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PRACTICAL 1: FUEL Aim: Investigating the fractional distillation of Petroleum Theory: Materials/apparatus: Petroleum, anti-bumping granules (porcelain chips),

filter paper, retort stand, thermometer (-10 360 C), distillation flask, Liebig condenser, conical flask, wire gauze, tripod stand, evaporating dish and Bunsen burner. Procedure: A. Fractional distillation of Petroleum 1. 2. 3. 4. Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 1. Heat slowly the petroleum in the distillation flask. Collect the first fraction of petroleum at 30 80 C. Continue the heating and collect the distillation in separate conical flasks at different ranges of temperature at 80 120 C, 120 160 C and 160 200 C.

B. Characteristics of the various fractions 5. Observe the colour of each fraction. 6. Observe the viscosity of the fractions by tilting the conical flask. 7. For each of the fractions, pour some of it is into an evaporating dish and heat it. Observe the colour of the flame and soot produced. 8. Record the observations.

Results: Fraction Temperature Range Colour Viscosity Flammability

Perbincangan Soalan (Questions): 1. Discuss the flammability of the fractions of petroleum. 2. Discuss the relationship between the boiling point of the fractions with the: a. colour of the fractions b. viscosity of the fractions c. the amount of soot produced by the fractions. 3. Fraction X has a formula of C6H14. Predict its colour, viscosity and the amount of soot produced by X. 4. Write a balanced chemical equation to represent the combustion of gasoline (C8H18). 5. The incomplete combustion of gasoline results in emission of poisonous gasses such as carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. Write a balanced chemical equation to represent the incomplete combustion of gasoline (C8H18). 6. What is biodiesel? 7. What are the advantages of using biodiesel compared to petroleum fuel?


Distillation flask Liebig condenser

Water out Petroleum Porcelain chips Water in Distillate

Figure 1: Set-up of Fractional distillation


PRACTICAL 2: ALLOY Aim: To compare the rate of rusting of iron, steel and stainless steel Materials/apparatus: Iron nail, steel nail, stainless steel nail, jelly solution, potasium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution, water, sand paper, test tube, test tube rack. Procedure: 1. Rub the nails using sand paper to remove the rust from the surface of the nails. 2. Place the iron nail in test tube A, the steel nail in test tube B and the stainless steel nail in test tube C. 3. Prepare a 5% jelly solution by adding 5g of jelly into 100 cm3 of boiling water.Then, add a few drops of potasium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution to the jelly solution (Figure 1). (Prepare the corrosion indicator shortly before the lesson as it does not keep well. Make a warm solution of 5 g gelatine in 100 cm3 water and then dissolve 0.2 g potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) in it. Keep the solution warm but not hot, otherwise toxic gases can be evolved. If you have access to one, a magnetic stirrer with hotplate is ideal for this but it is not essential. No hazard label is required for the solution. ) 4. Pour the hot jelly solution into the three test tubes until all the nails are fully immersed. 5. Place the test tube in a test tube rack and leave aside for five days. Observe the intensity of the blue colour. 6. Record all observation in the table below.

Results: Test tube Intensity of blue colour Inference

Figure 1: Compairing the rate of rusting of iron, steel and stainless steel

Questions: 1. Explain the function of potasium hexacyanoferrate (III) solution. 2. What is the relationship between the intensity of blue colour and the rate of rusting? 3. Explain how the use of solidified jelly solution can improve the observation of the experiment. 4. Name the constituents of steel and stainless steel. 5. Based on the inference of investigation results, compare the rate of rusting of iron, steel and stainless steel and explain the inference. 6. How is the arrangement of atoms in a metal associated to its ductility and malleability? 7. Explain the difference between substitution alloy and interstitial alloy.

PRACTICAL 3: ALCOHOL, ETHER AND AMINES Aim: To prepare samples of ethanol and to investigate the chemical properties of ethanol Materials/apparatus: Glucose, cooked potatoes, mashed pineapple, rice, tapioca, mashed banana, yeast, Lime water, distilled water, tap water, potassium dichromate (VI) solution, concentrated sulphuric acid, filter paper, conical flask, beaker, measuring cylinder, distillation flask, stopper with delivery tube, stopper with one hole, thermometer, Liebig condenser, fractioning column, retort stands and clamps, tripod stand, wire gauze, Bunsen burner, rubber tubing, filter funnel, boiling tube, blue litmus paper, evaporating dish, test tube holder, dropper, forceps. Procedure: A. To prepare samples of ethanol 1. Dissolve approximately about 20 g of glucose in 150 cm3 of distilled water in a clean conical flask. 2. Add approximately about 10 g of yeast to the mixture and shake the mixture well. 3. Close the conical flask with a stopper connected to a delivery tube. Dip the other end of the delivery tube into lime water in a boiling tube as shown in Figure 1(a) . 4. Leave the apparatus in a warm place (35 C) for about 4-5 days. 5. For time to time, observe any changes taking place. 6. After about 4-5 days, filter the contents of the conical flask. Pour the filtrate into a distillation flask. 7. Set up the apparatus for distillation as shown in Figure 1(b). 8. Heat the filtrate in water bath and collect the ethanol that boils over at 78 to 80 C. 9. Examine the colour and the smell of the distillate collected. 10. Repeat steps 1 to 9 using cooked potatoes, mashed pineapple, rice, tapioca or mashed banana to replace glucose. B. To investigate the chemical properties of ethanol B-1 To investigate the combustion of ethanol Procedure: 1. Pour about 2 cm3 of the prepared ethanol into an evaporating dish. 2. Use a lighted wooden splinter to ignite the ethanol (Figure 2). 3. Note the combustibility of ethanol.

Results: B-1 Test Combustibility Colour of flame Sootiness of flame B-2 To investigate the oxidation of ethanol 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Pour about 10 cm3 of potassium permanganate solution into a boiling tube. Add about 10 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid into the boiling tube using a dropper. Add about 3 cm3 of ethanol to the mixture. Set up apparatus as shown in Figure 3. Heat carefully the boiling tube with a gentle flame until the mixture boils. Smell the product. Observation

Questions: 1. Name the enzyme present in yeast that decomposes glucose into ethanol. 2. Write a balanced chemical equation to represent the decomposition of glucose into ethanol. 3. Explain the use of fractional distillation in this experiment. 4. Write a balanced chemical equation to represent the combustion of ethanol. 5. What is the function of potassium permanganate solution in this experiment? 6. Write a balanced chemical equation to represent the oxidation of ethanol. 7. Predict your observation when apparatus set-up in Figure 1 is left for more than a week. Explain your answer. 8. Can ethanol be used as vehicle fuel? Explain your answer.

Boiling tube

Glucose + yeast Lime water

Water bath

Fermentation product

Cool water

Figure 1(a): Preparation of ethanol

Figure 1(b): Set-up for distillation of ethanol

Lighted wooden splinter


Evaporating dish

Figure 2: Combustion of ethanol

Acidified potassium permanganate + ethanol

water bath

Figure 3: Oxidation of ethanol


Aim: To prepare a sample of ester and to investigate the physical properties of ester.

Materials/apparatus: absolute ethanol, glacial ethanoic acid, concentrated sulphuric acid, 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, oil, water, sodium chloride solution, beaker, distillation flask, tap funnel, round bottomed flask, conical flask, measuring cylinder, thermometer, Liebig condenser, Bunsen burner, retort stands and clamps, tripod stand, stopper with two holes, wooden block. Procedure: A. To investigate the physical properties of ester 1. About 2 cm3 of ethyl ethanoate is poured into a test tube. The smell of the ester is noted. 2. About 5 cm3 of distilled water is added to the ester and the mixture is shaken well. The solubility of the ester in water is noted. 3. Steps 1 to 2 are repeated using acetone and methylated spirits consecutively to replace distilled water. Results:

Solvent Water Acetone Methylated spirits


B. To prepare a sample of ester 1. Mix about 50 cm3 of absolute ethanol with 50 cm3 of glacial ethanoic acid flask into a 250 ml round-bottomed flask. 2. Add carefully 10 cm3 of concentrated sulphuric acid to the content of the flask while swirling. Add several boiling chips to the mixture. 3. Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 1. 4. Heat the mixture under reflux for 1 hour. 5. Remove the heating source and allow the mixture to cool to room temperature. 6. Pour the cooled mixture into a separatory funnel and add 25 cm3 cold water. Shake the separatory funnel. 7. Separate the lower aqueous layer from the upper organic layer. Discard the aqueous layer. 8. Add 25 cm3 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and shake the separatory funnel and discard the 9

lower layer. 9. Repeat procedure 8. 10. Add 25 cm3 of water and shake the separatory funnel. Discard the aqueous layer 11. Add 5 cm3 of saturated aqueous calcium chloride. Stir the mixture gently and discard the aqueous layer. 12. Observe the organic layer and smell it.

Water out

Water in
Ethanol + Ethanoic acid + Sulphuric acid

water bath oil bath

Figure 1: Preparation of ester Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Explain the meaning of esterification reaction. Write a balanced chemical equation to represent the reaction between ethanoic acid and ethanol. What is the function of concentrated sulphuric acid in this experiment? Explain another method of preparing ethyl ethanoat. What is the function of 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution in this experiment? Explain the use of calcium chloride solution in this experiment. Compare the solubility of ethyl ethanoate in water, acetone and methylated spirits. Explain your observation. 8. Name the ester produced from an esterification reaction between butanoic acid and ethanol. 9. Write a balanced chemical equation to represent the reaction above.


PRACTICAL 5: AMMONIA, SULPHURIC ACID AND NITRIC ACID Aim: To prepare ammonium salt fertilizer. Materials/apparatus: Ammonia solution (2M), dilute sulphuric acid (1M), beaker, glass rod, Bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire gauze, filter funnel and filter. Procedure: 1. Pour 30 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid into a beaker. 2. Add the ammonia solution little by little into the beaker while stirring the solution. 3. Do not add any ammonia solution when the solution smells amniotic. 4. Heat the solution until it becomes 1/3 of the original volume. 5. Cool the solution in a mixture of ice and water. Filter the salt crystals produced using the filter funnel and filter paper. Questions: 1. Write a balance equation to represent the formation of ammonium sulphate in this experiment. 2. How does the addition of ammonium sulphate affects the pH of the soil? 3. Besides fertilizers, ammonium sulphate is also used as an agriculture spray adjuvant for water soluble pesticides. Explain the function of ammonium sulphate in this area. 4. Name three examples of natural fertilizers which are used in farming. 5. Name three examples of synthetic fertilizers which are used in agriculture. 6. Write chemical equations to represent the formation of: a. ammonium phosphate b. ammonium nitrate c. urea 7. Calculate the percentage of nitrogen in 1 mole of the above fertilizers. [ Relative atomic mass: H, 1; C,12; N,14; O, 16; P, 31; S, 32 ] 8. Which of the above fertilizer is the most suitable for the growth of plants? Explain your answer.


Figure: Preparation of ammonium salt fertilizer


PRACTICAL 6: SOAPS AND DETERGENTS Aim: To prepare soap using the saponification process. Materials/apparatus: Palm oil, sodium hydroxide solution, sodium chloride powder, filter paper, distilled water, beaker, measuring cylinder, spatula, glass rod, filter funnel, wire gauze, tripod stand, Bunsen burner, test tube Procedure: 1. Pour 10 cm3 of palm oil into a beaker. 2. Add 50 cm3 of 5 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution to the palm oil. 3. Heat the mixture until it boils. 4. Stir the mixture with a glass rod. 5. Allow the mixture to boil for 10 minutes. 6. Remove the beaker from the heat. 50 cm3 of distilled water and add three spatulaful of sodium chloride to the mixture. 7. Boil the mixture for another 5 minutes. 8. Allow the mixture to cool. 9. Filter out the soap. Wash the soap with a little distilled water. 10. Press the soap between a piece of filter paper to dry it. 11. Feel the soap with your fingers. Place a small amount of the soap in a test tube. Add tap water into the test tube. Shake the mixture. 12. Record the observations.

Questions: 1. Describe the properties of soap produced. 2. What is the function of sodium chloride in this experiment? 3. Write a word equation for the saponification process involved in this experiment. 4. Predict your observation if tap water is replaced by distilled water in procedure 11. Explain your answer. 5. Can soap be produced by hydrolyzing fats or oils under acidic conditions? Explain your answer. 6. Name two different techniques used in making soap. 7. What are the disadvantages of commercial soap? 8. What are the materials used in the industry to manufacture detergent?