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KLASSE DER LETTEREN EN DER MORELE EN STAATKUNDIGE WET EN SCHAPPEN

ET POLITIQUES

MMOIRES
Collection in-8 Tome LIX

VERHANDELINGEN
Verzameling in-8 Boek LIX Al vering 4.

Fascicule 4.

Commmtary
on the

AstroiiomicaJ Treatise
Par. gr. 2425
f

PAR

O. NEUGEBAUER
Brown University, Providence, R.I., U.S.A.

BRUXELLES

BRUSSEL

PALAIS DES ACADMIES


Rue Ducale, i
1969
N0 1819

PALEIS DERACADEMIN Hertogsstraat, I

LISTE DES PUBLICATIONS RECENTES DE L'ACADMIE


CLASSE DES LETTRES

ET DES SCIENCES MORALES ET POLITIQUES


Mmoires in-8 2e Srie
Tome XXX

1.
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1431. Favresse, F. L'avnement du rgime dmocratique Bruxelles pendant le moyen ge (1306-1423) ; 1932 ; 334 p 1450. Rochus, L. Lalatinit de Salvien ; 1934 ; 142 p
Tome XXXI

80 70

1442. De Boom, Ghislalne. Les Ministres plnipotentiaires dans les Pays-Bas autrichiens principalement Cobenzl ; 1932 ; 421 p
Tome XXXII

100

1445. Doutrepont, Georges. Jean Lemaire de Belges et la Renaissance ; 1934 ; L-442 p


XXXIII

80

1449. Vercauteren, Fernand. tude sur les Civitates de la Belgique seconde.


Contribution l'histoire urbaine du Nord de la France, de la fin du IIIe

la fin du XIe sicle ; 1934 ; 10 cartes, 4 facs., 488 p


Tome XXXIV

puls.

1460. Van Werveke, H. De Gentsche financin in de Middeleeuwen ; 1934 ; 3 diagr., 423 p


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1468. Bonenfant, P. Le problme du pauprisme en Belgique la fin de l'an-

cien rgime ; 1934 ; 579 p


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160

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1462. Lefvre, J. La Secrtairerie d'tat et de Guerre sous le rgime espagnol,


1594-1711 ; 1934 ; 268 p 1481. Velge, H. Y a-t-il lieu de crer en Belgique une Cour du contentieux administratif ? Quelles devraient tre sa comptence et son organisation ? 60

1935; 159 p
XXXVII

40

1.

2.

1483. Puttemans, A. La censure dans les Pays-Bas autrichiens ; 1935; 1 pl. ; 376 p 1482. Leemans, E.-A. Studie over den Wijsgeer Numenius van Apamea met

80

uitgave der fragmenten ; 1937 ; III-174 p


Tome XXXVIII

80

1.
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1497. Cornll, Georges. Une vision allemande de l'tat travers l'histoire et la


philosophie ; 1936 ; 198 p 1517. Yans, Maurice. Histoire conomique du duch de Limbourg sous la Maison deBourgogne. Les forts et les mines ; 1938 ; 1 carte, 278 p
Tome XXXIX

50

60

1.
2.
3.

1523. Adontz, Nlcolas. SamueH'Armnien, Roi des Bulgares ; 1938 ; 61 p


1524. Delatte, Ivan, La vente des biens nationaux dans le Dpartement de Jemap-

30

pes ; 1938 ; 136 p

puis.
60 60

1526. Van Steenberghen, Fernand. Les uvres et la doctrine de Siger de Bra-

4.

bant ; 1938 ; 195 p 1549. P. Peeters, S. J. L'uvre des Bollandistes ; 1942 ; 128 p
Tome XL

1532. Doutrepont, Georges. Les Mises en prose des popes et des Romans chevaleresquesdu XIVe au XVIe sicles ; 1938 ; 732 p
Tome XLI

240

1534. Laurent H. et Qulcke F. Les origines de l'tat Bourguignon. L'accession


de la Maison de Bourgogne aux duchs de Brabant et de Limbourg ; 1940 ;

507 p

160

ACADMIE ROYALE DE BELGIQUE


CLASSE DES LETTRES

MMOIRES
Collection in-8. Deuxime srie.

KONINKLIJKE ACADEMIE VAN BELGI


KLASSE DER LETTEREN

ERHANDELINGEN
Verzameling in-8. Tweede reeks. BOEK LIX, afl. 4.

BRUXELLES

BRUSSEL

PALAIS DES ACADMIES


Rue Ducale, 1

PALEIS DER ACADEMIN Hertogsstraat, 1

1969

IMPRIMERIE J. DUCULOT
s. a.

GEMBLOUX

Commentary
on the

Astronomical Treatise
Par. gr. 2425
PAR

O. NEUGEBAUER
Brown University, Providence, R.I., U.S.A.

Impression dcide le 7 octobre 1968

Lettres. T. LIX fasc. 4.

To the memory of F. Cumont and A. Delatte who first recognized the importance of Par.gr. 2425

Introduction

Par. gr. 2425 was written by a 15th century hand. The text which
concerns us here (fol. 232v to the end, fol. 285v) is divided into 86

consecutively numbered sections of very uneven length (x) but it is easy to see that they do not form a real unit. The first three sections are a table of contents, or summary, of an astrological treatise ascribed to Antiochus and published by Cumont in CCAG 8, 3 p. 111-119. Sections 4 to 27 are astronomical tables but obviously incomplete. One finds, e.g., tables for planetary latitudes and visibilities but no mean motions and equations. These tables contain clear evidence of Islamic influence (in particular the values = 23;35,0 for the obliquity of the ecliptic and i = 4;46,0 for the inclination of the lunar orbit); they are, at least in part, identical with the tables used in the computations of the subsequent sections. Sections 28 to 69 can be easily dated from the examples which they contain. We find three sets of dates:
A.M. 6569 i.e. A.D. 1060/61 (Nos. 28, 30, 35, 36, 45, 49, 50) A.M. 6577 i.e. A.D. 1069 (Nos. 46-48, 53, 57, 58) A.M. 6580 i.e. A.D. 1072 (Nos. 59, 61).

The last example concerns a solar eclipse which was very inconspicuous in Byzantium. Only 14 years later, in A.D. 1086, the path of a total eclipse passed right over the city. This makes it practically certain that our text had been completed before this event. Apparently our text was compiled over a period of one or two decades and this may explain the inconsistency and repetitiousness in the arrangement of its topics. It is also clear that the present order
1 As usual with texts of this type later accretions are found at the end: the astrological sections 63 (= Geoponica 1,8) and 64,70 to 86 (fol. 281 r, 8 to 285). In particular Nos. 73 to 86 (fol. 285") are only a list of classifications of the zodiacal signs.

COMMENTARY

ON THE

ASTRONOMICAL

TREATISE

is not genuine; sections 49 to 52, e.g., are an intrusion between Nos. 46 to 48 and Nos. 53 to 58 which concern the same example. The tables might, of course, be much older, though their Islamic component makes a date before the middle of the 9th century unlikely. The above quoted values for and i are first attested in the tables

of Habash al-Hsib, about A.D. 850 (*), and it is tempting to identify the (2), with the zj of Habash al-Hasib. Our text
would then be a witness for the early transmission of the first, i.e. Abbasid, period of Muslim astronomy to Byzantium. In the same direction point the very close parallels, in particular in the section

on eclipses (No. 60 to 62), with a commentary to al-Khwrizmi


by al-Muthann which is preserved in Hebrew and Latin translations (3) of the llth and I2th centuries.
It is of interest to note that Byzantium is given the latitude = 41 which is characteristic for clima V (4) and which is indeed the correct latitude of Constantinople. In the tradition of the " Handy Tables however, Byzantium is placed between clima V and VI at = 43;5 much too far to the north (5).

28. Length of Seasonal Hours at Daylight


Let () be the oblique ascension for a given geographical latitude of the point of longitude of the ecliptic. Let be the true solar longitude at a given date, determined by means of solar tables (called " the tables of Khaspa "). Then the length of daylight in degrees is given by the " day arc i.e. the arc above the horizon travelled by the sun at the given day:

d = ( + 180) - ().
For an alternate procedure see No. 37, for an example No. 61 (6).

1 Kennedy, Survey, p. 126 (N 15) and p. 151. 2 Fol. 257', 22.

3 Cf. Mills Vallicrosa, Bibl. Catedr. de Toledo, p. 192, and the editions by Goldstein
(1967) and Mills-Vendrell (1963) respectively.

4 More accurately 40;56 according to the Almagest. 5 Cf., e.g., Halma II p. 58/59. Incidentally, Halma's heading "eigth climate" is in
all probability his own invention. In Vat. gr. 1291 fol. 5 r the heading is "climate for the parallel through Byzantium". The latitude 43;35 given by Halma is based on a misreading of () as = 30.

6 Below p. 26, I.

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

Since I o = 0;4 we have for the length of daylight in equinoctial


hours

dh = 0;4'd.
Finally, one seasonal hour of daylight, measured in degrees, is of the length

Vb- = d = 0;5-d.
12

Example

[A.M. 6569 (= A.D. 1060)] O Ind. 14 Dec. 29 at Constantinople'


i.e. clima V:

A0 = [3]14;47
thus (2)

p(Ao) = 307;20,26
hence

(0 + 180) = 84;44,24

d = 444;44,24 - 307;20,26 137;24


and

dh = 0;4 137;24 = 548min96sec = 9;9,36*[briefly: 0;4 2,17;24 = 9;9,36]


l1* =0;5 137;24 = 687' = 11 ;27 [briefly: 0;5 2,17;24= 11 ;27].

29. Length of Seasonal Hours at Night

The length of the night in equinoctial hours is given by means of


No. 28:

nh = 24h - db

and the length of one seasonal hour of night in degrees = 30 1* * of daylight in degrees. Finally, the length of the night measured in degrees (the " night arc ") is
n = 360 - d
where d is known from No. 28.

1 Cf. e.g., Nos. 35 and 36. 2 Theon's "Handy Tables" would give

and 84;35,24 respectively.

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

30. Noon from Sunrise


From No. 28:

-d = 6sh
2

Therefore in the example of No. 28 :

6,ft =6-ll;27
from sunrise to noon.

[briefly:6-ll;27 = 1,8;42]

0;468;42 = 274min48sec = 4;34,48 [briefly:0;4-l,8;42 = 4;34,48J

31 to 33. Equinoctial or Solstitial Noon Altitude of the Sun and Geographical Latitude If h0 is the noon altitude of the sun at equinox at a locality of geographical latitude then

h0 = 90 =

or

= 90 h0 = E0.

For Constantinople: = 41, h0 = 49. If hx is the noon altitude of the sun at the summer solstice, h2 at the winter solstice, then

= 90 (ft t ) = 90 (h2 + )
where is the obliquity of the ecliptic. The value = 23 ;35 is com-

monly used in Islamic tables (e.g. by Habash, Battn, Kshyr, Birnx i1)); the same value is used in the table of solar declinations,
fol. 239v/240v, but not fol. 247r/249v which are based on = 23 ;5 1,20 as in the Almagest or = 23 ;51 as in the Handy Tables.
34 to 36. Noon Altitude of the Sun in General and Geographical Latitude

If h is the noon altitude of the sun at a given day, then

where h0 is the equinoctial noon altitude.


1 Cf. Kennedy, Suivey p. 151-156.

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

Example

A.M. 6569 (= A.D. 1061) Ind. 14 Febr. 23, at Constantinople.


For this date

A0 =)(ll;15 = 341;15. The table of declination (fol. 239*) gives (x)


for = 341
= 342
thus

|5| = 7;29,4
I I = 7;6,50

By linear interpolation: 0;22,140;15 = 0;5,33,30 0;5,33,


for = 341 ;15
date

| | = 7;29,4 - 0;5,33 = 7;23,31.

Since for Constantinople h0 = 49 (cf. No. 31), we find for the given
/i = 49 7;23,31 =41;36,29

a result slightly garbled in the text. Alternate Method for the Same Date There must have existed a table (not extant in our MS) which gave to every degree of solar longitude the corresponding noon altitude h of the sun (2) of course computed for the given , in our case = 41. From our text we can restore the entries

= )(11 h = 41 ;31

X 12

41 ;54

Thus by interpolation for = )( 1 1 ;15 :


h = 41 ;31 + 0;15 * 0;23 = 41;31 + 0;5,45 = 41;36,45

i.e. slightly more than with the more accurate tables.


37. Length of Daylight In order to find the " day arc " (cf. No. 28) one can also proceed as follows: from the tables of right ascensions one can find to the
1 In the tables fol. 247' one finds, however, 7;33,58 and 7;10,46 i.e. 0;0,1* more than in the Almagest (I, 1S) which is based on < = 23 ;5 1,20. The tables fol. 239" agree with
No. 33 in assuming e = 23;35,0.

2 The text seems to call these tables "for rising times" which is certainly incorrect.

Probably the tables for h were combined with tables for ().

10

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

solar longitude Q for the given day the right ascension () and for the given clima also the oblique ascension (). Then
d = 2(90 ( I () () | )) if the sun is f the equator.

The correctness of this procedure is evident from fig. 1. The arc in question is SMzl. Its half is measured on the equator by the right angle CE plus ET = p; this proves the above-given rule.
Hor.

Fig. 1.

The process is unnecessarily complicated since the method of No. 28 requires only the table of oblique ascensions for the given climate. Here one has to have also a table of right ascensions (which, incidentally, is not the table of " normed right ascensions " found on fol. 238v/239r, or in the Handy Tables, reckoned from z 0)
Nos. 38 to 41. Trigonometric Functions

For a circle of radius R = 60 we use the following notation


Sin = R sin CosO = R cos0 Vers = R Cos.

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

11

In the text only SinO and VersO are named (evOeia and evOela respectively). The angles are correspondingly distinguished as nepi^epeia and respectively. CoS
appears only in the form Sin(90 0). The table called here v is not, as the name seems to indicate, a table of chords (as in Almagest I, 1 1) but a table of Sines. Such a table

is found on fol. 239v/240v but no table of Vers 0 is given in our


MS.

The rules given for VersO in Nos. 40 and 41 are illustrated in fig. 2:

R/r
/0
vers a

Fig. 2.

Find Vers : if < 90 Vers = R Sin(90 )

if > 90 Vers = R + Sin(0 - 90)


Find : if Vers 0 < R find ' = arcSin( Vers 0)
then = 90 - 0'

if Vers > R find ' = arcSin(Vers 0 R)


then = 90 + 0'.

42, 43. Time since Sunrise from Solar Altitude


The rules of the text can be formulated as follows: if h is the noon

altitude of the sun, h' the altitude at t after sunrise, then t can be
found from
Sin t =

RSinh' Sin/i

(1)

forpositions of the sun before noon and 0;4-/represents the seasonal hours elapsed since sunrise. For positions after noon the time since sunrise is 12 0 ;4 / seasonal hours, t (in degrees) being obtained from (1). Obviously these rules cannot be generally correct. Multiplication by 0;4 can only result in equinoctial hours when t is given in degrees.

12

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

Also (1) is only correct if the sun is in the equator, i.e. for h = h0 the equinoctial noon shadow. Then indeed (cf. fig. 3)
Z

sinn 0 =

. ,

sin h'0
sini

If, however, the sun is not in the equator, thus h h0, then the pro-

blem is not determined by h and h' alone (cf. fig. 4) since the position of the small circle RXM travelled by the sun depends on the solar declination CM. The correct relation is given in No. 65 0).
Z

Also the final transformation of units cannot be correct in the

form it is expressed. Apparently the length of daylight seems now


to be assumed as known.
1 Below p. 41.

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

13

44, 45. Daily and Hourly Motion

If the longitudes of a celestial body on three consecutive days (at noon i1)) were n _ u , +1 respectively, then the daily velocity vo/ on day n is given by A_j or by +1 without our being told which value has to be accepted in case they are different. The corresponding hourly velocity v/h is to be found from

po/* = io/d. 0;5


2

which is equivalent to the trivial v0/h = ^ vo/d.


As an example is used the solar motion for A.M. 6569 (= A.D. 1061) Ind. 14 and
=219;15 on Febr. 1

_! =18;14 on Jan. 30 (sic!)

thus vo/d = 1;1 and v'h = ;5 2' 1;1 = 0;2,32,30/ft .


The text mentions the (now meaning apogee, not altitude?) of the sun and declares it to be (meaning?) without these data possibly being of influence on the determination of the daily motion. It is perhaps a mistaken rendering of some statement concerning the distinction between direct and retrograde motion of a celestial body.
46 to 48. Solar Longitude at Sunrise, Sunset and Midnight

The solar longitude is considered to be known for noon of the given day and for the preceding and following days. Consequently
the daily and the hourly motion is known. Similarly it is assumed

that the length of one seasonal hour for the given day is given. Thus the solar motion during + 6s h or during 1 2 can be computed, the hourly motion being considered constant.

1 This is to be expected in the tradition of the Almagest and is confirmed by the three
subsequent sections.

14

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

Examples

[A.M. 6577 (= A.D. 1069)] Ind. 7 Febr. 20 day 6 (= Friday) 0)


[at noon:] XQ = )( 8;11. Also known: the daily motion vld = l"la thus v,h = 0;2,30o/ft and furthermore the length of the seasonal hour: l s'1 = 13;45,1,40.
Consequently

6S" = 1,22;30,10 = 5;30,0,40" 5;.


The solar motion during 6s h is therefore

= 5\0 -0-,2,1 = 0;13,45.

Hence the solar longitude on Febr. 20


at sunrise: )( 8 ;1 1 0;13,45 = )( 7;57,15
at sunset: )( 8 ;1 1 + 0 ; 1 3,45 = )( 8;24,45.

For the solar motion during 12" one finds, of course, 120;2,30 = 0;30 thus for the solar longitude at midnight to Febr. 21
)( 8 ;1 1 + 0;30 = )( 8;41. The multiplications required by these steps are performed in the text very clumsily because each sexagesimal digit is multiplied separately in decimal fashion, e.g. 0;2,305;30 is computed as follows
0;2,305 = 10' + 150" 0;2,300;30 = 60" + 900"

total

= 10' + 210" + 900" = 0;13,45.

49, 50. Place and Time of Conjunction

Assume that at noon near conjunction the longitudes of sun and noon are and Ac respectively and A = . Since the daily motion of the moon is about 13 /<!, of the sun \ld, thus the relative

velocity 12o/d, we know that the time until conjunction is ~ = 0;5


. The place of the conjunction is therefore
A q + 0;5 = + + 0;5 .
A more refined procedure is given in No. 59.
1 The same date occurs explicity in No. 57 and again without year in Nos. 53 and 58.

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

15

Example A.M. 6569 (= A.D. 1061) Ind. 14 Febr. 22 [noon]:

A0 = X 10;16

= )(4;10

thus = 6;6

and 0;5 = 0;30,30. Thus the place of conjunction is

0 + 0;30,30 = )(10;36,30
lc + 6;6 + 0;30,30 = )( 10;36,30.
For the determination of the time of conjunction a more accurate

method is followed, in which the rough estimate of a relative velocity of 120,d is replaced by = vc ve for the given day. Therefore the time required to cover the elongation is computed as = / and the resulting hours are transformed into seasonal hours. Consequently we have in continuation of the preceding example

vc = 0;34,2,300/*

[thus 13;370/'1, assumed to be known]

v0 = 0;2,27,30
hence

[thus 0;59 , assumed to be known]


= 0;31,350/.

Since we had = 6;6 we find = / = 1 1 ;35,18fc 1) for the time of the conjunction, reckoned in equinoctial hours since
noon of Febr. 22.

The half length of daylight on Febr. 22 is assumed to be known as 5;32" (2); therefore the conjunction fell 1 1 ;35,18 5;32 = 6 ;3,18ft
after sunset. Since it was assumed that half of the daylight is 5;32",

half of the night would be 6;28\ and therefore 6 ;3,18 = 6;3,18 6/6 ;28 5;37,55 of night.
In the text this transformation is carried out in an unnecessarily

complicated way and is furthermore not quite accurate. First the equinoctial hours are changed to time degrees and expressed as
seconds :

^"^ = 90;49,30 = 326970".


Then it is stated that one seasonal hour of the night amounts to 16;9 = 58140". This is not correct since 6 ;28ft = 1,37, thus one seasonal
1 Rounded from 11 ;35,18,12,...

2 Cf. No. 46 where it was found that on Febr. 20 6" = 5;30\

16

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

hour of night is 16 ;10 not 16;9. But operating with the latter value the text finds the quotient 90;49,30/16;9 in the following fashion:

326970" _ 5 ! 36270
58140" 58140

36270-60 = 2176200

2176200 _ 37 25020
58140 58140

25020-60 = 1501200

Thus the result is 5;37,25 seasonal hours of night.


51, 52. Seasonal and Equinoctial Hours

The transformation of equinoctial hours into seasonal hours and

vice versa requires the knowledge either of the length of daylight or the equivalent in degrees of one seasonal hour. The examples of the text are based on the assumption that 13;24" = 12s" or on the equivalent relation P'1 = 16;45. Indeed 13 ;24- 15/12 = 16 ;45.
53. Ascendant from Solar Altitude

For a given geographical latitude and a given date, the longitude


and the altitude h of the sun at noon can be found (No. 35), as well as the length of the day arc (No. 28 or No. 37) and the corresponding length of one seasonal hour. Consequently also the solar
Hor. at
\

Hor.

Ecl.
Fig. 5.

COMMENTARY

ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

17

longitude 1R at sunrise can be considered known (No. 46) and from the tables of oblique ascensions for the given climate one then can find the right ascension aR of the point of the equator which is in the horizon simultaneously with AR (cf. the schematic representation in fig. 5). Let us assume that the sun is observed before noon of the given day at an altitude h'. Then one can find the time t which has elapsed since sunrise (No. 42, or rather No. 65), and hence the equator arc which has risen in the time from sunrise to the observation. By adding this arc to aR we find the right ascension of the point E of the equator
which is in the horizon at the moment of observation. The table

of oblique ascensions will then give the longitude of the point H of the ecliptic which rises simultaneously with E at the moment of
observation.

Example

[A.M. 6577 (= A.D. 1069)] Ind. 7 Febr. 20 day 6 (= Friday) (x) [at Constantinople, = 41 (No. 31)]
observed solar altitude: h' = 36, thus the time since sunrise

t = 3;56,40,40a = 59;10,10 = 4;181 . (2)


According to No. 46 the solar longitude at sunrise was

AR = )(7;57,17
and therefore the simultaneously rising point of the equator

aR = 347; 12,9

(the Handy Tables for clima V would give 347;19,21). Thus we find for the equator arc risen since sunrise the endpoint E of right ascension
347; 12,9 + 59;10,10 = 406;22,19 = 46;22,19 =

to which corresponds the ecliptic point H of longitude = 8;27,41

(the Handy Tables for clima V would give 8;28,3). Thus 8;27,41 is rising when the sun at )( 8 ;1 1 has reached the altitude of 36.
1 Cf. p. 14 note 1. 2 The value for t in seasonal hours is not needed for the following. The given value
does not agree with the Iength of the day arc at the same date in No. 46. According

to No. 46 one has * = 13;45,1,40 thus d/2 = 1,22; 30, 10 and 59;10,10 = 4;18,8''1
Using d/2 = 1,22;30,10 and the sine tables of fol. 239" ff. I find with the method

of No. 65 the value t = 57;38, 13,31 ~ 3;50,33*.

18

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

54. Midheaven from Ascendant

If p(H) is the oblique ascension of the ascendant H at the given climate, a' = a + 90 the normed right ascension (i.e. right ascension reckoned from z 0), then a'(M) of the culminating point M of the ecliptic is given by (x ) a'(M) = p(H).
Continuation of the Example from No. 53

We know that = 46 ;22, 19 46 ;22 = p(H) = a'(M). Interpolation in the tables of the normed right ascensions gives
M = s13;50
(cf. fig. 5) (2). Thus at the moment of observation ss 13;50 was culminating.
55. The Loci

The " Loci " are 12 consecutive ecliptical arcs, counted in the sense of increasing longitudes, such that locus 1 begins at the ascendant H, locus 4 at the lower culmination M, locus 7 at the setting point , locus 10 at midheaven M (cf. fig. 6). The three loci of each quadrant are constructed in such a fashion that the endpoints have constant right ascensional diiferences. Continuation of the Example from No. 53 and 54 Loci 7, 8 and 9. We want to divide the ecliptic arc zlM in three sections such that the right ascensional differences of the endpoints are equal, i.e. (in fig. 6) such that F7 F8 = F8 F9 = F9C = . Because

F7 C = 3 = 90 - WF7 = 90 - (a(H) - p(H))

= p(H) - (a(H) - 180 + 90) = p(H) - (a(J) + 90)


= p(H) - '(A)
where a'(zl) is the normed right ascension (3) of the setting point ,
we have

= 1(()-'()).
1 For a proof see, e.g., Almagest II, 9. 2 The result is the same for the Handy Tables or for our tables (fol. 238").
3 Cf. No. 54.

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

19

In No. 53 it was found that

H 8;27
thus

p(H) = 406;22,19 = 46;22,19 mod 360


a'(d) = 336;38,48 1)

= t 8;27
and therefore

thus

50
' \

"

\/ / \
/

\
/\
\
\

Fs
\
v
v

/\
W

\c/^ \
/

k
T0*

ipfHlV

*** rf *"^ ()

\\

EcL

Eou.
Fig. 6.

1 Exactly agreeing with the Handy Tables, whereas fol. 239 r would give 336;1 1,48.
The scribe of our MS repeatedly misread the final 8 as 2.

20

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

Hence we have the following normed right ascensions for the endpoints of loci 7 to 9:

fts F7 :
F8 :

a' = 336;38,48
359;53,18

F9 :

23;7,48

MC:
the endpoints of the loci 1 to 3.

46;22,18 = p(H)

with constant difference t. The diametrically opposite points define


1

For the loci 10 to 12 and 4 to 6 the constant difference is - (180


3) = 60 = 36;45,30. Therefore

MC:
Fn :
F 12 :

a' = 46;22,18 = p(H)


83;7,48
119;53,18

H Fj :

156;38,48 = a'(J) - 180.

The points of the ecliptic which correspond to the points F8 , F9 , Fu , F 12, etc. can be found directly from the tables of normed right ascensions. E.g. a'(F8) = 359 ;53,18 is found to be the normed right ascension of = f 29;54 (^).
56. The Loci. Alternative Method

If the sun were in H (cf. fig. 6) the time measured by the equator arc F^C would bring the sun from the horizon to the meridian. Thus F^C is the half length of daylight l/ 2 d or 6 seasonal hours at the time of the year when the solar longitude is A(H). The Handy Tables list for each climate for every degree of not only the corresponding oblique ascension () but also the length t of one seasonal hour of daylight. Since Ft F12 = F^F^ = Ftl C = 21 one can find the normed right ascension of the boundaries of the loci 10 to 12 by adding the amount of 21 or 41 respectively to a'(M) = p(H). This brings us to a'(H). To this value we add 2t' and 41' where 21' is the length 60 21 of two seasonal hours of night for the solar longitude A(H). The results are a'(F2) and a'(F3) = a'(M) respectively.
1 Both from the Handy Tables and fol. 239'.

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

21

Continuation of the Example from No. 53 and 54

In No. 53 it was found that H n 8 ;27. For this solar longitude one finds for one seasonal hour the length t = 18 ;23 (x). Thus 21 = 36;46 is the length of the loci 10 to 12 (and 4 to 6). For the loci
1 to 3 (and 7 to 9) the length is consequently 21' = 60 21 = 23;14. In No. 55 the corresponding values were slightly more accurate, namely, 36;45,30 and 23; 14,30 respectively. Consequently there appear small deviations between the results obtained in No. 55 and
No. 56.

57. Ascendant from Midheaven


The relation from No. 54

a'(M) = p(H)

is now used in the opposite direction.


Continuation of the Example from Nos. 46 to 48, 53 to 56

For A.M. 6577 (= A.D. 1069) Ind. 7 Febr. 20 day 6 (= Friday) noon it has been found that = )( 8 ; 1 1 . In other words we know that M = X 8 ; 1 1 . From the tables (fol. 238v) (2) it follows that
a'()(8;ll) = 69;53,16.

The tables for oblique ascension are said to give for p(H) = 69 ;53,16 the argument H = as 1 ;55 (3). This is the ascendant at noon of the day of observation.
58. Positions of Sun and Moon at Hours Different from Noon

Positions found from tables refer to noon of the given day. For moments difTerent from noon one has to find the necessary correction as product of time difference and hourly velocity.
Example, continued from Nos. 45 to 48 and 63 to 57

[A.M. 6577 (= A.D. 1069)] Ind. 7 Febr. 20. At the moment of observation (of a solar altitude of 36) the time elapsed since sunrise
1 The Handy Tables give forll 8 the value t = 18;24, forn 8;27 / ~ 18;52. 2 Same value from the Handy Tables. 3 The Handy Tables would give H = 23 2;8.

22

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

is t = 3 ;56,40,40 (as in No. 53). Half length of daylight: djl = 5;30,0,40'1 (as in No. 46). Therefore the time before noon:
t = 1 ;33,20".

Since the hourly velocity of the sun is 0;2,30o/'1 (or l 0/d) (^) the corresponding motion is
= 1 ;33,200;2,30 0;3,53 0;4.

The position of the sun at noon was found to be )( 8 ;1 1 (No. 46No. 57), therefore at the moment of observation )( 8 ;1 1 0;4 = X 8;7.

For the moon an hourly motion of 0 ;33,32/ is assumed (2). What


follows contains several errors. The time difference is taken to be

1 ;35,20" (instead of 1 ;33,20) which leads to a motion of = 1 ;35,200;33,32,30 = 0;53,17,38,20.

The longitude at noon is given as 17 ;36 (modern computation shows that it must be in z) and therefore at the time of observation 17 ;36 0;53 = 16 ;43 (in z) which is changed in the text to the senseless
value 36;43. 59. Accurate Longitude of Conjunction

In No. 49 it has been described how one can find the longitude of a syzygy from given positions of sun and moon at the preceding noon. This procedure is now refined insofar as the noon positions are used not only preceding but also following the conjunction. The rules of the text (which are reminiscent of Almagest VI, 5) and the subsequent example are easiest understood if one discusses the problem beforehand in modern terms.
1. Notation. We assume the following longitudes as known:

at noon of day n:

, ; 0 = >0

at of day + 1: , ' ; ' ^ = ' > 0


~' = > '- = Vc, Vc V q = .

1 Same assumption in Nos. 46 to 48; the example in No. 50 belongs to another year but assumes 0;59"ld for the solar velocity on Febr. 22.

2 Corresponding to a daily motion of l3;25/d, no derivation given.

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

23

2. Accurate determination of the longitude of the conjunction under the assumption of constant velocities of sun and moon during

Fig. 7.

From

A q lc
vo vc

it follows that

= A0J - Xcvf - = (A0 - Ac)^ - Xc(V f - = + ov v \ vj


and similar from 1

= ' +
thus

= + ^ = ^-'^
which solves our problem.

(1)

3. Successive approximation. If we assume convenient round

values for and vc, e.g. = l/d, vc = I3'd thus = \2/d


and

SW

(2)

24

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

then the two equivalent components in (1) will give in general different results, namely

a = Ac + cAk

(3a)

b = 'c - '
such that

(3b)
(4)

a b 0.

The values a and b are easy to compute but we now need a second step to find corrections which amount to a or b. In order to determine these corrections we form with (1) and (3a).

a = (c + 41^ - (c + cX) = (cv - rc). \ vj ov


But from our initial definitions and (3a), (3b), and (4) it follows that

cv vc = ( ac A'q + A q )
thus

' + Xc

= (Ac + cJ) ( cJA') = a b =

= -
and similarly

(5)
(6)

^ + '-

4. The rules of the text require one to compute first the values a and b from (3a) and (3b) respectively, using c = 1;5 = 13/12, and then to find the correct value by means of (5) and (6) which must give identical results. It is obvious that this procedure has no advantages over the direct use of the accurate relation (1). It is true that it is easy to find the

approximate solutions a and b, but the term in (5) and (6) is exactly

as inconvenient to compute as the term ^ m (1). Thus the determination of the values (3a), (3b) and (4) is superfluous and apt to introduce unnecessary rounding errors.
5. Example: A.M. 6580 (= A.D. 1072) Ind. 10 May 20 day 1 (= Sunday). The following noon positions are given (^):

1 Cf. also No. 61 (below p. 26).

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

May 20 (day ri)

May21 (day n + 1)

= 5;9,30

X'c = n 16 ;39,2

vc = l3;3T,13 0'd

Ac = n 3 ;1 ,49
= 2;7,41 Procedure of the ext '

'0 = n 6;6,47
JA' = 10;32,15

vQ = 0;57,17/
= 12;39,560/J

12

JA'

= 2;7,41 1;5 2; 18, 19

= 3;1,49
a = n 5;20,8.

Thus from (3a):


' = 10;32,15 - 1 ;5 11;24,56
12

k'c = 16;39,2
thus from (3b): and from (4): Consequently
= 0;0,28,34,56 12;39,56
and therefore

b = n 5;14,6 = a b = 0;6,2.

= 2;7,41 0;0,28,34,56 0;1,0,49 0;1,1

a = 5;20,8

thus from (5): = n 5;19,7. The same value is obtained if one uses (6). Direct procedure:

vc _ 13;37,13

and therefore

12;39,56 '

1;4,31,22

= 2;7,411;4,31,22 2;17,18

= 3;1,49 thus from (1): = 5 ;19,7.

26

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

60 to 62. Solar Eclipses

In No. 60 we find the rules for the computation of the circumstances of a solar eclipse whereas Nos. 61 and 62 contain the practical application to the case of the eclipse of A.D. 1072 May 20 (*). Since the details of the procedure are rather complex the description in terms of general formulae would become very unwieldy. It therefore seems preferable to divide our commentary into separate sections, each
of which combines the theoretical introduction with the numerical

example. 1. Elements at the true conjunction

The following continues and amplifies the data given in the example ofNo. 59 (2) concerning the solar eclipse of A.M. 6580 (= A.D. 1072) Ind. 10 May 20. The given data are in agreement with No. 59:
Sun

May 20 May 21
and
Moon

64;26,46 65 ;25,54 0;59,8

5;9,30 6;6,47 0;57,17


mean mean

anomaly May 20 May 21

elongation
358 ;26,21 10;37,48 12 ;1 1 ,27

62;53,7 76; 3,42 13 ;10,35

95 ;33,16 108 ;37, 10 13; 3,54

ascending node motion position


3; 1,49 16;39, 2 13 ;37,13

294; 4, 8 294; 7,19 0; 3,11

n 5;55,52 n 5;52,41 0; 3,11

For Constantinople the oblique ascension of 0 on May 20 and of A0 + 180 are


p( 5;9,30) = 43 ;31,14 p(f 5;9,30) = 262;57,43
1 Oppolzer, Canon No. 5411. 2 Cf. above p. 24 5.

COMMENTARY

ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

27

thus the day arc d = 219;26,29 14;37,46 and noon falls 7 ; 1 8,53h after sunrise, while the seasonal hour amounts
to

1*" 18;17,12.

The noon altitude of the sun on May 20 is h = 70;17,35 (x).

Also for May 20 we have = 0 = 2;7,41, = vc Vq = 12;39,560/<i, therefore the time interval between noon of May 20
and the true conjunction is

Jf = 2^ = 24^41
12;39,56

Since d/2 = 7;18,53A we have for the moment of the true conjunction
t0 = 4; 1,57'' after noon = 11;20,50 after sunrise.

2. Longitudinal Parallax (2)


The longitudinal component of the parallax is zero at the point V (the " nonagesimal ") of the ecliptic, 90 distant from its rising or setting point. In all other points the longitudinal parallax is directed away from V and reaches its maximum PoX at the horizon. The following computations of the longitudinal parallax px at arbitrary points of the ecliptic are based on several simplifying assumptions, probably orginating in Hindu astronomy. To this source points not only the general method but also the use of the trigonometric function

Sin 15O0 = R sin R = 150


Persian

(1)

which is typical for Hindu works. Our text calls these functions
The most important simplifying assumption is the identification of the ecliptic with the equator. This means that V becomes the culminating point C of the equator, and the longitudinal component
1 Since h = + () and since for Constantinople = 49 (cf. No. 31) we find
(65;9,30) = 21; 17, 35. This agrees, within a rounding error in the last digit, with the result obtainable from the table on fol. 240", which is based on = 23 ;35.

2 Cf. for this whole section E.S. Kennedy, Parallax Theory in Islamic Astronomy,
Isis 47 (1956) p. 33-53.

28

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

of the parallax is a vector pointing away from the meridian. Its amount can then be expressed in terms of time reckoned in equinoctial hours. Similarly, the position of the point at which we wish to find the parallax can be defined by its hour angle H. Then we know that px = 0 for H = 0 and px = max = poX for H = 90. For points H between 0 and 90 it is simply assumed that

Px = ^S1S0 H = poismH
K

R = 150.

(2)

In our special case it is assumed that = 1 ;36. Hence


Pox _
R
and therefore

4
2,30 6,15

pJ = -^-Sin150 H
0,1j

(3)

In the explanatory text (fol. 270v, 18 etc.) the denominator 6,15 is incorrectly replaced by 5 and the factor is said to be H instead of Sin 150 H. The actual computation, however, always correctly uses
6,15 and Sin H.

If the true conjunction occurs at an hour angle H0, parallax increases


4

H0 according to our hypothesis by an amount of

Sin150 H0 .

This point, however, is nearer to the horizon and therefore belongs to a region of higher parallax than at H0 . Indeed, the increment
4 4

ofH0 would now be ^ Sin150 Hj where Hj = H0 +


4 4

Sin150 H0.

Again, the new position would produce a longitudinal parallax H0


+ Sin 150 H2 where H2 = H0 + Sin 150 H t . It s easy

to see that this iteration process is rapidly converging. In our example five steps are computed, at which level no more changes occur within the seconds of time. The numerical values are shown in the following
table:
ti

H, = 15 f,

Sin 150 H| 4 Sin150 H,/6,15


i, +1 = f + ...

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE


i = 0 i = 1

29
z = 4

i = 2

= 3

4;1,57*
60;29,15 130;31,56

5;27,29
81 ;52,15 148 ;29,25 1 ;35,2 5 ;36,59"

5;36,59*
84; 14,45 149; 14,24 1;35,31* 5;37,28"

1 ;25,32" O
5;27,29

5;37,28" 84;22,0 149;16,13 1 ;35,32" 5;37,29ft

5;39,29"
84;22,15 149;16, 17 1 ;35,32

5 ;37,29"

Here we see that the longitudinal parallax moves the moment of the true conjunction (at 4 ; 1 ,57ft p.m.) to a later moment of apparent conjunction (at 5;39,29).
3. Fol. 275', 7 to 23

I do not understand this section which speaks about a " horoscope " located at n 4;52,2 which, however, is near the setting point of the ecliptic (exactly 20;0,0 ahead of it). Fortunately no use is made of this point in the following.
4. Latitudinal Parallax

The Hindu method for determining the latitudinal parallax rests on the fact that this component is approximately constant along the ecliptic for a fixed zenith distance of the nonagesimal point V of the ecliptic (2). The determination of this distance is therefore
the next step.

We know that the longitude of the true sun at noon of May 20 was n 5;9,30 and we have found that the apparent conjunction occurs at an hour angle of 84;22,15 to the West of the meridian.

The normed right ascension of the noon position of the sun is (3)
'( 5;9,30) = 153;8,59.

If we add to it the hour angle of 84 ;22,1 5 we obtain the normed right ascension a'(M) = 237 ;3 1,1 4
of the point M of the ecliptic which is in the meridian at the moment of the apparent conjunction, i.e. at the middle of the eclipse. Conse-

quently we have for the rising point at the middle of the eclipse (4)
p(H) = 237 ;3 1 ,14
1 This is an error for 1 ;23,32. AU that follows is based on this incorrect figure. 2 Cf. Neugebauer, Al-Khwrizm p. 122 ff. 3 According to the table fol. 238".
* Cf. No. 54.

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COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

thus H = \ 15;7,58 = T 225;7,58. Therefore the longitude of the nonagesimal V of the ecliptic
A(V) = 225 ;7,58 - 90 = 135;7,58 = Q 15;7,58.

The declination of this point is (')


y = <5(Q 1 5 ;7,58) = + 16;23,36.

The text next finds the distance of the lunar orbit from the ecliptic at the point V i.e. the latitude of the moon if it had the longitude of V. Finally the zenith distance of this point is found from z' = (<5 V + ). It is, of course, only approximately correct to add declination and latitude at a point V which in general does not lie in the meridian. But the use of is in principle a mistake. The

latitudinal parallax is perpendicular to the ecliptic and only for a fixed position of the latter can one say that pp is constant, independent
of . The same approximation will be permissible for points on a parallel circle near the ecliptic, in particular for the moon at an eclipse, even if it is not exactly in the node. Thus one may say that

is constant on a circle whose zenith distance is z = ( +


j3c) where is the small latitude of the moon at the moment of the middle of the eclipse. But it makes no sense to compute the zenith
distance of the inclined lunar orbit at V. What should have been

computed is the lunar latitude by means of

= i sin OJc

where j c is the argument of latitude of the moon at the middle of the eclipse (2). Instead of coc the text took the argument of latitude coc of the point V, thus using the latitude of the lunar orbit at V instead of . This erroneous computation is now carried out in
the next step.

The true conjunction occurs about 4;2" after noon. During that time the lunar node moves about 0;0,32,4. The longitude of
the node at noon of May 20 was n 5;55,52. Therefore at true conjunction the node was at n 5;55,20. The argument of latitude at true conjunction for the point V is given by = 1 5 ;7,58 - n 5;55,20 = 69;12,38.
1 Fol. 240' gives I6;23,32.

2 The same error is found in the Latin translation by Hugo Sanctallensis of a (lost)
Arabic commentary to al-Khwrizm by al-Muthannl (Arch. Seld. B 34 fol. 54', 1 1 ff.)

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

31

The rules given next assume that the latitude of a point of the
lunar orbit of distance from the node and with an inclination i

of the lunar orbit with respect to the ecliptic is given by

= i sin = Sin .

The text considers two possibilities for the norm of the trigonometric
functions: either R = 150 or R = 60 is used for Sin . Also for the
inclination

~ -,

two cases are considered, namely / = 4;30 (*) and i = 5;0. Consequently the following rules are given

= -Sin 150 ro = -Sin 60 g)

ifi = 4;30

(4)

In our case i = 4;30 is assumed and therefore one finds for the latitude at V

= ?Sin150 = ? Sin150 69;12,38 = 1 140;13,50 = 4;12,25


This amount is now added to the declination <5 V = 16;23,36 resulting in a distance of 20;36,1 essentially perpendicular to the equator. Since for Constantinople = 41 the zenith distance of the lunar
orbit at V is z' = 41 20 ;36, 1 = 20;23,59, called the " corrected

latitude of the city ". That this whole procedure is senseless is evident from the fact that the highest point V of the ecliptic, on which the parallax depends, is here replaced by a point of the lunar orbit which
is nearest to the zenith.

Having now obtained (correctly or incorrectly) a zenith distance


z', the latitudinal parallax is found from

= Pmax -JT= Sin150 Z = Sin60 Z R 40 16


which shows that

Sinz'

13 c .

13 e .

(5)

pma, = ^ 2,30 = 16 1,0 = 0;48,45 40


1 In the explanatory text (fol. 276r, 4) incorrectly given as 4 but correctly using 4;30
in the computations.

32

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

was assumed, exactly as in al-Khwrizm's tables C 1 ). The text says


(fol. 276r, 23) incorrectly only 0;48.

In the actual computation of , following (5), the value z' =


20;54,38 is mentioned, followed by 1;50,40 of unkown meaning
and it is said that

Sin a5O 20;54,48 = 52;16,59.

Actually, however the result agrees much better with the correct value Sin, 50 20;23,59. At any rate, the result is

=- 40 52;16,59 - 11;19'40'4 - 0;17 40


This is the " adjusted parallax " according to the text (fol. 216', 22) which means that a fixed amount for the solar parallax is included
in the value of pmax.

5. Elements at the Middle of an Eclipse


It has been found that the longitudinal parallax amounts to At

= 1 ;35,32. The lunar velocity during May 20/21 is 13;37,13 0/d.


Therefore the moon moves in consequence of parallax in longitude by 1 ;35,32 1 3 ;37, 13/24 0;54,13. Since the longitude of the true conjunction is n 5 ; 19,7 the apparent conjunction occurs at n 5 ; 19,7
+ 0;54,13 = 6;13,20.

Similarly for the position of the node which moves 0 ;3,1 1 o/<*.
Thus the node recedes 1 ;35,320;3, 11/24 0;0, 13 during At. At the moment of the true conjunction its longitude was 5;55,20, thus at the apparent conjunction only 5;55,7. The next step would consist in the determination of the latitude of the moon at the moment of the apparent conjunction; from it should be subtracted the latitudinal parallax in order to find the apparent latitude 0 at the middle of the eclipse on which the magnitude of the obscuration depends.

These steps present no theoretical difficulty but are distorted in the text by numerical errors which are hard to explain. The correct procedure should run as follows: it has been found that for the moment of the apparent conjunction Xc = 66; 13,20 node = 65;55,7

' Table 77a of Suter's edition; Neugebauer, Al-Khwrizm p. 121.

COMMENTARY

ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

33

thus the argument of latitude = 0;18,13. Assuming as inclination of the lunar orbit i = 4;30 we would find according to (4) p. 31.

= |sin15O0;18,13 ^0;47,41,32 0;1,25,51.


Subtracting from it the latitudinal parallax of 0;17 we find for the apparent latitude 0 = 0;15,34. The final result of the text is 0 = - 0;15,36. The details of the computation in the text are as follows. First is correctly given as 0;18,13. Then (fol. 277r, 5) has Sin = 0;1 5,4, 36,50 which must be the result of a copyist's confusion of 5 =

and 9 = 0 because Sin60 = 0;19,4,36,50. According to (4) the


9 9 10

use of R = 60 would imply the use of either ^ Sin or Sin

but not of j Sin which requires R = 150. In the next step 9 Sin
is said to be 422,0,45 which means Sin = 0;46,53,25. The division of 9 Sin by 5 supposedly gives 1,25,51,24 which would mean that

9 Sin = 7,9,17,0 = 429,17,0 and not 422,0,45. Nevertheless 0; 1,25,51 is the correct value but in subtracting 0;17 from it the text makes the final error of calling the result 0;15,36 instead
of - 0;15,34.

6. Eclipse Magnitude; Linear Digits

Following a method known from Hindu astronomy (J ) one can express the apparent angular diameters of sun and moon as linear functions of their daily velocity

dQ = vo/d
20

dc =

247

(6a)

Considering the lunar latitude constant for the duration of the eclipse we can say that no eclipse will occur when the apparent latitude 0 computed for the moment of the apparent conjunction exceeds
the value

= ^(do + c)

(6b)

1 Khanda-Khdyaka I, 31. The same formulae, e.g. in Hugo Sanctallensis (Arch.


Seld. B 34 fol. 45% 19 ff. and 45", 7 ff.) or in Ibn Ezra (Mills Vallicrosa, Tablas astron. p. 166), both based on al-Muthann's commentary to al-Khwrizm. Cf. also Goldstein p. 226 f.

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COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

If, however, \ 0 \ < cl then the eclipse magnitude, expressed in linear digits of the solar diameter, is given by (cf. fig. 8)

m = (3-p0).
"

(7)

Fig. 8.

In the case of the eclipse under discussion we have vQ = 0;57,17o/d, vc = 13;37,13o/d from which one obtains by (6)

de = 0;31,30

dc = 0;33,5
m". 6 ;21 ,31

3 = 0;32, 17,30

hence from (7) with \ 0 \ = 0;15,36 for the magnitude


measured in digits, 12 of which correspond to the apparent solar
diameter.

The diameter of the moon, measured in the same units, is given by


dl =

dp,

(8)

that is, in the case of our example


12-0-33 5

iz ,, = 12;36,H.
0;31,30

7. Eclipse Magnitudes. Area Digits Ptolemy says in the Almagest that the majority of those who observe eclipse prognostics " (') are accustomed to measure eclipse
1 VI, 7 p. 512, 8 Heib. : ot r kXci, . I
think that the translation of Manitius "Finsternisphasen" (p. 384,14) is incorrect;

, is the technical term for prognostics; similar Heib. I p. 536, 21. Cf. e.g.,
Ptolemy's Phaseis (opera II p. 10 ff.) and the index Ptol. opera III, 2 (ed. Boer).

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

35

magnitudes by the area of obscuration instead of by the obscured


fraction of the diameter. For this reason Ptolemy gives a table of

conversion from linear digits to area digits ('), a table which is also
commonly found in mediaeval works. Ptolemy explains by means of two numerical examples (2) how area digits can be computed

from given rQ , rc, and but his method does not agree in the details
with the method followed in our text. A variant of Ptolemy's method is described by al-Brun in a treatise on chords (3). Here we come

a little nearer to our text, which agrees with Birun also in the use of the approximation 22/7 for whereas Ptolemy uses 3;8,30.
A

Fig. 9.

1 VI, 8 p. 522 Heiberg. 2 Heiberg p. 513, 6-516, 3 for a solar eclipse. 3 Translated by H. Suter in Bibliotheca Mathem. ser. 3, 11 (1960) p. 46-48. Suter
did not realize that area digits were Brim's goal and therefore introduced several
incorrect emendations into the text.

36

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

Practically identical with all the steps of our procedure, however, is the commentary of al-Muthann to al-Khwarizmi (*). It is on the basis of this close parallelism that it is possible to understand the rules given on fol. 272 of our text. This is very fortunate since the numerical example (fol. 277r, 12 to 277v, 19) is incomplete, covering only the first step of the procedure. In following the rules of our text we make use of fig. 9 (2). The first step consists in the determination of the parts x and y into which the obscured part m of the diameter of the sun is divided by the chord EF. It is at the determinat'ion of y that our numerical example
breaks off.

The rule of the text for finding x and y, called " axis of the solar sphere " and " axis of the lunar sphere " respectively, can be formulated as follows: Let all distances assumed to be measured in digits of the solar disk (thus dQ = 12). Then we are asked to compute the quantity (called )

= dc + 12 2m
which yields the desired parts in the form

(1)

(12 - m)m y

x = m y.

(2)

For the proof of (2) we have only to remark that, for k = 1/2 EF,

k2 = (dc - y)y = (dQ - x)x


thus

d -y _ = doj^ _
hence

d0 ~(x + y)
or

d ~(x + y) , t _ X ^

dc + d0 - 2(x + y) = X +
dQ -(x + y)
X + y = m.
1 Cf. above p. 6 n. 3, cf. Goldstein p. 239 f. 2 There is no figure given in our text but the Latin version contains drawings which
are, however, marred by countless discrepancies in lettering.

This relation is the equivalent of (1) and (2) (3) since dQ = 12 and

3 It is easy to see that 2.

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

37

For our numerical example we have = 12 ;36,1 1 + 12 - 2-6;21,31 = 11;53,9


and

(12 - m)m = (12 - 6 ;21 ,31) 6 ;21 ,31 35;52,17.


Hence

y = 35;52,17 ^ 3;1 4 (!)


11 ;53,9

and therefore x = 3;20,27 which is, however, no longer computed. The next step consists in finding the angle 0 (cf. fig. 9) from

0 = arcSin^ 50 (25^/(12 x)x).


With 0, found in degrees, one computes

(3)

Ao =0
and with it

(4)
(5)

E0 = A0 - (6 - x)J{\2 - x)x
which is the area of the segment EFB. To prove this statement we remark first that

k = yj{d0 x)x = r0 sin 0 =


and thus, with rQ = 6 and R = 150
150

SinR 0

Sin15O 0 = k = 25^(12 x)x


which proves (3). If then A 0 represents the area of the sector ESFB we have (4), using 22/7:
A 0 = 0 36 = 0.

20 2

., 22 0

22

360

7 180

35

From this area we substract the triangle

ESF = (r0 x)k = (6 x) ^/(12 x)x


which leaves us with (5) for the area of the segment EFB. The third step repeats this procedure for the lunar segment ECF.
1 Actually 3;1,5 would be better since the quotient has the value 3;1,4,46,.

38

COMMENTARY

ON

THE

ASTRONOMICAL

TREATISE

One finds the angle from

= arcSin^- ^/(12
and with it

(6)
(7) W
(8)

Ac = -^d-. 2520
Finally

Ec = Ac - (rc - y) J{\2 - x)x.

To prove (6) one has to realize that in this part of the procedure (for no good reason) a sine-table is used which is based on R = 60, not on R = 150 as in (3). Then, indeed

Sinr = R = yj(12 x)x.


rc rc

For the area of the sector ETFC one finds

. 2vj dc Ac = - X
360 4

22
180-4-7

j2 d&] -

2520

1 1 j2 d&i.

It would have been more consistent to operate here with rc instead of dc and thus come to the more convenient formula

A _ 11 rc 2w
630

but also the Latin text uses (7).


From Ac we have to subtract the triangle

ETF = (rc - y)k = (rc - y)J{\-2 - x)x


in order to find the area of the segment (8). Finally we have to compute the lense-shaped area EBFC

E = EG + Ec
using (5) and (8). Then

(9)

M = ^E
oo

(10)

is the eclipse magnitude in " area-digits " of which the solar disk
contains 12. Indeed, with this definition

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE


8. Duration

39

Fig. 10 shows that under the assumption of unchanging latitude of the moon during the progress of an eclipse the distance from the

first contact to mid-eclipse or from mid-eclipse to last contact is given by

Vo + rcY -
therefore the duration by

+^

V = ^c _ V^'d'

In our text the computation of At is not given but the first respectively last contact is said to occur at
12;56,22 0;53,33 = 12;3,49" after sunrise 12;56,22 + 0;53,33 = 13 ;49,55ft after sunrise

while t0 = 1 2 ;56,22'1 after sunrise had been found for the middle of the eclipse. Thus At = 0;53,33ft should be the half-duration of the eclipse. Substituting in the above formula the values

r0 + rc = 0;32,17,30

0 = - 0;15,36

= 12;ll,270/d

one finds y/(rQ + rc)2 = ^/;1 3,19,23 0;28,19 and finally


At 0;55,44,...'1 i.e. an error of the text of only 0;2A. The above-given moments for first and last contact are finally
converted to seasonal hours on the basis that it has been found that

1.*. = 18;17,12

t0 = 1,24;22,15

after noon.

For the half-duration one finds

18;17,12

= 0;43,51,31,.

40

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

and for the middle of the eclipse

= ,^,^,
18;17, 12

1 JA-17 I s

6 11 36 49 38

s.A.

after sunrise

therefore for first and last contact

10 ;36,49,38 0;43,55,31 = 9;52,54s'1 after sunrise


10;36,49,38 + 0;43,55,31 = 1 1 ;20,45s ft- after sunrise

respectively. The eclipse computation ends with the statement that the solar altitude at first contact was 18, at last contact 8. No computation is given; probably the tables mentioned in No. 66 had been used (').
63, 64. Astrologica

No. 63 is identical with Geoponica I, 8 for which see Bidez-Cumont, Mages hell. II p. 179. A fragmentary demotic text which deals with the rising of Sothis in combination with moon and planets was published by George R. Hughes, JNES 10 (1951) p. 256-264. According to Hephaistion XXIII the heliacal rising of Sirius should take place on Epiphi 25 which corresponds, however, to July 19, not to July 20 of the Geoponica.
65, 66. Hour Angle from Solar Altitude

Consider the following data be known: 1/2 d half-length of day arc of the sun for the given day h0 noon altitude of the sun at the given day
h observed altitude of the sun.

Then the following rule is given for finding the hour angle H, i.e. the distance of the sun from the meridian, reckoned in equatorial
degrees Vers H = Yers

TT

d 2

Vers f/2-Sin/i Sin/i 0

(1)

H is here measured in degrees. Since the length of one seasonal hour is also known, namely s = d/ 12, we find for the distance of
1 Using the method of No. 65 I find, however, altitudes of about 28;4 and 8;49"

respectively, i.e., a decrease of about 19 ;1 5 in altitude during 1 ;47\ This seems more
plausible than a decrease of only 10.

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

41

the sun from noon the seasonal hours H/s; the equinoctial hours are H/15 = 0;4 H.

Fig. 11.

The correctness of (1) follows from fig. 11 which represents the meridian section of the celestial sphere and the day-circle of the sun rotated into the same plane. Then

AM _ MM' _ sin h0
AB
and

'

BB'

sin/i

AM = vers But

hence

AB = vers

d sinA 2 sin h0

BM = vers H = AM AB

which proves (1). Computation with the above formula was made unnecessary by the construction of tables (for given geographical latitude ) with
d

double entry, namely for h and h which give the time ^ H, i.e.
the time elapsed since sunrise. Such a table is not preserved in our text but is known from Persian sources, computed for = 36, i.e. probably for Raqqah, al-Battn?s place of observation (*). An incorrect, or only approximately correct, solution for the same problem was given here in No. 42 (cf. above p. 12).
1 1 owe this information to Prof. E. S. Kennedy.

42

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

67. Solar Longitudes from Tables

The procedure corresponds to the solar theory of the Almagest,

in particular in the use of a table for the equation of the type Alm. 111,6.
68. Lunar Longitudes from Tables The underlying theory is based on the refined lunar model of the Almagest. The corresponding table to which our text refers, which is, however, not preserved in our MS, is certainly of the structure of the table in Alm. V, 8 but with a different arrangement and counting of columns:
here : common numbers
column 1 column 2 column 3

Alm. V,8 : columns 1 and 2


column 3 column 6 column 4

column 4

column 5

The tables of mean motions also not preserved seem to be


less elaborate than the tables in Alm. IV, 4 since we are told to com-

pute the double elongation from the mean motions of sun and moon. In the Almagest at least the elongation itself is tabulated, and the Handy Tables give directly the double elongation. The procedure for finding the true longitude consists in forming first the double mean elongation
2 = 2(Xc ^)

and finding in the tables with 2 as argument the values of Cj and c2 . From the mean anomaly one finds the true anomaly
= +

and with as argument the equations c3 and c4 , tabulated for the maximum respectively minimum distance of the epicycle (i.e. at

syzygy or quadrature respectively). Then the true longitude is given


by

= Xc + C3 + C2C4 69. Planetary Longitudes from Tables

The wording of the text is not easy to understand but nevertheless it is clear that the procedure follows essentially the pattern of Alm. XI, 11,12 except for a different arrangement of the columns:

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

43

here: column 1
column 2 column 3 column 4 column 5

Alm. ,: columns 3 + 4
column 8 column 5 column 6 column 7.

Our text proceeds as follows. We consider to be given the longitude of the apogee of the planet in question (cf. fig. 12) as well as the

Fig. 12.

mean longitude 1 for the given moment. For the outer planets a mean anomaly can be computed as = 1 1q, for an inner planet is independent of the sun. In the Almagest is tabulated for both cases (IX,4). One now forms = 1 and enters with it the tables which give in column 1 the correction c^c) by means of which one obtains

K = K + C(k)

= C j ( k)

if |

< 180

[ > 180.

44

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

With K as argument one finds the coefficient of interpolation 2() which has the value 1 at the apogee, + 1 at the perigee and 0 at mean distance of the center C of the epicycle from the observer O.

With as argument one finds the epicyclic equation c4(a), which


would be valid for C at the mean distance from O, and the increments

c3(a) and c5(a) which correspond to a position of C at A P respectively. Then c3(a)

c'4(a) = c4(a) + c2(k)


cs(a)

is the equated epicyclic equation in general position. Obviously

c'a(ol) 0 if ^ 180.
Finally the true longitude of the planet is given by = + + c'A (a).
70 to 86. Astrologica

No. 70 discusses the astrological significance of the aspects (conjunction, sextile, quartile, trine, and opposition) between the moon and the planet (including the sun). No. 71 gives the Spia according to the " Egyptian " system and according to Ptolemy. For each sign is given (a) the length of each section, (b) the ruling planets, (c) the summation of the intervals listed in (a). No. 72 is a list of the houses, exaltations and depressions, decans and different types of triangle rulers. Fol. 285v counts a list of 14 lines enumerating types of zodiacal signs (from " male " to " human-shaped ") as 14 sections, from
73 to 86.

Appendix. The Tables of foll. 238v to 256w

In the following I give a short summary of the tables which precede


the text discussed here.

No. 4 (fol. 238v, 239r): normed right ascensions. No. 5 (fol. 239v-240v): table of sines (R = 60), lunar latitude (maximum 4;46,0), solar declinations ( = 23 ;35,0) ; cf., however, No. 8. Nos. 6 to 8 (x) (fol. 241 r-249v): tables for the planetary latitudes.
1 With some errors in the numbering of the tables.

COMMENTARY ON THE ASTRONOMICAL TREATISE

45

In No. 8 (fol. 247r-249v) is added another table for the solar decli-

nations, but with = 23 ;51 (cf. No. 5). Nos. 9-13 (fol. 250r-252r): planetary stations. Nos. 14-27 (fol. 252v-256v): tables for the visibility of the planets for the climata 2 to 6. These tables contain many errors and malarrangements; in particular the Nos. 24-27 (fol. 256r, 256v) belong between No. 17 (fol. 253r) and No. 18 (fol. 253v). Nos. 22 and 23 (fol. 255r, 255v) give the planetary phases as in the Almagest XIII, 10.

Bibliographical Abbreviations
Almagest: Ptolemaeus, Syntaxis mathematica, ed. Heiberg, Leipzig 1898. Bidez-Cumont; Mages hell.: Les Mages hellniss, 2 vols., Paris 1938. CCAG: Catalogus codicum astrologorum graecorum. Goldstein, Bernard R.: Ibn al-Muthann's Commentary on the Astronomical Tables of al-Khwrizml. Yale University Press, 1967. Halma: Commentaire de Thon d'Alexandrie... Tables Manuelles... 3 vols., Paris 1822, 1823, 1825. Handy Tables : cf. Halma and Ptolemaeus, Opera astronomica minora, ed. Heiberg, Leipzig 1907 p. 157 ff. JNES: Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Kennedy, Survey: A Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables. Trans. Am. Philos. Soc., N.S. 46,2 (1956) p. 121-177. Kennedy, Parallax : Parallax Theory in Islamic Astronomy. Osiris 47 (1956) p. 33-53. Mills Vallicrosa, Bibl. Toledo: Las traducciones orientales en los manuscritos
de la Biblioteca Catedral de Toledo. Madrid 1942.

Mills Vallicrosa, Tablas astron. : El libro de los fundamentos de las Tablas


astronomicas de R. Abraham Ibn "Ezra. Madrid-Barcelona 1947.

Mills Vendrell, Eduardo: El comentario de Ibn al-Mutann a las TablasAstronmicas de al-Jwarizmi, Madrid-Barcelona, 1963. Neugebauer, Al-Khwrizm: The Astronomical Tables of Al-Kh warizmi. Danske Vidensk. Selsk., Hist.-filos. Skrifter 4,2 (1962). Neugebauer, Byz. Astr. : Studies in Byzantine Astronomical Terminology. Trans. Am. Philos. Soc., N.S. 50,2 (1960) p. 1-45.

XLII

1547. Doutrepont, G. La littrature et la Socit ; 1942 ; LII-688 p


Tome XLIII

280
40 150

1.
2.

1553. Wodon, L. Considrations sur la Sparation et la Dlgation des Pouvoirs


en Droit Public Belge ; 1942 ; 71 p 1566. Willaert, L. Les origines du Jansnisme dans les Pays-Bas catholiques ; 1948 ; 439 p
Tome XLIV

2. 1584. Kerremans, Ch. tude sur les circonscriptions judiciaires et administratives


du Brabant et les officiers placs leur tte par les Ducs, antrieurement l'avnement de la Maison de Bourgogne (1406) ; 1949 ; 2 cartes, 436 p
Tome XLV

1.

1571. Lonard, J. Le bonheur chez Aristote ; 1948 ; IV-224p

80
150

1.

2. 3. 4.
1.

1596. Grgoire, H., Goossens, R. et Mathieu, M., Asklpios, Apollon Smintheus et Rudra ; 1949 ; 11 fig. et 2 cartes ; 204 p 1598. Stengers, J. Les Juifs dans les Pays-Bas au Moyen Age ; 1950; 1 carte, 190 p 1595. Dechesne,L. L'avenir de notre civilisation ; 1949 ; 124 p 1601. Piron, Maurice. Tchantchs et son volution dans la tradition ligeoise ; 1950 ; 9 pl., 120 p
Tome XLVI

80

75 50
60

1600. Grgolre, H., Orgels, P., Moreau, J. et Maricq, A. Les perscutions

dans l'Empire romain ; 1951 ; 176 p

puls.
25 50
200

2. 3. 4.
1.

1607. Honlgmann, Ernest. The lost end of Menander's Epitrepontes ; 1950 ; 43 p. 1608. Haesaert, J. Pralablesdu Droit International public ; 1950 ; 93 p 1620. Hoebanx, J. J. L'Abbaye de Nivelles des Origines au XIVe sicle ; 1952 ;
11 cartes ; 511 p
Tome XLVII

1621. Dereine, Ch. Les Chanoines rguliers au diocse de Lige avant saint Norbert ; 1952 ; 1 pl. ; IV-282 p

120

2.
3.
4.

1633. Cornil, Suzanne. Ins de Castro. Contribution l'tude du dveloppement littraire du thme dans les littratures romanes ; 1952 ; 153 p 1634. Honigmann, E. Pierre l'Ibrien et les crits du pseudo-Denys l'Aropagite ; 1952 ; 60 p 1640. Honigmann, E. et Maricq, A. Recherches sur les Res Gestae divi Saporis ; 1953 ; 4 planches hors-texte ; 1 carte ; 204 p
Tome XLVIII

75
40 100

1. 2. 3.

1645. Govaert, Marcel. La langue et le style de Marnix de Sainte-Aldegonde dans sone Tableau des Differensdela Religion ; 1953 ; 312 p 150 1647. Hyart, Charles. Les origines du style indirect latin et son emploi jusqu' l'poque de Csar ; 1954 ; 223 p 100 1648. Martens, Mina. L'administration du domaine ducal en Brabant au Moyen Age (1250-1406) ; 1954 ; 4 pl. ; 2 cartes ; 608 p 400
Tome XLIX

1.

1650. Van Ooteghem, J. Pompe le Grand, btisseur d'Empire ; 1954 ; 56 fig., 665 p
Tome L

400

1.
2.

1654. Spilman, Reine. Sens et Porte de l'volution de la Responsabilit civile


80 300 40
200

depuis 1804 ; 1955 ; 132 p 1658. Bartier, John. Lgistes et gens de finances au XIVe sicle ; 1955 ; 4 pl. ; 452 p 2b. 1658bis. Idem : index-additions et corrections ; 1957 ; 76 p
Tome LI

1.

1662. Finet, Andr. L'Accadien des Lettres de Mari ; 1956 ; XIV-358 p

2. 3. 4.

1669. Mogenet, Joseph. L'introduction l'Almageste ; 1956 ; 52 p 1670. Joly, Robert. Le Thme Philosophique des Genres de vie dans l'Antiquit Classique ; 1956 ; 202 p 1674. Mortier, Roland. Les Archives Littraires de l'Europe (1804-1808) et le Cosmopolitisme Littraire sous le Premier Empire ; 1957 ; 252 p
T ome LII

40 120

140
100

1. 2.

3.
4.

1675. Delatte.Louis. Un office byzantin d'exorcisme ; 1957 ; VIII-166 p 1676. Lejeune, Albert. Recherches sur la Catoptrique grecque d'aprs les sources antiques et mdivales ; 1957 ; 53 fig. ; 200 p

1683. Wanty, mile. LeMilieu Militair belge de 1831 1914 ; 1957 ; 280 p
XVI-282 p

150

140
300

1686. Bonenfant, Paul. Du meurtre de Monterau au trait de Troyes ; 1958 ;

LIXI

2.
4. 5.

1.

1688. Mertens, Paul. Les Services de l'tat Civil et le Contrle de la Population


Ox\Thynchus au III' sicle de notre re ; 1958 ; 1 h.-t. ; XX-170 p

1687. Delatte, Armand. Les Portulans grecs II. Complments ; 1958 ; 85 p

120
120

3.

1690. Mortler, Roland. Le Hochepot ou Salmigondi des Folz (1596) ; 1959 ; 132 p 1699. Van Ooteghem, J. Lucius Licinius Lucullus ; 1959 ; 27 fig., 233 p 1704. Henry H. Frost, Jr. The functional sociology of Emile Waxweiler; 1960;
244 p
T ome LIV

80 160
150 >

1. 2. 3.
4.

1707. Lemerle, Paul. Prolgomnes une dition critique et commente des Conseils et Rcits de Kkaumnos ; 1960 ; 120 p 1714. Moraux.Paul. Une dfixion judiciaire au Muse d'Istanbul ; 1960 ; 62p. .. 1717. Dabln, Jean. Droit subjectif et Prrogatives juridiques. Examen des thses de M. Paul Roubier ; 1960 ; 68 p
1720. Delatte, Armand. Herbarius. Recherches sur le crmonial usit chez les

80 50

50
240 140

Anciens pour la cueillette des simples et des plantes magiques ; 1961 ;


5. 6. 16 fig., 223 p 1721. Peeters, Paul. L'ceuvre des Bollandistes ; 1961 ; 209 pages ; 2 h.-texte 1723. Honigmann, Ernest. Trois mmoires posthumes d'histoire et de gographie de l'Orient chrtien ; 1961 ; 2 pl., 216 p
T ome LV

200

1.
2. 3.
4.

1725. Kupper, Jean-Robert. L'Iconographie du dieu Amurru dans la glyptique de la l re dynastie babylonienne ; 1961 ; 96 p. ; 9 pl 1728. Duprel, E. LaConsistance et la Probabilit Constructive ; 1961 ; 39 p 1730. Van Ooteghem, J. Lucius Marcius Philippus et sa famille ; 1961 ; 10 fig.,
200 p 1737. Goossens, Roger. Euripide et Athnes ; 1962 ; 772 p
T ome LVI

80 30
160 450

1. 2.

1738. Slmon, A. Position pliilosophiquedu Cardinal Mercier ; 1962 ; 120 p 1740. Severyns, A. Texte et Apparat. Histoire critique d 'une tradition imprime ;

80

3.

4.
5.

1962 ; I-XII ; 374 p. ; 5 dpliants 1749. Simon, A. Rencontres Mennaisiennes en Belgique ; 1963 ; 266 p

1750. tienne, Hlin. La dmographie de Lige aux XVIIe et XVIIIe sicles ;


1963 ; 282 p 1753. Grgoire, Henri. Les perscutions dans l'Empire romain (2e d.) ; 1964 ; 267 p. 1755. Van Ooteghem, J. Caius Marius ; 1964 ; 338 p. ; 20 fig.
T ome LVII

320 200
260 200 260

6.

1.

2.
3.

1757. Lenger, Marle-Thrse. Corpus des Ordonnances des Ptolmes ; 1964 ; 368 p. 2 pl 260

1760. Lallemand, Jacqueline. L'administration civile de l'gypte de l'avnement de Diocltien la cration du diocse (284-382) ; 1964 ; 342 p. ; 3 fig. 1761. Jeanjot, Paul. Les Concours annuels de la Classe des Lettres et des Sciences morales et politiques de l'Acadmie royale de Belgique. Programmes et rsultats des Concours (1817-1967) ; 1964 ; 234 p 1765. Dumzil, Georges. Notes sur le parler d'un Armnien musulman de

260

150

4.

5. 6.

Hemsin ; 1964 ; 52 p 50 1767. Maline, Marie. Nicolas Gumilev, pote et critique acmiste ; 1964 ; 380 p. 300 1770. Salmon, Pierre. La politique gyptienne d'Athnes : 1965; xxxn-276 p. 240
T ome LVIII

la. 1784. Derchain, Philippe. Le papyrus Salt 825, rituel pour la conservation de la

vie en gypte ; 1965 ; Vol. 1 ; 216 p. ; 10 fig

450
220
720 500

lb. 1784bis. Idem. Vol. 2 ; 72 p. ; 18 pl 2. 1788. Lacroix, Lon. Monnaies et colonisation dans l'Occident grec ; 1965 ; 178 p. ; 12 pl 3. 1789. Jacques, Xavier et Van Ooteghem, J. Index de Pline le Jeune ; 1965 ; XX-975 p 4. 1799. Leleux , Fernand. Charles Van Hulthem 1764-1832 ; 1965 ; 574 p. ; 1 pl
T ome LIX

1. 2. 3.
4.

1807. J. Van Ooteghem, S. J. Les Caecilii Metelli de la Rpublique ; 1967 ; 349 p. ; 14 pl 1812. O. Bouquiaux-Simon, Les lectures homriques de Lucien ; 1968; 414 p. 1813. Gaier, Claude. Art et organisation militaires dans la principaut de Lige et dans le comt de Looz au Moyen Age ; 1968 ; 393 p. ; 16 fig. 1819. O. Neugebauer, Commentary on the Astronomical Treatise Par. gr. 2425 ; 1969 ; 45 p. ; 12 fig
J. DUCULOT, imprimeur de l'Acadmie royale de Belgique, Gembloux. Printed in Belglum.

320 400 360


100