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CNC Applications

Tool Nose Radius Compensation on Turning Centers

Facing and Straight Turning

When facing or straight turning, the tool nose radius has no effect on the part other than leaving a radius on inside corners.
This tangent point finishes faces.

Theoretical sharp point is what we program.

This tangent point finishes diameters.

The Problem
When turning tapers or radii, the tool nose radius leaves excess material as shown here:

Excess Material Here

The Solution
1. Manually program the exact tangent points. This is time consuming since it requires trig calculations or accurate CAD drawings to locate the tangent points. Use tool nose radius compensation. The tool nose radius is entered into the machine controller, and the program turns on compensation for finish cuts only, and then turns it off. The machine calculates the tangent points so we can continue programming as if the cutter has a sharp point.


Tool Nose Radius G Codes

G Code
G40 G41 G42

Cancel tool nose radius compensation. Compensate for tool nose radius to the LEFT of the programmed path. Compensate for tool nose radius to the RIGHT of the programmed path.

G41 & G42

G41 the cutter is to the left of the work when looking in the direction of the cut.

G42 the cutter is to the right of the work when looking in the direction of the cut.

Turning Nose Radius Compensation On

To turn compensation on, the machine must move at least the distance of the nose radius in X and Z. For easy calculations, back away from the start point 0.1 in Z and 0.2 in X. Remember X is diameter based, so 0.2 in X is actually 0.1 radially.

Turn Nose Radious Compensation on in This Move.

Compensation Point, 0.1 Away From Start Point in Z, 0.2 in X.

Start Point of Finish Pass with Compenation On, 0.1 Away in Z.

Turning Nose Radius Compensation Off

To turn compensation off, we feed the cutter completely off the work and then make a move larger than the nose radius while calling G40. Note: Do not reverse the Z direction with nose radius compensation on! The machine may get confused, and then later cuts may be off by some multiple of the nose radius. Always call G40 BEFORE reversing the Z direction!
Feed Move to Turn Nose Radius Compensation Off.

Feed Moves Clear of the Part.

A G42 Example
We will program ONLY the finish pass on this part using G42 right tool nose radius compensation. We are given 800fpm cutting speed and 0.006ipr feed.

R0.375 0.25x45




0.250 0.625 1.000 2.000

The Finish Pass

Program Codes
% O999 G20 G40 G99 G28 U0 G28 W0 T0303 G54 G50 S4000 G96 S800 M3 G0 Z2.2 X1.0 M8 G42 G1 X0.8 Z2.1 F0.006 X1.5 Z1.75 Z1.0 X1.75 Z0.625 G2 X2.5 Z0.25 I0.375 Z-0.15 X2.875 G40 X3.075 Z-0.25 M9 M5 G28 U0 G28 W0 M30 %

Program Start

Load the V insert tool. Cap the RPM. Set the cutting speed to 800fpm, forward direction. Rapid to the G42 start point in Z. Rapid to the G42 start point in X, coolant on. Move to turn nose radius compensation on, beginning of chamfer. Machine the chamfer. Machine the straight 1.0 diameter. Machine the taper. Machine the radius. Feed clear in Z leaving room for the 0.125 parting tool. Feed clear in X. Move to turn off nose radius compensation. Program End

The Final Pass

Select this link to start the animation.