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DL GTU101.1

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DL GTU101.1

CONTENTS

1. THEORETICAL SECTION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Response of alternator in isolated operation 1.3 Synchronization circuits 1.4 Response on a constant-voltage constant-frequency system

2. INFORMATIONS 2.1 Experiment components 2.2 Safety procedures 2.2 Safety procedures

EXPERIMENTS EXPERIMENT N1 Winding resistance measurement EXPERIMENT N2 No-load test EXPERIMENT N3 Short-circuit test EXPERIMENT N4 Load characteristics EXPERIMENT N5 Regulation performances EXPERIMENT N6 Convencional efficency EXPERIMENT N7 Dark/bright synchronizing circuits EXPERIMENT N8 Alternator and synchronous motor

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DL GTU101.1

1. THEORETICAL SECTION

1.1 Introduction In the area of public power supply, three-phase current has emerged as the simplest form of power, in terms of both transmission and universal application. Three-phase current can be transformed to a voltage level appropriate for the distance it has to be transmitted and can be used in the manner ideally suited for the consumer, e.g. for drive purposes. However, electrical power cannot be stored in large quantities. Consequently, it has to be generated at the same time the consumer needs it. As a result, over the course of time large interconnected networks have evolved which satisfy the requirements of a nearly continuous and cost-efficient electrical power supply. Interconnected network operation offers several advantages. The generation of electrical power from the various primary energy sources (coal, gas, oil, nuclear power, water) can take place where the resources are located. The transmission of electrical power is generally more economical than the transport of primary energy sources. Furthermore, the interconnected network permits power generation to occur in large units, which operates at greater degree of efficiency. In addition to this, power stations can be employed with varying loads thus always being able to exploit fully those units with the lowest specific fuel costs. Also the interconnected system provides for an economical reserve capacity of generated power and transmission power. This is equally true for power plants and transmission lines. The consumer can also expect to receive the desired power at any time and at a reasonable cost, while at the same time the voltage and the frequency can be also kept almost constant, even under fluctuating load due to the multitude of feeding generators. This is referred to in this context as a constant-voltage constant-frequency system (also stiff system). The generation of electrical energy is performed almost exclusively using high-power synchronous machines, or alternators, whose construction design depends on the type of drive - normally steam, gas or water. The name synchronous machine (which can be used both as a generator and as a motor) stems from the fact that the rotor runs at a constant speed, which is synchronous with the speed of the magnetic field in a constant-voltage constant-frequency system. The rotor contains a dc winding (exciter winding or field) which in the case of generators produces the desired three-phase voltage in the three-phase winding (stator winding or armature), which is evenly staggered along the circumference of the stator. This design is referred to as a stationary armature machine.

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DL GTU101.1 In addition to this, there are also stationary field machines, in which the exciter winding is arranged on the stator and the three-phase winding is attached to the rotor. Here, however, it is not the exciter power but the far greater three-phase power which has to be supplied or transferred via brushes. As a result this design is limited to smaller scales. Thermal power plants heated by coal, oil, gas or nuclear reactors use steam turbines and occasionally gas turbines as well for converting energy. For construction reasons these are designed for 1 high rotating speed (3000 or 1500 min-1) for networks with a frequency of 50 Hz). Because of this high rotating speed and the associated centrifugal forces, the rotor has to be solid and may only have a small diameter. The exciter winding is inserted into grooves which have been machined longitudinally into the rotor. Because the power output of a generator is dependent on, among other things, its size, when it has a small diameter a longer length has to be selected in order to achieve a high power level. Machines of this type are called non-salient pole or turbo-alternators. The generators in water-driven power plants are designed differently. The turbines available for driving these plants demonstrate considerably lower rotating speeds in the range of approx 100 750 min-1. The rotor used here is equipped with many leg-type salient poles which accommodate the exciter winding. In extreme cases a machine of this type can have up to 60 individual poles. The larger diameter permits the machine to have a considerably shorter rotor length despite the high power being generated. Machines of this type are called salient-pole alternators. The largest synchronous generators are found in nuclear power stations and are capable today of producing power up to 1300 MW at nominal stator voltage of 27 kV. In spite of the high degree of efficiency - over 98% - the power losses involved (above all current heat dissipation in the windings) are considerable in large-scale machines and require expensive cooling facilities, for example, water cooling for the stator as well as the rotor. In contrast to asynchronous machines, a synchronous machine cannot start independently. (If a damper winding is present in the rotor, there is the possibility of a so-called asynchronous start-up, at least in smaller machines. However, this is not made of in the area of power generation and supply). If a synchronous generator is supposed to be connected in parallel with the constant-voltage constant-frequency system, it first has to be brought up to nominal speed via the turbine. At the same time, the exciter voltage has to be increased from zero until the stator voltage reaches the same level as that of the network. However, connection is then only possible when the magnitude, phase relation and rotational direction of the two voltages are in agreement. The described procedure is called synchronisation. This operation is carried out automatically in modern power stations, in which a synchronizing device (also referred to as a paralleling device) is responsible for controlling and monitoring the above-mentioned procedure.

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DL GTU101.1 After the synchronous machine has been connected to a constant-voltage constant-frequency system, the active power to be produced and consumed and also the reactive power can be adjusted as desired independently of each other (only the power limits of the machine have to be adhered to). As a result it can be universally put into operation, and in addition to its main application the generation of active and lagging reactive power- can be used for driving the pumps in pumped storage power stations or as a rotating phase-shifter for the improvement of a system's power factor. Due to the unrivalled importance of turbo alternators for power generation and to simplify mathematical investigation, especially in comparison to the salient-pole machine, we wish to limit the following considerations to the former machine type. However, the conclusions drawn from this machine can generally be applied to machines with salient-poles. In the present experiment, a two-pole alternator is investigated; a dc shunt wound machine performs the drive function. To determine some of the characteristic features of the synchronous machine used here, this machine is operated in so -called isolated operation. This is an operating mode in which the generator supplies just one single consumer. Voltage magnitude and frequency are determined here by the alternator. Then, in the second part of the experiment, various synchronisation circuits are assembled and the response of the machine is investigated in a constant-voltage constant-frequency system. In contrast to the isolated network, here voltage and frequency are predetermined by the system and have constant values. If the synchronous machine is driven mechanically here, then it operates as a generator. If its excitation is altered, it can then generate as well as consume reactive power. It is precisely this function which, in addition to generating active power, is also able to influence the reactive power content of a system, providing the synchronous machine with its varied application options.

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DL GTU101.1 1.2 Response of alternator in isolated operation In order to characterize several important features of the alternator, it is expedient to observe how this machine operates in so called isolated operation. By this we mean an operating mode in which the alternator only feeds one single consumer and is not connected to the interconnected system. Furthermore, our investigations should be limited to stationary (i.e. steady state) and symmetrical operation of a three-phase alternator. Since in the following sections we will be working with quantities from three-phase and ac technology, it makes sense to explore the complex representation of voltage and current ratios. The use of complex symbols enables us to simultaneously represent, for example, magnitude and phase for voltages and currents. As agreed upon here we are only dealing with effective values. Phase-shifts of 90 between the voltage and current are particularly easy to realise with the aid of the so-called complex operator j 1 Complex resistance are described as impedances. They simultaneously provide information regarding the active component (resistance R) and the reactive component (reactance X) of an ac impedance Z. There exist two equally valid mathematical representations each of equal validity, namely the Cartesian model (representing the active and reactive components) and the polar model (representing the magnitude and the phase). In the following, complex symbols are always underlined; their graphic representation in the Gaussian numerical plane is carried out using so called phasors. Using phasor diagrams the current and voltage ratios of an ac or three-phase circuit can be presented clearly and interpreted without having any detailed knowledge of the complex calculation. As long as symmetrical ratios predominate with respect to voltages and currents in a three-phase system, a single-phase simulation suffices. This is also the case in the present experiment.

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DL GTU101.1 Under the assumptions stated above the behaviour of an alternator in stationary operation can be described with the aid of a simple equivalent circuit diagram. Here -as in all the following diagrams and the equations deduced from them- the circuit is based on a star configuration of the stator.

Xh

Xo

Rs

~

IE

Up

Us

Fig. 1 Single-phase equivalent circuit diagram of the alternator in stationary operating mode The variables occurring in the equivalent circuit diagram have the following meanings: IE = Exciter current (in rotor) UP = Synchronous generated voltage (in stator, star voltage) US = Stator voltage (star voltage) XH = Main reactance of the stator winding X = Leakage reactance of the stator winding RS = Resistance of the stator winding The rotor is permeated by a dc current (the exciter current IE ) and driven externally with synchronous rotation speed. Given the frequency f of the voltage to be generated and using the equation f = p*n/60, the synchronous rotating speed n is produced from the number of pole pairs p in the rotor. Thus with the frequency kept constant the synchronous rotation speed of the alternator decreases as the number of pole pairs increases. With a frequency of 50 Hz and a two-pole rotor (i.e. with the number of pole pair p = 1) we obtain, for example, a 1 synchronous rotating speed of 3000 min-1. On the one hand, maintaining a constant frequency is of importance when taking the connected consumer into consideration; on the other hand it is an absolute prerequisite for operation of the alternator on the interconnected system. The voltage induced in the stator winding by the rotating rotor is called the synchronous generated voltage UP. By means of certain design measures the windings can be arranged so that this voltage assumes a sinusoidal characteristic. In addition to this the three-phase winding is normally connected in star configuration to prevent the formation and multiplication of the third current harmonic. The magnitude of the synchronous generated voltage is a function of the exciter current IE and as the so-called no-load characteristic reproduces the typical characteristic of the magnetisation curve of an iron core with air gap.

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DL GTU101.1 Since we are dealing with an induction process here, the synchronous generated voltage is proportional to the rotating speed of the machine when the exciter current is constant. Although the synchronous generated voltage is not directly accessible for measurement, it is identical to the stator voltage in the no-load case, because no voltage drop occurs in the stator. The total flux permeating through the stator winding consists of the main and leakage flux: accordingly the two reactance are defined XH (main reactance) and X (leakage reactance). The two in conjunction constitute the synchronous reactance XD, which is also referred to as armature reactance. (In three-phase machines that section which bears the three-phase winding is called the armature; in large machines this is always the stator). The following holds for synchronous reactance: XD = XH + X Large machine show values of 0.07 up to 0.2 for the ratio of leakage reactance to main reactance. In order to keep the losses in generators at a minimum, the resistance RS of the stator winding is designed as small as possible by selecting the appropriate diameter for the copper windings. Thus, for rough observations, RS can be ignored in comparison with the synchronous reactance XD, at least in the case of large machines; consequently the equivalent circuit diagram can be simplified as follows.

Xd

Up

Us

Fig. 2 Simplified equivalent circuit diagram of the alternator in stationary operating mode (single-phase). The exciter winding will no longer be depicted in the above as well as the following figures. For the subsequent investigations we will restrict our interest solely to the synchronous generated voltage induced in the stator winding. The value of the synchronous reactance XD is obtained by performing current and voltage measurements during a short-circuit experiment whereby the resistance of the stator winding is neglected.

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DL GTU101.1 The measurement is carried out with reduced exciter current and with all three phase of the stator winding short-circuited. There is an almost linear relationship between the exciter current and the short-circuit current. Furthermore, unlike the no-load voltage, the short-circuit current is nearly independent of the alternator's speed, as both the synchronous generated voltage and the synchronous reactance are proportional to the frequency, thus making the quotient of both quantities frequency-dependent. The principle curve of a no-load and a short-circuit characteristic is reproduced in the following figure.

US

IS

UN Ik0

Ie0

IE

Ie0

IE

Fig. 3 No-load characteristic (left) and short-circuit characteristic (right) of the alternator. The no-load nominal exciter current IE0 is that particular current in the rotor which supplies the nominal voltage during generator operation under no-load condition. If the alternator is shortcircuited at this current level, then the so-called no-load steady short-circuit current IK0 flows in the stator. From this the synchronous reactance can be determined. For a star connection of the stator this amounts to:

Xd

UN 3 IK0

ZN

UN 3 IN

where IN is the stator nominal current, then the quotient of these two quantities can be formed, which is designated as the relative armature reactance

Xd Xd ZN

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DL GTU101.1 The ratio of the no-load steady short-circuit current to the nominal current is described as the shortcircuit current ratio. The following relationship applies here:

UN IK0 IN 3 Xd ZN 1 UN Xd Xd 3 ZN

Thus the relationship represents the reciprocal value of the relative armature reactance. In large alternators a mean value of 1.6 can be assumed for XD. As such in these machines the no-load steady short-circuits current does not reach the value of the nominal current. After learning about the response of the alternator under no-load and short-circuit conditions, we should now investigate the characteristic features of the alternator under normal power plant operating conditions. A current flows here in the stator winding, whose magnitude and phase relation depend on the type of load. This current induces an additional magnetic field in the air gap of the machine, which is superimposed on the magnetic field of the rotor. This phenomenon is called the armature reaction. For general considerations it suffices to use the simplified equivalent circuit as specified in Fig. 2, from which the appropriate vector diagrams of the individual load types can be deduced. Voltage and current directions are fixed according to the generator reference-arrow system. From this we obtain positive signs for the generated active and lagging reactive power. First we will consider the case of a purely resistive load.

jXdIS US

Up

IS

Fig. 4 Synchronous generator with resistive load and corresponding phasor diagram. 8

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DL GTU101.1 Current IS and voltage US of the consumer are in phase. The current IS causes a voltage drop JXD * IS on the synchronous reactance. The phase angle arising between the stator voltage and synchronous generated voltage is described as the rotor displacement angle . A positive value of the rotor displacement value (mathematically positive direction of rotation is counter-clockwise) means that the rotor is ahead of the rotating magnetic field. The rotor "pulls" the rotating field of the stator. Theoretically the rotor displacement angles can have values of up to 90. Then the so-called stability limit is reached, at which the generator no longer produces any active power and falls out of synchronism. For the synchronous generated voltage the following equation applies: UP = US + JXD * IS If it is kept constant by maintaining the exciter current level, then the stator voltage (consumer voltage) drops with increasing load current. The synchronous generator responds very similarly under inductive load.

Up

jXdIS

US

IS

Fig. 5 Synchronous generator under inductive load and corresponding phasor diagram.

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DL GTU101.1 Here too the stator voltage drops with increasing load current in accordance with the equation UP = US + JXD * IS This effect is even more extreme than with a pure resistive load. And finally the case of a capacitive load should be demonstrated.

jXdIS

US

Up

IS

Fig. 6 Synchronous generator under capacitive load and corresponding phasor diagram In contrast to the other two load types, here the stator voltage increases with increasing load current, as can be seen from the following equation UP = US + JXD * IS The generator now receives reactive power from the consumer. Consequently it behaves as an inductance.

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DL GTU101.1 The graphic representation of the phenomenon described leads to the following load characteristics US vs IS in isolated operation.

US 3 UN 3

1

Key: 1, resistive load 2, inductive load 3, capacitive load

2 IS

Fig. 7 Load characteristics of the alternator in isolated operation with the exciter current kept constant

If the intention is to supply consumers in isolated operation with constant voltage, then this requires automatic voltage control, which is carried out with the aid of the exciter current of the alternator. As we have already mentioned, large alternators have an efficiency of almost 100%. Determining the efficiency from the ratio of active power output to active power consumed is normally then too inaccurate, as the power measurements themselves involve certain faults. More precise results are obtained by applying the so-called single-loss method, in which each type of power loss is determined one by one using appropriate measuring methods or they are computed.

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DL GTU101.1 1.3 Synchronization circuits If an alternator is to be connected to a constant-voltage constant-frequency system, certain conditions have to be adhered to, as otherwise transient reactions may occur during switch-on which cause impermissibly high current loads in the stator winding. The voltage of the alternator has to coincide with the system values for magnitude and phase relation, frequency and phase sequence (rotation direction of the magnetic field). Only under these conditions does no voltage difference prevail at the terminals, which are to be connected together. The monitoring of these values is performed using various synchronization devices. In order to make a trouble-free parallel connection possible, the alternator is first accelerated from a standstill to nominal speed. Then the excitation is switched on and increased until the stator and network voltages are equal. The simplest way to compare the two voltages is with so-called synchronizer lamps, which are located between the terminals of the alternator and those of the network. Depending on the voltage amplitude of the network, the lamps can be connected either in direct configuration or indirect (i.e. via a voltage transformer) configuration. In direct connection configuration they must be designed for twice the phase voltage of the alternator. Basically one draws a distinction between two possibilities: a dark and a bright synchronizing circuit. In the case of the dark circuit, the three phase lamps are located between the same phase of the network and alternator respectively. If the phase sequence of the two three-phase systems are in agreement, all of the lamps light up at the same time and go out together with the rhythm of the beat frequency of the system. However, if the phase sequence is reversed (due to the incorrect rotation direction or incorrect connection of the alternator), then there is no resulting time at which all the lamps are dark simultaneously.

L1 L2 L3 L1 U W

L3 V U V W

L2

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DL GTU101.1 The synchronization switch must be closed at the moment when all of the lamps are off. For this it is normally necessary to slightly vary the speed of the drive (that means the speed of the turbine in practical power plant operation) until the synchronization conditions have been fulfilled. In the bright circuit the lamps are connected to different phases of the network and alternator. However, the connection only leads to a correct indication if the two star point connections of the network and alternator are not connected to each other. Consequently, the bright synchronizing circuit is rarely made use of in practice. An additional connection possibility for the phase lamps is offered by the so-called bright rotation circuit. Here we have two lamps configured as in the bright circuit and one as in the dark circuit.

L1 L2 L3 L1 U W

L3 V U V W

L2

Fig. 9 Synchronizer lamps in the bright rotation circuit If the lamps have been connected correctly, the light cone rotates in the clockwise direction as long as the speed of the generator is too high. If it rotates in the counter-clockwise direction, the speed is too low. It may be connected in parallel when the light cone remains still and if the dark circuit lamp is off while the other two light up brightly. Parallel connection is also very often performed using a synchronoscope. This consists of a ratio meter, which makes the phase differential of two voltages visible via the position of a revolving pointer. We can see from the pointer's direction of movement whether the alternator to be connected in parallel is running too fast or too slowly. If the pointer remains still in the perpendicular position, the alternator can be connected. And finally there are the two-range voltmeter and the two-range frequency meter which are also used as synchronization aids. The two-range voltmeter has two independent measuring mechanisms and indicates simultaneously the voltages of two interconnected systems. A frequency meter is used to control the frequency or rotating speed. The metal reeds contained in the meter begin oscillating when an ac voltage is applied. Because the reeds have different lengths, only those reeds oscillate which are in resonance with the frequency applied. The reeds are arranged in 0.5 Hz stages and permit frequency indication between 47 and 53 Hz or between 57 and 63 Hz. The two range frequency meter makes it possible to compare frequencies of the system and the alternator. The last two instruments described only serve to get the alternator in a connectable operating state. However, to determine the correct time for parallel connection, one of the synchronization aids mentioned earlier has to be used.

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DL GTU101.1 1.4 Response on a constant-voltage constant-frequency system After successful parallel connection, the alternator initially runs at no-load in a constant-voltage constant-frequency system. As no current flows in the stator winding in this case, the synchronous generated voltage and the stator voltage have to be equal. The simplified representation in Fig. 2 is sufficient here to describe the relationships in the alternator. If we increase the excitation of the alternator from this operating state, we force an increase in the synchronous generated voltage. In order for the equation UP = US + JXD * IS to be fulfilled, a current must flow as shown in the following figure.

Up

jXdIS

US =

UN 3

IS

Fig. 10 Overexcited alternator running at no-load in the constant-voltage constant-frequency system This illustration reproduces exactly the same situation as the one which was described for the response of the alternator in isolated operation under inductive load (see Fig. 5). Since no mechanical power is supplied to or drawn from the alternator during no-load, this can only be a purely reactive current. In this operating state the network constitutes an inductive load for the alternator, which it supplies with reactive power.

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DL GTU101.1 If on the other hand the excitation is decreased starting from no-load, then the synchronous generated voltage drops. In order for the equation UP = US + JXD * IS to be fulfilled a current must flow as shown in the following figure.

Fig. 11 Under excited alternator running at no-load in the constant-voltage constant-frequency system This figure reproduces the relationships prevailing for isolated operation under a capacitive load (see Fig. 6). Here again no mechanical power is supplied to or drawn from the alternator, thus only a reactive current flows. In this operating state the network constitutes an inductive load for the alternator, which it supplies with reactive power. This means that the machine is now absorbing reactive power from the mains. (The absorption of lagging reactive power means the same thing as the output of leading reactive power). If during operation on the constant-voltage constant-frequency system and again beginning from no-load operation - the excitation of the alternator is kept constant and this now is in mechanical drive operation, then the alternator is operating as a generator. The power supplied to the shaft is output to the mains as active power. A positive rotor displacement angle settles in, which means that the rotor is leading with respect to the rotating field of the network. The stator current and voltage are almost in phase; the alternator only absorbs a slight reactive power.

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Fig. 12 Alternator operating as a generator on the constant-voltage constant-frequency system If once again we start from the no-load operating state on the constant-voltage constant-frequency system and the alternator is then placed under mechanical load, it now operates as a motor and absorbs active power out of the system. A negative rotor displacement angle sets in and the stator current lies almost in counter phase to the stator voltage, as the following figure shows.

US =

UN 3 Up

IS

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DL GTU101.1 Since the excitation and drive torque can be set independently of each other, any combination of the supply or the absorption of active power and reactive power is possible in so-called four-quadrant operation. The following sign conventions also apply for the representation of voltage and current in the generator reference arrow system. As is standard procedure in power engineering, the Gaussian numerical plane has been rotated around 90 so that the positive real axis points upwards. This results in the following relationships.

Re

P>0 Q<0

U

P>0 Q>0

Im

II III

P<0 Q<0

I IV

P<0 Q>0

Fig. 14 Four-quadrant operation of the alternator Quantitatively the response of the alternator in a constant-voltage constant-frequency system can be described using regulation and V-curves. A regulation curve represents the dependency of the exciter current IE on the stator current IS of the alternator when power factor of the power fed into the system is kept constant. All regulation curves begin at no-load nominal exciter current IE0 (see Fig. 3). In the case of overexcited operation, the exciter current increases with increasing load; whereas in under-excitation it decreases. Characteristic curves are presented in the following diagram for a loss-free alternator.

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DL GTU101.1

IE

5 4 3

IE0

2 1

1, cos = 0 cap 2, cos = 0.8 cap 3, cos = 1 4, cos = 0.8 ind 5, cos = 0 ind

Key:

IS

The V-curves contain different and in practice more relevant informations. If we start from a certain level of active power generation, then the machine can still generate or absorb reactive power until the load limits of its stator have been reached. If you plot the stator current IS for various active power levels with respect to the exciter current IE, then you obtain the V-shaped curves from which the name comes.

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DL GTU101.1

Key:

dashed line, limit between under- and over-excitation; dash-dot line, stability limits Fig. 16 V-curves of the alternator

Once again the representation is of a loss less non-salient pole alternator. The active power output at the network is the family parameter for the curves. For the active power P = 0 the curve coincides with the two limiting cases of the regulating curves for over- and under-excitation; with increasing active power output the curves move upwards. The minima of the stator currents each lies there, where the generated reactive power is equal to zero, i.e. at cos = 1. To the left of the dashed connecting line of these evalues the alternator is under excited; overexcited to the right. In addition to the maximum permissible values for the exciter and stator current in accordance with the machine data, there is another condition which has to be fulfilled. This is the stability limit, which is represented by a dash-dot line. When this is reached, the rotor angle tends to an angle of 90 and the alternator loses synchronization.

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DL GTU101.1

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DL GTU101.1

2. INFORMATIONS

2.1 Experiment components 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 DL 1013T2 DL 1017R DL 1017L DL 1017C DL 1023PS DL 1026A DL 1055TT DL 2025DT DL 2031 DL 2108TAL DL 2108T01 DL 2108T02 DL 2109T1A DL 2109T1AB DL 2109T2A5 DL 2109T1PV DL 2109T1T DL 2109T2T DL 2109T2VB DL 2109T16/2 DL 2109T17/2 DL 2109T26 DL 2109T27 DL 2109T32 Dc filtered power supply Resistive load Inductive load Capacitive load Shunt dc drive motor Three-phase alternator Experiment transformer Speed indicator Optical electronic generator Three-phase power supply unit Excitation voltage controller Power circuit breaker Moving-iron ammeter (1000 mA) Moving-coil ammeter (100 - 1000 mA) Moving-iron ammeter (2.5 A) Moving-iron voltmeter (600 V) Synchronization indicator Phase sequence indicator Moving-iron voltmeter (15 - 30 V) Double frequencymeter Double voltmeter (250 - 500 V) Power meter Power factor meter Synchronoscope

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DL GTU101.1 2.2 Instruments and equipments It is recommended that you use only moving-iron ammeters and voltmeters, as these significantly suppress the effects of the harmonics caused by inductors with iron cores. An accuracy class of 1.5% is sufficient for demonstrating the characteristic effects of the experiments. In addition, please note that the components used are always manufactured to certain tolerances; for example, this can amount to up to 10% of rated value. As temperature influences also play a role here, were command that the experiments be carried out after the components have warmed up.

2.3 Safety procedures In accordance with the IEC regulations, metal parts not carrying a voltage in normal operation (e.g. housings) are to be connected to the PE ground conductor. The ground conductor is provided solely for this purpose and may not be connected with the neutral conductor N of the circuit! When connecting up the machines an effort should be made to have the connecting leads arranged in a clear and straightforward manner. These parts may under no circumstances come into contact with rotating parts! The couplings and the exposed shaft ends have to be protected with the corresponding guards so that no physical contact with rotating parts is possible. Should modifications to the circuits be undertaken in the stator circuit when the alternator is running, then the excitation has to be reduced to zero before these can be carried out. In order to obtain reproducible experiment results, we recommend that the measurements be carried out on "warmed-up" machines.

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DL GTU101.1

EXPERIMENTS

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DL GTU101.1

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DL GTU101.1

EXPERIMENT N. 1

WINDING RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT Objectives: Determining the effective resistance of stator and exciter windings of the alternator.. Equipments: 1 DL 1055TT 1 DL 1026A 1 DL 2109T1AB 1 DL 2109T2VB

Experiment transformer Three-phase alternator Moving-coil ammeter (100 - 1000 mA) Moving-coil voltmeter (15 - 30 V)

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DL GTU101.1

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DL GTU101.1 Experiment procedure Initially assemble the circuit according with the foregoing topographic diagram 1.1 in order to measure the armature resistance. At ambient temperature a measure the voltage drop U corresponding to the following test current values and for every pair of terminals. a = ............ C Phases UV VW WU I (mA) U (V) R() U (V) R() U (V) R() 300 400 500 600

R U I

and enter the results in the table. Calculate the mean value of each resistance between the terminals RUV(av) RUV ..................() 4 RVW ..................() 4 RWU ..................() 4

RVW(av)

RWU(av)

Rav RUV av RVW av RWUav ........................... 3

RS 1 Rav .................. 2

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DL GTU101.1 Now assemble the circuit according with the foregoing topographic diagram 1.2 in order to measure the field resistance. At ambient temperature Ja measure the voltage drop corresponding to the following test current values. a = ............ C I (mA) U (V) R() 30 40 50 60 70

R U I

and enter the results in the table. For reasons of simplicity the measured resistance is inclusive of brushes effect. Calculate the field resistance as the mean of the measured values

RE R ................... 5

C 309.5 ............. 234.5 a

So the resistances at conventional temperature of 75 C are: RS75 = C * RS = .. () RE75 = C * RE = .. () Typical results RS75 = 4.5 RE75 = 430

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DL GTU101.1

EXPERIMENT N. 2

NO-LOAD TEST Objectives: Determining the mechanical and iron losses of the alternator. Recording the open-circuit curve at various speeds. Equipments: 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1

DC filtered power supply Shunt dc drive motor Three-phase alternator Speed indicator Optical electronic generator Excitation voltage controller Moving-iron ammeter (1000 mA) Moving-iron voltmeter (600 V)

Note: Mount the DL 2031 optical electronic generator on the dc motor shaft end.

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29

DL GTU101.1

30

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DL GTU101.1 Experiment procedure Assemble the circuit according to the foregoing topographic diagram. Initially DO NOT COUPLE the dc motor with the alternator: this means that only the dc motor has to run. Starting from 0 V, increase the value of the dc supply voltage to start the dc motor and adjust this voltage until the nominal speed of the alternator is reached. When the dc motor has been warmed up, measure the exciter current and the current and voltage absorbed by the dc motor: IEM = ......... (A) IM = ......... (A)

UM = ........ (V)

Calculate the power absorbed by the motor armature: PMm = UM(IM - IEM) = ........ (W) corresponding to mechanical losses of the dc motor. Stop the motor and COUPLE the dc motor with the alternator but DO NOT EXCITE the generator. Starting again from 0 V, increase the dc supply voltage to start the motor-alternator set and adjust this voltage until the nominal speed of the alternator is reached. Measure the exciter current, the current and voltage absorbed by the dc motor: IEM0 = ......... (A) IM0 = ......... (A)

and calculate the power absorbed by the motor armature PM0 = UM0(IM0 - IEM0) = ........ (W) The difference PGm = PM0 - PMm = ....... (W) represents the mechanical losses of the alternator. Now, with the motor-alternator set at nominal speed of the generator, EXCITATE the alternator so to generate the nominal voltage UN.

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31

DL GTU101.1 Measure the exciter current, the current and voltage absorbed by the dc motor: IEMe = ......... (A) IMe = ......... (A)

and calculate the power absorbed by the motor armature: PMe = UMe(IMe - IEMe) = ........ (W) The difference PGFe = PMe - PM0 = ........ (W) represents the iron losses of the alternator. The no-load losses of the alternator are PG0 = PGm + PGFe = ........ (W) Finally record the open-circuit curves, measuring the stator voltage corresponding to the following exciter current values stated when the alternator is running at different constant speeds. Speed (min-1) IE (mA) 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 3000 US (V) 2500 US (V) 2000 US (V)

32

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DL GTU101.1 Plot the voltage curves for the three speeds as a function of the exciter currents in a combined diagram and compare the curves with the statements made in the theoretical section.

Enter in the diagram and for nominal speed read off the no-load exciter current corresponding to nominal output voltage IE0 = ............ (A)

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33

Pm PFe Po

= 100 W = 50 W = 150 W

Diagram

The open-circuit characteristic corresponds to the magnetization curve of an iron core with air gap. With constant excitation the no-load voltage is proportional to the speed.

34

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DL GTU101.1

EXPERIMENT N. 3

SHORT - CIRCUIT TEST Objectives: Determining the ohmic and stray losses of the alternator. Recording the short-circuit curve at various speeds. Calculating the synchronous reactance. Equipments: 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1

DC filtered power supply Shunt dc drive motor Three-phase alternator Speed indicator Optical electronic generator Excitation voltage controller Moving-iron ammeter (1000 mA) Moving-iron ammeter (2.5 A)

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35

DL GTU101.1

36

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DL GTU101.1 Experiment procedure Assemble the circuit according with the foregoing topographic diagram. The alternator stator winding is short-circuited. Starting from 0 V, increase the value of the dc supply voltage to start the motor-alternator set and adjust this voltage until the nominal speed of the alternator is reached. Now supply the alternator field so to generate the nominal current. When the motor-alternator set has been warmed up, at ambient temperature a = ........ C, measure: the exciter current, the current and voltage absorbed by the dc motor IEMk = ......... (A) IMk = ......... (A)

and calculate the power absorbed by the armature motor PMk = UMk(IMk - IMEk) = ........ (W) the exciter current of the generator at nominal short-circuit stator current IEk = ......... (A) The short-circuited alternator absorbs the power PGk = PMk - PMm = ....... (W) where PMm is the dc motor mechanical loss (see experiment 2). The difference PCu = PGk - PGm = ........ (W) where PGm are the alternator mechanical losses (see experiment 2), represents the copper losses of the alternator. Since at ambient temperature the stator ohmic losses are PSCu = 3 Rs IN2 = ........ (W) we can calculate the stray losses: Pad = PGCu - PSCu = ........ (W) and the pertinent equivalent resistance

Rad

Pad IN 2

............

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37

DL GTU101.1 In order to calculate the copper losses at conventional temperature of 75 C, the stator total equivalent resistance is introduced: R75 = 3 RS75 + Rad and so PCu75 = R75 * IN2 = ........ () Finally record the short-circuit curves measuring the short-circuit current corresponding to the following alternator exciter current values when the alternator is running at different constant speeds. Speeds (min-1) IE (mA) 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 3000 IS (A) 2500 IS (A) 2000 IS (A)

Plot the stator current curves for the three speeds as a function of the exciter currents in a combined diagram and compare the curves with the statements made in the theoretical section.

38

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DL GTU101.1 Enter in the diagram and determine the no-load short-circuit current corresponding to the no-load exciter current IE0 (see experiment 2): Ik0 = ....... (A) and the exciter current corresponding to stator rated current: IEk = ....... (A) in order to calculate the short-circuit ratio

Kk IE0 ................ IEK

Calculate the synchronous reactance in accordance with the procedures provided in the theoretical section: UN Xd ................. 3 Iko Typical results Alternator losses: ohmic and stray losses PSCu75 = 70 W

The short-circuit current is independent of the speed of the alternator and is proportional to the exciter current. Short-circuit ratio KK = 0.45 Synchronous reactance XD = 280

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39

DL GTU101.1

Blank page

40

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DL GTU101.1

EXPERIMENT N. 4

LOAD CHARACTERISTICS Objectives: Recording the response of the alternator operating with the excitation and speed kept constant under different kinds of load Equipments: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

DL 1013T2 DL 1017R DL 1017L DL 1017C DL 1023PS DL 1026A DL 2025DT DL 2031 DL 2108T01 DL 2109T1A DL 2109T2A5 DL 2109T1PV

DC filtered power supply Resistive load Inductive load Capacitive load Shunt dc drive motor Three-phase alternator Speed indicator Optical electronic generator Excitation voltage controller Moving-iron ammeter (1000 mA) Moving-iron ammeter (2.5 A) Moving-iron voltmeter (600 V)

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41

DL GTU101.1

42

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DL GTU101.1 Experiment procedure Assemble the circuit according with the foregoing topographic diagram. The resistive load will be used as the first load. It is connected, like the inductive and capacitive loads, in star connection. Before starting the measurements the loads are set to zero. Starting from 0 V, increase the value of the dc supply voltage to start the motor-alternator set and adjust this voltage until the nominal speed of the alternator is reached. Supply the alternator field with the no-load exciter current IE0 (see experiment 2) and then maintained for all measurements. When the motor-alternator set has ben warmed up, beginning from R1 value reduce the resistive load in steps till the R5 value. For each step measure the stator current and voltage and enter the measured values in the following table.

R R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 n = ............. (min-1) IS (A) US (V) L L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 IS (A) US (V) IE0 = ............. (mA) C IS (A) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 US (V)

After the de-excitation of the alternator, the resistive load is replaced by the inductive load and the above measurement is repeated in the same fashion for the indicated inductive values. Again after the de-excitation of the alternator the inductive load is replaced by the capacitive load and the above measurement is repeated in the same fashion for the indicated capacitive values. For the three types of load plot the stator voltages as a function of the stator current in a combined diagram and compare the results with the information provided in the theoretical section.

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DL GTU101.1

Typical results

As expected, under capacitive load the stator voltage increases with increasing current, whereas under resistive and inductive loads it drops. Furthermore in the case of inductive load a more sever voltage drop can be observed than under resistive load. 44

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DL GTU101.1

EXPERIMENT N. 5

REGULATION PERFORMANCES Objectives: Recording the regulation characteristics at different power factors. Equipments: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 DL 1013T2 DL 1017R DL 1017L DL 1017C DL 1023PS DL 1026A DL 2025DT DL 2031 DL 2108T01 DL 2109T27 DL 2109T1A DL 2109T2A5 DL 2109T1PV DC filtered power supply Resistive load Inductive load Capacitive load Shunt dc drive motor Three-phase alternator Speed indicator Optical electronic generator Excitation voltage controller Power factor meter Moving-iron ammeter (1000 mA) Moving-iron ammeter (2.5 A) Moving-iron voltmeter (600 V)

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45

46

A

DL GTU101.1

mA

mA

min

-1

cos

K2

L+

L-

PE

emergency

start

stop

0 240V-8A

40

60

20

80

100%

A1 V2

B2

W2

U2

M

W1

4 3 5 3 5 3 5 4 4

(A2)

(B1)

Q = 3x275VAr 220/380V . /Y P = 3x400W 220/380V . /Y

4 3 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3

U1

V1

Q = 3x300VAr 220/380V . /Y

4 5 3

4 5 3

4 5

E1 F2

1

7 7 7

E2

1 off off 1 off C1 C2 C3

F1

1 R1 R2 R3 off

1 off

1 off

1 L1 L2 L3 off

1 off

1 off

C1

PE

C2

C3

PE

R1

R2

R3

PE

L1

L2

L3

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DL GTU101.1 Experiment procedure Assemble the circuit according with the foregoing topographic diagram. The resistive, inductive and capacitive loads are star connected. The resistive load will be used as the first load in order to obtain a cos = 1. Before starting the measurements the resistive load is set to R1 value. Starting from 0 V, increase the value of the dc supply voltage and adjust this voltage until the nominal speed of the alternator is reached. Supply the alternator field with an exciter current in order to have the nominal voltage on the load R1 . When the motor-alternator set has been warmed up, beginning from the R1 value reduce the resistive load in steps till the R7 value, adjusting in succession the exciter current so that the nominal voltage is obtained at the stator. For each step measure the exciter current and the stator current and enter the measured values in the following table.

R R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 PF n = ............. (min-1) IS (A) IE (mA) R-L R1 - L1 R2 - L2 R3 - L3 R4 - L4 R5 - L5 --------Cos = 1 PF IS (mA) IE (A) US = ............. (V) R-C IS (A) IE (mA) R1 - C1 R2 - C2 R3 - C3 R4 - C4 R5 - C5 --------PF Cos = 0.8 cap

After the de-excitation of the alternator, the inductive load is connected in parallel to the resistive load in order to obtain a cos = 0.8 lagging. With ohmic-inductive load the above measurement is repeated in the same fashion for the indicated R-L values. Again after the de-excitation of the alternator, the inductive load is replaced by the capacitive load in order to obtain a cos = 0.8 leading. With ohmic-capacitive load the above measurement is repeated in the same fashion for the indicated R-C values.

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DL GTU101.1 For the three types of power factors plot the exciter currents as a function of the stator current in a combined diagram.

Typical results

As expected, when the stator current is kept constant the lower is the inductive power factor the higher is the exciter current of regulated alternator. Furthermore in the case of capacitive power factor the lowest exciter current can be observed. 48

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DL GTU101.1

EXPERIMENT N. 6

CONVENTIONAL EFFICIENCY Objectives: Determining the conventional efficiency of the alternator using the open- and short-circuit test results.

Experiment procedure The alternator efficiency can be calculated with the following method indicated for the nominal stator current. Alternator output power: P = 3 UN IN cos = ........ (W) Alternator losses: Mechanical Iron Armature winding Field winding PGm = ........ (W) PGFe = ........ (W)) PSCu75 = R75 * IN2 = ...... (W) PECu75 = RE75 * IN2 = ...... (W) (experiment 2) (experiment 2) (experiment 3) (experiment 1)

(see experiment 5 in order to determinate the exciter current corresponding to nominal stator current at UN voltage). Brushes Pb = 2 IE (neglected)

Total alternator losses: Pt = PGm + PGFe + PSCu75 + PECu75 + Pb = ......... (W) Conventional absorbed power: Pab = P + Pt = ........ (W) Conventional efficiency:

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DL GTU101.1 Repeat the above procedure for different quarters of the stator current and complete the following table by calculating each of the loss levels, absorbed and output powers and determining the corresponding efficiency. Bear in mind that the mechanical and iron losses remain constant at every load current.

n = ............. (min-1) US = ............. (V)

Load I (A) cos P (W) PGM (W) PGFE (W) PSCU75 (W) IE (A) PECU75 (W) PT (W) PAB (W) (%)

1/4 1

2/4 1

3/4 1

4/4 1

5/4 1

50

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The maximum efficiency value lies in the area of the nominal power and reaches a value of approx 80%.

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51

DL GTU101.1

Blank page

52

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DL GTU101.1

EXPERIMENT N. 7

DARK/BRIGHT SYNCHRONIZING CIRCUITS Objectives: To become familiar with various lamp circuits used to connect an alternator in parallel to a constant-voltage constant-frequency system Equipments: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 DL 1013T2 DL 1023PS DL 1026A DL 2025DT DL 2031 DL 2108TAL DL 2108T01 DL 2108T02 DL 2109T1A DL 2109T1T DL 2109T2T DL 2109T17/2 DC filtered power supply Shunt dc drive motor Three-phase alternator Speed indicator Optical electronic generator Three-phase power supply unit Excitation voltage controller Power circuit breaker Moving-iron ammeter (1000 mA) Synchronization indicator Phase sequence indicator Double voltmeter

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DL GTU101.1

54

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DL GTU101.1 Experiment procedure Assemble the circuit according with the foregoing topographic diagram. The star point of the alternator has to be connected to neutral point of the mains. The power circuit breaker has to be switched off. We first check the phase sequence of the constant-voltage constant-frequency system connecting terminals L1 - L2 - L3 of the three-phase power supply unit respectively to terminals L1 - L2 - L3 of the phase sequence indicator. When the power supply unit is live and the output terminals L1 to L3 have been connected up correctly the lamp with right arrow lights and the mains sequence is L1 - L2 - L3 . Now switch off the power supply unit and connect the phase sequence indicator terminals L1 - L2 L3 respectively to terminals U1 - V1 - W1 of the alternator stator to check the phase sequence of the alternator. Starting from 0 V, increase the value of the dc supply voltage to start the motor-alternator set and adjust this voltage until the nominal speed of the alternator is reached. Supply the alternator field with an exciter current in order to have the stator nominal voltage. With clockwise rotation when the phase windings U1 - V1 - W1 have been connected up correctly, the lamp with right arrow lights and the alternator sequence is L1 - L2 - L3. De-excite the alternator and disconnect the phase sequence indicator. The motor-generator set can continue running. Afterwards we can proceed with the investigation of the circuits with synchronization lamps.

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DL GTU101.1 Experiment 7.1: Dark circuit The power circuit breaker has to be switched off. The synchronization lamps are connected in the dark circuit configuration as shown in the topographic diagram 7 (7.1). As a result, the lamps simultaneously light up and go out again in rhythm with the frequency difference between mains and alternator. By adjusting the alternator speed the required frequency equivalence can be produced. Here it may prove necessary to adjust also the alternator voltage to that of the mains by regulating the exciter current. The double voltmeter is used to indicate this. Now that the three synchronization conditions have been fulfilled (phase sequence, frequency and voltage amplitude) the power circuit breaker can be switched on when all the synchronization lamps go out and the alternator is connected in parallel to the mains. Then switch off the power circuit breaker and de-excite the alternator to test the next synchronization circuit. The motor-alternator set can continue running during this procedure.

Experiment 7.2: Bright rotation circuit The power circuit breaker has to be switched off. Modify the circuit by interchanging the connections of the lamps H12 and H32 as shown in the topographic diagram 7 (7.2). Excite the alternator as described in previous experiment 7.1 and fulfil the three synchronization conditions. As long as there is no frequency equivalence, the light cone of the synchronization indicator rotates: a rotation in the counter-clockwise direction means that the speed of the alternator is too low. The power circuit breaker can be switched on when the lamps in the dark circuit configuration (H21 and H22) are out and the remaining lamps light up equally brightly and the alternator is connected in parallel to the mains. Afterwards switch the power circuit breaker off again and de-excite the alternator.

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DL GTU101.1

EXPERIMENT N. 8

ALTERNATOR AND SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR Objectives: Parallel operation using a synchronoscope. Response of the alternator on a constant-voltage constant-frequency system. Recording the V-curves (Mordey curves) of the synchronous motor.

Equipments: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 DL 1013T2 DL 1023PS DL 1026A DL 2025DT DL 2031 DL 2108TAL DL 2108T01 DL 2108T02 DL 2109T1A DL 2109T2A5 DL 2109T1PV DL 2109T1T DL 2109T16/2 DL 2109T17/2 DL 2109T26 DL 2109T27 DL 2109T32 DC filtered power supply Shunt dc drive motor Three-phase alternator Speed indicator Optical electronic generator Three-phase power supply unit Excitation voltage controller Power circuit breaker Moving-iron ammeter (1000 mA) Moving-iron ammeter (2.5 A) Moving-iron voltmeter (600 V) Phase-sequence indicator Double frequencymeter Double voltmeter (250 - 500 V) Power meter Power factor meter Synchronoscope

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57

58

A

cos

DL GTU101.1

mA

mA

min

-1

K2

A

L+ LPE

emergency

start

stop

0 240V-8A

40

60

20

80

100%

A1

B2

A1

(A2) (B1)

B2

W2

U2

V2

(A2) (B1)

P = 3x400W 220/380V . /Y

U1

V1

W1

4 5 3 5 3 5

E1

6 2 2 6 6 7

E2

F1

F2

1

7 7

1 off off

R1

R2

R3

off

R1

R2

R3

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PE

DL GTU101.1 Experiment procedure Assemble the circuit according with the foregoing topographic diagram. Initially disregard the connection for dc generator. The power circuit breaker has to be switched off. First check the phase sequence of the constant-voltage constant- frequency system and of the alternator using the phase-sequence indicator(see experiment 7). This check is not necessary in a real power plant, because the connection of the three-phase winding and the rotation direction of the alternator is checked during start-up and does not subsequently change. When we are sure of the phase sequence the parallel connection of the alternator is carried out using the synchronoscope. Starting from 0 V increase the value of the dc supply voltage to start the motor-alternator set and adjust this voltage until the nominal speed of the alternator is reached. Supply the alternator field with an exciter current in order to adjust the stator voltage to that of the mains: the double voltmeter is used to indicate this. Observe the synchronoscope: this indicates whether the motor-alternator set is running too fast or too low. With the double frequency meter we can simultaneously observe how the alternator and mains frequencies approach each other. The power circuit breaker can be switched on when the upper central green led of the synchronoscope is on: before this occurs, voltage equivalence has to be controlled. Now the alternator is connected in parallel to the mains. Adjust carefully the dc supply voltage of the drive motor until the stator current reaches its minimum value and then read the indications of the ammeters in the exciter and stator circuits of the alternator, the power meter and the power factor meter: IE = ....... (A) P = ........ (W) Is = ....... (A) Q = ....... (Var) cos = .......

(Although the alternator is operated in no-load, a slight stator current flows and this can be attributed to asymmetries in the design of the generator). Slowly increase the drive torque increasing the motor dc supply voltage: the stator current and the active power output increase and the alternator operates as an active power generator. Reduce the motor dc supply voltage until the stator current increases again after having crossed through its minimum: the active power inverts its sign and the alternator operates as synchronous motor. Slowly increase again the drive torque carefully regulating the motor dc supply voltage until the active power reading is positive and the stator current reaches again its minimum.

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59

DL GTU101.1 Increase the exciter current: the stator current increases and the power factor meter indicates an inductive cos approaching the zero value. The generated voltage is higher than the mains voltage and a resultant e.m.f. in phase with Us is set up, but since the synchronous reactance is large compared with the resistance, the current produced lags by a large angle and is almost wattles (see 1.4, Fig. 10). The over-excited alternator operates as reactive power generator. Reduce the exciter current until the stator current increases again after having crossed through its minimum: the power factor meter indicates a capacitive cos approaching the zero value. The generated voltage is lower than the mains voltage and a resultant e.m.f. in opposition with Us is set up and the current produced leads by a large angle and is almost wattles (see 1.4, Fig. 11). The under-excited alternator operates as reactive power consumer: this operating mode is also referred to as phase-shift operation. Reset the alternator to no-load operation again: minimum stator current. Finally we can modify the circuit in order to record the V-curves. Switch off the dc filtered power supply to de-energize the dc motor and set the dc voltage to zero: the alternator now operates as synchronous motor while the dc motor will set to operate as dc generator. Disconnect only the dc armature connecting leads at the dc filtered power supply and connect them to the resistive load through an ammeter. The individual resistors are connected in parallel (see connection for dc generator operation). The first V-curve is recorded at dc generator output power level P = 0, measuring the stator current corresponding to the following exciter current values and enter the measured value in the table. IE (mA) IS (A) IS (A) IS (A) IS (A) 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 P (W) 0 100 300 500 Now switch on the dc filtered power supply and starting from 0 V adjust the dc generator field current in order to load the synchronous motor with the suggested dc generator output power levels and for each level measure the stator current and enter the measured values in the table. Observe that with under-excitation the synchronous motor can fall out of step.

60

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DL GTU101.1 Suggestion For the power level P = 100 W and P = 300 W set the three individual resistors at R4 value while for P = 500 W at R5 value and adjust the dc generated voltage to approx 100 V, 175 V and 190 V respectively. The dc output power is P = U * I.

CAUTION After completing the measurements and before disconnecting the synchronous motor from the mains, first reset the power level P = 0 and then set the exciter current so that the stator current reaches its minimum value.

Plot the stator currents as a function of the exciter current in a combined diagram.

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61

Connecting the tops of the V-curves we obtain the line at cos = 1 operation: it determines the normal exciter current corresponding to minimum stator absorbed current.

62

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1996 - 2011 DE LORENZO SPA - Printed in Italy - All right reserved DE LORENZO SPA V.le Romagna, 20 - 20089 Rozzano (MI) Italy Tel. ++39 02 8254551 - Fax ++39 02 8255181 E-mail: info@delorenzo.it Web sites: www.delorenzoglobal.com - www.technical-education.it www.delorenzoenergy.com

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