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rd
& 4
th
Fl. CMFFI Building R. Papa St. Sampaloc Tel. 7365291
How many moles of potassium are present in
1.40 mol of K3PO4, a compound used as a
fertilizer?
3 4
3 4
3 mol K
1.4 mol K PO 4.2 mol K
1 mol K PO
 
=

\ .
What is the molecular formula of a compound
with empirical formula CH2 and molecular
mass is 98.0 amu.
( )
( )
empirical
2 7 14
7
MW 12 2 1 14 amu
98 amu
7 ratio
14 amu
MF: CH CH Ans
= + =
=
=
Solve for the number of individual nitrogen
atoms in 151 g of ammonium azide, NH4N3.
151 g NH
4
N
3
1 mol NH
4
N
3
60 g NH
4
N
3
4 mol N
1 mol NH
4
N
3
6.0210
23
atoms
1 mol N
=6.0610
24
atomsAns
Calculate the molarity of 1.50 L of a 2.50M
solution after it has been diluted to 4.50 L.
n
solute
=1.50 L
2.5 mol
1 L
=3.75 mol
M =
3.75 mol
4.50 L
=0.833 M Ans
Calculate the mole fraction of ammonia in a
2.00 m solution of NH3 in water.
Note: Assume 1.0 kg of water
2
2 2
2
3
NH
3
1 mol H O
1000 g H O 55.6 mol H O
18 g H O
2 mol NH
X 0.0347 Ans
57.6 mol total
=
= =
Solve for the molality of an aqueous solution
2.24 M in sucrose, C12H22O11. Assume that the
density of the solution is 2.05 g/ml.
Note: Assume that we have 1.0 L of solution,
we have 2.05 kg of solution and 2.24 mol of
sucrose.
2.24 mol
344 g
1 mol
=771 g
Therefore, the mass of water is: 2050 g 771
g = 1280 g or 1.28 kg
m=2.24 mol 1.28 kg=1.75m Ans
A solution was 2.40m and contained 245 g of
solvent. Calculate the molality of the solution
after dilution with 125 g more of solvent.
Get first the number of moles of the solute in
the initial solution:
0.245 kg
2.40 mol solute
1 kg
=0.588 mol solute
After the dilution, there is still that same 0.588
mol of solute, but now it is in 0.370 kg of
solvent. Solve for the new molality:
0.588 mol solute
m 1.59m Ans
0.370 kg solvent
= =
Calculate the number of moles of O2 that
occupies 17.2 L at 25C and 751 torr.
Calculate the volume first that the gas would
occupy at STP:
( )( )( )
( )( )
1 1 2
2
2 1
751 torr 17.2 L 273 K PVT
V 15.6 L
PT 760 torr 298 K
= = =
Then calculate the number of moles:
15.6 L
1 mol
22.4 L STP ( )
=0.696 mol Ans
Solve for the number of moles of gas in a
sample occupying 245 ml at 409 torr at 38C.
( )( )
( )
0.538 atm 0.245 L
PV
n
L atm RT
0.0821 311 K
mol K
n 0.00516 mol Ans
= =
 

\ .
=
Calculate the oxygen pressure in a mixture of
0.50 mol of oxygen and 0.75 mol of nitrogen
with a total pressure of 40 kPa.
P
oxygen
P
total
=
n
oxygen
n
total
P
oxygen
40 kPa
=
0.5 mol
1.25 mol
; P
oxygen
=16 kPaAns
In a certain experiment, argon effuses from a
porous cup at 4.0 mmol/minute. How fast
would chlorine effuse under the same
conditions?
argon chlorine
argon chlorine
MM r 39.9
0.750
r MM 70.9
= = =
chlorine
mmol mmol
r 0.750 4 3 Ans
min min
 
= =

\ .
Calculate the average kinetic energy of
hydrogen molecules at 295 K.
( )
23
21
3 3 J
KE kT 1.38 10 295 K
2 2 K
KE 6.11 10 J Ans
 
= =

\ .
=
Calculate the time it would take for SO2 to
diffuse across a room under the same
conditions that it takes an equal number of
moles of NH3 5 minutes to diffuse.
r
NH
3
r
SO
2
=
MM
SO
2
MM
NH
3
=
64.1
17
=1.94
t =1.94 5 min ( )=9.70 min Ans
What is the molar mass of a gas whose
density at 25C and 1 atm pressure is 1.72
g/L.
Assume a 1.0L volume. The mass of gas in
this volume is 1.72 g. Get the number of
moles:
n=
PV
RT
=
1 atm ( )1 L ( )
0.0821
Latm
molK

\

.

298 K ( )
n=0.0409 mol
MM =
1.72 g
0.0409 mol
=42.1 g/mol Ans
Calculate the molality of 1.62 M sucrose
(C12H22O11) in water if the density of the
solution is 1.21 g/ml.
Assume 1.0 L of solution. Therefore, there are
1.62 mol of sucrose and 1210 g of solution.
Get the mass of the sucrose:
1.62 mol
342 g
1 mol
=554 g
Hence, the mass of the water is 1210 g 554
g = 660 g or 0.66 kg. Get the molality:
m=
1.62 mol
0.66 kg
=2.5m Ans
How many molecules are there in 1 cu. meter
of air under standard conditions?
( )( )
( )
5 3
23
25
1.013 10 Pa 1 m
PV
N
J kT
1.38 10 273 K
K
N 2.7 10 molecules Ans
= =
 

\ .
=
If 4 mL of a certain substance weighs 8 grams,
what is the density of the substance?
=
m
v
=
8 g
4 mL
=2
g
mL
Ans
What is the hydrogen ion concentration of a
solution with the pH value at 2.44?
pH= log H
+
2.44= log H
+
; H
+
=3.610
3
Ans
What is the volume of 12.5 g of water at 25
degrees Celsius and 1 atm pressure?
( )
m 1 ml
; v = 12.5 g 12.5 ml Ans
v 1 g
 
= =

\ .
Calculate the number of mercury atoms in 1.50
L of mercury (density = 13.6 g/ml).
23
25
1000 ml 13.6 g 1 mol Hg
1.5 L
1 L 1 ml 200.6 g
6.02 10 atoms
6.12 10 atoms Ans
1 mol
=
What is the pressure of 7 kg of nitrogen gas
confined to a volume of 0.4 m
3
at 20C?
PV=nRT=
m
MW
RT
P=
m
MW
RT
V
=
7000
28
8.314 ( )293 ( )
0.4
P=15.210
5
Pa=15 atm Ans
A 500liter tank contains air at pressure of 3
atm when the temperature is 0C. What will be
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the pressure if the tank is heated to a
temperature of 120C?
2
2 1
1
T 393
P P 3 4.3 Ans
T 273
 
 
= = =
 
\ .
\ .
A highaltitude balloon that is designed to carry
a 500kg payload to an altitude of 30 km
(about 100,000 ft) is filled with 400 m
3
of
helium at sea level when the temperature is
15C. What will be the volume of the balloon
when it reaches maximum altitude? At an
altitude of 30 km, the pressure is about 1% of
sealevel pressure and temperature is around
50C.
( )( )( )
( )( )
3
o
1 1 2
2
2 1 o
4 3
2
P 400 m 223 K
PVT
V
PT 0.01P 288 K
V 3.1 10 m Ans
= =
=
Calculate the mass of oxygen that reacts with
1.25 g of methane to form 3.41 g of carbon
dioxide and 2.70 g of water.
Note: Use the Law of Conservation of Mass
(total mass of reactants = total mass of
products)
m
O
+m
methane
=m
CO
2
+m
H
2
O
m
O
+1.25 g=3.41 g+2.70 g
m
O
= 4.86 g Ans
How fast will pulses propagate along a string
that has a mass per unit length of 0.1 kg/m
when it is under a tension of 40 N?
v =
T
m/ l
=
40 N
0.1 kg/m
=20 m/s Ans
A certain string has a linear mass density of
0.1 kg/m. When a length of this string is
stretched between two supports that are 4 m
apart, the string tension is 10 N. What is the
lowest frequency standing wave that can be
set up on this string?
Relationship between the wavelength and the
string length:
n
2
=L n = 1,2,3,...
For lower frequency, n = 1:
=2L
v
1
=
1
2L
T
m/ l
=
1
2 4 ( )
10 N
0.1 kg/ m
v
1
=1.25 Hz Ans
What is the frequency of a 2cm sound wave in
sea water?
Note: The approximate value of the speed of
soun in sea water at 25C is 1531 m/s
f =
v
=
1531 m/s
0.02 m
=76 kHz Ans
A light ray is incident at an angle of 25 on the
surface between air and water. What angle
does the refracted ray make with the
perpendicular to the surface when the ray is
incident from the air side?
n
1
sinu
1
=n
2
sinu
2
1.000sin25 =1.33sinu
2
u
2
=18.5 Ans
An object is placed 12 cm to the left of a lens
that has a focal length of 8 cm. Where is the
image located?
1
f
=
1
i
+
1
o
1
8 cm
=
1
i
+
1
12 cm
; i = 24 cm Ans
At t = 0 a car is moving eastward with a
velocity of 30 mph. After 1 min, the car is
moving northward at the same speed. What is
the average acceleration?
Note: Get the resultant of the two vectors:
( )
2 2
v 30 30 42.4 mph
v 42.4 mph
a = 0.71 mi / hr / s Ans
t 60 s
A = + =
A
= =
Calculate approximately the electrostatic force
that exists between two protons in a typical
nucleus.
Note: In a typical nucleus, the distance
between two protons is approximately 2x10
15
m.
F=k
q
2
r
2
= 910
9
( )
1.610
19
( )
210
15
=60 NAns
A free particle, with mass 2 kg, is initially at
rest. If a force of 10 N is applied for a period of
10 s, what kinetic energy is acquired by the
particle?
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
1 1 1 F
KE mv m at m t
2 2 2 m
1 10 N
KE 2 kg 10 s 2500 J Ans
2 2 kg
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
   
= =
 
\ . \ .
Solve for the work required to raise a 0.1kg
block to a height of 2 m and simultaneously
give it a velocity of 3 m/s.
W=PE+KE=mgh+
1
2
mv
2
W= 0.1 ( )9.81 ( )2 ( )+
1
2
0.1 ( )3 ( )
2
=2.41 JAns
During a 5minute period, a man lifts 75 boxes,
each with mass 20 kg, from floor level to a
height of 1.5 m. At what average power does
the man work?
( )
( )( )( )
mgh n
W
P
t t
20 9.81 1.5 75
P 73.5 W Ans
60
5
1
= =
= =
 

\ .
A roller coaster car with mass 200 kg is at the
top of a 30m hill and is moving with a speed
of 4 m/s. The car dives down into ta valley
whose deepest point is at a height of 10 m and
then climbs to the top of a 20m hill. Assume
that the car moves frictionlessly and find the
speed at the top of the 20m hill.
mgh
1
+
1
2
mv
1
2
=mgh
2
+
1
2
mv
2
2
9.81 ( )30+
1
2
4 ( )
2
= 9.81 ( )20 ( )+
1
2
v
2
2
v
2
=14.6 m/s Ans
A proton starting from rest, moves through a
potential difference of 10
6
V. What is its final
velocity?
Note: The KE of a single proton that moves
through a potential difference of 10
6
V is 10
6
eV or 1.602x10
13
J
KE=
1
2
m
p
v
2
1.610
13
J=
1
2
1.6710
27
kg
( )
v
2
v =1.3810
7
m/s Ans
Find the radius of curvature of a face mirror
that will produce an image twice the normal
size when a man stands 2 feet in front of it.
Note: f = R/2 for a spherical mirror
1
f
=
1
i
+
1
o
1
0.5R
=
1
i
+
1
o
1
0.5R
=
1
2 2 ( )
+
1
2
R=8 ft Ans
A ray of light passes from glass (index of
refraction of 1.525) to water (index of refraction
of 1.33). Find the critical angle for this light to
pass the glass.
Note: Critical angle is the angle of incidence
when the angle of refraction is 90. Therefore,
from Snells law:
1 1 2 2
1 c 2
1 c 2
1 2
c
1
n sin n sin
n sin n sin90
n sin n
n
sin
n
u = u
u =
u =
u =
1 1 2
c
1
c
n 1.33
sin sin
n 1.525
61 Ans
u = =
u =
A neutron with a mass of 1.68 x 10
27
kg,
moves from a nuclear reactor with a velocity of
3.20 km/s. What is the de Broglies wavelength
of the neutron?
=
h
mv
=
6.6310
34
1.6810
27
( )
3200
m
s

\

.

=1.2310
10
mAns
Determine the horsepower rating of a person if
the person weighs 150 lb and ran up a 14 ft
stairway in 10 seconds.
( ) ( )
2
W mgh
P
t t
1 kg m 1 m
150 lb 9.81 14 ft
2.2 lb 3.3 ft s
P
10 s
1 hp
P 284 W 0.38 hp Ans
746 W
= =
(  (

( (
\ .
=
= =
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rd
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th
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Find the velocity of sound of a middle C tone in
a musical instrument whose wavelength is
1.34 m.
Note: Middle C tone has a frequency of 256
HZ
=
v
f
1.34 m=
v
256 Hz
; v = 343
m
s
Ans
A car moves at a constant speed at a distance
of 20 m in 2 s. During the next 2 s, the car
moves at a constant speed at a distance of 10
m only. What is the average speed of the car
during the 4 second interval?
total
ave
total
d 20 10 m
v 7.5 Ans
t 2 2 s
+
= = =
+
A mass of 8 kg is above a given datum, where
local g is 9.70 m/s
2
. Calculate the gravitational
force with respect to the datum?
( )
2
m
F mg 8 kg 9.70 77.6 N Ans
s
 
= = =

\ .
In the study of sound intensity, calculate the
level of sound intensity in decibels if its
intensity is 6x10
10
W/m
2
.
I =10log
610
10
10
12
=28 dBAns
If it takes 439 J of heat to warm 14.7 g of ice to
0C, how much heat would it take to warm the
ice to the freezing point and then melt it?
Note: For water, it takes 6 kJ of energy (heat)
to melt 1 mol of ice into liquid water.
Solve first for the heat required to melt 14.7 g
of ice:
14.7 g
1 mol
18 g
6 kJ
1 mol
=4.9 kJ
Solve no for the total heat needed to warm
the ice to the freezing point and then melt it:
4.9 kJ + 0.439 kJ = 5.34 kJ Ans
Calculate the heat required to vaporize 138 g
of water at 100C?
Note: For water, it takes 40.6 kJ of energy to
vaporize 1 mol into gaseous form:
138 g
1 mol
18 g
40.6 kJ
1 mol
=311 kJ Ans
A 20gallon steel tank is filled with gasoline
when the temperature is 15C. The tank and
its contents are then heated by the Suns rays
to a temperature of 45C. How much of the
gasoline will spill from the tank?
( )( )( )
( )
( )( )( )
gas gas
3
gas
tank tank tank
6
tank
spill gas tank
V V T
V 0.95 10 / C 20 gal 30 C 0.57 gal
V V T 3 V T
V 3 12 10 / C 20 gal 30 C 0.02 gal
V V V 0.55 gal Ans
A = A
A = =
A = A = o A
A = =
= A A =
What temperature increase is necessary to
produce a 1 percent increase in volume of a
quantity of hydrogen gas (initially at 0 degrees
Celsius) that is maintained at a constant
pressure?
Note: of most gases is 3.66x10
3
/C
( )
3
V V T
1 V 1
T 0.01 2.73 C Ans
V 3.66 10
A = A
A
A = = =

How much heat is required to raise the
temperature of 3 L of methyl alcohol from 20C
to 45C?
Note: density of alcohol is 0.81 g/cm
3
and
specific heat capacity of alcohol is 2512 J/kgC
m=v = 0.81
g
cm
3

\

.

3000cm
3
( )
= 2.43 kg
Q = mcAT = 2.43 kg ( ) 2512
J
kgC

\

.

25C ( )
Q=1.5210
5
J = 36.5 cal Ans
A container holds 2.4 kg of water at 22C. Into
this water is placed a 0.60kg piece of iron that
has a temperature of 95C. Assuming that no
heat is lost by the wateriron system, what will
be the equilibrium temperature of the mixture?
Note: Specific heat capacity of iron is 448
J/kgC
Q
hot
=Q
cold
Q
iron
=Q
water
mcAT ( )
iron
= mcAT ( )
water
0.6 ( )448 ( )T95 ( )= 2.4 ( )4184 ( )T22 ( )
T=23.9C Ans
A chunk of ice whose mass is 200 g melts
reversibly to water, maintaining the
temperature of 0C throughout the process.
Find the change of entropy for this chunk of
ice. Latent heat of fusion of ice = 333 kJ/kg.
AS=
Q
T
=
mL
f
T
=
0.2 ( )333 ( )
0+273
=244
J
K
Ans
A certain refrigerator (COP = 5.0), extracts
heat from its cooling chamber at a rate equal
to 300 Joules per cycle. How much work per
cycle needed to operate this refrigerator?
COP=
Q
c
W
in
5=
300 J
W
in
; W
in
=60 J Ans
An engine performs 300 J of work but ejects
800 J of heat in the process. Find its efficiency.
eng h c
eng
h c c
h h h
eng
c eng
W Q Q
W
Q Q Q out
e 1
in Q Q Q
W
300 J
e 27.3% Ans
Q W 800 J + 300 J
=
= = = =
= = =
+
Determine the final temperature of a 150 g
piece of glass at 24C that absorbs 800
calories of heat, when exposed to sunlight.
Specific heat of glass = 0.12 cal/gC
Q=mcAT
800 cal = 150 g ( ) 0.12
cal
gC

\

.

T24C ( )
T= 68.4CAns
A heat engine using Carnot cycle has a high
temperature equal to 800C during one
process and low temperature equal to 400C
on another process. Find the engines
efficiency.
Note: Engine operating in a Carnot cycle is
called a Carnot Engine. It gives the
highest/maximum theoretical efficiency.
c
c
h
T 400 273
e 1 1 37% Ans
T 800 273
+
= = =
+
A thin square steel plate 10 cm on a side, is
heated in a blacksmith forge, to a temperature
of 900C. What is the total rate of radiation if
the emissivity is 0.60?
P= oeAT
4
P= 5.6710
8
( )
0.6 ( )0.1m ( )
2
900+273 ( )
4
P= 644 W Ans
How much heat is needed to melt 10 kg of ice
at 0C?
( )
f
Cal
Q mL 10 kg 80 800Cal Ans
kg
 
= = =

\ .
A drag racer accelerates at a constant rate,
starting from rest and reaches a speed of 240
mph in a distance of quarter of a mile. What is
the acceleration?
v
2
= v
0
2
+2as
0.067
2
=0+2a 0.25 ( ); a = 0.133 mi/s
2
Ans
A ball is released from rest at a certain height.
What is its speed after falling 256 ft?
v = 2gh= 2 32.2 ( )256 ( )=128 ft/sAns
An airplane, whose ground speed in still air is
200 mph is flying with its nose pointed due
north. If there is a cross wind of 50 mph in an
easterly direction, what is the direction of the
flight relative to the ground?
u=tan
1
v
wind
w
plane
=tan
1
50
200
=14Ans
A ball is released from a height of 64 ft and is
given an initial horizontal velocity of 20 ft/s.
When the object strikes the ground, how far
has it traveled in the horizontal direction?
s
y
=v
o
y
t
1
2
a
y
t
2
64=0
1
2
32.2 ( )t
2
; t = 2 s
s
x
=v
o
x
t
1
2
a
x
t
2
x = 20 ( )2 ( )+0 ; x = 40 ft Ans
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th
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An artillery is pointed upward at an angle of
35 with respect to the horizontal and fires a
projectile with a muzzle velocity of 1800 ft/s. If
air resistance is not important, what is the
maximum height?
y
max
=
v
o
sinu ( )
2
2g
=
1800sin35 ( )
2
2 32.2 ( )
=16,655 ft
A 10kg block is pulled along a horizontal
surface at constant velocity by a force F of
magnitude 50 N and which makes an angle of
25 degrees with the horizontal. What is the
coefficient of kinetic friction between the block
and the plane?
y
x k
k
k
F 0; N Fsin25 mg
F 0; f Fcos25
f Fcos25
0.59 Ans
N mg Fsin25
= + =
= =
= = =
A 100 lb block in contact with a level plane is
acted upon by a horizontal force P = 50 lb.
How long will the velocity of the block be
increased from 4 fps to 8 fps. Coefficient of
friction = 0.2.
F
x
=ma
PF=ma
50 0.2 ( )100 ( )=
100
32.2
a
a=9.66
ft
s
2
a=
Av
t
9.66=
84
t
t =0.414 sAns
Twogear wheels are coupled together. One
wheel has a radius equal to 8 inches while the
other 4 inches. What will be the ratio of the
angular speeds of the coupled gear wheel?
From the formula:
v =re; e=
v
r
it is obvious
that angular velocity is inversely proportional to
radius. Therefore, the ratio of their angular
velocity is 1:2
A train with a speed of 60 mi/h rounds a 420
feet radius curve. Find its acceleration.
Note: For circular motion, the acceleration is
directed towards the center of the circular
path.
2
2
2
mi 5310 ft
60
v ft hr 3600 s
a 18.65 Ans
r 420 ft s
(
(
= = =
A projectile is fired with a horizontal velocity of
300 m/s from the top of the cliff 60 m high.
Calculate how far from the foot of the cliff will it
strike?
Analyze the vertical component of the motion:
s
y
= v
oy
t
1
2
a
y
t
2
60=0
1
2
9.81 ( )t
2
t =3.5 s
Analyze the horizontal component of the
motion:
( )( )
2
x ox x
1
s v t a t
2
x 300 3.5 0 1050 m Ans
=
= + =
A 12 kg flower pot is hanging by a cord from
the roof of an elevator. What is the tension in
the cord when the elevator is accelerating
upward at 3 m/s
2
?
( )( ) ( )( )
y
F ma
T W ma
T W ma 12 9.81 12 3
T 154 N Ans
E =
=
= + = +
=
A 1oz gold coin is placed on a turntable
turning at 33.33 rpm. What is the coefficient of
friction between the coin and the turntable if
the maximum radius, before the coin slips, is
0.14 m?
( ) 2 0.14 m
rev 1 min
v 33.33
min 60 s 1 rev
v 0.49 m/s
t
=
=
Use: frictional force = centripetal force
( )
2
2
2
2
2 2
v
N m
r
v
W m
r
v
mg m
r
v
g
r
v 0.49
0.18 Ans
gr 9.81 0.14
=
=
=
=
= = =
A certain car driven in a circle can exert a
maximum side force of 0.95g. What is the
maximum speed for this car driven in a circle
of 160 m radius?
0.95g means a side force or acceleration
directed at right angles to the direction of
travel:
a=
v
2
r
v = ar = 0.95 9.81
m
s
2

\

.

160 m ( )
v =38.6 m/s Ans
A physicist turned motorcycle stunt driver will
jump a 20 m wide row of cars. The launch
ramp is 30 degrees and 9 m high. The land
ramp is also 30 degrees and is 6 m high. Find
the minimum speed for the launch.
Minimum initial velocity is dictated by the
condition that the rider should be at x = 20 m
and y =  3 m (because the point of landing is 3
m lower than the point of launch):
( )
( ) ( )
x
y
2
x o x
o
2
y o y
2
o
1
s v t a t
2
20 v cos30 t 0 eq. 1
1
s v t a t
2
1
3 m v sin30 t 9.81 t eq. 2
2
=
= +
=
=
Two equations, two unknowns:
v
o
=13.4 m/s Ans
A baseball is hit at a 45 degree angle and a
height of 0.90 m. The ball travels a total
distance of 120 m. What is the initial velocity of
the ball?
s
x
= v
o
x
t
1
2
a
x
t
2
120= v
o
cos45 ( )t +0 eq. 1
s
y
= v
o
y
t
1
2
a
y
t
2
0.90 m= v
o
sin45 ( )t
1
2
9.81 ( )t
2
eq. 2
Two equations, two unknowns:
t =4.97 s
v
o
=34.1 m/s Ans
A parachutist descending at a constant rate of
2 m/s drops a smoke canister at a height of
300 m. Find the time for the smoke canister to
reach the ground.
s= v
o
t
1
2
at
2
300= 2 ( )t
1
2
9.81 ( )t
2
t =7.6 s Ans
A bottle of champagne is dropped by a
balloonist. The balloon is rising at a constant
velocity of 3 m/s. It takes 8.0 s for the bottle of
champagne to reach the ground. Find the
height of the balloon when the bottle was
dropped, the height of the balloon when the
bottle reaches the ground.
Height of the balloon when the bottle was
dropped:
s=v
o
t
1
2
at
2
y= 3 ( )8 ( )
1
2
9.81 ( )8 ( )
2
y=290 m Ans
Height of the balloon when the bottle reaches
the ground:
( )
t
t
y 290 m + vt
m
y 290 m + 3 8 s 314 m Ans
s
=
 
= =

\ .
Consider a mass of 2 kg being whirled in a
sling in a horizontal circle. The period of
rotation is 1.0 s and the radius is 1.0 m. What
is the tension in the cord?
( )
( )
2
2
2 1
2 r m
v 2
t 1 s
m
2 kg 2
mv s
F 79 N Ans
r 1 m
t
t
= = = t
 
t

\ .
= = =
A businessman invested P300,000 in his new
product. This project has an estimated annual
revenue of P210,000 for 4 years with a
salvage value of 18% of the original
investment. If the expenses is around
P125,000 per year and tax is 5% of the first
cost per year, what is the rate of return?
Excel Review Center IFC Q & A 17  GEAS
Cebu: JRT Bldg., Imus Avenue, Cebu City Tel. 2685989 90 Manila: 3
rd
& 4
th
Fl. CMFFI Building R. Papa St. Sampaloc Tel. 7365291
( )
( )
net profit
ROR 100%
capital
210,000 dep expenses tax
ROR 100%
300,000
300k 0.18 300k
210k 125k 0.05 300k
4
ROR 100%
300,000
ROR 2.83% Ans
=
=
=
=
Find the value of n if the interest rate is 3%
and the investment made indicates a single
compound amount factor of 1.191.
1+i ( )
n
=1.191
1+0.03 ( )
n
=1.191 ; n = 6 Ans
What is the amount at the end of 8 months for
P 10,000 if the discount rate is 9%?
i =
d
1d
=
0.09
10.09
=0.0989
F=P 1+i ( )
n
=10,000 1+0.0989 ( )
8/12
F=10,649 Ans
Eumia purchased a lot worth P 200,000 on
installment basis to be paid in 20 years. If the
nominal rate of interest is 10%, how much
would be her monthly amortization?
Note: It is assumed that the nominal rate given
in the problem is compounded annually,
therefore it is equal to the effective rate. Use it
to get the nominal rate compounded monthly.
( )
( )
( )
( )
m
12
n
n
20 12
20 12
NR
ER 1 1
m
NR
0.10 1 1; NR = 9.57%
12
A 1 i 1
P =
i 1 i
0.0957
A 1 1
12
200,000 =
0.0957 0.0957
1
12 12
A 1873.4 Ans
 
= +

\ .
 
= +

\ .
(
+
+
(
 
+ (

\ . (
 
+

\ .
=
A new machine requires an annual
maintenance cost of P 10,000. If the annual
maintenance cost increased by 15% annually
for 10 years, calculate the estimated present
worth of the maintenance cost if money is
worth 10%.
Use Geometric Gradient (increasing by a
constant percentage of 15%)
n
10
1 r 1 0.15
x 1.045
1 i 1 0.10
G 1 x
P
1 i 1 x
10,000 1 1.045
P 111,711 Ans
1 0.10 1 1.045
+ +
= = =
+ +
(
=
(
+
(
= =
(
+
A company has a program in which the
employees will be allowed to purchase shares
of stocks of the company at the end of its fifth
year of operation, when the companys thought
to have gained stability already. The stock has
a par value of P 100.00 per share. Believing in
the good potential of the company, an
employee decided to save in a bank the
amount of P 8,000.00 at the end of every year
which will earn for him 9% interest,
compounded annually. How much shares of
stocks will he be able to purchase at the end of
the fifth year of his yearly deposits?
Solve first for the value of P8000 annuity after
5 years. This is the money the employee will
use to purchase shares of stocks:
( ) ( )
n 5
A 1 i 1 8000 1 0.09 1
F 47,877
i 0.09
( (
+ +
= = =
P47,877 will be used to buy shares of stocks
at P100 each:
47,877
N 478.77 478 Ans
100
= = ~
The average annual cost of damages caused
by floods from the typhoon Yolanda is
estimated at P 700,000. To build a system to
protect the city from the floods, it would cost P
2,500,000 and would involve an annual
maintenance cost of P 20,000. With interest at
8% compounded annually, how many years
will it take for the system to pay for itself?
Get the capitalized cost of the floodprotection
system:
CC=FC+
A
i
CC=2,500,000+
20,000
0.08
= 2,750,000
Divide the CC by the annual cost:
N=
2,750,000
700,000
=4 yrs Ans
A mining company earned a gross income of
P120 million in 2012. The net taxable income
after taking all deductions except for depletion
is P48 million. What is the allowable depletion
allowance in that year. For minerals, the
percentage of gross income is 30%.
D= 0.30 ( )120M ( )=36M
D= 0.5 ( )48M ( )= 24MAns
Note: Using the percentage method for
depletion, always use the smaller value.
A photocopy machine cost P40,000 and has
an estimated life of 5 years. If the salvage
value is P2000, calculate the depreciation rate
using the straight line method.
FC SV 40,000 2,000
d 7,600
n 5
d 7600
k 100 100 19% Ans
FC 40000
= = =
= = =
A manufacturer produces certain items at a
labor cost of P115 each, material cost of P76
each and variable cost of P2.32 each. If the
item has a unit price of P600, how many units
must be manufactured each month for the
manufacturer to break even if the monthly
overhead is P428,000.
income expenses
600x 115x 76x 2.32x 428,000
x 1052.42 1053
=
= + + +
= ~
An asset is purchased for P20,000. Its
estimated life is 10 years after which it will be
sold for P12,000. Find the depreciation for the
first year using sum of years digit method.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 o n
1
n n 1 10 10 1
years 55
2 2
n 10
d C C 20000 12000
years 55
d 1454.54
+ +
E = = =
= =
E
=
An equipment costs P10,000 with a salvage
value of P500 at the end of 10 years. Calculate
the annual depreciation cost by sinking fund
method at 4% interest.
( )
( )
( )
( )
n 10
FC SV i 10000 500 0.04
d 791.26
1 i 1 1 0.04 1
= = =
+ +
A local firm is establishing a sinking fund for
the purpose of accumulating a sufficient capital
to retire its outstanding bonds at maturity. The
bonds are redeemable in 10 years and their
maturity value is P150,000. How much should
be deposited each year if the fund pays 3%
interest?
Bonds are like ordinary annuity. You are given
a fixed amount periodically and given the
maturity value at the end of the total specified
period.
( )
( )
n
10
A 1 i 1
F
i
A 1 0.03 1
150,000
0.03
A 13,084.58
(
+
=
(
+
=
=
A P 1,000,000 issue of 3%, 15year bond was
sold at 95%. What is the rate of interest of this
investment?
n
n n n
Zr (1 i) 1
C
V
i(1 i) (1 i)
( +
= +
+ +
n
V 0.95(1,000,000) 950,000
C 1,000,000
Zr 1,000,000(0.03) 30,000
= =
=
= =
Substituting:
15
15 15
30000 (1 i) 1
1,000,000
950000
i(1 i) (1 i)
( +
= +
+ +
You can solve i by trial and error.
A man was offered a government bond with a
face value of P 100,000 which is bearing
interest of 6% per year payable semiannually
and due in 6 years. If he wants to earn 8%
semiannually, how much must he pay the
bond?
n
n n n
Zr (1 i) 1
C
V
i(1 i) (1 i)
( +
= +
+ +
0.06
Zr 100,000 3,000
2
 
= =

\ .
n
n n n
n
0.08
3,000 1 1
2
100,000
V
0.08 0.08 0.08
1 1
2 2 2
V 90,614.93
(
 
+
(

\ .
(
= +
    
+ +
  
\ .\ . \ .
=
God bless you all.