concerned the conceptualization of the Soviet Bloc: Was it a component part of world capitalism, with the corollary that the Cold War expressed intercapitalist geopolitical rivalry? Those who answered in the affirmative were more likely to see this as compatible with the Lenin-Bukharin approach.

Arrighi, Giovanni. The Geometry of Imperialism: The Limits of Hobsons Paradigm. Translated by Patrick Camiller. Rev. ed. London: Verso, 1983. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Reconstruction of John Hobsons theory of imperialism, illustrated with geometrical diagrams. Criticizes Lenin for drawing upon ideas of Hobson and Hilferding that are incommensurable. Comparison of US and German imperialism. Originally published in 1978. Find this resource:

Callinicos, Alex. Imperialism and Global Political Economy. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An erudite tome that combines a reappraisal of the Marxist canon, a comprehensive review of the contemporary literature, and a detailed discussion of the relationship between capitalism and the inter-state system. Find this resource:

Chilcote, Ronald H. ed. The Political Economy of Imperialism: Critical Appraisals . Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1999. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Multiauthored collection of essays, including ones by Prabhat Patnaik on imperialism and the Global South, and by M. C. Howard and J. E. King on Marxist theories of imperialism. Find this resource:

Harvey, David. The New Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

A contemporary classic, written during the run-up to the US-led attack on Iraq. Combines theoretical inquiry (notably into territorial and capitalist logics of power) with empirically focused analysis of the changing fortunes of US hegemony. Find this resource:

Kidron, Michael. Capitalism and Theory. London: Pluto, 1974. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Single-authored collection of essays, including critiques of unequal-exchange theories and of Lenins Imperialism. Written with concision and verve. Find this resource:

Kiernan, V. G. Marxism and Imperialism: Studies. London: Edward Arnold, 1974. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Single-authored collection of essays, the most notable of which are on the historical formation of Marxist theories of imperialism and on the comparison of US and European imperialist strategies. Find this resource:

Magdoff, Harry. Imperialism: From the Colonial Age to the Present: Essays . New York: Monthly Review, 1978. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A classic example of the Monthly Review approach, emphasizing the United States role as orchestrator of the world economy. Includes essays on European expansion since 1763 and on the relationship between US foreign policy and economic tendencies (declining rate of profit, monopolization, capital export, etc). Find this resource:

ten Brink, Tobias. Geopolitik: Geschichte und Gegenwart kapitalistischer Staatenkonkurrenz. Munster, Germany: Westflisches Dampfboot, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A systematic analysis of theories of geopolitics and imperialism, with insightful treatment of form-analytic approaches and phases of geopolitics over the 19th and 20th centuries. Find this resource:

THE INTER-STATE SYSTEM AND GLOBAL CAPITALISM

Contemporaneously with the re-engagement with theories of imperialism in the 1970s, other angles upon Marxist international relations (IR) theorys major preoccupation, the relationship between the capitalist mode of production and the inter-state system, began to be explored. The state debate that arose in western Europe in the 1970s, the major texts of which are summarized in Holloway and Picciotto 1978 and Clarke 1991, chiefly dealt with the state considered in the singular (as opposed to the inter-state system), but some protagonists, such as Claudia von Braunmhl and Colin Barker, began to explore its insertion within th e world economy and international system. One contribution by a US-based scholar was The Marxian Theory of the State ( Harvey 2001) by David Harvey, who went on to produce a string of major contributions to theorizing the geopolitics and geography of international capitalism, the most compressed and important of which is his Geopolitics of Capitalism. A highly original and sophisticated integration of the Marxist theories of the state and of the international system arrived in 1994 with Ju stin Rosenbergs Empire of Civil Society (Rosenberg 1994). For Rosenberg, the distinctiveness of the capitalist mode of production lies in the institutional separation of public and private spheres and, correlatively, in the depoliticization of private exploitation and the rise of the modern political state. In this emphasis, his approach bears a resemblance to that of Ellen Wood (Wood 2003), Benno Teschke (Teschke 2003) and Hannes Lacher (Lacher 2006). These political Marxists have succeeded in bringing Marxist theory into close dialogue with mainstream IR, as well as with their critics from other strands of Marxism, such as Alex Callinicos, who engages with Wood, Teschke, and Lacher in Callinicos 2009 (cited under Imperialism), and Gonzalo Pozo-Martin (Pozo-Martin 2007).

Clarke, Simon, ed. The State Debate. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1991. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Essays published in Capital and Class. Includes thought-provoking pieces by Sol Picciotto on the changing form of the international system and by Colin Barker on state theory. Originally published from 1977 to 1985. Find this resource:

Harvey, David. In Spaces of Capital: Towards a Critical Geography. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2001. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An accomplished intervention into debates on the state and on the spatial consequences of economic crisis by a distinguished Marxist economist and geographer. Especially recommende d are the chapters entitled The Marxian Theory of the State and The Geopolitics of Capitalism. Originally published in 1976 and 1985. Find this resource:

Holloway, John, and Sol Picciotto, eds. State and Capital: A Marxist Debate. London: Edward Arnold, 1978. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Edited collection. The classic source on the 1970s state debate. Its strength lies in the recovery of form analysis. Includes Claudia von Braunmhl on the relationship between nation-states and the world market. Find this resource:

Lacher, Hannes. Beyond Globalization: Capitalism, Territoriality and the International Relations of Modernity . Routledge/RIPE Studies in Global Political Economy 20. London: Routledge, 2006. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A critique of assumptions, widespread among Marxists, that the inter -stateness of the world political system developed in conjunction with the rise of capitalism. Proposes that the state system was fully modern before the rise of capitalism, and that the relationship between capitalism and the inter-state system is therefore contingent. Find this resource:

Pozo-Martin, Gonzalo. Autonomous or Materialist Geopolitics? Cambridge Review of International Affairs 20.4 (2007): 551563. DOI: 10.1080/09557570701680480Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A brief but spirited warning against the importation of realist categories into historical materialist analysis. Find this resource:

Rosenberg, Justin. The Empire of Civil Society: A Critique of the Realist Theory of International Relations . London: Verso, 1994. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A landmark contribution. Combines a critique of realism with in-depth historical and theoretical analysis of the specific quality of geopolitics in the capitalist era. Find this resource:

Teschke, Benno. The Myth of 1648: Class, Geopolitics, and the Making of Modern International Relations. London: Verso, 2003. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Historical-theoretical account of European interpolity relations, from the Carolingian Empire to feudal anarchy, to absolutism, to English capitalism. Key thesis: Is was not the Peace of Westphalia but capitalism in England that generated a distinctively modern international system. Deploys a rigid conceptualization of capitalism that rests heavily on the institutional separation of economics and politics. Find this resource:

Wood, Ellen Meiksins. Empire of Capital. London: Verso, 2003. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Historical-analytical treatise on empiresRoman, Arab-Muslim, Venetian, Spanish, English/British, USby a distinguished political theorist. Emphasis upon the peculiarities of modern capitalist imperialism as almost entirely a matter of economic domination. Holds the United States as the one and only fully capitalist empire. Find this resource:
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UNEVEN AND COMBINED DEVELOPMENT

A recent phenomenon within Marxist international relations (IR) has been the efflorescence of interest in Trotskys theory of uneven and combined development. A pioneer here has again been Justin Rosenberg, whose several exploratory articles on the subject include the acclaimed Why is There No International Historical Sociology? (Rosenberg 2006). Uneven and combined development has also been developed and updated by a number of

Trotskyist theorists, many of whom contributed to the edited collection 100 Years of Permanent Revolution: Results and Prospects (Dunn and Radice 2006. Particularly original are the contributions by Neil Davidson (Davidson 2009) and Colin Barker (Barker 2009). Other Marxists explore a similar area of inquiry, albeit without the deployment of Trotskys concept. A notable example is Kees van der Pijl, several of whose books, beginning with Transnational Classes and International Relations (van der Pijl 1998), develop an approach to modern international history that centers upon a dichotomy between two types of state-society configuration: Lockean, where economic power is concentrated in private hands, and Hobbesian, a form of state that is less differentiated from society, is proactive in economic development, and relies heavily upon centralized administration. Lockean structures developed in the liberal heartlands of capitalism, while Hobbesian states arose in relatively backward regions.

Barker, Colin. Industrialism, Capitalism, Force and States: Some Theoretical and Historical Issues. International Journal of Management Concepts and Philosophy 3.4 (2009): 313331. DOI: 10.1504/IJMCP.2009.027614Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A distinctive interpretation of uneven and combined development, set within a rich theoretical discussion of the nature of force in capitalist society. Find this resource:

Davidson, Neil. Putting the Nation Back into the International. Cambridge Review of International Affairs 22.1 (2009): 928. DOI: 10.1080/09557570802683920Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Trenchant engagement with the views of Alex Callinicos and Justin Rosenberg on uneven and combined development, criticizing Callinicos for failing to consider its combined aspect and Rosenberg for ascribing characteristics of transhistoricity and internationality to uneven and combined development that it does not possess. Find this resource:

Dunn, Bill, and Hugo Radice, eds. 100 Years of Permanent Revolution: Results and Prospects. London: Pluto, 2006. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Multiauthored edited collection consisting of papers that critically reevaluate T rotskys theories of uneven and combined development and permanent revolution. Essential reading on this topic. Find this resource:

Rosenberg, Justin. Why is There No International Historical Sociology? European Journal of International Relations 12.3 (2006): 307340. DOI: 10.1177/1354066106067345Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Identifies a lacuna in social theory, namely, that society is traditionally conceptualized in the singular. Attempts to overcome the problem by adaptation of Trotskys idea of uneven and combined development. Concludes that uneven-and-combined-development theory can overcome a twofold absence: of an international dimension from sociological theory, and of a sociological dimension from IR. Find this resource:

van der Pijl, Kees. Transnational Classes and International Relations. London: Routledge, 1998. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The first of several books in which van der Pijl develops his conceptual history built around Lockean heartland and Hobbesian contenders. Includes discussion of transnational class formation and the neoliberal ascendancy. Find this resource:

GLOBALIZATION

Prior to the rise of the globalization discourse, Marxist economists such as Robin Murray (Murray 1971) and Nigel Harris (Harris 1983) made seminal contributions to theorizing the changing relationship between states and capitals in the postwar period. More recently, Marxists such as Robert Went (Went 2002) have embraced the concept as offering indispensable analytical purchase, while others, including James Petras and Henry Veltmeyer (Petras and Veltmeyer 2001) and the contributors to the Freeman and Kagarlitsky 2004 edited volume, debunk it. For them, globalization functions as ideological cover for a neoliberal campaign steered by narrow Western interests that serves to perpetuate the North-South power and income gap. Still others, notably Justin Rosenberg (Rosenberg 2000, Rosenberg 2005), concentrate upon repudiating globalizations pretensions as an explanatory schema. Upon the vast and disputatious canvas of globalization theory, Marxists do not form a tight-knit group but present a wide

spectrum of different perspectives. For an overview of the globalization discourse in general, Bromley 1999 is recommended.

Bromley, Simon. Marxism and Globalisation. In Marxism and Social Science. Edited by Andrew Gamble, David Marsh, and Tony Tant, 280-301. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1999. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A concise and lucid introduction to globalization theory by an established Marxist IR theorist. Includes useful discussions of the work of Immanuel Wallerstein, Anthony Giddens, and Roland Robertson. Find this resource:

Freeman, Alan, and Boris Kagarlitsky, eds. The Politics of Empire: Globalisation in Crisis. Pluto, 2004. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Collection of essays, including Alan Freemans remarkable analysis of the economic geography of North -South income divergence and Patrick Bond on the geopolitics of imperialism. Find this resource:

Harris, Nigel. Of Bread and Guns: The World Economy in Crisis. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1983. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Dated but accessible study of transformations in the global political economy, including analysis of economic globalization and the decline of capitalism in one country. Find this resource:

Murray, Robin. The Internationalization of Capital and the Nation -State. New Left Review 67 (1971): 84109. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An early intervention into critical international political-economy debates on the growing territorial noncoincidence between businesses and states. Find this resource:

Petras, James, and Henry Veltmeyer. Globalization Unmasked: Imperialism in the 21st Century. Halifax, NS: Fernwood, 2001. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A combative book that presents globalization as imperialism in new clothes. Includes chapters on Latin America, on nongovernmental organizations (as servants of imperialism) and on US hegemony. Find this resource:

Rosenberg, Justin. The Follies of Globalisation Theory: Polemical Essays. London: Verso, 2000. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Brilliantly written critique of globalization theory as an emergent process with effects in its own right, as instanced in the work of Jan Aart Scholte, Rob Walker, and Anthony Giddens. Find this resource:

Rosenberg, Justin. Globalization Theory: A Post Mortem. International Politics 42 (2005): 274. DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.ip.8800098Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Hard-hitting extension of Rosenbergs earlier critique, by way of a conjunctural explanation of the rise of globalization theory. A symposium appeared in International Politics 42.3 (2005), followed by a rejoinder (44.4, 2007). Find this resource:

Went, Robert. The Enigma of Globalisation: A Journey to a New Stage of Capitalism . London: Routledge, 2002. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An extended essay that compares late-20th-century globalization with its late-19th-century predecessor, emphasizing the predominance of economic over military rivalry in the latter period. Find this resource:

THE UNITED STATES: HEGEMONY, EMPIRE, IMPERIALISM

As an introduction to the topic, Kiernan 2005 is an indispensable classic. An equally original but more difficult work, Smith 2003 stakes out the connections between the evolution of the United States as a Great Power and the

changing form of territoriality at the global scale. Some of the most insightful Marxist international relations (IR) scholarship has gravitated toward two particular objectives of US power: control over oil, exemplified by Bromley 1991, and control over world money, which was expertly analyzed by Fred Block in the 1970s (Block 1977) and Peter Gowan (Gowan 1999) a generation later. Major studies of US imperialism were published in the wake of George W. Bushs accession to power by Alex Callinicos (Callinicos 2003), John Bellamy Foster (Foster 2006), and Leo Panitch and Sam Gindin (Panitch and Gindin 2004). These were bound up with wider debates on imperialism in which the neo-Gramscian and world-systems theorists mentioned in other sections of this bibliography were also prominent participants.

Block, Fred L. The Origins of International Economic Disorder: A Study of United States International Monetary Policy from World War II to the Present. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A perceptive discussion of the decline of the gold standard, and of the Marshall Plan and the Bretton Woods regime and its unraveling. Remains useful despite its age. Find this resource:

Bromley, Simon. American Hegemony and World Oil: The Industry, the State System and the World Economy. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 1991. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An ambitious early work, containing a compressed but comprehensive survey of IR theories, a sharply argued thesisthat neither realism nor neoclassical economics can grasp the strategic aspect of oiland a detailed examination of the oil-hegemony nexus, with focus on the Middle East. Find this resource:

Callinicos, Alex. The New Mandarins of American Power: The Bush Administrations Plans for the World. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2003. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Useful introduction to US grand strategy, discussing the new turns and old tricks of the George W. Bush regime. Acutely observed analyses of neoconservatism and the geopolitics of oil, with focus on US intervention in the Middle East. Find this resource:

Foster, John Bellamy. Naked Imperialism: The U.S. Pursuit of Global Dominance. New York: Monthly Review, 2006. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Essays by the editor of the Monthly Review, written in response to the turn in US foreign policy under George W. Bush. Extends the Baran-Sweezy monopoly capital thesis, assessing the impact upon world order of four economic trends: stagnation, monopolization, financialization, and globalization. Find this resource:

Gowan, Peter. The Global Gamble: Washingtons Faustian Bid for World Dominance London: Verso, 1999. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A tour de force by the most realist of Marxist IR analysts. Powerfully argued essay on the neo-mercantilist character of US-led global restructuring. The titular gamble refers to the project of economic globalization, designed such that benefits accrue to the United States while risks and costs are distributed abroad. Find this resource:

Kiernan, V. G. America, the New Imperialism: From White Settlement to World Hegemony . London: Verso, 2005. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Magnificently written survey of the evolution of the US empire, with particular attention to its international entanglements. Sweeping historical range, from the genocide of Americas indigenous inhabitants to the Vietnam War. Originally published in 1978 (London: Zed). Find this resource:

Panitch, Leo, and Sam Gindin. Global Capitalism and American Empire. London: Merlin, 2004. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A pamphlet-sized presentation of the United States as superimperialist thesis: US informal empire has superceded the balance of power, succeeding in its quest to organize capitalism on the global scale. Global capitalism is defined

stringently, with rogue states assumed to be external to it. Includes a discussion of US power projection via foreign direct investment, and a brief critique of classical Marxist theories of imperialism. Find this resource:

Smith, Neil. American Empire: Roosevelts Geographer and the Prelude to Globalization . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A theoretically adventurous work by a distinguished geographer. A treatise on the modern geopolitical history of the United States, with a focus on the changing texture of territoriality in the early 20th century, explored by way of an analytical biography of the geographer Isaiah Bowman. Find this resource:
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HARDT AND NEGRIS EMPIRE

By the yardsticks either of sales or idiosyncrasy, the Marxist international relations (IR) hit in the 2000s was Michael Hardt and Antonio Negris Empire (Hardt and Negri 2000). Threading together concepts from Foucault and Deleuze, and from Spinoza and Marx, Empire furnishes a powerful and esoteric restatement of globalization theory. Following its publication in 2000, it immediately began to attract critiques, the most notable of which are the essays collected in Gopal Balakrishnans Debating Empire (Balakrishnan 2003) and a short book by Attilio Boron (Boron 2005).

Balakrishnan, Gopal, ed. Debating Empire. London: Verso, 2003. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Eleven essays from prominent left-wing intellectuals, including Giovanni Arrighi, Alex Callinicos, and Ellen Wood. Find this resource:

Boron, Atilio A. Empire and Imperialism: A Critical Reading of Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri . Translated by Jessica Casiro. London: Zed, 2005. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A sophisticated and very readable (although not always fair) critique of the Hardt-Negri tome. Pans across Empires full thematic range, including sovereignty, imperialism, world economy, and multitude. Find this resource:

Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri. Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Enormously influential. Argues that transnational corporations have turned nation-states into mere instruments of accounting and management, and that geopolitical competition, once the motor of world politics, has been switched off. A new, deterritorialized, postmodern form of sovereignty has emerged: empire.