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A Study on The Brand Personality Dimension

SUBMITTED BY Ajay Pratap Verma (1 !!"# $a%i &ant $anjan Vineet Sin(h (1 !"'# (1 !) #

U*DE$ T+E ESTEEMED ,UIDA*-E ./ Pro01 S1 Sai2a2a Desi(nation3 Asst1 Pro0essor

SIVA SIVA*I I*STITUTE ./ MA*A,EME*T SE-U*DE$ABAD (4!!5611#

-ontents
-hapter 11Introdu7tion 1.1 Scope of the Study 1.2 Objectives of study 1.3 Practical implications 1.4Selection of brands 1.5 company profile 1.6 rief !nalysis of "ndustry 1.# rief definition of "ndustry $rends in the "ndustry %ar&et !nalysis 1.' rief (istory of )ompany (istory of !didas !didas Operations in "ndia (istory of *i&e *i&e Operations in "ndia !didas Product Portfolio *i&e Product Portfolio (istory of the rands rand (istory !didas rand (istory of *i&e "ndian +oot,ear "ndustry -ar et,een *i&e !nd !didas !didas )ompetitors *i&e )ompetitors S-O$ !nalysis of *i&e and !didas -hapter 41 $e%ie8 o0 literature 2.1 rand e.uity rand ima/e $he creation of brand personality )onsumer0brand relationships $ypes of relationships Perspectives on brand personality 2.2 %easurin/ brand personality 2.3 1ole of advertisin/ in creatin/ rand Personality
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-hapter "1 -on7eptual Study 3.1 rand personality -hapter 91 $esear7h Methodolo(y 4.11esearch 2esi/n 4.2 %ethods of data collection Primary 2ata Secondary 2ata 4.3 3imitations of study -hapter6)1 Data Analysis 5.1 2emo/raphical !nalysis 5.2%arital Status ,ise !nalysis of Sample 5.3!/e ,ise !nalysis of Sample 5.4Occupation ,ise !nalysis of Sample 5.4)omparative !nalysis of rand4s )haracteristic Sincerity 56citement )ompetent Sophistication 1u//edness )ross tabulation analysis7 1espondents perception about rand personality attributes of *i&e and !didas -hapter6: 6.1 1esults 6.2)onclusion7 6.3 8uestionnaire 1eferences

-hapter61
11! Introdu7tion3 $his study has investi/ated the relationship bet,een brand personality and consumer perception about brand. $he conceptual model is based on the hypothesis that brand personality may nurture specific consumer0brand relationships and that these relationships may influence the .uality of the ties that consumers develop ,ith brands. !n instrument from intimate interpersonal relationships ,as used to measure consumer0brand relationships. !n analysis conducted on a sample of 199 consumer0brand relationships: involvin/ t,o hi/hly &no,n brands of different product cate/ories: /ave support to the theory. $he research offers t,o si/nificant contributions by7 1; 5mphasi<in/ the role of consumer0brand relationship in understandin/ multi0brand: symbolic consumption and 2; Offerin/ a holistic perspective in the understandin/ of brand personality. 111S7ope o0 the Study3 -ith the advent of customer oriented mar&etin/: there is increasin/ emphasis on the consumer behaviour. $he need of the present study is to conceptuali<e and empirically investi/ate the impact of brand personality on some of the &ey variables in consumer behaviour. rand differentiation is no, becomin/ an important tactic for combatin/ competition in the hostile mar&etplace. ! viable solution for establishin/ the distinctiveness of a brand is throu/h brand personality. !ttachin/ personalities to brands contributes to a differentiatin/ brand identity: ,hich can ma&e brands more desirable to the consumer. $he present study is proposed to conduct in (yderabad. "t aims to e6plore the interrelationships amon/ brand trust: brand affect: and brand loyalty ,ith an emphasis on the predictive role played by the construct of brand personality. 114 .2je7ti%es o0 study3 $o measure rand Personality of *i&e and !didas
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$o study the personal: demo/raphic: and rational profile of *i&e and !didas4s product users

11" Pra7ti7al impli7ations7 $he findin/s ,ill help *i&e and !didas in formulatin/ effective product desi/n: positionin/: and promotion strate/ies. 119 Sele7tion o0 2rands3 Since the focus of the study is on brand personality: ,e included brands that ,ere dominant in the mar&et: &no,n to consumers: and that has a distinct ima/e in the mar&et. -e did not include brands that intuitively appear to be obscure or bland in terms of personality. Since personality perceptions may vary by product and by brand: ,e chosen to include close competitors in order to compare the differences in personality. -ith these factors in consideration: one pair of brands from the +%)= sector and another pair of brands from the foot,ear cate/ory ,ere selected for study. Specifically; *i<e and Adidas represent the foot,ear se/ment. 11) -ompany Pro0ile at a ,lan7e3 -ompany *ame Adidas *i<e

$ype

Public

Public

"ndustry

)lothin/ and consumer /oods manufacture

Sports,ear > Sports e.uipment

+ounded

1?24

1?64

+ounders

!dolf 2assler

-illiam @. A ill o,erman: Philip (. Bni/ht

(ead.uaters

(er<o/enaurauch: =ermany

-ashin/ton )ounty: CS

!rea Served

-orld,ide

-orld,ide

Bey People

(erbert (anier D)5O;: 5rich Stammin/er: "/or 3andau

ob %c2onald

Products

+oot,ear: Sports,ear: Sports e.uipment: $oiletries etc.

!thletic shoes: !pparel: Sports e.uipment: !ccessories

3o/o

*et "ncome D299?;

CSE 19.3' illion

CSE 1?.2 illion

5mployees

3?:699 39:299

-ebsite

adidas0/roup.com

ni&e.com

11: Brie0 Analysis o0 Industry3 Sport is an inte/ral part of modern contemporary society. Sport has al,ays been associated ,ith discipline: dedication and perfection and hence sportsmen have al,ays been respected: across borders: reli/ions and races. Sportsmen: professional or amateur: need .uality /ear: specific to their /ame: to be able to compete better. "t is this mar&et that the t,o con/lomerates: the subjects of our study: cater to. oth these companies started off as foot,ear ma&ers for the modern athlete: their innovative desi/ns and technolo/y creatin/ ,aves. ut no, these firms have diversified. $hey compete on the broader platform of foot,ear: apparel: accessories and e.uipment. $oday they are amon/ the ,orld s top corporations: ,ith a ,orld,ide presence. Our study ,ill concent rate on the primary product these t,o firms ma&e !thletic +oot,ear.
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-e ,ill compare their rand personality ima/e amon/ consumers. 11' Brie0 de0inition o0 Industry3 Trends in the Industry3 $he latest picture of the industry has not been as rosy as it has been earlier. !t this sta/e: ,ith the bi/ four: *i&e: !didas: 1eebo& and Puma and the others such as )onverse and *e, alance: the industry is e6periencin/ hyper competition. $he reasons for this bein/ that the demand for the products has been decreasin/ and at the same time: there has been an increase in the popularity of alternate foot,ear. $his inadvertently has resulted in decreasin/ mar/ins and the .uest for ne, mar&ets and innovation to /et the profits up a/ain. $he ,orries seem to have ended: at least momentarily ,ith the emer/ence of )hina: $ur&ey: ra<il and 1ussia as hu/e untapped mar&ets for their products. Of these: )hina is the bi//est bet for the bi/ /uns. -hyF )hina4s hu/e middle class is risin/ and the country4s ever increasin/ ,ealth serve as a classic in/redient for mar&et i/nition. oth *i&e and !didas reali<ed this early and invested heavily in advertisin/ durin/ the299' eijin/ Olympics. !didas partnered the /ames and *i&e: as al,ays focused on individual player and team endorsements. $he )hinese mar&er sa, hu/e residual sales after the Olympics. *i&e: for e6ample: sa, its sales increase 59 pc in )hina in299' on a currency neutral basis and a/ain a 59 pc increase in sales in 81299?. $ur&ey and 1ussia: similarly: had a25 pc increase in sales in299' and another39 pc in 81 299?. ra<il alone had a 39 pc increase in 81 299?. $he openin/ up of these mar&ets has provided respite to the industry and they are ma&in/ /ood us e of it. !lready most of these firms use South !sia as their manufacturin/ base: to ma&e use of the cheaper labor: in particular. *o, they have a /reater incentive to move to South !sia as their mar&et seems to be shiftin/ here too.

MA$&ET A*A=YSIS3 "ndia has a lar/e mar&et for foot,ear and the brand loyalty is also /ro,in/. "ndia is ran&ed the 4th lar/est economy by =2P Din purchasin/ po,er parity term; and is e6pected to ran& 3rd durin/ 2919: just bein/ behind CS! > )hina in foot,ear industry both production and consumption. "ndia4s =2P for foot,ear /re, at the rate of?.4G for the year 299' 0299? the country4s =2P stood at 1s 54 la&h crore: translatin/ into a per capita income of 1s 4':459: thus resultin/ in a compounded annual per capita income /ro,th rate of?.25 per cent durin/ 1?510299?. "f ,e analy<e the consumption pattern of #9 different economies and se/ment them into lo,0income: middle0income and hi/h0income brac&ets: ,e ,ill observe that consumer spendin/ on food: bevera/es and clothin/ > foot,ear account for 4# per cent:34 per cent and22 per cent of their total consumer e6penditures: respectively
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"ndia is standin/ on the threshold of a retail revolution and ,itnessin/ fast chan/in/ retail landscape: ,ith foot,ear mar&et is set to e6perience phenomenal /ro,th. "ndia is the major source for supplyin/ medium and lo, priced foot,ear and most of the manufacturers: ,ho have outsourced their production to )hina: are plannin/ to outsource it to "ndia. Some of the foot,ear industry ,ho has turned to "ndia are !didas: *i&e and Puma.

11 Brie0 +istory o0 -ompany +istory o0 Adidas !didas ,as formally re/istered on 1' !u/ust 1?4? as !didas !=: by !dolf !di 2assler: ,hose name formed the company4s title. !dolf 2assler ,as born in avaria and started ma&in/ sports shoes in his mother4s &itchen after he returned from -orld -ar 1. (e ,as joined in 1?24 by his brother 1udolf 2assler and usin/ their mother4s laundry as their manufacturin/ base: they be/an operations. +amously: durin/ the 1?36 Olympics: !di 2assler drove to %unich and persuaded Olympic /old medal list @esse O,ens to ,ear his shoes ,hich established his reputation amon/ the sportin/ ,orld and /ave him lots of contracts and financial success. !fter the Second -orld -ar: thou/h: the brothers split up and 1udolf 2assler ,ent on to form his o,n company: ,hich later became Puma. !fter the death of (orst 2assler: !dolf4s son: the company ,ent throu/h some troubled times. "t ,as then bou/ht by +rench industrialist ernard $apie and subse.uently by 1obert 3ouis02reyfus. "n2991 (erbert (ainer too& over as )5O of !didas and has been leadin/ the con/lomerate ever since. ! lon/ line of innovative products and successes later: !didas is one of the ,orld4s lar/est corporate: ,ith a product line to envy and ,orth millions of dollars. $he trademar& three stripes and the slo/an H"mpossible is *othin/4 are !didas4 identity: an ima/e it spends a fortune to uphold. "n2995 !didas ac.uired ritish /iant 1eebo& to further stren/then its mar&et and customer base.

Adidas .perations in India3 $hou/h !didas entered into a license a/reement ,ith ata in 1?'?: it formally be/an operations only in 1??6 ,ith the establishment nt of !didas "ndia %ar&etin/ Private 3imited. "n 1??' !didas pulled a masterstro&e: they roped in Sachin $endul&ar as their brand ambassador ,hich proved a sound business decision. "n 1???: &eepin/ in mind the price conscious "ndian consumer: !didas launched its cheapest ever shoes in "ndia. "n2994: !didas "ndia launched the advanta/e !ddidas campai/n: ,hich increased sales by39G. "n 2995: !ndreas =ellner too& over as %ana/in/ 2irector for !didas "ndia. !didas sees "ndia as a hu/e /ro,th mar&et and accordin/ to =ellner: !didas ,ill invest hu/e sums to ta&e on its competitors here. +istory o0 *i<e3
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ill o,erman and Philip Bni/ht started the company ,e &no, today as *i&e in 1?62. "t ,as ori/inally &no,n as lue 1ibbon Sports. o,erman ,as Bni/ht4s trac& and field coach at the Cniversity of Ore/on. Philip Bni/ht ,ent on to study at Stanford ,here he published a paper on endin/ the =erman domination in the athletic foot,ear industry. (e travelled to @apan and entered into an a/reement ,ith the Onitsu&a $i/er )ompany and became their sole distributor in the CS. o,erman and Bni/ht received their first shipment of299 shoes and sold them at local meets to ma&e a /ood profit. o,erman: ,ho had earlier desi/ned shoes for his athletes: joined hands ,ith $i/er to ma&e the famous $i/er )orte< shoes: ,hich became ,orld,ide bestsellers and launched the business. "n 1?#1: Bni/ht and o,erman be/an to ma&e their o,n shoes under the brand name of *i&e: named after the =ree& /oddess of victory and bearin/ the *i&e s,oosh: ,hich is one of the companys bi//est stren/ths today. "n 1?#2: lue 1ibbon Sports parted ,ays ,ith Onitsu&a $i/er and became *i&e "nc. $oday *i&e is the ,orld leader in athletic foot,ear: ,ith mar&et shares e6ceedin/ the other major players by si/nificant mar/ins. $he S,oosh and @ust 2o "t slo/an are hu/e brand identities. *i&e is a truly /lobal player and seen as a model for innovation driven /ro,th. *i<e .perations in India3 *i&e has been present in "ndia for over a decade throu/h its seven year license a/reement ,ith Sierra enterprises: ,hich didn4t help much in the bi//er scheme of thin/s as 1eebo& and !didas came to the country ,ith fully o,ned subsidiaries. $his e6plains ,hy the /lobal mar&et leader is still la//in/ behind in "ndia. "n2994: instead of rene,in/ its franchise: it became a subsidiary and started operatin/ ,ith more freedom and capital. $he result ,as that the mar&et share rose and *i&e became a force to contend ,ith in the "ndian mar&et. Probably the bi//est si/n of the chan/e in /uard ,as the heavy investment in )ric&et by *i&e: culminatin/ in its ba//in/ of the "ndian cric&et team4s jersey ri/hts: ,orth 1s299 )rores. *i&e then launched its special ran/e of cric&et shoes and sponsored the "ndian football team as ,ell. $hou/h *i&e has entered the mar&et in earnest very late: the ,orld no.1 ,ill stop at nothin/ to /ain lost momentum in the "ndian subcontinent.

/la(ship Produ7ts; Major Produ7t =ines and $e7ent /orays Adidas Produ7t Port0olio3 !didas manufactures runnin/ shoes under its adiStar and Supernova brands: ,hich include the adistar 1ide: the adiStar )ontrol 5: the Supernova Se.uence and the Supernova =lide. $he famous )opa %undial football boot is !didass premier football boot: ,hich later developed into the Predator ran/e. +or bas&etball: !didas is most famous for its Superstar and Pro %odel shoes. eside these !didas ma&es jerseys for national and domestic cric&et: football: ru/by: and tennis and lacrosse players ,ith a separate line for /ymnasts. !didas has recently entered the sports lifestyle mar&et: follo,in/ on the heels of Puma and 1eebo& and has launched ,atches: eye,ear and most recently: deodorants: aftershaves: perfumes and lotions.

-opal Mundial

*i<e Produ7t Port0olio3 *i&e4s first products ,ere trac& runnin/ shoes ,hich came under the name *i&e !ir %a6: follo,ed recently by the *i&e 6.9: *i&e *y6 and the *i&e S s&ateboardin/ shoes. 1ecently: *i&e launched special cric&et shoes for bo,lers and batsmen called the *i&e !ir Ioom Jor&er and the !ir Ioom Opener. ut its bestsellin/ line still remains the le/endary !ir @ordan bas&etball shoes: named after %ichael @ordan. !ir @ordan still contributes more than 39G of *i&e4s shoe sales. 3i&e !didas: *i&e too entered the sports apparel and e.uipment mar&et and ma&es jerseys and specialist apparel for various sports. 1ecently *i&e teamed up ,ith !pple to launch the *i&eK ran/e: ,hich can monitor a runner4s performance throu/h a radio device lin&ed to !pple4s ipod.
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ut *i&e4s most recent product is the one ma&in/ ,aves across the sports ,orld. )alled the 3unar =lide: *i&e is usin/ +ly,ire D! thread developed by *i&e: composed of Lectran: a li.uid crystal polymer; and 3unarlite +oam to ma&e the ,orld4s li/htest shoes. !dvertised usin/ the slo/an A!ctually: it is 1oc&et ScienceM: it reiterates *i&e4s commitment to technolo/y.

Solle -olle7tor

+istory o0 the Brands3 Brand +istory Adidas3 $he company4s clothin/ and shoe lo/o bear the trademar& three stripes: ,hich is the company4s corporate lo/o. !didas also has a trefoil si/n that it uses only on herita/e products since 1?#2. $he three stripes lo/o represents performance and the future of the !didas randin/ identity. "t has become synonymous ,ith !didas and its dedication to producin/ hi/h .uality athletic product s to ma&e athletes perform better. -hen !didas entered the mar&etplace some 59 years a/o: its focus ,as to produce shoes crafted specifically for soccer and runnin/. $he ne, millennium has since brou/ht about an !didas renaissanceN the brand has steadily re/ained mar&et share over the past five years to become the ,orldOs number t,o athletic shoe company Dbehind *i&e;. (o, did it /o about repositionin/ to once a/ain be amon/ the coolest of &ic&sF
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!didas claims that: Pthe brand values of the company4s authenticity: inspiration: honesty and commitment are derived from sport.P (istorically: this sensibility ,as demonstrated throu/h early and continued involvement ,ith Olympic athletes: as ,ell as active sponsorship of major /lobal sportin/ events li&e the -orld )up. !didas4s rapid /ro,th in !sia: ,here revenue rose by 15 percent to CSE'#'% last year: may be further propelled in @apan and Borea ,hen those t,o nations host the -orld )up this year s an event ,hich is e6pected to /arner2.5% spectators and o ne billion $L vie,ers ,orld,ide. (o,ever: the &ey to revitali<ed success seems to lie in the considerable endorsement deals !didas has developed ,ith ,orld class athletes. 1ecent sports fi/ures representin/ !didas don4t only score hi/h mar&s in their /ame s they also score hi/h in their celebrity .uotient. ritish football star 2avid ec&ham4s relationship ,ith !didas has no doubt lent itself ,ell to the brands visibility in the CB. 1ecently dubbed P)aptain of 5n/land:P ec&ham led his team to victory in the2999 +"+! -orld )up. -ith 5urope as !didas4s lar/est mar&et: e6posure li&e this reflects in the numbersN sales /re, seven percent to CSE2.# billion: last year. 1einvention ,as the &ey: not only for the !didass mar&etin/ strate/y: but also for its product line. 5clectic: individual: Ono0rulesO sports such as sno,boardin/: inline s&atin/ and surfin/ have /ro,n into si/nificant cate/ories. !ctivities such as /olf: hi&in/ and mountain bi&in/: ,hich ,ere seen as lifestyle and leisure activities: are no, part of mainstream sports. "ncreased product offerin/s in these cate/ories have undoubtedly contributed to a better score for the brand. $o &eep up ,ith the competition: !didas /enerates close to 69 ne, foot0friendly desi/ns

$o &eep up ,ith the competition: !didas /enerates close to 69 ne, foot0friendly desi/ns each year. $he !didas credo is to re/ard shoes as feet: resultin/ in a product ,ith superior fit and performance capabilities. $actics have been revised in /ettin/ these products out for consumption. !s a result: products have been repositioned in hi/her0end and sports specialty stores. "n2992 !didas foot,ear innovation: )lima)ool $%: made its debut. $he ne, technolo/y added breathable materials to the shoe. "n @uly: the =roup completed its three0divisional structure for its sore brand: !didas: and positioned its third division as !didas Sports Styles. "n2994 H"mpossible is nothin/4 became the central messa/e of a /lobal campai/n that !didas launched. "t refers to the shared attitude ,ith the athletes: of al,ays pushin/ yourself further: to beat the limits. "n September: !didas > desi/ner Stella %c)artney announced their partnership: introducin/ the !didas by Stella %c)artney collection. On @anuary2996: !didas announced the ac.uisition of 1eebo& 3$2. y combinin/ t,o of the most respected and ,ell0&no,n brands in the ,orld,ide sportin/ /oods industry: the ne, =roup ,ill benefit from a more competitive ,orld,ide platform: ,ell0defined and complementary brand identities: a ,ider ran/e of products: and a stron/er presence across teams: athletes: events and lea/ues. !didas continues to prove itself as a brand built to last throu/h a /ame plan of reinvention. -ith the recent ac.uisition of a lifetime partnership ,ith Orlando %a/icOs $racy %c=rady
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Dbas&etball; and its heavy involvement ,ith299 2 -orld )up: it continues to stri&e savvy deals that capitali<e on the star po,er of youn/ athletes and increase its visibility in the mar&etplace. "t appears that team !didas has honed its strate/y to become a revitali<ed contender in today4s competitive sportin/ /oods mar&et and is no, duly reco/ni<ed as the snea&er of yesterday and today Brand +istory o0 *i<e3 *i&e positions itself as the mar&et leader of sports foot,ear and uses the /reatest athletes and the record of their achievements in advertisin/. $he s,oosh lo/o ,as developed by )arolyn 2avidson in 1?#1. $o/ether ,ith the @ust 2o "t slo/an: the S,oosh lo/o perfectly e6presses the brand and its philosophy. "t e6presses a hi/h ambition and a ,ill for victory: ,hich is a part of *i&e4s brand ima/e and corporate culture. "t ,as only36 years a/o that ,e had a ,orld ,ithout *i&e: and in that period *i&e has /one from the brash ne,comer: to the number one mass0mar&et leader. $he *i&e story be/ins ,ith the meetin/ of its co0founders at the Cniversity of Ore/on. "t ,as here that middle0

2istance0runnin/ business student Phil Bni/ht fell under the tutela/e of the colle/e athletics coach: ill o,erman. *i&e ,ould /o on to /ro, out of the fusion of a,ermanOs sportin/ innovation and Bni/htOs mar&etin/ &no,0ho,. 5ven at a very early sta/e it seemed that Bni/ht had a far0reachin/ /oal: to brea& the lon/0 established brand nomination of the C.S. mar&eted by the then main player: !didas. "n order to achieve this aim: le/end has it that Bni/ht and o,erman each put in E559 to cement their partnership: and decided to call their ne, company lue 1ibbon Sports D 1S;. 1S ,as basically the !merican distributor of Onitsu&a trainin/ shoes. "n 1?65: after a period of sellin/ Onitsu&a shoes from the bac& of their van at athletic meets: the company /re,. $he company ,ent from stren/th to stren/th: but after heated disa/reements bet,een 1S and Onitsu&a: the ne, boss at 1S decided to split from $i/er in 1?#1 and create their o,n company manufacturin/ their o,n shoes. "t is said that @eff @ohnson came ,ith the idea for the ne, name: decidin/ to honour the =ree& /oddess of victory: and thus *i&e ,as born. "t ,as also at this that the fled/lin/ company had to decide on a lo/o for the brand: and another of the le/ends that the company mana/ed to create for itself ,as developed. *i&e too& off virtually instantly in the Cnited States: and ,ithin a year company sales ,ere at almost2 million pairs. "n 1?'1 *i&e decided to ta&e another major step: ,ith the C.B. becomin/ the companyOs first ,holly o,ned forei/n distributorship. (o,ever it ,as in 1?'5 that *i&e really became a major player. "t ,as in this year that it mana/ed to persuade the then little &no,n )hica/o ulls bas&etball roo&ie %ichael @ordan to endorse his o,n ran/e of shoes. 5ven *i&e could not have ima/ined the effect that this sin/le act ,ould have on sales. $he ne, @ordan endorsed ran/e transported *i&e and trainers in /eneral to a completely ne, lever of popularity "t ,as after the introduction of
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the @ordan shoes and mass0mar&etin/ that ,ent ,ith them that the Ptrainer ,arsP /ot under,ay. 5ach of the brands: desperate to stay one step ahead of the competition: came up ,ith a continuous stream of developments and inventions of technical ,i<ardry. +or a ,hile in the late 1?'9Os 1eebo& actually overtoo& *i&e to become the number one player Dat least in terms of sales;: but *i&e came bac& stron/ly ,ith its Ojust do itO slo/an in 1?'': and re/ained the top spot in terms of mar&et sales0 a position they retain to the present day. "n2996: *i&e entered the cric&et mar&et ,ith a 50year sponsorship of the "ndian cric&et team for CSE43m. *i&e and !pple released the *i&eKiPod sports &it: enablin/ runners to lo/ and monitor their runs via i$unes and the *i&eK ,ebsite. "n299': *i&e introduced shoes featurin/ ne, +ly,ire and 3unarlit e +oam materials. +ly,ire is a ne, technolo/y made up of thin ,ires of vectran fibers: ,hich are 5 times stron/er than steel and never lose stren/th. 3unar +oam is a material developed by *!S! that /ives the shoe e6cellent shoc& absorption and a /reat feel ,ith minimal ,ei/ht. ac& in 1?#1: the ne,ly created *i&e )ompany ,as ready to hit the mar&et ,ith its shoes: and a lo/o to represent the brand ,as ur/ently needed. Phil Bni/ht turned to an associate from his teachin/ life and commissioned /raphic0desi/n student )arolyn 2avison to ,or& ,ith his ne, brand. Bni/ht ,anted a desi/n that ,ould represent movement. 2avidson supplied Bni/ht ,ith a fe, desi/ns one of ,hich ,as the initial OS,ooshO so ,ell &no,n today. Bni/ht ,as not particular enamoured ,ith any of these desi/ns: but ,ith deadlines to meet the S,oosh ,as chosen 5ven thou/h 2avidson ,as initially paid only E35 for her desi/n: the story doesnOt end there. "n 1?'3: Bni/ht too& 2avidson out for lunch and presented her ,ith a diamond0encrusted *i&e rin/: and also an envelope. $he envelope contained *i&e Stoc&. *i&e has continuously pushed bac& the boundaries of trainer desi/n: stayin/ focused under Phil Bni/htOs /uidance: and is /oin/ to ta&e some dislod/in/. Indian /oot8ear Industry3 +OO$-5!1 "*2CS$1J7

$he +oot,ear "ndustry is a si/nificant se/ment of the 3eather "ndustry in "ndia. "ndia ran&s second amon/ the foot,ear producin/ countries ne6t to )hina. "ndia produces more of /ents foot,ear ,hile the ,orlds major production is in ladies foot,ear. $he industry is labour intensive and is concentrated in the small and cotta/e industry sectors. -hile leather shoes and uppers are concentrated in lar/e scale units: the sandals and chappals are produced in the household and cotta/e sector.

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$he major production centres "ndia are )hennai: 1anipet: !mbur in $amil *adu: %umbai in %aharastra: and Banpur in C.P. @alandhar in Punjab: !/ra and 2elhi. $he follo,in/ table indicates concentration of units in various parts of the country7

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>A$ BET>EE* *I&E A*D ADIDAS3 $he problem for !didas is that: ,hile itOs sta&ed out its turf as an official sports,ear partner: *i&e has more top athletes. $hey include S,iss tennis ace 1o/er +ederer and !ustralian trac& star )rai/ %ottram: alon/ ,ith old standby bas&etball le/ends Bobe ryant and 3e ron @ames. ut *i&es athletes aren4t /uaranteed to ,in /ames: there is al,ays a ris& element associated ,ith their performance. *i&e has si/ned up22 of )hinaOs2' s sports federations to outfit most of its athletes. $he deal is just one of 49 that *i&e si/ned ,ith various national federations: includin/ the C.S: =ermany and 1ussia: ensurin/ that team members ,ill be dec&ed out in *i&e /ear durin/ play re/ardless of ,here they have their individual endorsements. So for many of3:999 athletes in the !didas stable ,ho ,ill compete in eijin/: donnin/ the three stripes ,ill be limited to the medal stand. 2urin/ play: theyOll be in *i&e /ear. *i<e?s -ompetitors3 *"B5 is one of the most successful manufacturers of athletic foot,ear: competin/ ,ith 1eebo&: 3.!. =ear and !didas: as ,ell as ,ith manufacturers of casual foot,ear. *i&e is the ,orld4s *o.1 manufacturer and mar&eter of athletic foot,ear. *i&e stands for success: e6cellence: hi/h performance: fame etc. !didas 1eebo& -oodland 1ed tape ata 3iberty Puma

*i&e is the official &it sponsor for the "ndian cric&et team for 5 years. *i&e beat !didas and Puma by biddin/ hi/hest: CS E 43 million. Adidas -ompetitors3 $he chief competitors of adidas are PC%! and *i&e. "n !u/ust2995: the company announced that it had made a deal to ac.uire rival 1eebo& for E3.' billion. $he ac.uisition ,ould increase its mar&et share and to establish a stron/er foothold in the Sports "ndustry.
16

$his mer/er is indeed a success ,hich has achieved si/nificant sales /ro,th. %er/er of !didas > 1eebo& complement each other in competin/ ,ith their competitors: *i&eN and is more cost efficient and beneficiary to both brands ,ith 1eebo&s stron/ presence in CS mar&et and the /lobal reco/nition of !didas.

*i&e 1ed tape ata 3iberty Puma

*e8 2alan7e *e8 2alan7e o0 *i<e *i&e enjoys a 4#G mar&et share of the domestic foot,ear industry: ,ith sales of E3.## billion. *i&e has been manufacturin/ throu/hout the !sian re/ion for over t,enty0five years: and there are over 599:999 people today directly en/a/ed in the production of their products. $hey utili<e an outsourcin/ strate/y: usin/ only subcontractors throu/hout the /lobe. $heir majority of their output today is produced in factories in )hina: "ndonesia: and Lietnam: but they also have factories in "taly: the Philippines: $ai,an: and South Borea. $hese factories are 199G o,ned by subcontractors: ,ith the majority of their output consistin/ solely of *i&e products. Stren(ths o0 *i<e3 *i&e is a very competitive or/ani<ation *i&e has no factories. "t does not tie up cash in buildin/s and manufacturin/ ,or&ers. $his ma&es a very lean or/ani<ation *i&e is stron/ at research and development *i&e is a /lobal brand. "t is the number one sports brand in the -orld. Product 1an/e )apacity for innovation 2istribution e6pertise Sin/le rand Stars endorsement
17

)ontract manufacturin/ 3ar/e portfolio of products

>ea<nesses o0 *i<e3 $he or/ani<ation does have a diversified ran/e of sports products. (o,ever: the income of the business is still heavily dependent upon its share of the foot,ear mar&et. $he retail sector is very price sensitive. *i&e does have its o,n retailer in *i&e $o,n. Sin/le rand $oo many stars endorsement )ontract manufacturin/ Spread portfolio of products 1eliant on retailers 1eduction of tar/et mar&et

*e8 Balan7e o0 Adidas3 !didas is the main competitor for *i&e. !didas currently enjoyin/ the fastest /ro,th of any brand domestically: ,ith a mar&et share of 6G and revenues of E599 million. $hey have been shielded from bad publicity by the t,o =oliath4s of the industry: *i&e and 1eebo&: and are reapin/ the re,ards substantially. $hey have adjusted their manufacturin/ strate/y: from a vertical operation in =ermany in the 694s and #94s: to an outsourcin/ focus today throu/hout !sia. Cnli&e the bi/ t,o: they do not have a code of conduct: and their factories are considered to be the ,orst in the industry. "t is just a matter of time before they are e6posed: ,ith an under/round s,ellin/ of ne/ativity already occurrin/ today. "n order to avoid the ne/ative effects and lost revenues that *i&e and 1eebo& have received: they need to immediately be/in to ta&e a proactive stance in re/ards to the ,or&in/ conditions of their factories.

18

)11 S>.T Analysis6 Parameters Adidas *i<e

Stren(ths

Stron/ mana/ement team and *i&e is a /lobally reco/ni<ed /ood corporate strate/y for bein/ the number one sports,ear brand in the rand reco/nition and -orld. reputation $hey manufacture hi/h .uality at the lo,est possible 2iversity and variety in price: if prices rise due to products offered price hi&e then the Stron/ control over its o,n production process is made distribution channel cheaper by chan/in/ the place of production. "nnovative desi/ns in foot,ear enablin/ consumers to desi/n their o,n shoes online "t uses lunarlite foam and fly ,ire materials in order to ma&e the manufactured shoes li/hter and more

>ea<nesses

*e/ative ima/e portrayed by "n spite of havin/ diversified poor ,or&in/ conditions in ran/e of sports products: the its overseas factories income of the business is still heavily dependent upon its $he direct sale to consumers foot,ear mar&et. is creatin/ conflicts ,ith its o,n resellers Online customer service not )onstant focal point for PhelpfulP or easy to find ne/ative criticism by the anti0/lobali<ation /roups.

19

.pportunity

*e, technolo/y and innovation to stay on top of mar&et needs Possibility of outsourcin/ the ,eb development and e0 commerce to a third party developer

$here is opportunity to develop fashion products.

$here is also the opportunity to develop products such as sport ,ear: sun/lasses and je,ellery. Such hi/h value items do tend to have 50commerce ,ill reduce the associated ,ith them: hi/h cost of /oods sold thus profits. improvin/ the Pbottom lineP =lobal mar&etin/ strate/y for emer/in/ countries li&e "ndia )ollaborate ,ith other online and )hina. retailers to offer !didas products. Threats *e/ative ima/e Ps,eatshopsP to *i&e is e6posed to the international nature of trade. "t buys and sells in different 5conomic do,nturn in *orth currencies and so costs and !merica and !sian )ountries mar/ins are not stable over lon/ periods of time. "ncrease in the price of $he mar&et for sports shoes providin/ technolo/ical and /arments is very competitive. )ompetitors are solutions De0commerce; developin/ alternative brands )ontinuin/ challen/es in to ta&e a,ay *i&eOs mar&et share. importQe6port duties $he retail sector is becomin/ *i&eOs stron/ reputation in price competitive. $his the foot,ear and apparel ultimately means that consumer price sensitivity is industry a potential e6ternal threat to $hreats to free trade and *i&e. forei/n currency fluctuations due

20

-hapter64
41! $e%ie8 o0 literature3 411 Brand e@uity3 $he concept of brand e.uity appeared in the ei/hties and several definitions ,ere proposed D!a&er 1??1N 2yson et al. 1??6N Bapferer 1??5N Beller 1??3;. One of the first definitions of brand e.uity ,as /iven by the %ar&etin/ Science "nstitute D%S"; in 1?''7 Ha set of associations and behaviour of a brand4s consumers: of channels of distribution and the company of the brand: ,hich allo,s the branded product to achieve volume and profit mar/ins more important than ,ithout the brand4s name: and ,hich /ives them a sustained: stron/ and differentiated advanta/e re/ardin/ competitors4. eside purely financial approaches: studies on brand e.uity have follo,ed t,o different directions7 1. )onse.uences of brand e.uity7 revealed by the preferences DPar& and Srinivasan 1??4; or choice DBama&ura and 1ussel 1??3; of the consumer. Par& and Srinivasan D1??4; measure brand e.uity as the Hdifference for the consumer bet,een overall preference for the branded product and the preference due to objective features of the product4. 2. !ntecedents of brand e.uity7 a set of stron/: positive and uni.ue associations to the brand D!a&er 1??1N Beller 1??3;. Our study ,ill focus on the second approach. rand associations in the consumer4s mind form the perceptual dimension of brand e.uity D)han/eur 1??';: in opposition to the behavioural dimension. $he literature /enerally divides the perceptual dimension of brand e.uity into t,o components7 brand a,areness and brand ima/e D!a&er 1??1N !a&er and Beller 1??9N iel 1??2N Beller 1??3;. $he first component deals ,ith the presence of the brand in the mind of the consumer Dbrand reco/nition and recall;. rand a,areness or the attention accorded to the brand refers to the li&elihood that the brand4s name comes to mind for the consumer DBeller 1??3;. "t is composed of brand reco/nition Dability of the consumer to confirm a previous e6posure to the brand; and brand recall or memori<ation D,hich as&s the consumer to remember correctly brands and their attributes;. $he effects of ,ebsite e6posure on brand a,areness ,ill not be analysed in this paper. "nstead: ,e ,ill focus on the effects of e6posure on brand ima/e. Brand ima(e3 $his second component of brand e.uity is defined as Hperceptions about a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumer memory4 DBeller 1??3;. !a&er D1??1; defines ten dimensions of brand ima/e: namely product attributes: intan/ible features: consumer benefits: relative price: places: moments and forms of utili<ation: buyers and consumers: stars and characters attached to the brand: brand personality: product cate/ory and competitors. Beller D1??3; theori<es that the .uality of a brand4s ima/e depends on the favourable or unfavourable nature of that brand4s associations: their uni.ueness: their stren/th: their cohesion and their level of abstraction. $hese associations constitute in the consumer4s mind the value of the brand. Beller D1??3; classifies associations in three /roups7 brand attributes benefits and attitudes. rand attributes include at the same time intrinsic indicators Dfactors connected to the product; and e6trinsic indicators Dfactors not related to the product: such as advertisin/ investments: price: etc.;. enefits are also classified into three types7 functional: e6periential and symbolic benefits. Plummer D2999; considers that
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brand ima/e is composed of three dimensions7 product attributes: consumer benefits and brand personality. HProduct attributes such as Amiles per /allonM or Astron/ flavourM: and the consumer benefits such as Asaves moneyM or Adon4t have to ,ash hair so fre.uentlyM represent the means that can be used to achieve the desired ends4 R,hich are the personal valuesS D!a&er 1??17 145;. Plummer D2999; ar/ues that brand personality is a determinin/ element in the comprehension of consumer choice. +or Bapferer D1??5;: it is preferable to use the concept of brand identity instead of brand ima/e: because the second one is too Hvolatile and chan/eable7 it ,orries too much about the appearin/ and not enou/h about the bein/ of the brand4. (e represents brand identity by a prism of si6 sides7 physi.ue: culture: relation: reflection: state of mind and brand personality. H$he brand: ,hen it communicates: ac.uires a character. $he ,ay of spea&in/ about the products or services evo&es a certain type of character: ,hich it could incarnate if ,e ,ould compare a brand to a person.4 The 7reation o0 2rand personality3 rand personality traits are formed and influenced by any direct or indirect contact that the consumer has ,ith a brand. ! brand: unli&e a person: cannot thin&: feel or act. ! brand has no objective e6istence at allN it is simply a collection of perceptions in the mind of the consumer. )onsumers accept the mar&etin/ actions to humani<e brands. One e6planation for this can be found in the theories of animism: ,hich su//est that there e6ists need by people to anthropomorphi<e objects in order to facilitate interactions ,ith the nonmaterial ,orld D+ournier: 1??';. !nthropomorphi<ation occurs ,hen human .ualities are attributed to nonhuman objects: e./. brands. )onsumers easily assi/n personality .ualities to inanimate objects li&e brands in thin&in/ about brands as if they are human characters D lac&ston: 1??3N +ournier: 1??'N @. !a&er: 1??#;. "n a direct ,ay: personality traits are associated ,ith a brand by the people associated to that brand D@. !a&er: 1??#;. One direct ,ay to form and influence brand personality is user ima/ery. Cser ima/ery is defined as the set of human characteristics associated ,ith the typical or stereotype user of the brand. !ssociations ,ith the company4s employees or )5O: and the brand4s product endorsers are also direct ,ays by ,hich brand personality traits are formed and influenced. $he personality traits of the people associated ,ith a brand are transferred directly to the brand. $he theories of animism describe another process mechanism that directly e6plains the specific ,ays in ,hich the vitality of the brand can be reali<ed D+ournier: 1??';. Spo&espersons that are used in advertisin/ can have personalities that fit those of the brands they advertise. Over time: the personalities of the spo&espersons are transmitted to the brand. $he brand0person associations can also have a more personal nature. rands can be associated ,ith persons ,ho use or used that particular brand: for e6ample a close friend or a family member. !lso: brands received as /ifts can also be associated ,ith the person from ,hom the /ift ,as received. $hese person associations serve to animate the brand as a vital entity in the minds of the consumers. Obviously: this aspect is much less under the control of mar&eters. "ndirectly: the brand personality is created by all the elements of the mar&etin/ mi6. etra: 3ehmann and Sin/h D1??3; su//est that the personality of a brand is created over time: by the entire mar&etin/ mi6 of the brand T Aits price Dhi/h or lo,: odd or even;: retail store location Dima/ery associations;: product formulation Din/redients: benefits;: product form DsolidQli.uid: etc.;: pac&a/in/ details Dcolour: si<e: material: shape;: symbol used in all phases of the brand communication: sales promotion: and media advertisin/M. !nother form of
22

animism e6plains ho, brand personality is created in a more indirect ,ay. $his form of animism involves complete anthropomorphi<ation of the brand object itself. (uman .ualities of emotionality and thou/ht are transferred to the brand. $his is achieved ,ith the help of the mar&etin/ actions: especially advertisin/. +or e6ample: the brand character of %>% in the %>% commercials has the capacity to lau/h and jo&e. One of the advanta/es of brand a personality is that based on their distinctive personalities: consumers are able to differentiate bet,een brands. !nother advanta/e is that the consumer can interpret the brand4s ima/e in such a ,ay that it is personally more meanin/ful. rand personality encoura/es more active processin/ on the part of the consumer. $hus: the consumer puts more effort in creatin/ and usin/ the brand personality. ! further advanta/e of brand personality is that life is /iven to a brand. y vitali<in/ a brand: another perspective of brand personality can be e6amined: namely the role of a brand as a relationship partner in a consumer0brand relationship. *e6t ,e ,ill concentrate on these consumer0brand relationships. -onsumer62rand relationships3 $he theories of animism su//est that anthropomorphi<in/ objects facilitates interactions ,ith the nonmaterial ,orld. y assi/nin/ human .ualities to inanimate products: by /ivin/ brands personalities: the vitality of a brand is reali<ed. y vitali<in/ a brand another perspective of brand personality can be e6amined: namely the role of a brand as a relationship partner in consumer0brand relationships. ! consumer0brand relationship can be compared ,ith an interpersonal relationship: ,here the brand personality indicates the type of person the brand is. People have different motives to en/a/e in relationships. $he motivation behind the relationships is driven by the needs that individuals ,ant to satisfy. $he most used and ,ell0 &no,n classification of needs in %aslo,4s hierarchy of needs7 physiolo/ical needs: safety needs: social needs: esteem needs: and self0actuali<ation needs. +ournier D1??'; states that 12 relationships are Apurposive: involvin/ at their core the provision of meanin/ to the persons ,ho en/a/e themM. $hree important sources of meanin/ are identified that e6plain the si/nificance of the relationship for the person involvedN the functional meanin/s: the psycholo/icalQemotional: and the sociocultural meanin/s D+ournier: 1??';. )onsumer0 brand relationships provide a practical or functional meanin/ to the consumer D+ran<en > ou,man: 1???;. "n this case the brand is used for its functional benefits. +or e6ample: the functional benefit of the pasta brand arilla is to still the hun/er. Over time: usin/ the same brand can become a .uestion of habit and convenience. $he psycholo/icalQemotional meanin/s of a relationship are hi/hly related to the activity around the identity of a person. ecause the sense of Hself4 /ro,s of reactions of si/nificant others Dthe relationship partner;: people en/a/e in relationships to define the Hself4. )onsumers loo& for brand meanin/s that help to construct the Hself4. $his is most commonly done by brands representin/ ideal personalities: or alternative reflectin/ one4s o,n individual identity. +ollo,in/ the same line of reasonin/ ,e propose7 Proposition 1: In consumer-brand relationships, consumers search for brands that have personalities that are similar to their own, or personalities that represent the ideal personalities, in psychological/emotional terms People are constantly constructin/ and reconstructin/ their self0identity D%c)rac&en: 1??3;. "n a consumer0brand relationship the consumers choose brands that help the individual reconstruct the Hself4: ,here the brand personality is used to ma&e the identity chan/e. (ence: relationships also help the individual to chan/e the Hself4.
23

)onsumer0brand relationships also help the individual to maintain the self0identity. )onsumers ,ill en/a/e in relationships ,ith brands that have similar personalities to their o,n. ! lon/0term relationship ,ith that particular brand ma&es sure that the self0identity is maintained. )onsumer0brand relationships also provide a lin& to the past D+ournier: 1??';. ! consumer has a relationship ,ith a particular brand: for e6ample because the brand ,as a present received in the past: or because that brand brin/s up memories from childhood. !nother type of meanin/ that consumer0brand relationships provide is sociocultural of nature. $here are five broad sociocultural conte6ts that describe relationship attitudes and behavioursN a/eQcohort: life cycle: /ender: familyQsocial net,or&: and culture D+ournier: 1??';. (ere: the 13 brand personalities communicate these sociocultural conte6ts to the consumer. 1elated to the sociocultural meanin/s of the consumer0brand relationships ,e su//est. Proposition 2: Consumers engage in relationships with brands that represent their age, stage in life cycle, gender, social network, and culture. $hus: ,hile the psycholo/icalQ emotional need is to construct: reconstruct and maintain the self0identity: the sociocultural need is to communicate to others the self0identity. Types o0 relationships3 @ust li&e ,ith human relationships: consumer0brand relationships are based on attraction: but the ability of a relationship to endure is a function of investment and commitment by the consumer D+ajer > Schouten: 1??5;. $he level of investment and commitment in consumerbrand relationships is represented by the level of consumer brand loyalty. )onsumer0brand relationships can be ordered based on purchase behaviour and their interpersonal analo/s: the level of brand loyalty D+ajer > Schouten: 1??5;. !ccordin/ly: consumer0brand relationship can ran/e from lo,0order relationships: ,here the level of consumer brand loyalty is lo,: to hi/her0order relationships: ,here the level of consumer brand loyalty is hi/h. Proposition 3: More investment in consumer-brand relationships leads to greater loyalty. "nformation about the type of relationship Dbased on the level of brand loyalty; consumer have ,ith brands is e6tremely valuable for mar&eters. %ar&eters &no, the levels of brand loyalty of their tar/et mar&et: and by usin/ their mar&etin/ tools they can try to improve the level of brand loyalty for consumers that have lo,0order relationships ,ith brands. Perspe7ti%es on 2rand personality3 !a&er D1??#; defined brand personality as the set of human characteristics that consumers associate ,ith a brand. "n this manner: attention to the emotional and symbolic: pseudo human personality aspects of a brand provides a consumer ,ith additional reasons beyond utilitarian or functional characteristics: to connect ,ith a brand DBeller: 1??';. !a&er4s frame,or& represented an adaptation of the A i/ +iveM personality model: prominent in psycholo/ical research.
24

5vidence su//ests that brands do indeed possess personalities. )ritically: to the e6tent that brands develop uni.ue personalities: they can be differentiated in the consumers4 minds and accordin/ly choice preferences can be affected D+relin/ and +orbes: 2995N )ras& and 3as&ey: 1??9;.%c)rac&en D1?'6; even su//ested that consumers mi/ht search for brands ,ith a personality that coincides ,ith and reinforces the self0concept they ,ish to project: offerin/ additional considerations for the impact of the brand personality concept. $he conceptual lin&a/es relevant to brand personality include self0con/ruity theory DSir/y: 1?'2N =raeff: 1??6;. Self0con/ruity theory holds that consumers compare their self0concept ,ith the ima/e that a brand projects: and in turn: prefer brands that are consistent ,ith their self0concept. Studies have found support that consumers choose products and services that they feel possess personalities that are similar to Dcon/ruent ,ith; their o,n personalities D3inville and )arlston: 1??4N Phau and 3au: 2991;. )onsistent ,ith this line of reasonin/: consumers prefer brands that are similar to the consumer4s personality. !r/uments su//est that ,hen consumers use self0con/ruent brands: it can be an e6pression of their personal identity DBumar et al.: 2996;. "ndeed: as el& D1?''; has su//ested: products may be a means of self e6pression. !s such: brand personality helps to develop an emotional loyalty amon/ consumers. +relin/ and +orbes D2995; found support that brand personality positively affects product evaluations and purchase intentions. Since brand personality appears to be less imitable than other product attributes: the dimension of brand personality may yield a more sustainable competitive advanta/e. 414 Measurin( 2rand personality3 %ost studies have attempted to e6tend !a&er4s ori/inal ,or& by e6plorin/ ne, areas of mar&et application. $hese studies: ,ith fe, e6ceptions: have be/un ,ith !a&er4s brand personality frame,or& and scale and offered uni.ue variations that ,ere dra,n from a particular mar&et conte6t. +or e6ample: Smith et al. D2996; utili<ed !a&er4s frame,or& but found that it did not fully capture the characteristics of am membership0based sports or/ani<ation. )onse.uently: they added the dimension of AinnovationM to the ori/inal five dimensions su//ested by !a&er. %any uncertainties remain. Some researchers have su//ested that consumers4 interactions ,ith brands are simply too comple6 to be captured fully by !a&er4s frame ,or& DSmith et al.: 2996;. !<oulay and Bapferer D2993; have ar/ued that !a&er4s scale: as ,ell as other scales of brand personality: mer/e a number of dimensions of brand identity rather than specifically measure brand personality. $hey contend that the effect is conceptual confusion in brandin/ research and limitation in brandin/ applications. ! fe, studies have attempted to e6plore brand personality ,ithout a priori acceptance of !a&er4s frame,or&. +or e6ample: Lenable et al. D2995; e6plored the impact of brand personality on charitable /ivin/ in a non profit conte6t. $hese authors conducted a series of mi6ed method studies Dfocus /roups: .ualitative assessment: and subse.uent empirical analysis; and concluded that inte/rity: nurturance: sophistication: and ru//edness ,ere the four &ey dimensions of brand personality for non profit or/ani<ations. -hile acceptin/ the importance of !a&er4s ,or&: !ustin et al. D2993; .uestion the /enerali<e ability of !a&er4s frame,or&. +relin/ and +orbes D2995; ar/ue that advancements in the study of brand personality have been restricted by Alimited theoretical or .ualitative /roundin/.M
25

ein/ intri/ued by and theoretically compelled by these observations and conclusions: studies must investi/ate brand personality and offer validation of !a&er4s frame,or&: ,ithout the obvious bias of the a priori use of the frame,or& as the basis for analysis. 41" $ole o0 ad%ertisin( in 7reatin( Brand Personality3 (uman bein/s have a personality: ,hich is essentially a summation of traits. rand personality can be defined in several ,ays: ,ith emphasis on emotion: human and tan/ible aspects of the brand. "t can also be defined as sum of the tan/ible and intan/ible aspects of the brand. 5ven for industrial product li&e steel: S!"3 uses emotional connect ,ith Opunch lineO there is bit of S!"3 in everybodyOs life. rand personality: is process of transformin/ the brand into a person or humani<in/ the brand. $hus brands can also have characteristics D567 Se6: =ender: s&ills > abilities etc;. %ar&eters deliver the personality usin/ advertisin/: features: pac&a/in/ etc. Csers and non users differ in perceptions ,ith respect to rand personality users attach a distinct personality to the brand. 5stablished brands have uni.ue personality ,hich is /enerally consistent and may be implicit. rand personality enables to establish relationship bet,een brand > consumer ,ith emotional content. $he de/ree of pro6imity bet,een brand and consumer personality: ,ill influence the purchase intension and brand loyalty. rands need to update personality to stay contemporary and relevant: as tar/et audience personality may chan/e over a period of time: due to chan/es in cultural: economic: media e6posure etc. rand personality should not be confused ,ith tar/et audience characteristics. Personality may be e6istin/ or aspirational. Projective techni.ues can be used to describe brands. )onsumers can be as&ed to associate the brand: ,ith adjectives D,ord association: sentence completion etc.; and also can be as&ed about user ima/ery. +or e6ample7 Brands %oods $humbs up !mul %$L "ndia&in/s -oodlands %ahindra Scorpio %arlboro Brand 3iril 3u6 2ove isleri ajaj Pulsar Jamaha $itan )inthol %ysore Sandal 3 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 3 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Personality Sensitivity bravery Q darin/ humour ,ac&y Sophistication Dupper class; 1u//edness > outdoorsy 1u//edness 1u//edness Adje7ti%e freshness > 3ime eauty: softness Softness Safety Po,er Po,er Style: ele/ance +reshness $raditional
26

%edimi6

$raditional

"n all of the above brands: advertisement elements such as selection of the endorsers and e6ecution etc.: delivered the rand personality. Csin/ of +ilm stars for the 3u6 beauty soap is lo/ical and the attractiveness of celebrity is hi/h. $his is critical and leads to credibility. 5ndorser personality /ets transferred to the brand. $humb up soft drin& has distinct personality o,in/ to chivalry based ads: ,hich also communicates about user ima/ery. $he name O%arlboroO evo&es -ild -est ima/ery: than&s to ads and consistency of the mar&eters in maintainin/ the same brand personality. !ds for multi utility vehicles li&e %ahendra scorpio: sho,s the ru//edness personality. Slo(ans A Pun7h =ines7 $hey also reflect rand personality. Peter 5n/land 3") 3 > $ s,itch /ear ajaj Lideocon Lantlensen an& of 1ajasthan $he *e, "ndia !ssurance )o. 3td. %ahindra Scropio an& of "ndia *i&e 0 (onest Shirt Dsincerity; 0 $ry T $hy name is 3") D$rust; 0 Safe > Sure D$rust; 0 "nspirin/ confidence D)ompetence; 0 $he "ndian %ultinational D)ompetence; 0 Po,er 5volved DSophistication0 upper class; 0 2are to 2ream D56citement; 0 !ssurance of the leader D)ompetence; 0 *othin/ else ,ill do T D1u//edness; 0 an& that cares Dempathy; 0 @ust do it D%otivation: e6citement;

Slo/ans enhance brand recall and have stron/ lin&a/e ,ith brandOs essence Q &ey values. 3o/os support brand names: provide ease in processin/ visual information lead to brand recall. 3o/o can be te6tual: abstract desi/n and may be real. $hey convey a clear meanin/ or su//est somethin/ about product cate/ory Q brand Q values Q features Q benefits of the brand.

-hapter 6"
"1! -on7eptual Study3 "11 Brand personality3 rand personality is an important element in brandin/. !a&er defines the associated personality of a brand as a set of D1; human demo/raphic characteristics li&e a/e: /ender: social class and race: D2; human lifestyle characteristics li&e activities: interest: and opinion: D3; human personality traits such as e6troversion: a/reeableness: dependability: ,armth: concern: and sentimentality. $he brand becomes a livin/ person and often attached to a metaphor. "n this ,ay: it visuali<es the abstract intan/ible assets and characteristics in a more concrete tan/ible appearance. (ence: customers interact ,ith brands as if they ,here human been. !s it is counts for human personality: brand personality is distinctive and endurin/.

27

!a&er has developed a frame,or& of brand personality dimensions on the bases of an e6tensive research across 3# brands Dout of 69; ,ith a hi/h salience ratin/ divided over 4 clusters ,ith 114 personality traits Dout of 39?;.$he brand personality construct composes five personality factors so called P i/ +iveP7 sincerity: e6citement: competence: sophistication: and ru//edness. $he bi/ five includes 15 facets and 42 traitsN they e6plain ?2G of the variance bet,een the brand personalities. See fi/ure.

+i/ure 3.1

rand personality

rand personality develops the interaction bet,een the brand: product: service: or/ani<ation and their users. *early everythin/ associated ,ith the brand affects the perceived brand personality. +or that: !a&er se/re/ated t,o /roups of brand personality driversN product related and non0product related characteristics.

Produ7t related -hara7teristi7s


User ima(ery -hara7teristi7s


28

Product cate/ory Pac&a/e Price

Cser ima/ery Sponsorships Symbol: !/e : !d style

!ttributes

)ountry of ori/in )ompany ima/e: )5O )elebrity endorsers

Ta2le "11 Brand personality dri%ers Cser ima/ery: as defined as the associated set of human characteristics of the typical user: is a po,erful brand personality driver. -here brand personality reflects to the brand: user ima/ery reflects to the typical user of the brand. (ence: user ima/ery should not necessarily be e.ual to the brand personality. $he difference can be ne/li/ible: minor and si/nificant. *onetheless: both have a strate/ic value to the brand ,here user ima/ery enables the brand to focus on specific user reference /roups Dspecific tar/et mar&ets; ,ithout jeopardi<in/ the brand identity: herita/e and brand personality D!a&er: 1??671#901#3;.

-hapter69
91! $esear7h Methodolo(y3 1esearch methodolo/y is defined as the systematic and objective process of /atherin/: recordin/ and analy<in/ data for /ainin/ &no,led/e that does culture influences the consumer impulsive buyin/ behaviour. +or a successful research the most important thin/ is Systematic search of information. !lso the )ollected information should be accurate and objective. $hen only the research can facilitate to /ettin/ &no,led/e. 1espondents considered for the study are consumer4s ,ho does their shoppin/ in 1etail stores based in (yderabad. $he study involved fillin/ of .uestionnaire. 911 $esear7h Desi(n3

29

1esearch desi/n can be simply understood as a detailed plan outlinin/ ho, observations ,ill be made. "t is a master plan specifyin/ the methods and procedures for collectin/ and analysin/ the needed information. ein/ a frame,or& or plan for a study that /uides the collection and analysis of the data. "t can be divided into three types7 56ploratory 2escriptiveQ2ia/nostic 56perimental $he research ,as mainly e6ploratory as there ,ere very little information available and the study ,as conducted on selected cases. $he primary objective of this study is to measure out Brand Personality of the brand Nike & Adidas. 914 Methods o0 data 7olle7tion3 $he nature of the study su//ested collectin/ both type of Primary 2ata as ,ell as Secondary 2ata to analy<e better the relationship bet,een rand Personality and )onsumer ehaviour. Primary Data3 +or collectin/ Primary 2ata: ,e too& the help of .uestionnaire to &no, the vie, of consumers about all said brands. Se7ondary Data3 !s far as secondary data is concerned: ,e revie,ed the literatures that emphasis specially is placed on the consumer behaviour li&e personality theory: motivation research and learnin/ research. ! survey ,as conducted to measure the personality dimensions based on !a&er4s five personality dimensions. "n addition: various personality dimensions are e6plored usin/ in0 depth: one0to0one intervie,sN there are follo,in/ criteria to find out the structure and nature of rand Personality Sin7erity (2o,n0to0earth: (onest: -holesome: )heerful# EB7itement(2arin/: Spirited: "ma/inative: Cp0to0date# -ompeten7e(1eliable: "ntelli/ent: Successful# Sophisti7ation(Cpper class: )harmin/# $u((edness(Outdoorsy: $ou/h# Samples3 2ata ,ere collected from 199 consumers those have had prior e6perience of usin/ all the products. !ll samples include all a/e /roup of people residin/ in Siva Sivani "nstitute of %ana/ement: Bompally: Prajay: Lensai > Secunderabad.

"n this study: the respondents ,ere as&ed to fill out the .uestionnaire. Subjects ,ere first informed to them: and then as&ed to complete the brand personality measure. +inally: the respondents provided personal data at the end.
30

rand personality ,as measured ,ith !a&erOs rand Personality Scale. $he psychometric property of this scale ,as not easy understandin/ for respondents. $hey used to surprise ho, a product could have human characteristic. $o overcome this problem: ,e as&ed them to thin& brand as if it ,ere a person and to rate on a five0 point scale D3i&ert Scale ; the e6tent to ,hich each of the 42 brand personality traits describes the brand. PSincere:P Pe6citin/:P Preliable:P P/lamorous and Pru//edP are e6amples of items used to assess the brand personality dimensions of sincerity: e6citement: competence: sophistication: and ru//edness: respectively.

=imitations o0 study3
2ata ,as only collected in the t,in cities. $he sample si<e is 199.

-hapter6)
)1! Data analysis3 Sample siCe7 199 )11 Demo(raphi7al Analysis3 ,ender 8ise Analysis o0 Sample3 Lalid Percent ##.9 23.9 199.9 )umulative Percent ##.9 199.9

+re.uency Percent Lalid %ale +emale $otal ## 23 199 ##.9 23.9 199.9

"n this survey of rand personality measurement of !didas > *i&e ##G male participated a/ainst 23G female.

31

)14 Marital Status 8ise Analysis o0 Sample3 Lalid Percent '6.9 14.9 199.9 )umulative Percent '6.9 199.9

+re.uency Percent Lalid Cnmarried %arried $otal '6 14 199 '6.9 14.9 199.9

"n this survey of rand personality measurement of !didas > *i&e '6G unmarried people participated a/ainst 14G married.

)1" A(e 8ise Analysis o0 Sample3

+re.uency Percent Lalid 1'024 24039 39036 ! $otal 6? 24 6 1 199 6?.9 24.9 6.9 1.9 199.9

Lalid Percent 6?.9 24.9 6.9 1.9 199.9

)umulative Percent 6?.9 ?3.9 ??.9 199.9

"n this survey of rand personality measurement of !didas > *i&e the major participation a/e /roup of 1'024 D6?G;: 24039 D24G;: 39036 D6G; and 1G people above 4' years.

32

)19 .77upation 8ise Analysis o0 Sample3 Lalid Percent ##.9 19.9 2.9 3.9 '.9 199.9 )umulative Percent ##.9 '#.9 '?.9 ?2.9 199.9

+re.uency Percent Lalid Student Professional =L. 5mployee usinessman (omema&er $otal ## 19 2 3 ' 199 ##.9 19.9 2.9 3.9 '.9 199.9

"n this survey of rand personality measurement of !didas > *i&e the major participation of respondents are student ##G: Professional 19G: =overnment employee 2G: usinessman 3G and (omema&er 'G.

)1) -omparati%e Analysis o0 Brand?s -hara7teristi73 $espondents response on Sin7erity (/amily .rientation# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

$his /raph sho,s that 32G respondents a/ree that !didas is family oriented a/ainst 19G respondents thin& that *i&e is family oriented. $espondents response on Sin7erity (Do8n To Earth# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

33

(ere this /raph clearly indicates that in consumer perception !didas has 2o,n $o 5arth rand Personality. $espondents response on Sin7erity (+onest# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

!s far as A(onestM characteristic of both brands is concerned they have almost e.ual ,ei/ht in vie, of consumers. "t is very sli/ht difference bet,een them. $espondents response on Sin7erity (-heer0ul# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

*i&e has /ot /ood response for )heerfulness level. !didas has not /ood level of)heerfulness. $espondents response on Sin7erity (Sentimental# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

!/ree bar sho,s that !didas brand is more Sentimental than *i&e. $espondents response on Sin7erity (/riendly# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

34

1espondents thin& that *i&e is friendlier than its competitor !didas.

$espondents? response on Sin7erity (Darin(# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

(ere the 2arin/ ima/e of both brand is almost e.ual. $here is only one difference amon/ respondents reply. $espondents response on EB7itement (Trendy# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

Trend /raph sho,s that 36G respondents are a/reed that !didas is more trendy a/ainst 23G of *i&e. $espondents response on EB7itement (-ool# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

(ere it is clear that !didas is cool than *i&e. !s 49G respondents a/ree to this vie, a/ainst 32G. $espondents response on EB7itement (Youn(# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

(ere /raph indicates that respondents thin& that *i&e is youn/er than !didas. $espondents response on EB7itement (Ima(inati%e# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

*i&e has /rater "ma/inative brand personality than !didas has. $espondents response on EB7itement (Uni@ue# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

35

"t is very interestin/ to see that both brands have e.ual Cni.ueness in the perception of consumers.

$espondents response on EB7itement (Up to Date# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

(ere it is clearly visible that respondents e.ually a/ree that both brands are Cp to 2ate. $espondents response on EB7itement (Independent# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

$his /raph sho,s that 33G respondents a/ree that !didas is "ndependent a/ainst 39G thin& *i&e is "ndependent.

$espondents response on -ompeten7e ($elia2le# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

!s far as 1eliability is concerned of both brands it is more and less e.ual. %ost of respondents a/ree as ,ell stron/ly a/ree that both are reliable brands. $espondents response on -ompeten7e (+ard8or<in(# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

$his /raph sho,s that a/ree level for (ard,or&in/ rand personality of !didas is dominant over *i&e.

$espondents response on Sophisti7ation (Mas7uline# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

1espondents4 reply sho,s that !didas brand sho,s more mascunality than *i&e. $espondents response on Sophisti7ation (Upper -lass# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

36

"n this /raph ,e can see that most of respondents have neutral opinion over Cpper )lass rand Personality.

$espondents response on Sophisti7ation (Smooth# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

$his /raph sho,s that !didas is smoother than *i&e. $espondents response on -ompeten7e (-orporate# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

!didas has more corporate brand personality than its competitor *i&e.

$espondents? response on $u((edness (Tou(h# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

(ere it is clearly visible that respondents e.ually stron/ly a/ree that both brands are tou/h. $espondents? response on $u((edness (.utdoorsy# attri2ute o0 Brand Personality3

$his /raph sho,s that !didas has Outdoorsy rand personality. *i&e has e.ually outdoorsy personality.

-ross ta2ulation analysis3 $espondents per7eption a2out Brand personality attri2utes o0 *i<e and Adidas

37

,ender 8ise per7eption a2out 2rand personality attri2utes (Sin7erity6 Do8n to Earth# o0 Adidas D *i<e3

Sincerity D*i&e !nd !didas; stron/ly disa/ree neutral disa/ree *i&e Dmale; 2 19 3 21 6 1' 3 25 6 a/ree stron/ly a/ree 29 6 4 2

2# 19 16 6

Dfemale; 1 !didas Dmale; 11

Dfemale; 3

$his /raph of Sincerity attribute of rand Personality indicates that 2#G male and 19G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 16G male and 6G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand.

,ender 8ise per7eption a2out 2rand personality attri2utes (+ard8or<in(# o0 Adidas D *i<e3

(ard,or&in/ D*i&e and !didas; stron/ly disa/ree *i&e Dmale; Dfemale ; !didas Dmale; Dfemale ; 1 2 2 1 disa/ree 16 5 11 3 neutral 24 6 1' 5 a/ree 21 # 34 11 stron/ly a/ree 15 3 12 3

38

$his /raph of (ard,or&in/ attribute of rand Personality indicates that 21G male and #G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 34G male and 11G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand.

,ender 8ise per7eption a2out 2rand personality attri2utes (Sophisti7ation# o0 Adidas D *i<e3

SophisticationD*i&e and !didas; stron/ly disa/ree *i&e Dmale; Dfemale ; !didas Dmale; Dfemale ; 1 2 1 1 disa/ree 11 1 19 2 neutral 23 ? 21 19 a/ree 26 # 2' ' stron/ly a/ree 16 4 1# 2

$his /raph of Sophistication attribute of rand Personality indicates that 26G male and #G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 2'G male and 'G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand.

39

,ender 8ise per7eption a2out 2rand personality attri2utes (/eminine# o0 Adidas D *i<e3

+eminineD*i&e and !didas; stron/ly disa/ree *i&e Dmale; Dfemale ; !didas Dmale; Dfemale ; 4 1 1 1 disa/ree 13 3 6 1 neutral 22 ' 26 ? a/ree 1# # 2# ' stron/ly a/ree 21 4 1# 4

$his /raph of +eminine attribute of rand Personality indicates that 1#G male and #G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 2#G male and 'G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand.

,ender 8ise per7eption a2out 2rand personality attri2utes ($u((edness# o0 Adidas D *i<e3

1u//ednessD*i&e and !didas; stron/ly disa/ree *i&e Dmale; Dfemale ; 5 9 disa/ree 19 5 neutral 2# ' a/ree 22 ' stron/ly a/ree 13 2

40

!didas

Dmale; Dfemale ;

1 1

19 2

21 19

2' '

1# 2

$his /raph of 1u//edness attribute of rand Personality indicates that 22G male and 'G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 2'G male and 'G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand.

,ender 8ise per7eption a2out 2rand personality attri2utes (.utdoorsy# o0 Adidas D *i<e3

OutdoorsyD*i&e and !didas; stron/ly disa/ree *i&e Dmale; Dfemale ; !didas Dmale; Dfemale ; 1 1 5 1 disa/ree 11 4 11 4 neutral 2# 5 26 # a/ree 1? 12 23 ? stron/ly a/ree 1? 1 12 2

41

$his /raph of Outdoorsy attribute of rand Personality indicates that 1?G male and 12G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 23G male and ?G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand.

,ender 8ise per7eption a2out 2rand personality attri2utes (Trendy# o0 Adidas D *i<e3

$rendyD*i&e and !didas; stron/ly disa/ree *i&e Dmale; Dfemale ; !didas Dmale; Dfemale ; 1 9 4 1 disa/ree 19 3 11 4 neutral 21 19 2' 19 a/ree 2' ' 21 6 stron/ly a/ree 1# 2 13 2

$his /raph of $rendy attribute of rand Personality indicates that 2'G male and 'G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 21G male and 6G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand.

42

,ender 8ise per7eption a2out 2rand personality attri2utes (Up to Date# o0 Adidas D *i<e3

Cp to 2ateD*i&e and !didas; stron/ly disa/ree *i&e Dmale; Dfemale; !didas Dmale; Dfemale; 4 2 1 1 disa/ree 1? 4 ' 1 neutral 1? ' 24 19 a/ree 23 5 2' ' stron/ly a/ree 12 4 16 3

$his /raph of Cp to date attribute of rand Personality indicates that 23G male and 5G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 2'G male and 'G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand.

,ender 8ise per7eption a2out 2rand personality attri2utes (/amily .riented# o0 Adidas D *i<e3

+amily OrientedD*i&e and !didas; stron/ly disa/ree *i&e Dmale; Dfemale; !didas Dmale; Dfemale; 6 2 3 2 disa/ree 11 3 19 2 43 neutral 29 ' 23 11 a/ree 22 ' 26 6 stron/ly a/ree 1' 2 15 2

$his /raph of +amily Oriented attribute of rand Personality indicates that 22G male and 'G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 26G male and 6G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand.

,ender 8ise per7eption a2out 2rand personality attri2utes (Tou(h# o0 Adidas D *i<e3

$ou/hD*i&e and !didas; stron/ly disa/ree *i&e Dmale; Dfemale; !didas Dmale; Dfemale; 3 2 3 1 disa/ree 15 6 19 3 neutral 25 # 1' 5 a/ree 23 6 39 11 stron/ly a/ree 11 2 16 3

$his /raph of $ou/h attribute of rand Personality indicates that 23G male and 6G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 39G male and 11G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand.

44

-hapter6:
:11 $esults3 $he findin/s based on the data collected /ive a fairly /ood idea about the various aspects of some important popular brands such as !didas and *i&e.

"n terms of a,areness: people are a,are of both the brands. ut they have their o,n li&in/s and disli&in/. %ost of the people li&e thin& that !didas is more family oriented than *i&e. %ost respondents consider !didas as more 2o,n to 5arth than *i&e. *i&e is tou/her than !didas. $he survey indicates that !didas is Outdoorsy in its nature over its competitor *i&e. Sincerity attribute rand Personality indicates that 2#G male and 19G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 16G male and 6G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand. (ard,or&in/ attribute rand Personality indicates that 21G male and #G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 34G male and 11G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand. Sophistication attribute rand Personality indicates that 26G male and #G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 2'G male and 'G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand. +eminine attribute rand Personality indicates that 1#G male and #G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 2#G male and 'G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand. 1u//edness attribute rand Personality indicates that 22G male and 'G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 2'G male and 'G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand. Outdoorsy attribute rand Personality indicates that 1?G male and 12G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 23G male and ?G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand. $rendy attribute rand Personality indicates that 2'G male and 'G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 21G male and 6G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand. Cp to date attribute rand Personality indicates that 23G male and 5G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 2'G male and 'G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand. +amily Oriented attribute rand Personality indicates that 22G male and 'G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 26G male and 6G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand. $ou/h attribute rand Personality indicates that 23G male and 6G female thin& *i&e is sincere brand. -hereas 39G male and 11G female a/ree that !didas is sincere brand.
45

:14 -on7lusion3 "n the current study: the .uantitative data supported the five major dimensions of personality as desi/nated by !a&er4s ori/inal ,or&. (ere: the .ualitative data provided fuller and richer perspective. 1espondents4 Dconsumers; e6pressed their personal impressions of their usa/e: e6periences: and feelin/s to,ards the brands bein/ studied. "n turn: the respondents4 o,n ,ords provided the basis for dra,in/ brand characteristics. $his study found that !didas ,as perceived as a reliable and trendy brand. -hile these impressions appeared to be .uite salient to the consumers4 choice process: these items ,ere revealed only throu/h our .uantitative assessment. "mportantly thou/h: the .uantitative analysis Dsho,n in /raphical form; revealed &ey differences in perceived personality bet,een *i&e and !didas. +or e6ample: !didas rated statistically si/nificantly hi/her than !didas on items such as ori/inal: trendy: up to date: friendly: do,n0to0earth: family oriented and up0to0date. On the other hand: *i&e ,as rated si/nificantly hi/her than !didas on items such as 2arin/: Jon/: "ma/inative: Cni.ue: cheerful: Cpper class and tou/h. 3oo&in/ at the .uantitative and .ualitative assessments provides a broader and more complete ima/e. $he ratin/ scales su//est that !didas has captured a more Cp to date: contemporary: and perhaps Aed/ierM feel than *i&e. $hese could be utili<ed to differentiate and justify the !didas added perceived e6pense of over *i&e. $he !didas brand impressions seem to indicate that consumers sense that ,ith !didas: one A/ets ,hat they pay forM Dpresumably a consistently reliable product;. $o conclude: rand personality bein/ potent tool needs to be levera/ed to achieve &ey objectives for e6istin/ > ne, brands. "n this study it is found that !didas has sli/ht advanta/e over *i&e brand. 1espondents perceived !didas as brand havin/ versatile personality.

'1! Euestionnaire3 $his .uestionnaire aim to measure out the brand dimension of t,o Popular brands li&e !ddidas vs. *i&e *ame7 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUSe67 0%aleQ +emale Status7 0Sin/leQ%arried

46

!/e Din Jears;7 1'024 above 4' Occupation7 Student (ome %a&er Stron/ly a/ree 5 !/ree 4

24039 Professional

39036

36042

4204' usinessman

=ovt. 5mployee

*eutral 3

2isa/ree 2

Stron/ly disa/ree 1

47

Personality !ttribute

randU1 !ddidas 5 4 3 2 1 5 4

randU2 *i&e 3 2 1

SI*-E$ITY 2o,n to earth +amily oriented (onest )heerful Sentimental +riendly 2arin/ EF-ITEME*T $rendy )ool Joun/ "ma/inative Cni.ue Cp to date "ndependent -.MPETE*-E 1eliable (ard,or&in/ "ntelli/ent $echnical )orporate Successful )onfident S.P+ISTI-ATI.* Cpper class =lamorous +eminine Smooth %asculine 48

49

$e0eren7es

1. !"#, $avid building strong %rands, 1&&'. (. )engupta, subrato %rand positioning * )trategies for competitive advantage+ ,ata Mcgraw -ill, .ew $elhi 1&&/. 0. 1pshaw, 2ynn %. %uilding %rand Identity, 3hon * 4iley 5 )ons 1&&6. 7. Moorthi, 82# 9%rand Management ,he Indian Conte:t ;ikas publishing (//6. 6. !apferer, 3ean .oel, $eveloping .ew %rands, <itnam publishing 1&=0. '. #a>eev %atra, Myers 3hon.?, aker $avid, dvertising Management 6th edition, <earson "ducation sia.

Bi2lio(raphy3 www.consumerbehavior.net www.mcdonaldsindia.com www.mcdonalds.com Measurement and ;alidity of 3ennifer aker@s %rand <ersonality )cale for Colgate %rand %"3A8 3A-. ,-AM ) and < C )"! # $imensions of %rand <ersonality by 3"..IB"# 2. !"#

<ersonality and Consumer %ehaviour by 2"A. ?. )C-IBBM . and 2")I2" 2 C # ! .1! DhttpE//www.adidas-salomon.com/en/investor/reports/default.asp, Actober (//0 DhttpE//www.adidas-salomon.com/en/overview/history/default.asp, Actober (//0 DhttpE//www.cybersource.com/solutions/successFstories/nike.:ml, Actober (//0 DhttpE//www.nike.com/nikebiG/nikebiG.>htmlHpageI1, Actober (//0 DhttpE//www.nike.com/nikebiG/nikebiG.>htmlHpageI16, Actober (//0 DhttpE//www.nike.com/nikebiG/news/pressrelease.>htmlHyearI1&&&5monthI/'5letterId, Actober (//0 D +.ike - Channel Conflict.+ ?raduate )chool of %usiness, )tanford 1niversity, Bebruary (/// D%elch 5 %elch. + dvertising and <romotion.+ Mc?raw--ill Irwin. .ew 8ork. (//1. p.7&0 %rand <ersonality and Mobile MarketingE n "mpirical Investigation by A. %A1-2"2, .. MCA1?-I, $. - $I3I, and I. %". )2IM ."

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