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Green Projects at Purdue:

Securing a Greener Future

Team Green Campus


Bethany Lehe

Brett Carter

Athanasios Zaglaras

Engl 421Y- White Paper Project - Fall 2009


F. Tobienne, Instructor

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Table of Contents

1. Title Page…………………………………………………………………….1
2. Table of Contents……………………………………………………………2
3. Executive Summary…………………………………………………………3
a. Going Green and Preserving Our Future………………………3
b. Green Projects at Purdue, An Overview……………………… 3
c. Conclusion, Toward a Greener Future ……………………...3-4
4. Green Initiatives and Purdue………………………………………………...5
a. Recycling a Dirty Past for a Cleaner Future
i. Duel-stream Recycling………………………………..6-7
ii. Food Waste Digester Initiative………………………….7
iii. Other Recycling Advances……………………………...7
iv. One Man’s Trash is Another’s Treasure, Conclusion…..8
b. A Greener Coalition, LEED and Purdue………………………9
i. LEED: Grading Purdue……………………………..9-10
ii. Purdue’s Standings…………………………………….10
iii. Improving Purdue’s Grade…………………………10-11
iv. A Studious Green Student, Conclusion………………..11
c. Putting a New Face on Purdue, Green Roofs………………...12
i. Green Roofs……………………………………………12
ii. Current and Future Projects……………………………13
iii. Building a Better Future, Conclusion………………….13
5. Works Cited Page………………………………………….........................14
6. Annotated Bibliography………………………………………………...15-16

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Executive Summary:

Going Green and Preserving our Future


Recently everyone has been talking about ‘going green’. You have heard the
term thrown around by the news media, movie stars, politicians, scientist and
people on the street. But, what exactly does the term, going green, mean? To put it
simply, going green refers to steps that people have been taking in recent years to
become more responsible regarding the earth’s natural resources. Green
movements are vital to preserving and protecting natural resources and ensuring a
better future for generations to come. All over the world individuals, businesses,
organizations and whole countries have been taking steps to become greener. Some
of these steps include recycling, reducing emissions, creating sustainable energy
and much more. Through implementing green projects, Purdue University, has also
taken up the cause of providing a greener future and a better earth.

Overview of Green Initiatives at Purdue


Purdue has taken a multifaceted approach to becoming a greener campus.
During our research we encountered multiple initiatives toward making Purdue’s
campus more environmentally friendly and sustainable. To get a sense of the
totality of Purdue’s green initiatives we have selected three areas of interest. The
three areas of interest are recycling programs, U.S. Green Building Council’s
involvement and the Green Roofs project. These programs represent a portion of
what Purdue is doing to become a more responsible consumer of our Earth’s
resources. The recycling program at Purdue has moved far beyond simply
providing recycling receptacles, although that is a key part of the equation. The
details of the strides being taken regarding recycling at Purdue is outlined in this
report. Also included in this report is information regarding U.S. Green Building
Council’s involvement regarding LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental
Design) certification and Purdue’s progress in becoming a greener campus. The
final area that is covered in this report is Purdue’s strides in making greener
buildings with the installation of green roofs on campus buildings. When possible,
we interviewed key participates in these programs and also included information
from various secondary sources. The interviews and information gathered can be
reviewed in this report.

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Conclusion, Toward a Greener Future
According to our research with the current interest in climate change, and
the increased dialog regarding the global responsibility to become greener, Purdue
has made great strides toward becoming a green campus. In implementing green
initiatives, Purdue is helping to ensure a better future for its students and the
students to come. Going green has increased in importance with Purdue’s
administration and students. But, if the strides that have been made are to continue,
Purdue needs to maintain and generate more interest in creating a greener future.
We hope that this report will generate interest and hopefully motivate more support
for the green initiatives undertaken by Purdue. We also hope that this report will
give cause for even greater change to take place and for everyone on Purdue’s
campus to do their part in becoming greener minded.

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Green Initiatives and Purdue

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Recycling a Dirty Past for a Cleaner Future:

Duel-stream Recycling
Purdue is in the process of transitioning from single stream recycling to a
duel-stream recycling program. This may sound meaningless to the average person
unless you know what exactly a duel-stream recycling system is and what are the
benefits of such a system are.
Duel-stream recycling is a program that
allows for the collection of all recyclables,
except office paper and corrugated cardboard,
into a single container. Purdue is implementing
this program by providing receptacles that allow
for the collection of all recyclables, and
includes a separate slot for office paper. These
receptacles have been placed in convenient
areas, like beside desks, to increase the number
of participants in the program. Unfortunately
there is a trade-off for the increased recycling,
and that is the decreased use of desk-side trash
bins. All non-recyclable trash would have to be
relocated by the individual to a centrally located trash receptacle. The idea is to
encourage people to use the recycling receptacles, instead of simply throwing all
items away. By making recycling more convenient then trash it allows for a greater
chance of Purdue reaching its goal of recycling 65% of its solid waste items. The

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program also makes recycling more convenient by making recycling easier.
Participates will not have to separate recyclable items into multiple bins, except for
office paper and corrugated cardboard. Office paper is collected separately from
other recyclables because office paper resells at a substantial premium, and this
helps to offset some of the cost of the recycling program.
The Pilot program for this duel-stream recycling was implemented at
Freehafer Hall and the Civil Engineering building. Having seen a substantial
increase in recycling, Purdue added 5 more buildings to the program in September
of 2009. Purdue has not yet decided when or if a campus wide program will be
implemented, but with the current success of the pilot program, a date for a campus
wide transition may be announced in the near future.

Food Waste Digester Initiative


The Food Waste Digester Initiative has been implemented by Joel Zarate,
the Refuse and Recycling Coordinator for Purdue. This program represents a
coalition between Purdue and West Lafayette Waste Water Facility. The program
allows for Purdue’s food and organic waste to be turned into energy producing
methane gas for the waste water facility. The organic material is added to the waste
water and this increases the production of methane gas, in turn the methane gas is
used to power turbines which produce electricity to be used by the waste water
facility. This system allows for Purdue’s organic food waste to be turned into
energy, instead of being added to the city dump. It also allows for clean energy
output, as opposed to other alternatives which can produce emissions. Not only
does this program benefit Purdue by allowing for the disposal of food waste, but it
also benefits the community, by providing clean, renewable energy.

Other Recycling Advances


Along with the duel-stream recycling pilot program and the food waste
digester initiative Purdue continues to use a single stream recycling system for the
rest of campus. Purdue also engages in construction recycling. This includes the
recycling of concrete construction debris. According to statistics provided by
Purdue, nearly 32,000 tons of concrete has been crushed since 1993. This crushed
concrete material is recycled and used in numerous projects across campus.
Another area where Purdue uses recycled materials is in the area of compost.
Compost has been used in the place of topsoil, which allows for less topsoil to be
moved, and cuts down on the cost of topsoil to Purdue. Purdue also has a
purchasing initiative, which encourages the purchase of recycled materials
whenever possible. Purdue also has a Recycling Steering committee, which
identifies possible recycling problems and solutions and initiates green projects
throughout campus.
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Recycling Quick Reference
Office Paper Mixed Recyclables Trash
Unbound Newspapers/Ads/Inserts Food Waste
Non-glossy Magazines Snack Wrappers
Neutral Color Books/Notebooks Liquids
Pamphlets/Brochures Facial Tissues
Paper clips and staples Glossy/Bright Colored Paper Restroom Paper
are OK. Junk Mail
Cardboard (non-corrugated)
Cans
Plastic

One Man’s Trash is Another Man’s Treasure, Conclusion


Purdue has made great advances in the area of recycling. This is a vital step
toward becoming a green campus and improving our use of the Earth’s resources.
The more resources that we reuse, the less we consume and more natural resources
are left for future generations. Although great strides have been made in this area,
there is still more that can be done. Ideally a duel-stream recycling system would
be used throughout campus, and more initiatives for the use of clean energy would
be implemented. That being said, Purdue has done much to ensure that a cleaner,
greener campus is evolving every day, and ensuring a better future for everyone.

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A Greener Coalition: LEED and Purdue
LEED: Grading Purdue
LEED stands for the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, a
construction rating system developed by the U.S. Green Building Council. The
U.S. Green Building Council uses LEED guidelines to grade buildings, like those
on campus. Currently Purdue has no LEED certified buildings, but they are
currently working to change that. Purdue’s first LEED certified building will be the
$33 million, 41,000-square-foot Roger B. Gatewood Wing addition to the

Mechanical Engineering building on Purdue’s campus. This building is being


constructed to meet the environmental standards set forth by LEED. The
environmental standards include things such as; roofing supplies with a high Solar
Reflectance Index, plumbing fixtures that use less treated water, construction
materials with recycled content, carpet that is Green Label Plus rated, wood
products certified by the Forest Stewardship Council, paint and sealants with low
volatile-organic-chemical ratings (reducing indoor air pollutants and improving air
quality). LEED certification is essential in improving Purdue’s grade, which is
given by the Sustainable Endowments Institute. Some other ways that Purdue is
moving closer to LEED certification throughout campus is through other green
projects. Some of these green projects include the installation of porous asphalt
paving at Hort service drive, the retro-commissioning of three buildings: Pierce,
Beering and Stone Halls, the Renewable energy purchase of approximate 5400
MWh (2% of total use) of Benton County wind production and many other
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projects.

Purdue’s Standings: Making the Grade


Purdue was given the overall grade of B-minus by the Sustainable
Endowments Institute. This Grade was released on October 7, 2009. The Grading
is done by assessing 9 different areas, and for each area a myriad of 48 indicators.
These areas include; administration, climate change and energy, food and
recycling, green buildings, student involvement, transportation, endowment
transparency, investment priorities, and shareholder engagement. For each
category, there are a certain amount of points needed; these point totals were then
used to determine the grade, with at least 70 percent of credit needed to earn an A,
50 percent to earn a B, 30 percent for a C, and 10 percent to earn a D. The nine
main categories, with 48 indicators between them, were weighted equally in
calculating the school’s GPA on a 4.0 scale and then converted into the overall
letter grade.
Purdue’s grades in each area are as follows: Administration, C, climate
change and energy, C; food and recycling, B; green building, D; student
involvement, B; transportation, B; endowment transparency, A; investment
priorities, A; and shareholder engagement, D. The rankings compared to other
Indiana schools are as follows: Ball State University C+, Butler University C-,
DePauw University C+, Earlham College B+, Indiana University B-, Indiana
University-Purdue University Indianapolis C-, University of Notre Dame B. As
you can see, Purdue is tied with Indiana University and is being outranked by both
Earlham and Notre Dame. Purdue’s ranking is good, although not great, among
other Indiana schools. This shows us that there is much need and room for
improvement.

Improving Purdue’s Grade


Purdue’s grade did not change from the 2009 report card to the current
report card released in October. While some areas improved, like Student
involvement, other areas, like Green buildings actually was lowered a letter grade
from last year’s report card. The reason for the improved letter grade in Student
involvement has been contributed to student lead initiatives, like putting a green
roof on Schleman Hall, and intimating a recycling program for Ross-Ade Stadium
home football games. The grade for student involvement went from a C to a B.
On the other hand the grade for Green buildings went from a C to a D. This
is an area where Purdue is attempting to make improvements. With projects, like
the retro-fitting of Beering and Stone halls Purdue is beginning to improve in the
Green buildings area. Purdue is also going to be retro-fitting the Mathematical
Science, Mechanical Engineering and Hansen Life Sciences buildings. Retro-
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fitting means that each room is surveyed, and improvements are made in areas that
concern the use of energy and sustainability. It also means that the energy output
for each building is improved so it is working at its peak and optimum capacity.
Purdue could make greater strides in this area if it could declare that all
building construction would meet LEED certification standards. Purdue has no
LEED certified buildings at this point, but will see its first with the construction
of the not-yet-finished Gatewood wing of the Mechanical Engineering Building.
Also, Purdue could improve if it would dedicate to retro-fit the older buildings
and be able to declare publically that all buildings would meet LEED
certification standards. Other areas that made low marks can also be improved
on, such as shareholder engagement, and energy and climate control. Purdue
needs to continue to look toward the future and improve in all categories. With
the creation of a Sustainability and Environmental Stewardship office, which
employs three full time staffers, Purdue has shown the desire to improve the
grade in the future.

A Studious Green Student: Conclusion


Purdue has shown the desire and capacity to change and become a more
responsible consumer of our natural resources. But, there is still much room for
improvement as the LEED certification and the grade given by the Sustainable
Endowments Institute show. Purdue has made a great effort to improve in the
environmental area, but we need to continue to look toward the future and
continue to maintain interest in the green efforts. Although Purdue received a B-
minus, from the Green report card, the real grade will be given by future
generations.

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Putting a New Face on Purdue, Green Roofs
Green Roofs

A green roof is exactly as it sounds a roof with plants on it. To be more


precise, as stated in the book Green Roofs Ecological Design and Construction, “a
green roof is an engineered roofing system that allows vegetation to grow on top
of buildings while protecting the integrity of the underlying structure”. This
provides a large variety of benefits, and depending on the type of green roof used,
there are very few drawbacks. There are two types of green roof, extensive and
intensive. Extensive roofs require much less water, they normally are
inaccessible by the public, they do not need added supporting of the roof, and
they are usually populated with field and drought resistant species of plant.
Intensive roofs are rooftop gardens, with much deeper soil and a reinforcing of
the roof, it can support a variety of plants including whole trees and vegetable
gardens. As the name implies, because the plants are not drought resistant, they
require constant watering and maintenance. The green roof provides many kinds
of benefits to both the roof and environment. To the roof and building, the green
roof extends the life of the roof itself, first by preventing sunlight from being
directly on it, which quickly raises the roof to damaging temperatures, and second
by preventing rainwater from soaking on and drawing off the materials of the
roof. Furthermore, the green roof provides excellent insulation the building,
allowing for easier and cheaper heating and cooling of the building during any
time of the year. The variety of plants grown on the roof also provide normal
climatic benefits that planting anything helps, and can allow for various native
plants to naturally seed and grow in medium and act as a reservoir for various
endangered plant species and occasionally insects and animals. Green roofs also
add to the value and visual integrity of the building the plants are being grown
upon.

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Current and Future Projects

Currently The Boiler Green Initiative has built a green roof on one of the
roofs of Schlemen Hall. This green roof project is being funded by a $68,700
dollar grant from State Farm Insurance. The 1750 square foot green roof is of the
extensive variety. It is done with a mixture of tiles containing growing medium,
not dirt, and sedum plants, which are succulent and water resistant, and normal
ceramic tiles to for a walking path through the green roof. All these tiles are
placed on top of the actual roof. This is being used as an experiment for the
viability of green roofs at Purdue, so there are a variety of sensor an meter placed
throughout the roof measuring rainwater retained from the roof compared to
drain-off, and temperature sensor in the plant tiles and the ceramic tiles to
measure the difference between the heat retention and heat insulation properties
of the plant tiles compared to the ceramic tiles. The entire metering system is run
by solar panels and does not require outside maintenance to run. If the Schlemen
hall green roof is successful, plans will be put in place to extend the green roofs to
any roof that is flat enough, less than a thirty degree incline, and that has been
resurfaced within the last five years. The Armory is currently on of the top
buildings to most likely receive a green roof, having all of the necessary
specifications to do so. The Boiler Green Initiative is also working with the
Purdue Campus, and West Lafayette to have green roofs in mind when building
new structures so that green roofs may more easily be installed on them.

Building a Better Future, Conclusion

Green roofs have been in place for many years already in countries in
Europe varying from simple green coverings, such as those being implemented by
Purdue, up to lush hanging gardens with long and wild vines growing down from
building covering nearly the entire structure. Germany has been the forerunner of
green roofs has with many varieties of both kinds in place. Sweden is a close
follower with Switzerland recently building substantial green roof structures.

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Works Cited

"Boiler Bytes: Students initiate Green Roof on Schleman Hall." Purdue University BoilerBytes.
Purdue

University, 3 Aug. 2009. Web. 10 Oct. 2009.

Colony, Hollie. "Green Roof Technology." Boiler Green Initiative. Boiler Green Initiative. Web. 10
Oct.

2009.

Duel Stream Recycling. (2009) Retrieved on October 1, 2009, from

http://www.purdue.edu/buildings_grounds/recycling/dual_stream_recycling.htm

Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI). (2009). GBCI: Green Building Certification Institute.

Retrieved September 29, 2009, from http://www.gbci.org

Havas, Valerie. (Feb. 1, 2009). Going Green: Saving the Planet, One Building at a Time.

Current Health 2, a Weekly Reader Publication. Retrieved October 3, 2009, from

http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Current+Health+2%2c+a+Weekly+Reader+publication/2

009/February/1-p5642

Kats, Gregory H. (2003). Green Building Costs and Financial Benefits. Massachusetts

Technology Collaborative. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from

http://www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org/gbtf/documents/MTCGrnBldgs-Katz.pdf

U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). (2009). USGBC: U.S. Green Building Council.

Retrieved October 1, 2009, from http://www.usgbc.org/

Weddle, Eric. (Sept. 22, 2009). Trash Cans Out, Recycling Bins In. Jconline.com. Retrieved

October 1, 2009, from


http://www.purdue.edu/sustainability/articles/recycling_programJ&C.pdf

Zarate, Joel. (April 23, 2009). Food Waste Digester Initiative. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from

http://www.purdue.edu/sustainability/articles/recycling_programJ&C.pdf

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Annotated Bibliography
The objective of this white paper is to show the various methods of how Purdue University is
becoming a more self sustaining campus. We show three aspects of this process including the
LEED Certification modifications being performed on various campus buildings, and the Green
Roofs that are being planned, and have already been built. Sources currently range from books,
online videos, articles, and information provided directly from groups working on these projects.

"Boiler Bytes: Students initiate Green Roof on Schleman Hall." Purdue University BoilerBytes.
Purdue University, 3 Aug. 2009. Web. 10 Oct. 2009.

This video shows interviews with many people involved in the Green Roof project. It shows the
actual progress of the roof being installed. It describes the various technologies being used to
build the roof, what exactly a green roof is, and how it is more beneficial than a normal roof.
The people being interviewed are the various heads of the Purdue Green Initiative, and various
people who are assisting in the building of the green roof. This is a video from the Boiler Bytes
Youtube video, which is produced by Purdue University. It is quite helpful as it shows steps in
the progress of the green roof, and also gives information directly from those involved in the
building and application of the roof.

Colony, Hollie. "Green Roof Technology." Boiler Green Initiative. Boiler Green Initiative. Web.
10 Oct. 2009.

This site provides the raw data acquired from the various gauges and meters that are placed
throughout the green roof structure on Schlemen Hall. The data ranges between June 17th and
October 1st 2009. It shows a table of the exact numbers of each meter, and graphs displaying
data relationship and change over time. This site also contains photos of the green roof with
arrows pointing to the locations of the various meters, control boxes, batteries, and solar panels.
This data will be very useful in showing the exact benefits of the green roof. Furthermore, it is
taken directly from the site of the group that is actually building the roof.

Duel Stream Recycling. (2009) Retrieved on October 1, 2009, from


http://www.purdue.edu/buildings_grounds/recycling/dual_stream_recycling.htm

This website goes in depth about Purdue’s Green Recycling program. It talks about the
replacement of trash receptacles with recycling bins. It also answers any questions about the new
duel stream recycling pilot program, as well as going into what Purdue plans for the future of this
program.

Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI). (2009). GBCI: Green Building Certification
Institute. Retrieved September 29, 2009, from http://www.gbci.org

The creators of the Green Building Certification Institute website thought it smart to provide all
the background information and general knowledge about GBCI in one area. This website

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provides detailed information that goes from their creation in January, 2008, until now. It
discusses their LEED certification. In general, this is a good overview of GBCI.

Havas, Valerie. (Feb. 1, 2009). Going Green: Saving the Planet, One Building at a Time. Current
Health 2, a Weekly Reader Publication. Retrieved October 3, 2009, from
http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Current+Health+2%2c+a+Weekly+Reader+publication/2009/Feb
ruary/1-p5642

This publication discusses ‘going green’ in residential houses, commercial buildings, and even in
hospitals. The clean air and natural sunlight provided helps create a healthier environment for
children to learn in and actually lowers sick days. Examples are given of solar panels that track
the sun on rooftops and fog collectors that produce fresh water. After reading this article it can be
seen just how much the era of ‘going green’ is upon us and gaining momentum around the globe.

Kats, Gregory H. (2003). Green Building Costs and Financial Benefits. Massachusetts
Technology Collaborative. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from

http://www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org/gbtf/documents/MTCGrnBldgs-Katz.pdf

Gregory Kats states that buildings like the ‘Ordway Building’ are the goal of the future,
buildings that produce more energy than they use. This is achieved through the use of onsite
wind turbines, solar panels, and energy efficient measures used throughout the home. Kates also
tells us that 70% of the nation’s electricity and a large part of the materials, water and waste used
and generated in our economy come from buildings, so naturally this is where an impact needs to
be made first to correct our wasteful nature.

U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). (2009). USGBC: U.S. Green Building
Council.Retrieved October 1, 2009, from http://www.usgbc.org/

The USGBC is a nonprofit organization focused on making green buildings available to


everyone within a century, according to their website. Accurate statistics about buildings are
given for everything from electricity consumption to potable water consumption. Explained in
detail as well is the LEED certification system being used around the world now to determine
just how ‘green’ a building really is. Also covered are pages on education, resources, news and
events, and committees, chapters, and membership requirements into the USGBC.

Weddle, Eric. (Sept. 22, 2009). Trash Cans Out, Recycling Bins In. Jconline.com. Retrieved
October 1, 2009, from http://www.purdue.edu/sustainability/articles/recycling_programJ&C.pdf

This article talks about the duel stream recycling program that is taking place at Purdue. It
describes the recycling efforts, and the new recycling desk-side bins that have replaced
traditional trash bins. Trash is now centrally located so that all people have access to trash and
recycling that has been made easy.

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Zarate, Joel. (April 23, 2009). Food Waste Digester Initiative. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from
http://www.purdue.edu/sustainability/articles/recycling_programJ&C.pdf

This power point presentation was put together by Joel Zarate, the coordinator of recycling at
Purdue. It shows how the food waste at Purdue is being recycled into renewable energy for the
Waste Management in Lafayette.

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