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Author: Juan Jos Estrella Snchez

ZHANG SAN FENG

ONE MAN, ONE DESTINY


By Juan Jos ESTRELLA SNCHEZ

THESIS submitted as a requirement for obtaining the 6 DUAN

GUADALAJARA ESPAA 2011

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Thesis approved:

Director: HONG KONG WUSHU ASSOCIATION

Date: February 26, 2011

Author: Juan Jos Estrella Snchez

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I want to thank, especially, to all researchers who have devoted their efforts to the figure of Zhang San Feng. They all have facilitated and encouraged my work and my desire to know in depth this historical Taoist. I also want, in a very special way, to thank my Master Yuan Xiu Gang, heir to the Lineage San Feng Pai, because he has always shared his knowledge and wisdom with me, clarifying me, in this way, many concepts about Lineage and development.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page APPROVAL PAGE . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . 1. 2. 3. 4. INTRODUCTION HISTORICAL RECORDS . SOURCES OF ITS EXISTENCE . MODERN RESEARCH .... 4.1 About Zhang San Feng . 4.2 About Zhang San Feng INITIAL CONCLUSIONS....... CONTRIBUTIONS FROM WUDANG SHAN . FINAL APPENDIX .. FINAL CONCLUSIONS . 1 2 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 13 15 18

5. 6. 7. 8.

REFERENCES ..

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1. INTRODUCTION Supporters or not its personality, it is indisputable that Zhang San Feng was, is and will be a historical figure of outstanding importance. Also, many speculations have been made about its shape, their knowledge and martial skills. The purpose of this Thesis lies just, in showing interested the detailed research I have done, with the sole purpose of being able to clarify some points of view innovative and ignored. To do this, I had the invaluable help of Yuan Xiu Gang descendant of 15th San Feng Pai Lineage. The data and assumptions resulting expanded views concerning one of the long-held assumptions about the birth and development of the current Taiji Quan.

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2. HISTORICAL RECORDS The first text Zhang Sanfeng hails as the creator of Taijiquan was written by Li Yiyuan in his "Short Introduction to Taijiquan" in 1880 appeared in the original inheritance from his uncle Wu Yuxiang (1812-1880). The same acclamations were performed in Ma Tongwen manuscripts. Ma was nephew of Li Yiyu and Hao Weizhen (1840-1920), who was Li Yiyu neighbor. However, the legends of the creation of Taijiquan by Zhang Sanfeng continued in some of the most important books of modern Taijiquan, such as "Taijiquan Tushi Jie" Xu Yusheng , or the "Clarification of the Postures of Taijiquan (Taiji Quanxue ) by Sun Loutang in 1921, or the "Learning Taijiquan (Taiji Quan Shu ) of Ceng Weiming in 1924, also in the "Art of Taijiquan (Tiaji Quan Tiyong Quanshu ) by Chengfu Yang in 1925 and in the "Essence and Applications of Taijiquan" written in 1934; besides, of course, in all oral traditions. According to the historian of Taijiquan Mr. Shen Shou , the last manuscripts were copies of the manuscript of Li Yiyuan in 1867 (Shen Shou, 16). For unknown reasons, Li Yiyuan rewrote his "Short Introduction to Taijiquan" and began their new text with the phrase: "The Creator of Taijiquan is unknown", this happened in September 1881 after the death of his uncle Wu Yuxiang (Hao Shaoru, 141). According Xu Zhen (1898-1967), the source of the association of Zhang Sanfeng with Taijiquan have been supporters of the Yang family after Guangxu reign (1875-1904) in Qing Dynasty (Xu Zhen, 112). The attribution of the creation of Taijiquan by Zhang Sanfeng has been seriously taken as a creed, and this belief has been materialized through records, ceremonies, altars, and iconography of the lineages by the most Taijiquan enthusiastic. This massive belief makes me raises, is it possible that so many generations and Taijiquan practitioners, worldwide, we are wrong? However, it should take into account the contribution of modern researchers, us we agree or disagree with it. It is undisputed that Tang Hao, Xu Yusheng has not discovered evidence of the "creation of Taijiquan by Zhang Sanfeng" in written or oral traditions of the village of Chen during the investigation in the 30's, and not mentioned in the advance copy of Wu/Li Classics." (Wile, 106) Although new research - conducted by me during the years 2006/10 wish to clarify that Zhang Sanfeng () was not the originator of Taijiquan as we know it today, but it was the originator of Taiji System, which later known development.

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3. SOURCES OF ITS EXISTENCE The "Imperial Records about Awarded Orders by Emperors" (Huangming Enming Shilu ) by Zhang Yuchu . "Removed Documents from Buddhism and Taoism" (Chanxuan Xianjiaobian ) by Yang Pu . The "Cohesive History of Great Ming" (Daming Yitongzhi Xianshi ) by Li Xian in 1461. The "Monument of the Legends of Zhang Sanfeng (Zhang Ji Sanfeng Yiji ) in Taoist temple Jintai, Baoji County dated 1462. The "New Letters and Records Yearbook of Guizhou (Guizhou Tujing Xinzhi ) by Shen Yang and, the "Cohesive History of Guizhou" (Guizhou Tongzhi ) in 1597 (Wang Shuxian). According to this poem, Zhang Sanfeng born in 1247 at the age of forty-eight 48 , he still had not received the true transmission of the Tao. According to the "Monument of Baoji Temple in Jingtai" (Baoji Jingtaiguan Bi), "Annual of Xiangfu County" (Xiangfu Xianzhi ) by Li Tongheng, the Cohesive History of Shengjing (Shenjing Tongzhi ) by E. Gui and the Cohesive History of Chenzhou (Chenzhou Congzhi ) by Chen Zhao; Zhang Sanfeng was seen at the end of the reign of Tianshun (1457-1464). This frame time coincides with the period in which he was awarded the "Award of the Imperial Bronze Registration to Zhang Sanfeng" by the Ming court. I have to stake, some textual sources which indicate Zhang Sanfeng relationship with supernatural powers, with healing powers, with the practice of Kanyu (Fengshui), reading reflection, horseback riding and archery. The "Collected Documents from Buddhism and Taoism" (Chanxuan Xianjiaobian ) by Yang Pu, the "Collection of Jade Flower" (Jionghua Ji ) by Cao Rui or "Great Collection of Old and Current Books" (Gujin Tushu Jicheng ) by Gujin Tushu; refer to the Zhang Sanfeng ability to manifest thousands of Jade Flowers from void, and the ability to levitate and fly at high speed. The "Occasional Scripture of Clear Current" (Qingxi Xiabi ) by Yao Fu, the "Collection of Anecdotes" (Baishi Huibian ) by Wang Qi and the Cohesive History of Shaanxi (Shaanxi Tongzi ) by Jia Hanfu; reveal the Zhang Sanfeng healing powers (probably with Qigong).

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The Cohesive History of Guizhou (Guizhou Tongzhi ) by Cao Shenji, the Pingxiwei Yearbooks (Pingxi Weizhi ) by Zheng Fengyuan, the Annual Yuping County (Yuping Xianzhi ) by Zhao Qin, the "Cohesive Huguang Annual" (Huguang Congzhi ) by Xu Xuemo and the Annual Xiangfu County (Xiangfu Xianzhi ) by Li Tongheng; speak of Zhang Sanfeng state practice in Kanyu (Fengshui) and Xiangshu (a form of fortune-telling by reading the appearance). The closest document that shows the connection of Zhang Sanfeng with martial arts are the Qiongzhou Annual (Dayixian Zhi) by Zhao Qin. They associated Zhang Sanfeng with the archery on horseback. Importantly, the archery on horseback was the greatest skill that a soldier of this time could develop. What makes us think that Zhang Sanfeng , possibly, had knowledge of the Battlefield. It is also important to note that to reach maximum develop skills - archery on horseback - was necessary to start with the basic unarmed and weapons skills.
4. MODERN RESEARCH

Tang Hao (1897-1959) also known as Tang Fansheng, born into a family of tailors and has been considered as the first intellectual history of modern martial arts besides was also a practitioner of the same. He began a new era by bringing several critical studies in the history and development of Taijiquan at the 30, 40 and 50, crediting Chen Wangting, Chenjiagou village, as the creator of Taijiquan at the end of XVII century. Then, there was the belief that Wang Zongyue learned Taijiquan in the Chen village - I seriously, questioned this assertion -. Xu Yusheng (1879-1945), also known as Xu Chonghou, was born into a family practitioner of martial arts and was a student of Yang Jianhou (1839-1917). It was dedicated to the revitalization of the theory and practice of Chinese martial arts, one of the strongest promoters in 1920 and 1930 of idea of "Zhang Sanfeng as the creator of Taijiquan during the Song Dynasty." Therefore, we can primarily questions are: Zhang Sanfeng created Taijiquan? ... Why Li Yiyu quickly changed his story from the death of his uncle? ... Why Wu Yuxiang instigated this legend in the first place? Today many students and historians are convinced about Zhang Sanfeng association with Taijiquan, thanks to changes made by Huang Zongxi in his work "The Inner School begins in Zhang Sanfeng" and his work "Epitaph for Wang Zhengnan ", taken from the Ningbo Annuals (Ningpo Fuzhi ) (Cao Bingren)

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Regardless of the contribution of Zhang Sanfeng and his ilk with the inner schools, the Chen family lineage reflected on the beliefs of Wu Yuxiang and adornment made by the Yang Family, finding questions compiled, and boring answers. Concentrating all their efforts in investigate the two names given to Zhang San Feng: and .

4.1 About Zhang San Feng Despite the discrepancies found between the two names - and - the "Zhang Sanfeng of the Song Dynasty" could not be found textually in the documents found. In the original text of Huang Zongxi "Shaolin School" () is said of him: "had a worldly importance for its boxing ... there was something called the Inner School ... began with Zhang Sanfeng in the Song Dynasty ... Sanfeng was an alchemist of Wudang Mountain. Huizong Emperor of Song Dynasty (who ruled between 1101 y1125) called Zhang Sanfeng, but the race was obstructed. One night Sanfeng dreamed with transmission art of boxing from the hand of God of War ... The next morning, he killed hundreds of bandits without help." (Huang Zongxi) I can say that there are several stories about the transmission of martial arts by the God of War in "Xuantian Shangdi Qishenglu and the book "God of War Sacred Documents" by Dong Huangsu in 1184, although they are not references about Zhang Sanfeng, or Emperor Huizong. (Dong Huangsu) There are 781 male immortals and 120 female registered in the "History of the True Immortals" (Lishi Zhenxian Tidao Tondjian ), writing by taoist Zhao Daoyi in 1276. The Wudang alchemist, Zhang Sanfeng has not been found in these records. This text is collected in the Taoist Canon. (Zhao Daoyi) There are 21 Taoist Immortals in the Wudang Mountains specifically recorded in the book "Complete Immortals Biography on Mount Wudang Omens" (Wudang Fudi Congzhenji ) edited by Taoist Liu Daoming in 1291. One more time on their record was not found reference to Zhang Sanfeng . This new work is received in the Taoist Canon. (Liu Daoming) In the "Cohesive History of the Yuan Dynasty (Yuan Yitong Zhi ) writing by Bei Bolan and Yue Xuan , there are 11 prominent Buddhist and Taoist adepts registered. Zhang Sanfeng is not among them. The correction of this work began in 1285 and ended in 1303. (Bei Bolan)

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Neither found any trace of the alchemist Zhang Sanfeng in local newspapers which I quote below: "Xianyang Prefecture Annual" (Xiangyang Fuzhi ), Zhang Heng. "Xianyang Prefecture Annual" (Xiangyang Fuzhi ), Hu Jia. "Xianyang Prefecture Annual" (Xiangyang Fuzhi ), Chen E. "Annual Huguang Letters and Records" (Huguang Tujingzhi ), Wu Yanju. "Cohesive Huguang Annual" (Huguang Congzhi ), Xu Xuemo. Junzhou Annual (Junzhouzhi ), Dang Juyi. "Junzhou Annuals Continuation" (Junzhou Xuzhi ), Jia Hongazo. "History of the Great Taihe Mount " (Dayue Taihe Shanzhi ), Shen Dan. Taihe "History of the Great Taihe Mount" (Dayue Taihe Shanzhi ), Lu Chonghua and the "Precise Annual of Taihe Mountain" (Dayue Taihe Shanzhilue ), Wang Gai.

4.2 About Zhang San Feng In relation to another name - - there are a number of textual documents that confirm their existence in the early Ming Dynasty. Half of the textual sources are related from Ming imperial court. The other half of the textual sources are from local histories and local newspapers, but in them there is no clear evidence of the association of Zhang Sanfeng with martial arts. The biography of Zhang Sanfeng in the History of the Ming Dynasty, described Zhang Sanfeng as an eccentric high level alchemist, which was admired by the people and by the Emperor because of his supernatural powers. Zhang was called by Zhu Yuanzhang (1328-1398) founder and first emperor of the Ming dynasty in 1391; by Zhudi Emperor (1360-1424) in 1412 and by the sixth emperor Ming, Zhu Qizhen (1427-1464) in 1459. (Zhang Tingyu) The first imperial source, was the tribute made by Prince Bo Xiang (1371-1399) in the form of a poem; Xiang was the twelfth son of the first Ming emperor, Zhu Yuanzhang (Ren Ziyuan). The archaeological discovery of the "Gold Jade Dragon Registration" (Jinlong Yujian ) in 1982 proves the Taoist devotion of Prince Xiang and his association with Mount Wudang. (Hu Changfu) Among the Ming imperial sources are also two tributes in the form of a poem addressed to the figure of Zhang Sanfeng , and written by Prince Chun Shu (d. 1423) eleventh son of Zhu Yuanzhang; also find the

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"Imperial Invitation Precept" (Shu Yuzhi ) to Zhang Sanfeng , published by the third emperor Zhudi in 1412 (Ren Ziyuan) and the Gaoming or imperial mandate: Zhang Sanfeng Imperial Bronze Inscription" (Yuci Zhang Sanfeng Tongbei ) granted by the sixth emperor Ming, Zhu Qizhen in 1459. The more coherent biography of Zhang Sanfeng is in the "Great History of Taihe Mountain" (Dayue Taihe Shanzhi ) edited by Ren Ziyuan in 1431.

5. INITIAL CONCLUSIONS Zhang Sanfeng was born around 1247 and died about 1464. He had a long life (218 years) and extraordinary skills of alchemy, in addition to achieving certain supernatural powers. Zhang Sanfeng was not only admired by ordinary people, but it was by the Ming imperial nobility, thanks to all the powers possessed, and especially those related to energy and longevity. However, its closer association with martial arts, in documents, it was only with his ability to practice archery on horseback - information that no case be underestimated for there is no involvement in them by Zhang Sanfeng with boxing, both externally and internally, and have never been found in the existing comprehensive documentation to date. Which make me move to Wudang Shan in Hubei province. The purpose of my trip was to collect more information directly from its successors in San Feng Sect . There I got new high value information, which will be shared at the next point. The second crucial element in the argument of Zhang Sanfeng records is the historicity of Wang Zong Yue and Jiang Fa . Despite the conflict between whether Wang Zongyue and Jiang Fa were a students of the teachings of the masters Chen or whether they were whos brought the art of boxing to the Chen village; Tang Hao and Xu Yusheng accept Wang as a historical figure of the regime of Qianlong (1736-1795) in Qing Dynasty, being a active master in the areas of Luoyang and Kaifeng , between 1791-1795 (Tang Hao). Hao Tang studies reflect the history of Li Libing from Tang village - or vice versa - However, there are two permanent questions: The notion of the existence of Wang Zongyue during 1736-1795 is only supported by a single anonymous document "Preface to the Manual of the Yinfu Spear" (Yinfu Qiangpu Xu ) provided by Tang Hao, and no other verifying sources.

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Moreover, the "preface" could not give the full name and Wang's native county, so that we cannot say that Wang (Zong Yue) was the writer of the treaties of Taijiquan, because Wang is one of the common names in Chinese repertoire.
6. CONTRIBUTIONS FROM WUDANG SHAN

For several years I have the privilege of being a student of Yuan Xiu Gang , Wudang Quan master and descendant of the 15th Generation San Feng Lineage. From my first contact with him, always denied standardized legends and stories as we know them now, concerning the creation of Taijiquan by Zhang San Feng . However, Yuan Xiu Gang helped me to open, with their knowledge, a new path in the investigation of Zhang San Feng and his contributions to today Taijiquan. I remember in talk with him, he said: When Zhang San Feng came to Wudang Shan was 70 years old - was about the year 1317 - and was intended to return to the Dao resting in the mountains. To this end, developed a System that will help in improve his energy (Qi ) in circulation. One of that exercises was called "Thirteen Original Methods (San Yuan Shi Shi ). These thirteen methods represent the seed of today Taijiquan. These thirteen techniques were practiced without beginning or end. Representing individual techniques could be combined with pleasure and repeated as often as the practitioner wishes. These are: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Beginning (qi shi ) Embracing a ball (bao qiu shi ) Single pushing (dan tui shi ) Exploring (tan shi ) Holdings (tuo shi ) Pouncing (pu shi ) Loading (dan shi ) Separating (fen shi ) Waving (yun shi ) Dissolving (hua shi ) Pushing on both sides (shuang tui shi ) Pushing down (xia shi ) Finishing (shou shi )

But really that Zhang San Feng development in Wudang mountain was the Taiji System - also called Inner School Boxing (Neijia Quan ) - which later was called Taijiquan -. This System integrated the knowledge that Zhang had in martial arts, inner alchemy and energy driving techniques - current Qigong

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Most people believe that Taijiquan and Taiji are the same. Well, are misguided or uninformed. When most people say "Taiji" generally refers to the practice of Taijiquan (form), however, is not simply working Taiji form sequence -, Taijiquan is only one part of the whole Taiji System. Taiji System, as a comprehensive System of practice, is different. In it, incorporating the work of the three concepts: Yi Wuji , or "non-polarized" (the undifferentiated); Taiji , the "polarity supreme" and Liangyi Wei Yi , "two polarities" (the differential). Yi Wuji represents the practice of meditation in which they train Essence (Jing ), Energy (Qi ) and Spirit (Shen ). This work seeks to push, transform and balance the Qi in our body, so that is one of the pillars within the practices to get return to the Dao. Taiji is the way we use to cultivate ourselves. This method uses driving techniques of energy - Qigong - and Supreme Boxing - Taiji Quan Liangyi represents the energy use that we have cultivated. This type of energy is explosive, and therefore, we use it for combat. Is represented by Liang Yi Quan also called Tai Yi Quan . It is characterized mainly because it combines slow and fast, soft and hard, explosive moves and speed reflexes. In Liangyi are working hands, eyes, trunk, steps and internal power explosive. About its application for combat, the objective of training is to "Out later, but get there before". There are two advanced techniques, the Xuan Wu Quan and Tai Yi Wu Xing Quan , taught to students who have already developed basic skills, especially on internal control. Is that Liang Yi Quan combines slow and speed, smoothness and hardness, yin and yang, so is called "Two Extremes." Therefore Zhang San Feng knowledge developed a comprehensive training System and cultivates, not just a way to make boxing sequences. Besides meditation disciples should - and must make train in the traditional hard and soft San Feng Lineage. The "soft" side is traininng by energetic driving techniques Qigong and San Feng Taiji (Taijiquan), while the "hard" side is training with Liangyi. Is important to remember that these three concepts are also part of Taoist philosophy and the development of the Taiji Symbol (Taiji Tu ) In summary, the Zhang purpose was to have a Full System Internal Grow without focusing on the martial side. He preferred to do it in development of internal and external power, in order to return to the Dao. Zhang San Feng Taiji System: Wuji is used to train the mind, Taiji to work the flow of internal energy through mind control, and Liangyi used mind and internal energy to develop the external power.

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Since ancient San Feng Lineages has continued to maintain these three principles in the System and have never been separated. We must remember that Taiji System is not only a way of practice, is also a culture and legacy, which has been disgraced by some of his indirect descendants. In fact, I remember a conversation with Yuan Xiu Gang in which, I asked about the origin of Chen Style . He told me: "... the original Chen Style name was Liang Yi; this is how we've always called in Wudang Shan, that's his real name." Zhang San Feng Taiji System Qualities: Defeating movement with stillness (Yi Jing Zhi Dong ) by Wuji Defeating hardness with softness (Yi Rou Ke Gang ) by Taiji Defeating fast with the slow (Yi Man Sheng Kuai ) by Liang Yi

7. FINAL APPENDIX I would like to focus this section on three conclusive figures: Tang Hao , Wang Zong Yue and Jiang Fa . They are the focus of discord and possible reason why, today, the real origins of Chen Style Taijiquan are not fully understood and assimilated (even by their descendants). Firstly I wish to remind the Tang Hao writings, made most of his research to discredit Zhang San Feng and his Lineage, was does from occupied the direction of the Central Academy of Martial Arts of Nanjing (Zhongyang Guoshu Guan ), but how Hao Tang arrived in this position?... Without doubt, the way to have this position reveals an enlightening Tang's enmity with Wudang and Shaolin factions. In a first place the Academy was in the hands of Zhang Zhijiang which, organized two internal departments: Wudang styles by Dong Zhen Gao and Shaolin styles by Wang Zi Ping . This division caused many problems to the point that Zhang had to organize a contest for both sides air their disputes. This competition was held in a church and the first fight was between Wang Zi Ping (who was an expert with the sword and spear) and Gao Zhen Dong (expert Xing Yi Quan, etc...) The two directors fiercely fought several rounds, resulting in a tie. A second fight took place between the supervisors of both departments Ma Yu Fu (Shaolin) and Liu Yin Hu (Wudang); so fierce was the fighting that Yang Song Shan who was an instructor at the Military Academy of Huang Pu, suggested Zhang, to stop the fight to prevent more serious problems.

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Zhang decided to remove the two sections and instead chose to the pioneer research in the history of Chinese martial arts: Tang Hao with Ma Liang and others with a greater willingness to work in teams, and the last thing needed in a project focused on creating a strong, was divisions infighting without no real basis - Tang Hao devoted 6 months to research in the field about the origins of the divisions between Shaolin and Wudang - , their findings were published in the book "Shaolin and Wudang Research" (Shaolin Wudang Kao, - ); which was published by the Academy. In this book, Tang concluded that: these divisions had no historical foundation"; ensuring with this affirmation, his position as director for successive years. It should be noted that the director of Shaolin Wang Zi Ping was a Muslim, born in Cangzhou cradle of arts like Bajiquan, Piguazhang, etc ... which have no connection with Shaolin. In addition, we provide the Tang membership of Chen Lineage, since he was a famous student of Chen Fake. Which make us think that Tang Hao, for there, research find documents in areas already planned to reaffirm his conclusion about origins of today Taijiquan. Hence, Tang mainly obtained within the records of the Chen Family, because in Wudang Shan, there is no knowledge that Mr. Tang Hao has been to gather information. Second place, we return to the analysis of Wang Zong Yue (always under Tang Hao research). On one side there is a little, except the name of Wang, said in versions of the classics of Taijiquan of Yang and Wu/Li familys. According to Li Yiyuan, "Wang Zongyue captured most of the essence and the mysteries of Taijiquan" but, why there has been no documented lineage of Wang in the Taijiquan? Also there has been no indication in the transmission, both oral and written, in the tradition of the Chen Taijiquan transfer, based on Wang Zongyue. On the other side, supporters of the Yang style, Wu/Li, Wu and Sun, advocate that Wang Zongyue belonged to the Ming dynasty. However, Zhao Bing (maternal Yang Zhaoyuan grandson, brother of Yang Chenfu ) notes that Wang Zongyue belonged to the middle period of Qing Dynasty a view which coincides with Tang Hao (Zhao Bing) Thirdly, in relation to Jiang Fa, we have no textual evidence with his figure. Meanwhile, Yang, Wu/Li and Wu, has tried to raise Jiang Fa to height vital link with Zhang Sanfeng and Wang Zongyue and they, all turn to the Chen family; while Chen family admitted Jiang Fa but have marginalized his role. As the grandson of Chen Xi, Chen Dongshan , in the short added on the last page of monumental book of Chen Xin "Illustration and Explanation of Chen Taijiquan Style" by Du Yuwang (Yuanhua), describes the songs and master transmissions of Shanxi to Jiang Fa, being forged and added after Chen Xin death by the same Du Yuwang. Du being demanded for it, was required an apology and payment of one hundred silver dollars for his conduct in 1935. (Chen Dongshan)

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Meanwhile, supporters of Zhaobao built a movement on Jiang Fa who moves the position of Taijiquan from Chen Village (Chenjiagou) to the neighboring city of Zhaobao (Du Yuanhua) According to Zheng Wuqing and his son Zheng Rui during the reign Ming Wanli (1576-1619), Wang Zongyue traveled to Zhaobao City and took Jiang Fa as a student. Due to the advanced age of Wang, his only daughter was the art sent to Jiang Fa; from that is why Zhaobao Taijiquan is also called the "Big Girl Supreme Boxing" (Quan Daguniang ) assertion made by Li Shirong. These, has moved Jiang Fa to seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and have made him master of Chen Wang Ting (1600-1680) and Chen Chang Xing (1771-1853). I think that Hao Tang made a mistake linking Jiang Fa to Chen Wangting figure, when really went Chen Changxing who Jiang Fa taught his art. Perhaps that is why Changxing has been and will be an outcast within familys Chen. It was through their knowledge and the function performed with the Jiang Fa teachings that Chen Changxing thus trained Yang Lu Chan . And even, I dare to say that Jiang Fa also taught Chen Qingping , so he Qingping - will do the same to Wu Yuxiang . So, I personally disagree with Tang Hao about the relationship that he makes from the painting found on the Chen altar in Chenjiagou. In it and as Tang Hao proclaims, shown Chen Wangting and Jiang Fa together. I believe that this statement is totally wrong. The person who appears after Chen Wangting is not Jiang Fa.

8. FINAL CONCLUSIONS Like it or not to the Chen Family descendants and modern researchers, Zhang San Feng is, was and will be, a character of considerable importance in the Chinese martial arts and cultural history. The intention (purpose) of this Thesis is to remind the modern Taijiquan environment that, the contribution of Zhang San Feng our current development is essential. Regardless, whose or who, have sat him in the dock, it is undeniable that Zhang was loved both by strangers and celebrities, people and nobility and, primarily, is unquestionable remember the contribution made to the world by creating and development of TAIJI SYSTEM and the Wudang Internal Boxing. The real sad of this whole thing, lies in the helplessness felt by later generations, because we could not do anything to clear his name and lift from, already mentioned, dock.

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It is difficult to know the real reasons that led the Chen family to discredit Zhang San Feng , Wang Zong Yue , Jiang Fa y Chen Chang Xing , although the best we can imagine that this action was prompted by survival reasons. It is much more coherent and successful believe all the different Taijiquan styles (except Chen) which attribute the establishment of the foundations in the current Taijiquan to Zhang San Feng that, believe a single family - Chen that year after year struggle to discredit the beliefs of the rest of the world. Humbly and based on the documents examined, I will try to develop the evolution of Taijiquan, from its beginnings with the Taoist San Feng . This development is a personal and benign act.

Personal Conclusion: Zhang San Feng in search of Dao came to Wudang Shan at the age of 70. There, he developed the "Taiji System" fusing his knowledge about taoist medicine, martial arts and energy induction techniques; this System included in its teachings the Thirteen Original Methods (Shi San Yuan Shi ). Each three sections were designed for a particular purpose and all, turn to achieve a goal: the Dao. From beginning the martial intention was detached from its System, due to his old age. Many were his disciples and the disciples of his disciples, but few came to be known. Among them were Zhang Song Xi , Wang Zong Yue y Jiang Fa as wires to the modern genealogy of Taijiquan. The first of the known descendants of San Feng was Zhang Song Xi , who synthesized and improved Taiji System created by his predecessor. In subsequent years the transmission of knowledge was to Wang Zong Yue which I think was a first contact with the Chenjiagou village and more specifically with the figure of Chen Wang Ting . Wang was the one who compiled the Thirteen Original San Feng methods for the first time in sequence, with a beginning and end set. This first contact between the two, resulted in the boxing system practiced in the Chen village suffered a series of changes coming to the principles postulated from the Wudang Internal Boxing. These changes were within the Chen family and were transmitted down to the figure of Chen Chang Xing among other figures.

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It should be noted that Wang Zong Yue Boxing was transmitted to Jiang Fa , which visited Zhao Bao and Chen village, where he lived for nearly a decade. The new Chen Chang Xing Taijiquan bases, obtained from his family and changed to new Taiji System were punctuated and improved by Jiang Fa . These new rules, revised and improved, were transmitted from Chen Chang Xing to Yang Lu Chan who created the Yang Style. Among the most outstanding students of Yang was Wu Quan Yu who created the Wu Style; being his son Wu Jian Quan the main promoter of it. Continuing with Jiang Fa descent, I approve that his boxing came to Zhang Yan and Chen Qing Ping , then passed on to Wu Yu Xiang who created the Wu/Li/Hao Style. The Wu Yu Xiang knowledge, through Hao Wei Chen came to Sun Lu Tang who created the Sun Style. The changes were happening in each of the new Styles, but always with one common denominator: Taiji System created by Zhang San Feng .

Later generations, for fame, messed up my boxing practice, altered my Tai Chi and damaged my name.

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