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SHAKESPEARE FOUR HUMORS

Lesson Taught By: Emynee Garrett Keydareon Graham Alycia Moore-Smith

QUICK ASSESSMENT

What are the four humors? What are the four temperaments? What are the four bodily humors? What are the four elements? What are the four seasons?

INTRODUCTION

The four bodily humors were part of Shakespearean cosmology, inherited from the ancient Greek philosophers Aristotle, Hippocrates, and Galen. Organized around the four elements of earth, water, air, and fire; the four qualities of cold, hot, moist, and dry; and the four humors, these physical qualities determined the behavior of all created things including the human body.

INTRODUCTION

In the human body, the interaction of the four humors explained differences of age, gender, emotions, and disposition. The influence of the humors changed with the seasons and times of day and with the human life span. Heat stimulated action, cold depressed it. The young warriors choler gave him courage but phlegm produced cowards. Youth was hot and moist, age cold and dry. Men as a sex were hotter and drier than women.

FOUR HUMORS Four Humors Bodily Humors (Hippocrates) Black Bile Blood Phlegm Yellow Bile Four Temperaments (Galens) Cold and Dry Hot and Moist Cold and Moist Hot and Dry Universal Elements (Aristotle) Earth Air Fire Wind Four Seasons

Melancholic Sanguine Phlegmatic Choleric

Autumn Spring Winter Summer

CHARACTERISTICS

HIPPOCRATES

Greek physician Hippocrates (ca. 460 BCE370 BCE) is often credited with developing the theory of the four bodily humors blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegmand their influence on the body and its emotions. His famous treatise on Airs, Waters, and Places describes the influence of geography on the body and its humoral makeup.

GALENS

Born in Pergamon, Roman physician and philosopher Galen (ca. 131ca. 201) described the four temperaments as determined by a balance of the qualities of hot, cold, moist, and dry. He was revered as a great clinician.

ARISTOTLE

Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 BCE322 BCE) identified the classic four elements earth, water, air, and fire as the building blocks of the universe.

QUICK ASSESSMENT

What are the four humors?


sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, and melancholic What are the four temperaments? hot, cold, moist, and dry What are the four bodily humors? blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm What are the four elements? earth, water, air, and fire What are the four seasons? winter, summer, spring, and fall