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Excellence in Product Support

Generator Maintenance

Speaker: Aaron Kempf


2011 TC Conference Lafayette, IN
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Excellence in Product Support

Agenda
Overview Shipping Maintenance Startup Maintenance Regular, Periodic and Annual Maintenance Monitoring Recommendations Insulation Test Recommendations Bearing Temperature Guidelines Bearing Replacement Stator Temperature Guidelines Vibration Measuring Guidelines Important Updates Maintenance Literature

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Overview
Scheduled Maintenance
Who: Customers and Dealers! CAT Warranty Statement states that the User is responsible for performance of the required maintenance. What: Applications All Applications (Standby, Prime, Continuous, etc.) Where: Onsite, before/during/after Storage, before/after Shipping When: Product Life Shipping, Storage, Start-up, Regularly, Periodically, Annually How: Procedures Cleaning, Drying, Storage, Insulation Resistance, Alignment, Vibration, Bearing Greasing, Bearing Temperature Monitoring, Stator Temperature Monitoring, Controls and Protection Settings Why: Publications (OMMs and SOTAs for SR4,SR4B, and SR5) SENR5359, SEBU6918, SEBU7270, SENR7968, KENR5284

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Generator Maintenance - Shipping


What happens when shipping maintenance is not effective?

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Generator Maintenance - Shipping


Packaging Proper generator set cover protection needs to be in place for the environment generator set is being shipped in. Handling Proper lifting of generator sets using lifting eyes and fixtures. Refer to respective OMM for more information. Shipping damages cant be claimed as warranty. These damages should be claimed through the shipping/freight company.

Example of generator foot damage from shipping


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Example of grease deterioration after improper shipping and storage


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Generator Maintenance - Storage


Below are some photos of adequate and inadequate storage practices. In these examples, the generators/sets should be properly covered from the elements when stored.
REFERENCE: SEHS9031 Storage Procedure for Caterpillar Products

BAD BETTER
Tight wrapping is good for shipping and short storage times. If longer storage is required, make sure to cover the package loosely.
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BAD
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BEST

Excellence in Product Support

Generator Maintenance - Storage


Dry Location Cover for protection Loose to allow generator to breathe
Make sure to complete when package is not installed and there is no intention of installing in the near future.

Turn rotor ten (10) revolutions every sixty (60) days Maintain winding temperature At least 5 C higher than the ambient temperature Space heater Insulation test must be done when generator is received Insulation test must be repeated prior to start-up.

Insulation test (reference SEHS9124)

Make every effort to complete when package is in storage and make sure to complete when package is being installed or is installed and not running (i.e., standby).

Example taken from SEBD0660 showing condensation inside the generator. Example of hot spot created on bearing race after long storage period without rotor turning.
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Generator Maintenance - Start-up

Before applying battery and shore power voltage to the Generator Set Inspect generator for debris, foreign objects, leaks and loose connections, broken fittings, rubbing or damaged wiring, guards and components. Repair as necessary. i.e., Lead chaffing from generator stator to bus. Check for proper grounding. (Reference REHS4634) Check space heaters for proper operation.

Example of loose PMG bolts, not noted before startup

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Generator Maintenance - Start-up


System check prior to Generator Set operation Must DOCUMENT data on each for future reference Alignment (LEBW4975, SEHS7654, SEHS7259, SEHS7073, REHS0177). Air gap (main generator, exciter, & PMG) even around circumference Insulation test (Reference SEHS9124) Measure Generator winding resistances (SENR5359 for SR4B, KENR5284 for SR5) Main Stator/Rotor, Exciter Stator/Rotor, PM Stator/Rotor Compensate readings for temperature and use micro-ohmmeter Record for trend plotting! Coordination of settings Generator control and protective settings Factory default settings not applicable to every application Dealer and/or third party consultant is responsible for Coordination Study at each site Circuit breaker ECM, EMCP, and CDVR, Droop (KW and KVAR) Differential Protection, Reverse KVAR Protection, etc.
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Generator Maintenance - Start-up


System check when Generator Set is running Must DOCUMENT data on each for future reference Record the following at No Load and Full Load Bearing temperature (per respective OMM) Stator temperature (per respective OMM) Air inlet temperature (and at areas where air recirculation could exist) Confirm no air recirculation is occurring Refer to TMI generator information and generator nameplate Vibration levels (Reference A&I Guide LEBW4972) Voltage regulator & excitation system Sensing voltage Excitation voltage and current (refer to TMI generator information) Determined by Load and Power Factor

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Generator Maintenance - Start-up


After stopping the Generator Set Inspect the generator and report malfunctions. Inspect for loose, broken, rubbing or damaged wiring or components. Make repairs or adjustments to the generator set as necessary. Check that generator air inlet filter is clean, if applicable. Verify generator space heater is operating.

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Generator Maintenance - Regular


During Generator Set operation Must DOCUMENT and TREND data on each for future reference Monitor Phase current, Neutral current, Voltage, Frequency, Power Factor, Harmonic content, and Load variation Monitor Room Temperatures Monitor Bearing and Stator temperatures (when applicable) Monitor for Alarm and Shutdown Indicators Check that generator air inlet filter is clean, if applicable.

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Generator Maintenance - Periodic


After stopping the Generator Set for periodic maintenance Periodic Maintenance time interval is based on Application Reference respective OMMs Must DOCUMENT and TREND data on each for future reference Inspect generator for debris, foreign objects, leaks and loose connections, broken fittings, rubbing or damaged wiring, guards and components. Repair as necessary.

Inspect Main Stator & Rotor, Exciter, and PMG


Clean as needed (Moisture, Salt, Dirt, Grease, Oil) Reference SEHS9124 for Generator Cleaning and Drying Check space heaters for proper operation. Check Air Gap (main generator, exciter, & PMG) Insulation Test (SEHS9124)

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Generator Maintenance - Annual


After Stopping The Generator Set Must DOCUMENT and TREND data on each for future reference Complete Periodic Maintenance Procedures Alignment (LEBW4975, SEHS7654, SEHS7259, SEHS7073, REHS0177). Measure Generator Winding resistances (SENR5359 for SR4B, KENR5284 for SR5) Main Stator/Rotor, Exciter Stator/Rotor, PM Stator/Rotor Vibration Levels (LEBW4972) Generator Bearings and Wear Sleeves Grease Bearing(s) as required Refer to REHS4892 for greasing requirements Avoid over-greasing/mixing greases and use correct grease Check for good integrity of lip seal Inspect and clean all main current carrying mechanical contacts such as circuit breakers and transfer switches
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Generator Maintenance - Monitoring Recommendations


Trending Understand the monitored process Normalized readings
For all resistance readings, correct for temperature Refer to SEHS9124

Record on chart Focus on changes occurring over time Scheduled repairs instead of unplanned downtime

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Generator Maintenance - Monitoring Recommendations


Time to schedule downtime and repair of the generator.

Shown above is an example of regular insulation trending and the result of not acting ahead of time.

Source: Graph taken and formatted from Stitch in Time (Megger, 2006)
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Generator Maintenance - Insulation Test Recommendations (References: OMM & SEHS9124)


When to Test Safety Testing Process Prepare for the Test Insulation Resistance Test
Perform the standard 30/60sec test at a minimum

Polarization Index Test


Perform when unit is in storage and/or moist environment.

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Generator Maintenance - Bearing Temperature Guidelines


Bearing Temperature Set-points All Applications Alarm 85 C Shutdown 95 C Exceptions exist in specific SR5 product using synthetic grease. For 1800/3000 frame, set-points are: Alarm 95 C Shutdown 105 C Temperature is affected by ambient but max settings are not! Generators shipped with Platinum 100 ohm RTDs Packages can be ordered with bearing RTDs RTDs are 2-wire Track and investigate any change from historical trend

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Generator Maintenance - Bearing Replacement


Removing Hub and Bearings
When applicable, heat front drive hub evenly with two (2) rosebud torches with propylene gas and puller or use destructive method (ie. cutting tool, etc.) to remove hub with care not to damage rotor shaft. Heat should be applied to the hub for approximately 5-6 minutes. Do not attempt to heat hub with one (1) torch, and forcibly pull off shaft. Puller and ram drive should be capable of supplying at least 35 tons of force. Refer to respective SOTA manual for further bearing removal instructions using specified tools. Installing Hub and Bearings Use an induction heater, etc. to heat the ball bearings to recommended temperature and mount to the shaft. When applicable, evenly heat the drive hub to specified temperature and mount the hub to the shaft.

Reference respective generator SOTA manual for more bearing installation and removal information.
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Generator Maintenance - Stator Temperature Guidelines


Stator Temperature Set-Points Alarm 180 C, Shutdown 190 C (Standby) Alarm 155 C, Shutdown 165 C (Prime/Continuous) Exceptions exist for SR5 product Alarm 200 C, Shutdown 215 C, (Standby) Alarm 175 C, Shutdown 200 C, (Prime/Continuous) Based on NEMA standards, it is recommended to stay below the alarm setpoints to prevent winding deterioration. Generators with Form Wound Stators shipped with Platinum 100 ohm RTDs Random Wound Packages can be ordered with stator RTDs RTDs are 3-wire for compensation accuracy Track and Investigate any Change from historical trend Output Limited by Rotor or Stator Temp. Temp. Rise Function of Generator Output Measurement Method Embedded Detector Rise by Resistance The standard, must add hot spot allowance Refer to IEEE 112-1996 (Section 8.3.3)
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Generator Maintenance - Vibration Measuring Guidelines


Measure on package at normal operating temperature Use monthly readings to establish baseline Vibration levels are load dependent Investigate significant changes New frequencies showing up Increasing amplitudes of original frequencies To accurately compare to factory guidelines per LEBW4972, vibration tool used must be factory approved. Alternate tools can be used for site-specific trending purposes, but comparison to factory guidelines cannot be relied upon. New factory tool is currently being validated to replace the previously available CSI Vibration Analyzer Tool.
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2011 TC Conference Lafayette, IN


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Generator Maintenance Important Updates


SEHS9124 Generator Cleaning and Drying Existing document updated to improve wording and emphasize Polarization Index (PI) test for testing generators in storage and/or moist environments. REHS4892 Generator Bearing Service Special Instruction published in early 2010 to update the latest bearing maintenance recommendations. Single and Double-shielded bearings are recommended for greasing at prescribed intervals. Research has shown grease does penetrate the shield when the bearing bracket cavity is 50% full. Bearing Change for 1800/3000 SR5 Generators In late 2011, these generators will be packaged with greaseable (2S-3230 grease) single-shielded bearings in place of non-greaseable synthetic grease double-shielded bearings. This allows the end-user to add new grease as the grease breaks down over time.
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Generator Maintenance - Literature


SEBD9205 Proper Storage of Generators SEHS9031 Storage Procedures for Caterpillar Products SEHS9124 Cleaning and Drying of Generators LEXE0095 Electric Power Start-up Checklist LEBW4975 Alignment A&I Guide SEHS7654 Alignment - General Instructions SEHS7259 Alignment of Single Bearing Generators SEHS7073 Alignment of Two Bearing Generators REHS0177 Alignment of Two Bearing Close-Coupled Generators LEBW4972 Linear Vibration A&I Guide SEBU7270 SR4/SR4B High Voltage OMM SEBU6042 Maintenance for Standby Gensets
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Generator Maintenance Literature, cont.


SEBU6918 SR4B Generator OMM SENR7968 SR4 Generator SOTA Manual KENR5284 SR5 Generator SOTA Manual SENR5359 SR4B Generator Service Manual SENR5833 Digital Voltage Regulator Service Manual RENR2480 VR6 Service Manual RENR7941 CDVR Service Manual REHS4892 Generator Bearing Service REHS4634 Grounding Design Guide for EPG Products

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