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Company Name- Britannia Industries Ltd !e"#i $it# t#e Spe%ia" Re&eren%e o&B#a'(ati )oods P*t Ltd+ Part o& Ara,i No -.-/0 N 1 No-20 Sa%#endi0 3anpur-245647 Su8mitted toBritannia Industries Ltd 0 660 Industria" Area La(ren%e Road !e"#i---4469 Under t#e :uidan%e o&;r Amit Arya Su8mitted 8y;d <ees#an Israr B Te%# )ood Te%# 7t# Sem

PROJECT ON BISCUIT Pro=e%t Contain o& t#e )o""o(in' Introduction of Biscuit Ingredients use in biscuit Wheat Flour Composition of Wheat Flour Leaveners Chemical Leavening System Sodium Bi Carbonate Typical nalysis of Sodium Bi Carbonate Leavening cids mmonium Bi Carbonate Folic cids Fat and !ils Function of Lipids Chemical properties of Lipids S"eetened Condensed #il$ %mulsifiers Lecithin &reparation of Lecithin &aste ntio'idant Synthetic antio'idant (atural ntio'idant S"eeteners and Syrup Sucrose and invert Sugar syrup Water Water Standard Salts nalysis of Salts Bul$ )andling of Ingredients *ecommended Storage Condition &neumatic Transfer &rinciples utomatic Batching System #i'er +#i'ing )ori,ontal -ough #i'ers Sheeters *otary #olding #achine

!ven and Ba$ing Ba$ing Time of Biscuit )eat Transfer #echanism &ac$ing %/uipments Study of &ac$ing #achine and Its %fficiency &ac$ing #aterial Standard of &ac$ing #aterial 0eneral Safety *ules Sanitation ssignment Study of brea$ do"n Time of &lant Chec$ Weight of Biscuit &ac$et Flo" -iagram of &rocessing

Assi'nment in La8 -etermination of #oisture Content by ir !ven #ethod Wheat Flour #oisture -etermination of gluten in "heat flour -etermination of alcoholic acidity in "heat flour Free fatty acid in oils 1 fats %stimation of ash content -etermination of acid insoluble ash -etermination of sulphated ash &urity as acetone insoluble in lecithin -etermination of ben,ene insoluble matter in lecithin Test method2 sodium #eta bi sulphite 3smbs4 -etermination of fats2 %stimation of &ero'ide 5alue 6ries test &resence of TB)7 in oils + fat -etermination of melting point of solid substances 0ranularity in "heat flour -etermination of sedimentation value in "heat flour Testing of corrugated paper1corrugated Board

Biscuit is eaten by all the people "orld"ide9 It is consumption urban semi: urban and rural area etc9 It is industry located at "hich area "here mar$et close9 In the united state of merica; biscuit may mean the e/uivalent of the %nglish muffin; thence another "ord enters the vocabulary coo$ie9 3%nglish dictionaries mostly state that the derivation of "ord biscuit is the Latin 8is %o%tus via the )ren%# 8i-%uire-to %oo> t(i%e ? ships biscuit is defined as <an old established coarse $ind of biscuit used at sea as a substitute for bread9 This is obviously "hat is inferred in (a">er@s !i%tionary ALondan -/7/4 "hich state2 Biscuits; a $ind of hard9 -ry bread; made to be carried to sea2 a composition of fine flour; almonds and sugar=9 !i'est En%y%"opedia !i%tionary ACanada0 -5..? defines <biscuits= as <a $ind of crisp dry bread; more or less hard; variously flavored and usually unleavened; prepared usually in small; flat; thin ca$es9 !bviously none these definitions meets "ith every one=s approval9 With such semantics let us no" try to give our o"n definition or specification of biscuit9 It Shall2 Be based on a cereal content "heat; oat; mai,e; barley; Soya; rye etc9 Contain less than >? moisture9 If decorated "ith a non cereal product 3cream; marshmallo"; icing; @elly; Aam etc94 The moisture present in the decoration shall not be considered in the >?9 (ot be considered a biscuit "hen more than BC? of its total "eight is not cereal based9

Be considered a biscuit if so called by custom; habit or tradition9 Biscuit and coo$ie shall be deemed synonymous9

E7uic$ bread "ith a ratio of about 821 3flour to li/uid4 and also containing fat; cut into small particle; ba$ing po"der and salt usually $neaded and rolled but some time dropped9 It=s processing very easy and convenient firstly "ord biscuit term used by Christopher Colombus Who discovered merica9 In F9S9 9 firstly termed as @umbo; pluc$ets and cry babies9 In 1Gth country; sugar; "heat flour and ba$ing soda priced very do"n so; its comes in to mar$et9 Britannia Industry formed t"o types of recipe9 Ca$e Biscuit CLASSI)ICATION -ifferent types of biscuits are given belo"9 1ard 8is%uit:Less gluten development in to dough called hard biscuit9 So&t 8is%uits:more gluten development in to dough called soft biscuit9 )ermented 8is%uits: "hen flavour development by microorganisms called fermented biscuit9 I am interested in pro=e%t o& 8is%uit 8e%ause: It is less time ta$es processing9 It is consumed more9 It is available all over the "orld9 Its shelf:life is long because moisture percent 1 to . ?9

#any industries are coming in biscuit processing li$e ITC; &riyagold; and &arle etc9 So there are more @ob opportunities

In'redients Used in Bis%uit

$#eat )"ourB
Wheat flour is the ma@or ingredients of biscuit9 It determines the finished /uality of most ba$ery products9 mong the reason for the strong influence of flour are : Fni/ue proteins in "heat flour give most ba$ery product a characteristic highly e'panded structure9 Wheat flour generally present in a larger proportion then any other ingredients9 It follo"s that ba$ers must be certain the flours they are using have uniform properties appropriate to the products being made9 Bhag"ati Foods &vt9 Ltd is @ob "or$er of Britannia Industries Ltd9 use Wheat flour from Triupati *oller Flour #ills Ltd9 and its Brand is *am Bhog Flour9

Composition o& $#eat &"ourB

The storage in "heat flour includes gluten; "hich is the comple' mi'ture of nitrogenous compounds that gives "heat flour dough their cohesive and elastic properties9 0luten can be separated form "heat flour by ma$ing by stiff dough from a mi'ture of flour and "ater; then "ashing until the starch granules and all soluble materials have been removed9

Protein C"ass 0lobulinHalbumin 0liadins 0lutenins 0lutenins 0lutenins

So"*ent C o& tota" nitro'en (acl in "ater 1.:1I JC?ethanol .C:D8 cetic acid B:1. )gcl 1G:.I .:mercaptoethanol 1C:.J

Carbohydrates are formed from Co. + ).! by the process of photo synthesis it act as energy source9 #ono and disaccharides are found in "heat flour but they are present in very small amounts9 sh ? of dry matters; the follo"ing values may be considered fairly represents2 Fructose C9CB?; 0lucose C9CI?; 0alactose C9C.?; Sucrose C9>D?; difructose C9.B? and maltose C9C>?9 Sugar of high molecular "eight e' raffinose C91G?9

In "heat flour lipids are present in the form of free fatty acid; simple glycride; glactosyl glyceride; phospo glycride; sterol lipids; sphingolipids; diollipids; tocopherols; carotenoids; "a' esters; and hydrocarbons; In amount; the principal lipids are acyl lipids containing the fatty acids palmitic; stearic; oleic; linoelic; and a: linoenic; *eports have indicated minor amounts of many other fatty acids9

Wheat flour contains a larger number of proteolytic en,yem; such as endoproteolytic en,ymes and e'o proteolytic en,ymes9 The acid carbo'ypeptidase; "hich are e'oproteolytic en,yme reacting at carbo'y termination9&hytase cataly,es the hydrolysis of phytic acid to inostiol and freeorthophosphate9 Wheat flour used in many chemically leavened product such as ca$es; coo$ies; doughnuts; biscuits and panca$es9 Wheat flour is structural and shape provided ingredients

The rising or e'pansion of dough during some time of their preparation9 The generation of C!. for reaction going on "ithin dough is the principal leavening force in the ma@ority of ba$ery products li$e biscuits but in Britannia tiger and "orld food programmed biscuits used chemical leavening system not yeast fermentation9

bout GC ? of all chemical leavening system in ba$ery food involves the (a)C!8 "ith acid reacting ingredients9

C#emi%a" Lea*enin' SystemB

Chemical leavening system in source of 0as; almost al"ays (a)C! 8 and one or more acid reacting substances9 If these essential components are combined in a ba$ing po"der; other materials "ill usually be included to dilute the po"der to standard strength; or for other purpose9 The acid reacting substances are included to neutrali,e the al$alinity of the soda and to generate the ma'imum amount of C! .; "hen ba$ed product is formulated for lo" sodium dietsK (a)C! 8 is some times replaced "ith 6)C!89 cid reacting components may include ingredients that perform other function in the final mi'ture; such as molasses; fruit @uice; and butter mil$9 The ba$er can also neutrali,e the soda "ith an appropriate amount9

Sodium Bi-Car8onateB
It is main leavened agent9 (a)C!8 use as a leavener is based on its lo" cost; lac$ of to'icity; ease of handling; relatively tasteless end product; and )igh purity of commercial supply9

Typi%a" Ana"ysis o& Sodium Bi- Car8onateB

Component Carbonates Sodium Carbonate Sodium Chloride Sodium Sulphate Sodium Sulphite Silica Iron !'ide luminum !'ide Calcium carbonate #agnesium Carbonate !ther Substance C o& tota" GG9I8CC C9JCBC C9CCJ1 C9CC1. C9CCC> C9CC1C C9CCJC C9CC.8 C9C1BI C9CC1> C9CB8J

Its solution tend to be less al$aline for e' the carbonate so that locali,ed region of high al$alinities are less apt to be formed around granules as they dissolved in dough "hen high p) a region are formed; undesirable colure and flavored spot may occur "hen the mi'ture is ba$ed9

(a)C!8 offered for ingredient use "ill yield >.98.? of the total "eight as Co. and contain 8B9II totals l$ali9 It also tends to deteriorate upon storage unless it can be $ept very dry9 version of the po"dered grade that has been treated "ith calcium phosphate has the advantage of being free flo"ing and a particularly useful in self rising flour and pac$ed mi'es9 If sodium bi carbonate granules remain undissolved in the dough; they may decompose to the carbonate salt during ba$ing9 This results in e'cess residual al$alinity; "hich causes a soapy off taste and undesirable dar$ crumb color9 -ar$ spots on the crusts and yello" spots in the crumb development if particles remain un dissolved at the time the dough inters the oven9 "hen sodium bicarbonate is dissolved in "ater; there results a mi'ture of sodium ions; carbonate ions; bicarbonate ions ; un dissociated carbonic acid and dissolved carbon dio'ide 9proportions of last four components are determined by the temperature of the system; if the system are concentration of hydrogen ions; and the partial pressure of carbon dio'ide over the solution 9 Considerable amounts of carbon dio'ide can e'ist in a/ueous solutions above p)I9

Lea*enin' A%idsB )un%tionB

Leavening cid is to promote a controlled and nearly complete evolution of gas from a dough in "hich carbon dio'ide e'ists in its dissolved or bound form advantage9

The acid must be nonto'ic and must yield edible and nearly tasteless and products normal storage temperature9 It should be economic any easy to handle9 The phosphates and cream of tartar commonly used as leavening acids are actually matel salts of partially neutrali,ed acids; "hile sodium aluminum sulfate 3and some others4 reacts "ith "ater to form acids9 Sodium aluminum phosphate has a high neutrali,ing value and so is economical to use its reaction rate is relatively slo"; but several grades differing in rate of gas release are available9 Sodium aluminum phosphates have good buffering action leading to p) levels near seven in many systems9 Lea*enin' A'entB Leavening agents contribute significantly to the te'tural properties of ba$ed products by e'panding the batter or dough; sometimes during mi'ing and al"ays during ba$ing9 Leave means to ma$e light9 These are added to the dough during the preparation of ba$ery products9 i9e9 the process of leavening refers to the increase in volume of dough "hen C!. is incorporated in air9 Chief sources are ammonium bicarbonate + sodium bicarbonate9 They raise the product by e'panding the dough during mi'ing + ba$ing9 mmonium bicarbonate at 1CB F releases ()8 + C!.9 0asses thus liberated aerate the doughK render it light; porous + gives right gauge +thic$ness to the biscuit9

Leavening agents are of three types2 i ;e%#ani%a" "ea*enin' a'entsB ir; steam ii C#emi%a" a'entsB Ba$ing po"der; Sodium bicarbonate 3Ba$ing soda4 ; mmonium bicarbonate9

iii Bio"o'i%a" a'entsB Least i ;e%#ani%a" "ea*enin' a'ents Air2 ir is incorporated into the mi'ture during creaming stage9

SteamB Steam alone does not sho" the property of leavening to be used in combination "ith air or C!.9

ii C#emi%a" "ea*enin' a'ents a Ba>in' sodaB It is chemically $no"n as Sodium bicarbonate9 It "ill liberate C!. gas; a leavening gas; "hen heated9 .(a)C!8H)eat MC!. H ).! H (a.C!8 8 Ba>in' po(derB Ba$ing po"der "ill start evolving C!. gas as soon as the product is placed in oven9 Ba$ing po"der is combination of sodium bicarbonate and an acid salt "hen moistened and heating "ill evolve gas; "hich leavens the product9 % Ammonium %ar8onate or 8i%ar8onateB When ammonium bicarbonate is heated; C!. and ()8 are produced9 (o solid is left behind in this reaction9 It is used as leavening agent in ba$ing biscuits and crac$ers as they have large surface to mass ratio and ammonia escapes "hen ba$ed at high temperature

Ammonium Bi-Car8onateB
mmonium Carbonate and mmonium Bi:Carbonate are used as leavening agents in applications "here very lo" final moisture content is reached in the ba$ed products9 When they are heated ammonium Bi:Carbonate and mmonium carbonate the decompose completely in to ammonia; C!.; and "ater9 mmonium Bi: Carbonate generally use as a supplementary leavener9 Temperatures above 1DCC F "ill cause the rapid decomposition of dry ammonium by carbonate9 small amount 31?4 of magnesium carbonate is usually added to po"der as a flo" agent9



When some ammonia may be retained in the food that reaches the consumer; it has disastrous effect on acceptability9

)o"i% A%idB
Folic acid or folacin 3Latin folium:leaf4 is important for one carbon metabolism and is re/uired for the synthesis of certain amino acids; purines and the pyrimidine: thymine9 It is heamatopoietic and commonly called BG 9

Folic acid consists of three components pteridine ring; p:amino ben,oic acids 3& B 4 and glutamates acid 31 to J residues49 Folic acid mostly has one glutamic acid residue and is $no"n as pteroyl: glutamic acid 3&0 49 The active from of folic acid is tetrahydrofolate 3T)F or F) D49 It is synthsi,ed from folic acid by the en,yme dihydrofolate reductase9

)at and Oi"B

Those are esters of fatty acids "ith glycerol9 The difference bet"een fat and oil is only physical 9Shortening is a "ord used to describe fats; oil that is ingredients in dough9 Shortenings may contain substances other then fats and oils; for e' flavor; color and emulsifiers9 Fats and oils are their derivatives; are important ingredients in the ba$ing industry9 It lubricate the internal structure intermediates to allo" greater e'pansion during proofing and they ma$e the te'ture of finished product more tender9

)un%tions o& LipidB

They are concentrated fuel reserve of the body 3tryacyl glycerol49 Lipids are consistent of member structure and regulate the membrane permeability9 Fats and oils are important as a heat transfer media in the frying of doughnuts and similar products9 Fats and oils are indispensable in many ad@uncts2 topping; filling; icings; frosting; coatings etc9

Fats and food oils are tri glycerides of fatty acid; that is; three fatty acid molecule are chemically combined "ith one glycerol molecule to yield one molecule of lipid9

(aturally occurring fatty acid almost al"ays have an even number of carbon atoms bet"een D to .B9 Fatty acid "ith more than three double bonds are apparently not found in food; e'cept for some fish oils that contain D;>;and B double bonds9 Britannia Tiger use palm oil and palm $ernel oil has received much attention as their supply increased and /uantity improved in recent years9 &alm and palm $ernel oils are obtained form the fruit of oil palm9 The fleshy covering of the fruit is processed to obtain palm oil "hile palm $ernel oil is e'creted from the seed that lies at the central9 The /uantity of palm oil entering international commerce has increased mar$edly during the pass decade; the /uantity and uniformity of the products has improved substantially9

C#emi%a" PropertiesB 1ydro"ysisBTriacyl glycerol undergoes en,ymatic hydrolysis to finally liberate free fatty acid and glycerol9 The process of hydrolysis cataly,ed by lipase is important for digestion of fat9

The )ydrolysis of triacylglycerol by al$ali to produce glycerol and shop is $no"n as saponification9 Triacylglycerol H 8(a!) Mglycerol H Soap Ran%idityB -eterioration of fats and oils is $no"n as rancidity9 They give an unpleasant taste and order9 *ancidity occurs "hen fat and oil are e'posed to air; moisture; light; bacteria etc9

The substances "hich can prevent the occurrence of o'idative rancidity is $no"n as antio'idant9 Trace amount of antio'idant such as tocopherols; hydro/uinone; 0allic and alpha: naphthol are added to the commercial preparation of fat and oil to prevent rancidity

S(eetened Condensed ;i">B

In processing s"eetened condensed mil$ is not sterili,ed; but multiplication of bacteria present in this product is prevented by the preservative action of sugar9 The product is made from pasteuri,ed mil$ that is concentrated and than supplemented "ith sucrose9 S"eetened condensed mil$ is use in ba$ing; confectionery; ice:cream industry9

%mulsifiers are natural or synthetic substances that promote the formation and improve the stability of emulsions e' dispersion of fat droplets in a/ueous solution or of "ater droplets in a continuous lipid phase9 In some case they can be used to improve "etting properties change the surface tension of "ater a/ueous solution9 Surface active agents are "idely employed in the ba$ing industry for these purposes9 In britannia mi'ture of lecithin and solba$e is used as emulsifier9

0ree$ lecithose means egg yol$9 It may be natural and synthetics9 These are the most abundant group of phospholipids in cell membranes9 Commercial grade of lecithin are classified according to their total phosphate content; color and fluidity9 The concentration of total phosphate in commercial lecithin product bet"een >D and J.?9 Lecithin is structurally li$e fat out contains phosphoric acid9 If the oil is sha$en in an e'cess of "ater the oil "ill form small droplets9 Than the non polar ends of lecithin molecule orient themselves "ith in the fat droplet and the polar ends stic$ out from the surface of the droplet in to the "ater phase9


Preparation o& "e%it#in Paste Used in BritanniaB

Lecithin and &alm !il are use in the ratio of 128 respectively9 1CC 6g Lecithin H 8CC 6g &alm !il #i' )omogeneously

Properties o& "e%it#in paste Tobacco and bro"nie color Soluble in &alm !il

Preparation o& so"8a>e paste Used in Britannia

&alm oil; solba$e and "ater is mi'ed in the ratio of 19>. N1 N ratio respectively and mi'ed homogenously9

ll ba$ery food contents some fat even it is only ? or so of lipid that is naturally present in flour9 ll of these fats including the flour sub@ect to o'idative and hydrolytic rancidity "ith resultant undesirable flavor and color9 ntio'idant are materiel that can retard the development of o'idative rancidity during storage of food containing fat 9(atural antio'idants are found in many food; including Ono purifiedO fats such as unbleached cocoa butter; and certain chemical compounds can be added to fats to retard their deterioration 9 In the development of hydrolytic rancidity; moisture and en,yme cause splitting of the triglyceride molecule into glycerol and free fatty acid 9)ydrolytic rancidity can be controlled by inactivation of the responsible en,yme by sterili,ation; lo" moisture content; and lo" storage temperature9

!'idative rancidity attac$s the unsaturated portion of fatty acid; the double bond9 There is auto o'idation by a free radical mechanism cataly,ed by heat; light and trace /uantities of metal ions9

Synt#eti% AntioDidantB
TB)7 or B) is a synthetic antio'idant that has been used effectively for many years to protect the flavor of fat containing food9 TB)7 is an antio'idant that has been approved by an F- for use in food9 TB)7 seems to be more protective than the antio'idant9

C#ara%teristi%s o& synt#eti% antioDidant

Common Name B) B)T TB)7 ;e"tin' ran'e DI:B8 JC 1.B:1.G order So"u8i"ity C Slight >C Slight 8C 5ery Slight 1C

Natura" AntioDidantB
#any substances naturally occurring in food and food ingredients act as fat antio'idant to some e'tent9 They are usually of limit practical value for one or more of the follo"ing reason9 They are of lo" potency9 They are accompanied by flavors orders or colors that are undesirable in most food9 They "ould be inordinately e'pensive to produce in commercial /uantities9 Their legal status as ingredients is /uestionable9

S(eeteners and Syrup B

The type of s"eeteners most commonly used are sucrose 3Cane or beet sugar4 and various hydrolysates of corn starch 3corn syrup; de'trose etc49 -epending on the amount added; these ingredients can affect not only the taste but also the te'ture and appearance of the ba$ed product9

In addition to common types of nutritive s"eeteners added to the food there are several other non nutritive s"eeteners are added9

Su%rose and in*ert su'ar syrupB

In Britannia sucrose is use in ba$ery9 Li/uid sugar can be roughly classified sucrose type; invert sugar syrup9 Sucrose is available at BB9> ? to BI ? solid contain9 Totally invert syrup content J. to J8 ? solid per have > ? being sucrose9 ll of the syrup is reasonably resistant to micro biological spoilage; but the invert syrup is probably some "hat superior in this regard because of their lo"er "ater activity9 There has been some controversy about the relative s"eetness of sucrose invert9 It prevent crystalli,ation of sugar; imparts flavor9 Invert sugar has lo"er carameli,ation temperature compared to sucrose9 Thus; biscuit coloration ta$es on a bro"ner appearance more /uic$ly9 It is s"eeter than sucrose9 It is obtained by the inversion process of sugar9 Sodium ;eta Bisu"p#ateB
It is a dough conditioner9 It mello"s do"n the gluten + rela'es dough9 It brea$s long tough protein chains to short "ea$ ones9 It functions by donating hydrogen atom to disulphide bond in gluten net"or$ thus converting it to sulphydral bonds9 Thus; mello"s do"n gluten ma$ing the dough + thus desired shape of biscuit is achieved9

Water is a uni/ue compound9 it has been called the universal solvent "ater does dissolved so many other compound that obtaining a totally pure sample seems to be a practical him possibility9 The chemical; physical and microbiological characteristics of ingredients "ater can have significant effects are the /uality a ba$ery goods9 The amount and types of dissolved mineral and organic compound that are present in the "ater can affect the color; flavor and te'ture of the finished product as "ell as response to machining of dough9

The /uality of ingredients "ater is established by the initial status of the "ater; the treatments applied to it inside and outside of the plant and the condition of storage and transport subse/uent to treatment9 %ven dough are less sensitive to minor differences in "ater /uality than are some other foods and beverages; this do not mean they totally lac$ response to fluctuations in this ingredients9

$ater StandardB
The standards specify that the "ater supply shall be obtained from the most desirable source i9e9 feasible; and efforts should be made to prevent or control pollution at the source9 If the source is not protected by natural means; the supply must be ade/uately protected by treatment9

E&&e%t o& $ater Impurities on Ba>ery Produ%tsB

5ariations of hardness "ith in the normal range found in potable "ater supplies have no hygiene significanceK they do affect taste; response of foods during preparation; and suitability of "ater for industrial purposes such as steam generation9 The ions responsible for hardness can affect the color; flavor; and te'ture of food; and it may be necessary to remove them in order to improve the /uality of finished products9 )ard "ater can increase mi'ing times; and have a retarding effect on fermentation9 l$aline "ater is considered undesirable because it can neutrali,e the acidity develop fermentation; this being an important factor affecting dough /uality9

Salt is essential nutrient9 It provides a salty taste9 It is made up off sodium ion and chloride ion9 (either the sodium ion nor the chloride ion alone causes the typical salty flavor9 Substances other than sodium chloride any provide a similar flavor9

Some salts are more or less to'ic and so or not suitable for food9 ll other taste inducing substances in food; such as sucrose or acetic acid; bind to receptor one of

the hundred are so taste cells present in every taste salt generate in pulses that are conducted to the brain and recogni,ed as s"eets sour and bitter9

Ana"ysis o& Sa"ts use in Britannia Asupp"ier Adita sa"ts?B

ppearance &article Si,e #oisture : Sno" White : 1>C to I>C micron GC? minimum : C98C?

C#emi%a" Ana"ysis AOn dry 8asis?

(aCl Water insoluble Calcium 3#a'imum4 #agnesium 3#a'imum4 Sulphate Iodine content : : : : : : GG9.G1CC? C9C81? C9..? C91C? C9DG? 8Cppm

Sodium is an essential nutrient9 Symptoms related to sodium deficiency in the diet are rare because the "idespread presence of food9 Sodium chloride modifies other flavors9 It is use as a preservative9

Sa"ts su8stitute in 8a>ery produ%tB

The concentration the salt in dough affect a number of processing response but the main ba$ers use this ingredient in its enhancement of the flavor of the finish products replacement for sodium chloride has been offered as basis for formulating products9 &otassium chloride is probably the most binding used salt substitute9



I? Re%ei*in' o& in'redients B


19 *a" material comes as per purchase order given by #umbai office and as per re/uirement comes at factory9

2 Testin' 8y "a8oratoryB !nly after pass; ra" material is unloaded and store in storage section9 II? PremiDin' o& in'redients E &"our sie*in'0 Bis%uit :rindin'B - Creamin'B Sugar grinding; preparation of invert Syrup; 5anaspati; Biscuit dust; Chemical preparation 2 ;iDin' B Charging of ingredients; addition of flour and mi'ing9 *emoval of dough in dough truc$s9 6 ;ou"din'B -ough crushing; conveying; metal detection; moulding; e'traction on "eb + panning9

III? Ba>in' and %oo"in'B fter moulding the dough; dough is passed through hot air oven in certain ba$ing time9 fter ba$ing the hot biscuits travel through cooling conveyor in natural air for getting solidification9 Then biscuit comes to stac$er; "here it get arranged in ro"s for pac$ing9 IF? Pa%>in' and !ispat%#B


fter that biscuits are pac$ed in semi:automatic "rapping pac$ing machine in a certain temperature9 Then these pac$s are filled in polybags and then in CBB9 CBB goes to BS* for storage and further chec$ing procedure9

ll finished products are chec$ed by a panel of directors; Britannia officer and lab9 Chemist for dispatch clearance also called as test evaluation9 9

)"o( !ia'ram o& Pro%essin'












This department consists of dough mi'ers; invert syrup preparation tan$; cream mi'er9 I? !ou'# ;iDer A App"i%ationB The machine is used for mi'ing various ingredients such as flour; sugar; fat; "ater; and other chemicals for ma$ing hard; soft or fermented dough for ma$ing biscuits9 B !esi'nB base plate over "hich t"o side frames are fitted for ta$ing the load of mi'ing chamber "hich is fitted on side frames9 In the mi'ing chamber t"o P1sigma type:mi'ing blades are fitted "hich rotate at different speeds in opposite direction to mi' various types of soft1hard dough for achieving re/uired glutton of dough9 n electrically operated tilting device is also fitted to tilt mi'ing chamber to unload mi'ed dough9 The machine is covered from all sides to avoid dust and accidents etc9

;iDin' Pro%ess
lthough the main purpose of mi'ing is to intersperse the ingredients into each other; it must be carried out in a series of se/uential steps as follo"s9

-? Creamin'B This step involves mi'ing of fat; antio'idant; sugar; invert syrup; flavour; biscuit po"der + emulsifier at a high speed 3BC rpm4 for J min 9 The purpose is to mi' fat; antio'idant; + emulsifier and to entrap air in the fat molecule9 2? $et miDin' )ere; all the re/uired remaining chemicals soda; salt; ammonia; etc are dissolved initially in re/uired /uantity of "ater in special mi'er for D:> min9 Then; this solution is added to mi'ing bo"l + allo"ed to mi' for 8 min9 6? !ou'# ;iDin'B Finally flour + in some variety; S#BS is added at last; + allo"ed to mi' for D:B min9; #i'ing time is ad@usted to have desired gluten net"or$9 If mi'ing time is less; then gluten net"or$ "ill not be developed9 If mi'ing time is more a "ea$en dough formed + then brea$ due to e'cessive mechanical action 9This is because "ea$ flour has lo"er mi'ing tolerance9 -uring mi'ing; gluten in "heat flour forms lin$ages bet"een protein molecules9 These lin$ages form 8:- structure; "hich provide strength to the dough9 Thus; dough can be stretched in all direction under pressure of gas9 S#BS is added during mi'ing; it provides height and good dimension to the biscuit9 Si"o tan> It is a @ac$eted stainless steel cylinder "ith concentric rotating shaft having a scrapper9 Chilled "ater is passed through the agitator @ac$et + palm oil inside the cylinder9 The layer of oil in contact "ith the inner "all is immediately solidified into fine crystals + immediately scrapped off by a scraper reincorporating them to oil as the oil passes along the cylinder9 The proportion of solid fat crystals increases + so increases viscosity 9It is e@ected from the cylinder into automatic "eighted tan$9 This

tan$ transfers automatically the re/uired /uantity of palm oil to mi'er at creaming stage via pipelines9 III? INFERT SYRUP PREPARATION TAN3B It is a cylindrical tan$ having a short three bladed impeller rotating at a high: speed9 It is placed off centered "ith the shaft at some angle to the vertical; "hich facilitates the mi'ing9 It is having the heating coil at the base + ad@ustable temperature $nob9 It is connected to a series of four storage tan$s; "hich are used for storage of invert syrup9 They are arranged so that first tan$ "ill contain cold invert syrup9 IF? C#emi%a" ;iDerB It is a small cylindrical tan$ it contains short three bladed impellor placed off centre + rotated at a high speed9 It is used for mi'ing all chemicals 3soda; ammonia; salt etc4 in "ater9


A-? ;ou"din' B The dough from the mi'er is dumped into a dough truc$ of 8CC$g capacity9 It is then carried to the hopper9 The dough trac$ is fitted to a dough lifter; "hich lifts the dough truc$; adds the dough to hopper9 -uring feeding dough gets resting time; "hich is essential to reduce stress in the dough9%'cessive retention; time "ill ma$e the dough dry + crumbly9 Both the hoppers are fitted "ith dough brea$er; "hich helps to aerate the dough9 The bro$en dough is passed through a metal detector; "hich detects the metal pieces in the dough9 If metal is present then dough conveyor is stopped automatically9 The dough conveyor then feeds the dough to the hopper of *otary #oulder for forming operation9

)ormin' OperationB *otary #oulder is used for forming the biscuit9 Three large diameter rollers are placed in a triangular formation9 The upper t"o rolls consists of a heavily grooved E&or%in' ro""Q "hich pulls the granular dough do"n from the small hopper + forces it into biscuit si,ed impressions in the engraved rollers9 t the narro"est point bet"een the t"o rollers; there is a $nife; "hich scraps any e'cess of dough remains on the forcing roll + returns to the hopper9 Beneath the engraved roll is the third <e'tract roller=9 This is covered "ith thic$ rubber to ma$e it resident + drives the endless "eb "rapped round it9 The e'tract roller on the engraved roller applies the pressure + this causes the dough in the cups to adhere preferentially to cotton conveyor9 Biscuit thic$ness can be altered by : #oving forcing roll closer or a"ay from engraved rollK : ltering vertical position of $nifeK : ltering pressure of e'tract roller on the engraved roller9

The dough pieces from endless conveyor are transferred to a panner "eb; "hich moves ahead for a short distance + transfer dough pieces to oven band9 A2? BA3IN: PROCESS2 EBa$ing is a process in "hich a series of physicochemical changes occur in addition to the removal of moisture by means of heat transfer; i9 e9 conduction; convection and radiation9 The term ba$ing simply means heating the dough in an oven9 The oven is indirectly fired oven "ith furnace oil as an energy source9


Prin%ip"e o& Indire%t 1eatin'2 )eat is applied to the biscuit through heat e'changer; The products of combustion being isolated from food9 In a combustion chamber; furnace oil is e'posed to air; "hich is brought by circulating fan; + there is a transformer; "hich gives some fire to the mi'ture; + thus flames are generated in burner9 Therefore; it heats the air9 Thus; air acts as heat transfer fluid9 This heated air enters into iron tubes; "hich are fi'ed; to top +bottom of band9 The heated pipes acting as a heat e'changer; transfers the heat to the biscuit principally by radiation + convection + also by conduction the products of combustion are e@ected to atmosphere through chimneys9 *adiation mode of heat transfer occurs directly by energy "aves from heating tubes to the biscuits9 long "ith circulating fan there are turbulence fan; "hich circulates the heated air "ithin oven chamber9 This air is also get heated by the heating tubes + oven environment9 Thus; transfer the heat to the biscuit by forced convection9 This also tends to s"eep the biscuit + reduces humidity near the surface9 The main heating by the conduction is from the hot oven band into the base of the biscuit9

T#e Ba>in' O*enB The ba$ing oven is constructed into a series of bloc$s to allo" for the e'pansion of metal due to heating + is separated into seven distinct ,ones9 The ba$ing oven is internally coated "ith thic$ glass "ool insulation to avoid heat loss + to improve oven efficiency9 The oven band is simply a continental "ire mesh containing series of interlin$ed spirals9 The significant air spaces bet"een the meshes of the "ire allo"s free access of heat to the dough from beneath + free e'haust of steam from the

underside of the dough9 The spacing of the dough pieces on oven band is important9 The spacing should be such that to allo" for the e'pansion during ba$ing "hich "ould other"ise result into a @oint biscuit9

OFEN CONTROLB Ba>in' timeB It can be increased or decreased by decreasing or increasing moulders rpm + oven band speed9 Ba>in' temperatureB It is controlled by heat controller; also controls top; + bottom turbulence9 1umidity E PressureB Steam is released as result of removal of moisture from dough9 If the chamber is devoid of opening; it "ill create a humid environment + build up a pressure inside the ba$ing chamber9 Steam dampers can control humidity + pressureK minimum opening "ill result into humid oven + vise versa9 It is the case "ith the build up of pressure in ba$ing chamber9 -amper control is essential to obtain desired spring of dough piece at right place + time during passage through oven9

!amper is %"osed to :&revent drying out /uic$ly9 :Building up some pressure outside to delay the engross of moisture + gases of the dough until te'ture is formed9 :*educe burnt edge effect9


!ampers are >ept open to : *educe undue pressure on dough surface : llo" oven gasses to escape9


The dough pieces in the oven under go t"o types of changes2 : &hysical changes; Chemical changes P#ysi%a" C#an'esB A? )ormation O& )i"m Crust on !ou'#B !n entering the oven; the outside of the dough piece soon becomes coated "ith a film or crust; the thic$ness of "hich develops as moisture evaporated from the outsides film9 This crust formation starts as slo" temperature as 1CCRF + precedes rapidly around 1GCRF9 The degree of elasticity attained is a direct function of the moisture content or humidity of the oven atmosphere; particularly in the first t"o ,ones of a seven ,one oven9 8? ;e"tin' O& )at in t#e !ou'#B The aggregates of fat particle melt as soon as their intermediate area in the dough pieces reaches the melting fusion or slip point temperature of the fat structure9 Whilst some portion of the fat; the lo"er melting point fractions "ill seep into enveloping

structure; the poc$ets of fat "ill remain more or less "ithin their original position in the dough structure 9Thus contribution of fat to biscuit te'ture9


%? :as EDpansionB The C!. formed by chemical reaction "ithin the dough pieces under the influence of increasing temperature "ill increase the volume; +stretch the dough piece depending upon the strength of the structure of gluten or a starch or a sugar or a fat matri'9 The e'panding of gases help to create the te'ture of the crumb "hich open up the mass9 d? Con*ersion o& $ater to SteamB The e'pansion of the dough piece due to formation of steam is much greater than e'pansion due to C!. + ammonia9 But C!. evolves first + then "ater9 e? Es%ape O& CO20 Steam0 E Ot#er :asesB

The removal of all above falls reduction in overall volume of biscuit9 (ot all these are allo"ed to escape at once time to ma$e a te'ture + cooling9 &hysical changes must be encouraged to ta$es place in order:environment conditions; temperature + time i9e9 optimum for the particular dough ma$eup and the desired attributes of biscuits to be produced

C1E;ICAL C1AN:ES -? :as )ormationB The reaction of acid H carbonate 1 carbonate alone can be regulated by2 a4 The solubility of the particular acid1carbonate in the moisture of the dough b4 Temperature and the decomposition range of carbonate9


2? Star%# :e"atini,ation B When starch or "ater mi'ture is heated above 18CR F the absorption of "ater is very much greater and the starch granules "ill s"ell to many times their original si,e9 This is irreversible change9 Thus the gelatini,ation of starch probably does play an important role in producing biscuit structure during ba$ing9 6? Protein C#an'es B &rotein 3gluten4 + other proteins from mil$ or if eggs + proprietary materials begin to coagulate at temperature from 1C> RF: 1D> RF up"ards9 The coagulation of proteins imparts strength to biscuit structure9 -enaturation of proteins occurs at 1B> RF9 so; they become less soluble and protein fibers become less e'tensible9 5esicle "alls of dough pieces achieve none or less fi'ed position and dough e'pansion ceases9 Coagulated protein is drier portion; starch hold moisture i9e9 present9 Fat gives tenderness and "hen all combined give shortness9 7? Carame"i,ation o& Su'arB It ta$es place around 8CCC F accompanied by the formation of melanoidins and is the reason for degree of bro"n crust development9 It is the result of the combining of molecules of sugars such as maltose; de'trose + fructose to produce the colored 3bro"n to blac$4 substances called as caramels9 9? ;ai""ard Rea%tionB #aillard reaction is resulting from the interaction of reducing sugar "ith proteins and other nitrogenous material; "hich gives rise to attractive colors; flavors + aroma9 round 8>CC F the #aillard reaction ta$es place9 round DJ>:BCC C F the melanoids become blac$; bitter and insoluble the nauseous taste of burnt dough9


.? !eDtrini,ation o& Star%# B t temperature slightly higher than 8CC RF; the starch is converted to de'trin9 If slight degree of de'trin can be formed on dough piece surface during ba$ing "ithout undue carameli,ation then surface shine "ill be developed9

Bu"> 1and"in' o& In'redientsB

Water "as the first ba$ery ingredients to be received and handle in bul$9 It is still the material received in the greatest /uantity by ba$ery9 The bul$ handling of other ingredients :flavor; syrup; sugar; oil etc9 Implementation of bul$ receiving by ba$ery is of re/uired of collaboration of suppliers; carries and purchasers that "ere relatively evolve9

Re%ommended Stora'e ConditionB

In'redients Temperature Ran'e Flour BI to J. Sugar BC to IC Salt BC to IC Ba$ing po"der BC to IC Flavor DC to >C Re"ati*e Ran'e BC to JC dry dry dry sealed

Pneumati% Trans&er Prin%ip"esB

The essential feature of pneumatic handling; insofar as it refers to ba$ery ingredients is the movement of particles through tube by streams of air9 The t"o general principles are dense phase and dilute phase transfer9 -ense phase pneumatic conveying method involves relatively lo" air to solid ratio in "hich plug of granular material are pushed through tubes9 -ilute phase pneumatic conveying methods involve high air:to:solids ratios in "hich the individual particles are surrounded by air currents9 -ilute phase system can be classified as: (egative pressure or vacuum system

&ositive pressure system Combination systems9 Flour and Sugar are the principal particulate ingredients handled by ba$eries in pneumatic system: Transfer from blenders to bins9 Transfer from to use bins and recirculation bet"een means9 Transfer "ith in line shifting9 -elivery to scale "ith return line9

Automati% Bat%#in' SystemB

Weighing system for flour; sugar and some other ingredients are integral parts of bul$ handling system9 Ingredients "hich are not being handled in bul$ transfer system can be dump hoppers9 Bag unloders; shifters and conveying system "ill precede the receiving or surge system9 utomated miner ingredients scaling; as found in medium and large ba$eries9 Convent to the scale9 Weighing9 Subse/uent of "eighed ingredients9 utomated ba$ery generally use a central control panel registering and controlling the operation many remote scales9 The advantages claimed for automatic batching include :2 %limination of human errors9 #ore consistent "eight9 Better sanitation9 Less labor9 *edaction in loss of coastally ingredients9

;iDers and miDin'B

#ost ba$ery procedure is specific to the manufacture of ba$ed products9 It is unit operation9 #i'ing has been defined as a process intended to put a plurality of materials; originally e'isting separately or in a non uniform combination; into such an arrangement that each particle of one material lies as nearly ad@acent as possible to a particle of each material9 #i'ing as applied to dough; encompassing aeration and development as "ell as other function9 #i'ing can be accomplished by many different but they all rely on one more of the follo"ing action:

-evices using blades; paddles; helical metals ribbons etc to push portion of the mi' through other portion9 -evices relying on the elevating and drooping of all or a portion of a mi'ture so that random rebounding of individual particles result in a redistribution of the particles9 -evices creating turbulent movement by in@ecting currents of gas or li/uids in to a no uniform body of material9 There are significant; in many cases; to separating the mi'ing process in t"o or more stages in a preliminary steps; all or part of the ingredients can be roughly blended in to dry mi' or slurry that is subse/uently divided in to bac$ si,e portion and then sub@ect to intensive action to insure uniformity and facilitate the physical and chemical changes needed to yield finished dough9

1ori,onta" !ou'# ;iDersB

#any types of mi'ture can be; and are; used for batch mi'ing bread dough but all large ba$ery "hole sale ba$eries high speed hori,ontal dough mi'ture9 In Bagh"ati food &vt9 Ltd9 use lo" speed 31D rpm49 The mi'er is nearly al"ays fitted "ith a t"o speed motor to permit high and lo" speed mi'ing9 -ouble arm mi'er formally called creamers9 They no" some type used for stiffer dough9

There are many operations in ba$eries that re/uire dough to be reduced in thic$ness and shaped in to sheet or strip relatively uniform thic$ness9 The machine performing these operations is called dough bra$es; sheeting rollers9

S#eetin' Ro""ersB
Sheeting rollers are used to change the dimensions of dough sheets ma$ing it thinner; "ider and longer they can also be used to laminate dough9 Their a'les are al"ays parallel9 The "eb of dough is almost al"ays delivered to the gap by a

conveyor belt and the thinned sheet is ta$en by another belt9 Fsually; the sheeted dough "eb falls free a fe" inches before it contacts the off ta$e belt9 %fficiency of shelters performance is related to rollers speed relative dough velocity; diameter of the rollers; surface te'ture of the roller; "idth of the gap bet"een them; rheology of formula being preceded and the amount of dusting flour9 Sheeting rollers tend to develop the dough by causing a rearrangement of the gluten molecules9

Rotary ;o"din' ma%#ineB

The manufacture of crac$ers and coo$ies in commercial plants re/uire certain type of e/uipment9 The rotary molding machine is important e/uipment in ba$ery industry9 simple rotary molding machine consist of : hopper feed role Cylindrical -ie $nife or Scrapers Cloth "eb or apron nd rubber covered compression rollers9 This machine may be permanently a fi'ed to the oven band9 The basic principal of these machines is that dough is pressed in to shaped cavity and then removed from that cavity by adhesion to a belt9 %'traction of dough pieces becomes more difficult as the design comple'ity increases9 Cavity depth "ill vary according to the desired characteristic of the finished9

O*ens and Ba>in'B

!vens are the most conspicuous and characteristic piece of e/uipments9 The oven has an important influence on product /uality9

1eat Trans&er ;e%#anismB

)eat may be generate "ithin a mass by radiation; frication; on chemical reaction; the transfer of heat from outside source by :


Convection Conduction *adiation9 The types of radiation that are significant in ba$ing are micro "ave and infrared radiation9 *adiation has t"o characteristic that ma$e its action different from other means of heat transfer2 It is sub@ect to shado"ing or bloc$ing by intervening substances that are opa/ue to radiation9 It is very responsive to change in absorptive capacity of the dough9 *adiant energy comes from the burner flames and all hot metal parts in the oven9 Convection is transfer of heat from one part to another "ithin a volume of gas or li/uid by the gross physical mi'ing9 In the oven chamber; molecules air gases; "ater vapor; combustion gases; circulate through out the oven; constantly mi'ing "ith other gases and transferring heat by conduction "hen they contact solid surface9 Translocation of li/uid "ater; melted shortening and other li/uid can cause a transfer of heat from one region of the dough to another9 Conduction is transmittal of heat from one part to another part of the same body that is in physical contact "ith it9 When ban$ing dough in a band oven; conduction heat to the dough occurs only through the band9 The band received its store of energy from heat conductor through the supports on "hich it rides9

Bands O*enB
The ba$ing surface and "hich turns around t"o large metal drum ;one at each end of the oven9 The ba$ing chamber can be made very long leading to fast transit times and high production rates9 The band oven chamber consist of a frame supporting the necessary rollers; guides; burners; and the li$e; together "ith insulation on top; sides; and bottom9 !ne chamber is usually manufactured in modular units9 The band ovens have J parts9

Pa%>in' EHuipmentsB
&ac$ing machine contain many type e/uipment:

Type o& ;a%#ine I ;u"ti Pa%>s

)opper Counter &atti pusher Leg supporter

0uard controller Leg Infeed Chain &aper Feed *oller Seal *oller Aa" Section Conveyor 314Luc$ 3.4Tea Luc$ 314*oller 1 3.4*oller . 314Timer 3.4Cutter

Pa%>in' ;ateria"B
The re/uirement for an ideal pac$ing material for ba$ery product might include the follo"ing: A-? The material should protect the product from harmful environmental influences9 It "ill give some protection against the absorption of off:odor9 A2? The pac$age should contribute to the dimensional stability of the product9 Since most ba$eries are very susceptible to crushing; mechanical strength must be present in the container if the product is to survive storage; transportation; unacceptable amount of distortion; brea$ing etc9 A6? The pac$ing material should be suitable for being formed into finished pac$age easily and /uic$ly by mechanical means; and preferably by readily available e/uipment9 A7? The pac$age should assist in selling the product9 A9? The film should be relatively lo" in price9 It must have a favorable cost per s/uare inch and the supplierSs factory or "arehouse must be located so as to ma$e transportation costs acceptable9


Ce""u"osi% ;ateria"sB
mong the fle'ible films that have been used for ba$ery products are cellulosic materials such as "hite ba$ery stoc$ paper; "a'ed paper; cellophane; and glassine; and combinations of these materials "ith plastic or foil9 The chief advantage of the material is its high breathing value 9It should be lo" cost; "hiteness and good /uality retention characteristic "hen it is "a'ed9

P"asti% ResinB
#any of the resin approved for food contact purpose are used largely in the form of films9 film intended for pac$ing foods must have the follo"ing characteristic : 314 0ood moisture barrier properties; 3.4 roma barrier properties; 384 Light *esistant; 3D4 Barrier &roperties against absorption of off odors; 3>4 cceptable coefficient of friction; 3B4 0ood bond strength of coating; thermal strips; and lamination; 3J4 bsence of bloc$ing; 3I4 0ood rigidity; 3G4 0ood seal ability; 31C4 0ood appearance and feel; 3114 0ood lo" temperature durability; 31.4 *esistant to high temperature and humidity; 3184 Toughness and tenacity; 31D4 &rotection of product freshness9

Standard O& A$)P? Bis%uit Pa%>in' ;ateria"B

C9B9B!T Length Width )eight !imension DC.mm ..Cmm 8CCmm U Length T Width T )eight J DC. T ..C T 8CC U .B>8.CCmm

Flutes )eight U .9>mm (o9 of flutes in 8Ccm U >>


$ei'#t :S; Weight of C9B9Bo' &ieces U B9GDJ> BGD9J> U J9.DGG J.D9GG U B9GJB. BGJ9B. UJ9CCCC JCC9CC A*era'e $ei'#t J K 476K A*' : S ; JK47 6K

:enera" Sa&ety Ru"esB

The general rule of food safety is of the follo"ingA14 %/uipment should not be operated "ith safety devices by passed or guard removed9 3.4 !nly /ualified personnel should operate a machine9 384 Service or maintenance procedure should never be performed on machine in motion9 3D4 ll air and electric po"er must be off before servicing the machine9

Sanitation encompasses the concept of cleanliness in preparing; distribution and serving food but the food manufacture it goes far beyond the usual understanding of cleanliness to include the preventing of : 314 The food contamination by any filthy material or adulterant or not that thing is readily detectable by the consumer9 3.4 %arly spoilage9 384 The spreading of food borne disease by microorganism in the product 9It is important to recogni,e at the outset that a finding of actual physical harm to the consumer is not a prere/uisite to a determination that food stuff is contaminated9



Assi'nment in La8 !etermination o& ;oisture Content 8y Air O*en ;et#od

EHuipmentB ir !ven Pro%eduresB
$no"n "eight of the material is "eighed accurately in a suitable moisture dish previously dried in an electric air oven and "eighed9 The dish is placed in an electric air oven maintained at the temperature re/uired for a particular time9 The dish is cooled in desiccators and "eighed "ith the lid9 The dish containing the dried material may be preserved for the determination of total ash "here re/uired9

#oisture ? by mass U 1CC3#1:#.4 3#1:#4

#1U#ass in g of moisture dish "ith material before drying9 #.U#ass in g of moisture dish "ith the material after drying and9 #U #ass in g of empty moisture dish9

Resu"t: Su'ar ;oisture

Bo"el "eight "ithout sample Bo"el "eight "ith sample Sample "eight before drying Sample "eight after drying #oisture? U819BD>8g UDB9BD>8g U1>g U1D9GG>Gg UC9C.J?

Standard of Britannia moisture content of sugar is ma'imum C91C?9

Resu"t: $#eat )"our ;oisture

Weight of empty bo"elUD.9C.DJg Weight of sample "ith bo"el before dryingU>.9C.DJg Weight of sampleU1Cg

Weight of sample after dryingU>C9I1BCg ? of moisture U1.9CI Standard of Britannia #oisture content of Wheat flour is ma'imum 1D?9

If more moisture content present in "heat flour then early spoilage occur by micro organism9

!etermination o& :"uten in $#eat )"our

EHuipmentB ir !ven Pro%edureB
.>gm of the flour is "eighed into a bo"l91>ml of "ater is added to the flour and made into a dough ta$ing care to see that all the martial is ta$en into the dough9 The dough is $ept in the bo"l filled "ith "ater for one hour9 The dough is "ashed by $neading the dough "ith hand in "ater and "ashings are discarded; ta$ing care to see that no gluten is lost "hile discarding the "ash "ater9 The "ashing is continued till the gluten is free from starch9 fter "ashing the "et gluten is placed on a piece of tared and previously "eighed grey board9 The gluten is spread into a thin layer and cut into small pieces by means of a spatula9 ny residue stic$ing to the spatula is transferred to the grey board9 The grey board "ith "et gluten is "eighed9 fter "eighment it is $ept in an airven at 18C:18>oC for . hours 1CC:1C>oC for D hours for drying9 fter the grey board "ith dry gluten is cooled in a desiccater and "eighed9

Wet gluten? U 1CC T 1CC .> T 31CC: #4 W U Weight of dried grey board9 W1 U Weight of grey board and gluten before drying9 W. U Weight of grey board and gluten after drying9 # U #oisture ? of flour9 W1: W T 1CC .> -ry gluten ? on 3dry basis4 U 3W. :W4 T

0luten present in "heat flour is U 5 -2C

Standard in Britannia gluten present in "heat flour is minimum J9>9

!etermination o& A"%o#o"i% A%idity in $#eat )"our

a4 (eutral ethyl alcohol : GC percent by volume9 b4 Standard sodium hydro'ide solution : appro'imately C9C> (9 c4 &henolphthalein indicator solution : dissolve C91 g of phenolphthalein in 1CCml of denatured spirit9

bout I to 1C gm of the sample is accurately "eighed in to a dried stoppered .>C ml iodine flas$ 3W49 Freshly prepared >C ml of GC? neutrali,ed ethyl alcohol is poured to the sample and allo"ed to stand over night "ith occasional sha$ing9 The alcoholic e'tract is filtered through "hat man on 1 filter paper lined funnel; "hich is mounted; on the .>C ml dried conical flas$9 *e@ect the first 1Cml of the e'tract and collect the balance /uantity in the same flas$9 1Cml of the alcoholic e'tract is pipette in to another .>Cml dried conical flas$9 This solution is titrated against standard C9C> ( sodium hydro'ide solutions from the >Cml volumetric burette using phenolphthalein indicator9 3 4

lcoholic acidity 3as ).S!D4; percent by WeightU .D9>. ( W Where U volume in Sml of standard sodium hydro'ide solution used in titration after deducting blan$ for 1C ml of alcohol9 (U normality of standard sodium sodium hydro'ide; and WU "eight in g of he martial ta$en for the test9

In "heat; carbohydrates are degraded in to alcohol9 ItSs degraded by Fungus; #olds9 i9e9 7uality of flour has comedo"n9

Weight of empty bo"el U DC9>C1Bg Weight of sample "ith bo"l U >C9>C1Bg Weight of sample U 1Cg

5alue put on formula

U .D9>. T C9C> T C9> 1C UC9CB18?

)ree &atty a%ids in oi"s and &ats

The fat is dissolved in an appropriate solvent; after "hich the solution is titrated "ith sodium hydro'ide solution9 The amount of sodium hydro'ide solution consumed is a measure of the acidity of oil9

Conical flas$s : .>Cml

a4 Solvent : #i' e/ual volume of GC? lcohol and diethyl ether (eutrali,e shortly before use "ith C91 ( sodium hydro'ide using phenolphthalein as indicator9 b4 Sodium hydro'ide : C9C> ( (a!) c4 &henolphthalein Indicator 1? solution in GC? ethanol

bout .Cgm of )959! or refined oil is "eighed accurately into a .>Cml conical flas$9 >Cml of the solvent is added; s"irled "ell and titrated against C9C>( sodium hydro'ide "ith phenolphthalein as indicator9 blan$ test is also conducted on >C ml of the solvent9

3a4 For fats and oils free fatty acid ? as oleic acid U5 ' ( ' .I9. W Weight in g sample 5olume 3in ml4 of sodium hydro'ide used fter subtraction of blan$ volume (ormality of sodium hydro'ide

UW U5 U(


For refined coconut oil Free fatty acid ? as Lauric acid U 5 ' ( ' .C W

The free fatty acid content of a fat is essentially a measure of the amount of hydrolysis that has occurred9 Since hydrolysis and o'idation are the reactions leading to organo:optically detectable rancidity; the pero'ide value and the free fatty acid content considered together give a reasonably good picture of a fats current status and future prospects9

Weight of conical flas$ U 11B9BGI8 g Weight of conical flas$ "ith sample U 18B9BGI8 g Sample "eight U .C g Titration valueU191ml Weight of sample 5alue put on formula J .Cgm9 .I9. C9C> 191 U .C UC9CJJ


Estimation o& As# Content EHuipment2 #uffle Furnace Prin%ipa"B

sh is the residue remaining after the organic matter of a food has been destroyed incineration and it is the most convenient assessment of the total mineral matter in the material9

bout >: 1C gms of the material is "eighed 3W 14 accurately in a tarred "eighed 3W4 silica crucible the silica crucible is place inside a muffle furnace at >>CoC H.C oC9 Till the ash is free from any blan$ carbon particle after completion of ashing the silica crucible is $ept inside the desiccators to attain the room temperature after cooling;

the final "eightment 3W.4 is noted9 The ash inside the silica crucible is $ept for the determination of acid insoluble ash9

Total ash 3on dry basis4; percentage by "eight U 3W.: W4T1CCT1CC 3W1:W4T31CC:#4 Where2 W1 U Weight in g of the dish "ith the material ta$en for the test9 W. U Weight in g of silica crucible "ith the ash; WU Weight in g of the empty silica crucible; and #U #oisture ? of the sample9

Resu"tBWheat flour 3ash4 Crucible "eightU8C9.BIJ Crucible Weight "ith sampleUDC9.BIJ


fter drying "eight of sample "ith crucible UC9CJJ ? of shUC9JJ

sh is the inorganic food material9 It is undesirable in Wheat flour9

!etermination o& A%id Inso"u8"e As#

EHuipmentB #uffle furnace Rea'entB >( hydrochloric acid9 Pro%edureB
The ash $ept in the silica or platinum dish 1 crucible is treated "ith .>ml of >( hydrochloric acid; covered "ith a "atch glass and heated on a "ater bath for 1C min9 it is cooled and the contents are filtered through a "hat #ann (o9 D. filter paper9 The filter paper is "ith "ater until the "ashings are free from acid9 The filter paper "ith the residue is returned to the dis$9 It is $ept in an electric oven at 18>H .oC for 8 hours9 It is then transferred to the muffle furnace and ignited at >>CH .Co C for 8 hours9 The dish is ta$en out and cooled in a desiccators and the "eight is recorded9

cid insoluble U 1CC3W.:W4 T 1CC cid ? 3d9b9 ash4 3W1:W4 T 31CC:#4 Where; W. U Weight in g of the dish "ith ll ash W1 U Weight in g of the dish "ith material ta$en for the test9 W U "eight in g of empty dish # U #oisture ? of the sample9

Weight of silica dish:.I9IBJDgm Weight of silica dish "ith sample:8.9IBJDgm Weight of sample:Dgm

? of sh:C9C8J

!etermination o& Su"p#ated As#

EHuipment2 #uffle Furnace Rea'entsB Con:Sulphuric acid sp9 gr9 19ID Pro%edureB
bout 8:> g of the sample is "eighted accurately in a silica dish9 19>ml of con: sulphuric acid is added and the dish is heated gently of a hot place until the material is "ill carboni,ed9 The heat is an increased until the evolution of sulfuric acid fumes ceases9 The carboni,ed material is incinerated in a muffle furnace >>CH .C for about . hours9 The dish is cooled in desiccators and "eighted9

Sulphated ash percent by mass U1CC T W1 W.

Where; W1 U "eight in g of ash W. U "eight in g of sample9

Resu"t%mpty crucible "eightU.I9J>1>g Sample "ith crucible "eightU8.9J>1>g Sample "eightUD9Cg Weight of ashUC9CC1>g ? of ashU 1CC T C9CC1> D9C UC9C8J>


Purity as A%etone Inso"u8"e in Le%it#in

Rea'ent: Pro%edurebout . gm of the lecithin is accurately "eight 3W14 into a e'traction thimble9 The open top portion of the thimble is tightly pac$ed "ith cotton to avoid any spillage during e'traction9 pre:dried and "eighted 3W .4 flat bottom .>Cml flas$ is filled "ith 1CC:1>Cml of acetone9 The e'traction sample thimble is transferred into a 1>Cml e'tractor9 The top portion of the e'tractor is connected to "ater cooling condenser and the bottom portion is connected to acetone filled .>Cml flas$9 The entire arrangement is placed on the boiling "ater to carry out the e'traction for about I hours9 fter the completion of the e'traction; the sample is removed from the e'tractor and the e'cess9 Solvent is recovered in the e'tractor9 The complete removal of solvent is carried out by placing the .>Cml flas$ on "ater bath for . hours9 For the final drying the flas$ is $ept inside the air oven at 1CC:1C>oC for . hrs9 fter drying; the flas$ is removed from the air oven and $ept inside the desiccators to attain the room temperature9 Final "eight of the flat bottom flas$ is noted asW89 cetone insoluble matter ? U 3W8:W.4 T 1CC W1

* grade cetone

Titration valueUJ9>ml Blan$ titration valueUIml Weight of sampleU19.> 5alue put on formula;

UJ9>:I TC9C> T >B91 19.>


Si'ni&i%an%eB &urity @udged by this method9


!etermination o& Ben,ene Inso"u8"e ;atter in Le%it#in

Rea'entsB Ben,ene * Pro%edureB
The material is softened by "arming it at a temperature not e'ceeding BC oC and mi'ed thoroughly9 1C g of the material is "eighted into a .>Cml %rlenmeyer flas$9 1CCml of Ben,ene * is added and sha$en "ell to dissolve the lecithin9 The solution is filtered through9 previously dried and "eighed filter paper in a funnel9 The filter is "ashed "ith t"o successive .>ml portions of ben,ene9 The funnel and filter paper is dried at 1CC:1C> Cc for an hour; cooled in desiccators and "eighted9

? Ben,ene insoluble matter UW.:W1 ' 1CC W

WhereK WUWeight of the sample ta$en for test W.UWeight of filter later "ith residue left behind9 W1UWeight of filter paper9 Resu"tWeight of sampleU 1C9>GCGg Weight of filter paperU.9.1>B Weight of filter "ith residue left behindU19IC.g 5alue put on formula U19IC. T 1CC 1C9>GCG U1J9C1

If more ben,ene insoluble matter present i9e9 more impurity9


Sodium ;eta Bi Su"p#ite AS;BS?

( Iodine solution C91 ( Sodium Thio Sulphate solution Starch Indicator Conc9 )Cl

bout 1gm of the sample is "eighed accurately into a .>C ml volumetric standard flas$ and the sample in dissolved completely by constant s"irling9 Finally the test solution is made up to .>C ml "ith distilled "ater9 .> ml of the test solution is pipette into .>Cml Iodine flas$s9 To that test solution >C ml of C91( Iodine solution is added9 In another .>Cml dry Iodine flas$ >Cml of 19C ( Iodine is added as a blan$ solution 9To both sample and blan$ solution 1C:1> ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid is added and fitted "ith air tight stopper for one to t"o minutes9 The solution is titrated against C91 ( sodium thiosulphate from >C ml volumetric burette using starch as an indicator9 The end point is the disappearance of the blue color9

The purity percentage of Sodium met bi sulhite 51 (1 W : : : U 51TDJ9>8T (1 W

5olume of the thiphosphate Strength of the thiosulphate solution Weight of the sample

Si'ni&i%an%eB It is used as a dough conditioner


!etermination o& )ats

19 ApparatusB So' let %'traction pparatus .9 So"*entB %thyl %ther or petroleum ether distilling belo" B>C c Pro%edureB
Transfer about 8 g of the material accurately "eighed to a suitable thimble and e'tract "ith the solvent in the So'hlet e'traction apparatus for about C9B hours9 -ry the e'tract contained in the so'hlet flas$s "hose empty "eight has been previously determined at G>C to 1CCCC for 8C minutes9Cool in a desiccators and "eigh9 Continue the alternate drying and "eighing at 8C minutes intervals until the lose in "eight bet"een t"o successive "eighing is not more than one milligram9 *ecord the lo"est "eight9 &reserve the fat free material for the determination of crude fiber9

Fat percentage by "eight U 1CC3W1:W.4 W Where W1UWeight in g of the so' let flas$s; Clean and dry W.UWeight in g of the empty So'hlet Flas$; Clean and dry WUWeight in g of material ta$en for the test

In milling time removal of bran and germ is necessary but complete removal is not possible in practical "ay9 Bran and germ contain fat both are undesirable9 If more fat is present in "heat flour i9e9 early rancidity occurs9


Estimation o& PeroDide Fa"ue

The pero'ide value is determined by sub@ecting potassium iodide at room temperature to the o'idant effect of pero'ides9 The Iodine thus liberated is titrated "ith sodium thiosulphate9

Conical Flas$s .>Cml "ith ground :glass stoppers9


a4 So"*ent

#i' . volumes of glacial acetic acid and 1 volume of

Chloroform9 b4 Potassium IodideUSaturated solution -issolve D parts of pure potassium Iodide in 8 parts distilled "ater $eep the solution in a bro"n bottle9 c4 Sodium T#iosu"p#ateJ C9CC.n Solution prepare this daily from an accurately standardi,ed C91 ( solution d4 Star%# Indi%ator U 1? solution freshly prepared

bout . to 8 gms of the sample is accurately "eighed in to a dried .>C ml Iodine flas$ To that .> ml of the solvent is added and mi'ed homogeneously 1 ml of the potassium Iodide solution is added and allo"ed to stand in the dar$ foe one minute fter one minute 1 ml of starch indicator is added and the solution is diluted "ith 8>ml of distilled "ater and titrated against C9CC.( solution of sodium thiosulphate from 1C ml volumetric burette9 The end point is the disappearance of blue color "ith .> ml of chloroform acetic acid mi'ture is carried out9

Weight 3in g4 of sample ta$en 5olume 3in ml4 sodium thiosulphate Fsed in test 5olume 3in ml4 sodium thiosulphate Fsed in blan$ (ormality of Sodium Thiosulphate U U U U

W 51 5. (

&ero'ide 5alue

1CCC 351:5.4 ( W

Resu"tB belo" .C to the nearest C91 and above .C to the nearest C9>9 Si'ni&i%an%esB
&ero'ide value is e'pressed as milli:e/uivalentfs 3m%/4 of o'ygen per $ilogram of fat9 It is an indication of the e'tent to "hich the fat has already reacted "ith o'ygen and thus indicates appro'imately ho" much storage life remains9 The deodori,ation process applied to fats and oils reduces their per o'ide value to ,ero9 Conse/uently the storage conditions and history of the fat much be ta$en in to account "hen determining and using pero'ide values to estimate the remaining shelf:life of a fat9

Weight of sampleU.g (ormality of Sod ThiosulphateU C9C. 5olume Sodium Thiosuphate used in testU C918 5alue put on formula U1CCC TC918 TC9C. . U198


3ries Test
C91 ? Solution of phiroglucinol in diethyl ether Conc9 )ydrochloric acid

To . ml molten fat sample in a test : tube e/ual volume of conc:)ydochloric acid is added and sha$en "ell To this mi'ture a fe" drops of phloroglucinol solution is added and the mi'ture is allo"ed to stand for .mts9

-evelopment of red 3&in$4 color in the a/ueousgumes layer 3acid4 is an indication of fat rancidity9

Presen%e o& TB1Q in Oi"s E )at

#ethanol -im ethylamine DC? (:Butyl lcohol

Ta$e >g of sample in a test tube and add e/ual /uantity of #ethanol sha$e "ell for > mts9 To the methanol layer add > ml of dimethylamine and n:Butyl lcohol ppearances of red color confirms the presences of TB)79

It is used as an antio'idant i9e9 prevents o'idant9 %'ample2 : 5it:%; &henol; Lecithin9


!etermination o& ;e"tin' Point o& So"id Su8stan%es

#elting point tubes )ot plate Thermometer :C91CC accurately

J to I cm long capillary tube is fused at one be heating in flame The test sample is filled up to 1 cm in the capillary tube9 The capillary is tied to a thermometer using a rubber band 9The thermometer is then fi'ed inside "ater maintained 1C CC belo" the melting point of the sample9 The temp of "ater is slo"ly resisted at the rate of C91CC per minuteK the temp at "hich the complete melting of the sample ta$es place is the melting point of the material9

The most important physical characteristic of fat is their consistency under different temperature condition9

Resu"t#elting point of &alm oil measured isDC CC

:ranu"arity in $#eat )"our

Apparatus2 1IC #icron is sieve9 Pro%edure
bout 1C gms of "heat flour is transferred to a 1IC #icron is sieved and sieved For . minutes9 The upper surface of the sieve is brushed and sieved again for 1 #inute the left over residue is "eighed


W1: Weight of the sample for analysis W. : Weight of the sample retained on test sieve

Resu"tWeight of empty bo"elUDC9D8J1g Weight of sample "ith bo"elUB>9D8J1g fter sieving sample "eight UC9C1IC ? of sample U C9C1I T 1CC .> U C9CJ.g

If 0ranule si,e is bigger the proper gluten development and starch setting effected9

!etermination o& Sedimentation Fa"ue in $#eat )"our

Lactic acid Isopropyl alcohol Bromophenol blue indicator

Preparation o& rea'ent

Aa?La%ti% a%id sto%> so"ution 1.> ml of lactic acid is diluted to >CC ml 9This solution is reflu'ed for B hrs9 This solutions is mar$ed as Lactic acid stoc$ solution A8?La%ti% a%id -isopropy" a"%o#o" miDture GC ml of the lactic acid stoc$ solution and 1IC ml of Isopropyl alcohol are ta$en in a >CC ml stander flas$ and made up to >CC ml "ith distilled "ater A%?Bromop#eno" 8"ue so"ution

1C ml of bromophenol blue indicator is added to 1CCC ml of distilled9


;iDin' &lace 89.C g of the "heat flour to be tested in a 1CC ml glass stopper graduate cylinder 31J> to 1IC mm for C to 1CC graduations4 Simultaneosly start the stop "atch and ad >Cml of distilled "ater containing bromophenol blue9 #i' thoroughly the flour and "ater by moving the stoppered cylinder hori,ontally length"ise9 fter > mts add .> ml9 of lactic acid + Isopropyl alcohol mi'ture and continue the procedure for > mts9 after > mts9

Resu"tWeight of paper UC98>B. g Weight of sample "ith paper U 89>>B. g Weight of sample U 89.g Sedimentation value U 1G9>

Si'ni&i%an%e2 It describes physical characteristic of "heat flour9

Testin' o& Corru'ated PaperLCorru'ated 8oard

The number of flutes linear foot "idth of flutes etc9 is to be chec$ed by actually measurement9

steel scale "ith accuracy up to 11B

The number of flutes 3corrugations4 per a linear foot are measured by the scale and reported as such9 Similarly; the height and "idth also are measured9 The corrugated paper or board also has to be chec$ed for flattened corrugation board at the edges of flats distorted corrugation due to indiscriminate use of glue9


WF& 3J>04 Length of CB:Bo' U8G>mm Width of CB: Bo' U..Cmm )eight of CB:Bo' U.G.mm Flutes heightU.9>mm (umber of flutes in 8C:>>

;easure t#e (ei'#t o& -4 %m2CB BoD pea%e 8e&ore dryin'

U B9GDJ> UJ91.GG U B9GJB. UJ9CCC U 2/ 496.'m

;easure t#e (ei'#t o& -4%m2 CB-BoD pea%e a&ter dryin'

UB918JB UB91B.B UB9CIJD UB918JJ U 27 9296'm

Resu"tTi'er 77' "aminateCut of lengthU1.1mm Width U.C1mm Ti'erJ..' "aminates: Cut of lengthU1D8mm Width U.C.mm

T#e (ei'#ts o& -4%m2 "aminate are &o""o(in'UC9.GBCg UC981>8g UC9818.g UC981I>g UC9.GJIg

U.G9BC U819>8 U8198. U819I> U.G9JI

UC981DGg UC981D.g UC981JGg UC981JCg UC9818Bg UC981G1g UC981.1g

U819DG U819D. U819JG U819JC U8198B U819G1 U819.1g J6K7 5-L-2

J6- 2729' Resu"t:

09 S9 # of laminate 3Tiger:DDg4 J 6- 2729

!etermination o& A%id Inso"u8"e As#

EHuipmentB #uffle furnace Rea'entB >( hydrochloric acid9 Pro%edureB
The ash $ept in the silica or platinum dish 1 crucible is treated "ith .>ml of >( hydrochloric acid; covered "ith a "atch glass and heated on a "ater bath for 1C min9 it is cooled and the contents are filtered through a "hat #ann (o9 D. filter paper9 The filter paper is "ith "ater until the "ashings are free from acid9 The filter paper "ith the residue is returned to the dis$9 It is $ept in an electric oven at 18>H .oC for 8 hours9 It is then transferred to the muffle furnace and ignited at >>CH .Co C for 8 hours9 The dish is ta$en out and cooled in a desiccators and the "eight is recorded9

cid insoluble U 1CC3W.:W4 T 1CC cid ? 3d9b9 ash4 3W1:W4 T 31CC:#4 Where; W. U Weight in g of the dish "ith ll ash W1 U Weight in g of the dish "ith material ta$en for the test9

W U "eight in g of empty dish # U #oisture ? of the sample9

Weight of silica dish:.I9IBJDgm Weight of silica dish "ith sample:8.9IBJDgm Weight of sample:Dgm ? of sh:C9C8J