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METHOD OF SOWING- a case study

M.P. Verma,. J. P. Singh

Now days the agriculture is suffering from the scarcity of agricultural labors, increasing
cost of fuel, shrinking of water resources, lack of market and fruitful selling price of agricultural
produce. There are to many problems in sustainable agriculture and development of the agriculture
is not possible on overlook of the above problems. All problems of agriculture is not possible to
remove but towards the minimizing the problem, adoption of the technology may be a one way. In
case of adoption of the zero tillage technology is the one alternative method for the sowing of oil
seed and pulse crop. Use of this alternate method, the cost of field preparation may be reduce up to
Rs.3200.The only saving of the cost of field preparation is not main saving, its saves like as the
time saving, labour and seed rate saving up to 10-20%,advancement of seeding nearly 10-15 days,
control weed population per unit area 50-65 % in comparison of conventional tillage practice. The
main aim of reduced tillage is not only the reduction of only the production costs, it also help full
to increase the per unit production and it varies from increases up to 10-25%. The said technology
is not help full only in the above, it also able to increase the crop sown area also.
Key-wards:-Zero Tillage ZT, Conventional Tillage CT, Resource conservation Technology RCT

The tillage has direct relation to crop production the seeding or sowing in not

possible without tillage practice. The tillage operation was the status symbol in seeding and

this was the general thinking that; the more number of plowing is cause of high yield in

case of wheat and vice-versa. less number of plowing low yield. However in modern

technology the researcher’s emphasizing that; the minimum disturbance of soil in cage of

seeding. According to minimum soil disturbance concept, the zero tillage technology

introduced between farmers. The recent past few gears due to globalization, it is necessary

to put low cast of agricultural produce. India is the agriculture country and each country

has own agriculture policy. But the India’s in agricultural policy is against to case of lack

of human labor. Due to increase of input cast of produce and low selling price, the zero

tillage technology is adaptable. The zero tillage technology is very valuable and wildly

accepted easy technology. The use of zero tillage saves the fuel, time of sowing, seeds,

water, fertilizer and manpower. The productivity of wheat varying range from 2to 5q/ha In

addition to the saving of fuel consumption is 26.5 to 43.75 lit/ha, however; in case of
Dr. M. P Verma, Dr. J.P. Singh, Scientist, KVK, Belipar, Gorakhpur, UP 273 011

Mailing Add.: C/o Sri Rajrsh Gupta, Infront of DIG Banglow,Kasya Road Gorakhpur

pulses the productivity is not more than 60% and there is very wide scope to increase the

productivity up to 90-100 %. It reduces the seed rate up to 33% and 10-40% irrigation

water requirement over conventional practices (Second workshop on NATP-RCT at

NDUA&T June 5-7-2002), the yield increases in zero tillage condition in comparison of

conventional tillage up to 3-5 q/ha (Chaudhry, Singh. Buchhan, 1998 GBPUA&T)

Pantnagar. The zero tillage machine is seed cum- ferity drill machine, which must operates

in unplowed field condition the Machine contain a inverted T type furrow opener which

opens silts in the field. The seed and fertilizer are placed in the corresponding boxes and

dropped out in the silt automatically. The width of silt not should be more than 4 cm. The

depth of silt may be control by hydraulic mechanism of tractor and with the ground wheel



The Gorakhpur district comprise Sadar, Bansgaon Chauri-chaura, Gola, Sahijanwa and

Khajni tehsil, present complex variety of land scape and falls under plane eastern

agroclimatic zone, lis between 25’5o and 26'2o north and the longitude of 83'25o and 84'20o

east. It is bounded by Mahrajganj in the north, in east Kushinagar and Devaria however, in

west by Santkabirnagar. The Gaghra River divided the boundary of Mou, Azamgarh and

Aumbedker Nagar districts.


The zero tillage seed cum ferti drill machine was used for the purpose of field

demonstration at farmer field condition

. Field Condition
The experimental plots were hand and combine harvested rice fields were selected. The

stubble height varies from 4 to 30 cm respectively and the field moisture was 18 to 25%.

The fields nearly weed free (3-4 weed/m2).

Calibration and adjustment of machine

Calibration is a technique or method under which the machine tested for the desired

seed and fertilizer rate dropped in the sowing area. The machine was calibrated or adjusted

for the desired seed and fertilizer rats. After adjusting the above, the depth of machine

depth was adjusted by lowering or raising the supporting wheel. The depth of machine was

adjusted at 5-7 cm deep.

Data collection
The experiments of demonstration of zero tillage were conducted on the 32and 109

farmer’s field in the year of 2001-04 are given in Tables 1.

The several parameters were considered as constant like: nutrient applied irrigation, care

maintenance, herbicides etc.

Table: 1 Area sown under Resource Conservation Technology by Gram, lentil, and
mustered in Rabi season 2001-04 in Gorakhpur district
year 2001-2004
Name of Block Area Sown (ha) Variety Seed Rate kg/ha
farmer ZT CT ZT CT
B P Singh Piprauli 2.0 0.001 Avrodhi 80 90
Gulab Singh Belipar 0.5 0.001 ND-1 50 60
R S Singh do 0.1 0.001 ND-8501 4.25 5

Table: 2 Weeds per unit area in zero and conventional tillage practices in oil seed and
pulses crops
Variety Weeds
Pree No
Immergence Treatment
Avrodhi 24 38 74
ND-1 18 40 69
ND-8501 22 36 73

pod. siliqua,

Table: Average yield of the oilseed and pulses crops sown in different plots in Gorakhpur
Variety Year-2001 Year-2002 Year-2003 Year-2004 Average
Yield qt/ha Yield qt/ha Yield qt/ha Yield qt/ha Yield qt/ha
Avrodhi 20. 17.7 20.6 17.5 20.4 17.5 20.2 17.8 20.3 17.63
0 0
ND-1 17. 13.1 17.0 13.2 17.2 13.0 17.0 13.2 17.1 13.13
ND-8501 22. 17.4 22.5 17.3 22.6 17.4 22.8 17.0 22.1 17.03
7 0


To create the awareness of zero tillage technology, the demonstrations were conducted at
the farmer fields. at the farmer label. The demonstrations were conducted in supervision of
by the Re-KVK Gorakhpur as a experiment plot.
Field preparation and irrigation cost saving

The zero tillage technology saves 100% field preparation cost for the sowing of

Gram, lentil and mustered, because of under zero tillage operation the field preparation is

not essential. According to principal of zero tillage, its open a slit, the fertilizer and seeds

dropped in to the slit. In case of field preparation for the sowing of oil seed and pulses it

not requires much field operation. But according to agronomical recommendation two

harrow, two cultivators and three pata’s essential for the average field preparation. The

average field preparation cost nearly Rs.4500 to 5000 /ha however; in case of zero tillage

condition only the sowing cost becomes Rs. 2500/ha. The less irrigation water required in

zero tillage field comparatively conventional tillage system and it is 1.5 times higher than

zero tillage. The irrigation cost in zero tillage system is Rs. 2400/ha and in conventional
system Rs. 3600 /ha. It is evident from the field preparation and irrigation data the per

hectare saving in zero tillage system is nearly Rs. 3200.

Seeding advancement

The flood porn area requires more time to field free from the water. This process

takes time and seeding extended forward and sowing becomes late. In this condition zero

tillage is more advantageous for the purpose of seeding. In these areas the seeding started

from last week of November or first week of December. But by the use of zero tillage

technology the seeding stated second week of the month of November. Due to

advancement of seeding, the area of pulse crop may increases of the ravi season. The flood

porn area may be one of the main reason for contracting area of oil seed and pulse crop.

The cropping management in low-lying area may possible by zero tillage technology. The

low-lying areas are more fertile in comparison of plain area, so there per unit productivity

is higher than the plain areas. The seasonal forming in such areas may be increase the

production and area covered in case of contracting area of oil seed and pulse crops.

Seed Saving

The cost of oil seed and pulses seed quietly high, so in this case the saving of seed

having a significant role in reducing the cost of cultivation of oil seed and pulses. It is

clear from the Table 1, the less seed rate required by seeding the Zero tillage machine or

seeding by the seed drill, however; in broadcasting method needed 10-25% more seed. The

Zero tillage machines sow the seeds in line with the fertilizer. The line-sown crop gets

proper spacing and fertilizer in comparison of conventional system. The cause of more

yield in case of zero tillage method, is may be due to the drop of seeds in soil with the

fertilizer and spacing between the row to row and plant to plant. The farmers use various

seed rates, it is due to lack of knowledge and lack of technology. The application of higher

quantity of seed rate is not the cause of high yield. According to former practices, the

formers use the seed rate in seeding 90-100 kg/ha in conventional method however; in case

of zero tillage only 80 kg /ha is required. The use of excess seed rate is national loss, it can

be prevented by the removal of technological gap.

Effect on weed

The weed problem is on of the major problem towards the reducing the yield in

crop production. The different types of weeds like; Krishneel, Bathua(chilnodium album),

Ankari, Bunpizai, Snji, Duddhi, phalaris minor and bunner gulla grows in ravi season. The

controlling of such types of weeds population is a difficult task, however; the various types

of weedisides are available in the market. But the available weedisides are conditional and

are not practically fully effective. As evident from the table (2), after use of pre-

immergence weed control treatment the germination of the weeds are not fully checked

and it was nearly 50% of the weed population of zero tillage condition. However; in case

of conventional system without any weed control treatment, the population of weeds were

found to be the three times of the zero tillage condition. According to collected data the

weed population were too high in conventionally sown areas. It may be due to the field

preparation, the farmers operate many cross plowing during the field preparation. So the

seed of weeds gets expose and therefore their density increases due to more germination.

But in case of zero tillage the minimum area should be open only for sowing of the seeds,

in this condition only those seeds geminate, which were exposed. If this repetition should

be followed on a specific field, the weed controlling is possible.

As evident from the yield graph the basic differences of yield between conventional

and Zero tillage method varies from 2 to 5 q/ha. The graph presents a significant variation

in yield. The figure no.1 presents variations in yield between ZT and CT method.

Mustered ZT
Mustered ZT

Mustered ZT
Mustered ZT

Gram ZT

Gram ZT

Gram ZT
Gram ZT

Mustered CT

Mustered CT
Mustered CT

Mustered CT
Gram CT
Gram CT

Gram CT

Gram CT
Lentil ZT

Lentil ZT
Lentil ZT

Lentil ZT

Lentil CT

Lentil CT
Lentil CT

Lentil CT
Yield q/ha


Crop year 2001 Crop year 2002 Crop year 2003 Crop year 2004
FIG. 2 Yield in ZT and CT method for the year 2002-03

Yield in ZT and CT condition:

It is evident from the visual observations the branching in plants of gram, mustered

and lentil were more in ZT field condition and were less in CT condition. The branching

played an important role in yield. If number of effective branching is more, then definitely

the yield will be more, and if the number of branching is less then the number of pod per

plant will be less incase of gram and lentil. However; in case of mustered crop the yield,

the yield also depends on the primary and secondary branching. Because of the siliqua gets

in the branch and if the more number of siliqua in a branch the yield should be more. In

case of mustered crop, the ZT sown crop has the more number of secondary branches were

found to be more in comparison of conventionally sown mustered crop. The more number

of branching and more number of pod and siliqua is may be the reason of the high yield.

It is evident from the Fig. 1, the yield difference in by the different crop sowing methods

like, ZT and CT easily identified and its varies from 2-5 qts per hectare. in case of oil seed

and pulses yield in difference in The graph and tables the yield in ZT condition is more

up to 2-5 q/ha. According to


The study was conducted on the former field to reducing the cost of cultivation and

to increase the per unit production with the performances of the line sowing technology

incase of oil seed and pulses by the application of zero tillage seed cum ferti-drill machine.

The adopted method not only promotes to save the input cost in the wheat-cropping

pattern. From the above results, it is also useful in case of sowing of the oil seed and pulses

crops.Under adoption of zero tillage technology, the field prepration is not required and

this machine sow the seed in single action and save the total cost of field preparation

Rs.3200 per/ha. As the nature of oilseed and pulse crop, these crops needed less number of

irrigation so the saving of water has no mean but the zero tillage method helps to provide

the minimum water requirement. As per observation 50-65 per cent less number of weeds

grow in ZT method sown crop field in comparison of the crop sown by conventional

method. As the nature of zero tillage machine the seed sown above the fertilizer in same

row, due to this reason the growing plants become healthy and their mortality becomes

minimum and per plant gets more yield. According to the observations there is no risk in

adoption of zero tillage technology. This technology saves the cost of field preparation

like; diesel and engine oil, water, time and manpower etc. The advancement of seeding is

one of the important contribution which is able to increase the production area and also

increase the 2-5 qt per hectare production.


Chaudhary V.P. and Bachhan Singh 1998. Zero tillage technology and its response,
M.Tech Thesis. GBPUA&T Pantnagar
National workshop on NATP- Resource conservation Technology 2oo2, NDUA&T
Kumarganj faizabad
Annual report 2001-02, 2002-03 progress of zero tillage performance, Zonal agriculture
research station Gorakhpur.
Mehta, R S, J,K, Verma, R.K.Gupta and P.R. Hobbs 2000.Stagnation in productivity of
wheat in the Indo Gangetic plains; zero-till-seed-cum-fertilizer drill as an
integrated solution. Rice wheat consortium paper series no.8; 12p.