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M 94

TREATISE

OF T HE

REVENUE

AND

FALSE MONEY

O F T H E

ROMANS.

To which is annexed,

A DISSERTATION upon the Manner of

diftinguifhing Antique MEDALS from coun-

terfeit ones.

Tranflated from the ORIGINAL printed at Pan's 1740.

LONDON:

Printed for J. and P. KMA p T o N,

Ludgate-ftreet.

at the Crown in

Mocc XLI.

f

TAB L E

Of the CHAPTE RS and MATTER 8

contained in this Volume.

CHAP. I.

O7?

the Demefne of

the Romans,

i. lie Funds of the Demefne,

Page t

ibid*

2. Conquered Countries,

2

3.

Confifcated Eftates and E/effs,

3

4.

Eftates reunited to the Demefne,

4

5. Extent of tbe Demefne of the Romans,

6

6. Forefts, Rivers, Wrecks, &c,

7. Farms of the Demefne,

8. Alienations and PrefcriptionS)

CHAP, II.

6, 9

10, &c.

18, 19

Of the real Tattle or falliage incident to Lands*

25

CHAP. III.

Of various other real Charges which the Ro- Of the Perfonal faille or Poll-tax,

4?

CHAP. IV.

mans laid upon Lands,

37

A 2

CHAP,

2003134

TABLE.

CHAP. V.

Of Confifcations and Fines,

59

CHAP. CHAP. VII. VI.

Ofthe Crimes which werepunijhable with a Con-

54

ffcation of EJlates,

Of Efcheats, or the Revenue arifmg from the

SucceJJlons, and teftamentary Legacies,

68

CHAP. VIII.

Of Eftates that were vacant, and had no cer-

tain Proprietor,

74

CHAP. IX.

Of Impofts laid upon Merchandife and Provi-

fionsy

CHAP. X.

Offederal other Duties or Impojls,

CHAP. XI.

7%

90

Of the Money which the Romansdrewfrom their Of the Money which the Romans drew from

CHAP. XII.

Enemies andfrom War,

92

their Allies,

$6

CHAP.

TABLE.

CHAP. XIII.

Of the Prefents or Free Gifts which were volun-

tarily made to the Emperor,

CHAP. XIV.

r\

~

<^v.> ::

_

',

-Tji

"

&$&& .' rv v

-

v

.

Offederal extraordinary Impofts,

IQQ

103

CHAP. XV.

Of the Revenue arijingfrom Salt, Mines, Trea-

furesfound, Rivers, the Sea, &c.

CHAP. XVI. CHAP, CHAP. XIX. XX.

CHAP. XVIII.

Of Loans and borrowed Money,

CHAP. XVII.

Of the great ILxaftions of the Romans,

to the Roman People,

113

j i ^

119

Of the Releafes and Abatements of Taxes made

129

Of the moft confederate Differences between tht

Revenues ofthe Romans, and thofe of France,

*35

Of the Superintendants ofthe Revenue among the

144

CHAP. XXI.

Of the Officers employed under the Superinten-

1 50

Romans,

dant of the Revenue,

C H A

TABLE.

CHAP. XXIL

Of tie Offices tbat depended on the Superinten*

dant of the Revenue*

CHAP. XXIIL

Of the Superintendant of the Demefne,

157

1 62

CHAP. XXIV.

Of the Officers that depended on the Superin-

tendant of the Demefne,

164

CHAP. XXV.

Of the Officers called Palatini, depending on tit

Superintendant of the Demefne,

166

CHAP. XXVI.

Of divers fubaltern Officers employed Ukewife in

the Revenue^

167

EN D of the Table of the Treatife of

the Revenue of the Romans.

TABLE

Of the Treatife of the FALSE MONEY

of the Romans, &c,

PART i.

PART IL

Of the Diflertation on

174

178

the Manner of

diftinguifhing Antique MEDALS, &c.

A

R T I C L

E '

I.

OF

Medals of modern Coin? moft of which

are known by the name of the Paduan,

Page 191

ARTICLE H.

are of modern

Of Medals cajt upon fuch as 'Antique Medals refitted, the Heads and Figures

coining,

195

ARTICLE ARTICLE III. IV.

Medals caft upon Antiques,

198

whereof are cbetngedy

201

ARTI-

TABLE.

ARTICLE V. ARTICLE VII.

Of Medals that are plated, and offucb as art

210

212

Of Medals ftruck with the Hammer, and fucb

as are encafted or joined together,

206

ARTICLE VI.

Of Medals that have Cracks and Countermarks*

mifcoined,

ARTICLE VHL

Of caft Medals that are Antique, and of Me-

dallions compofed of different Coppers,

216

ARTICLE IX.

Of Medals that are merely invented, and offucb

as have been very feldom counterfeited,

A R T I C L E X.

219

224

H I S TO-

HISTORICAL

PREFACE,

O R

INTRODUCTION to the t

freafij$

ofthe Revenue ofthe ROMANS.

M COLBERT, whofe views ex-

tended to

every thing

that

might contribute to augment

the riches ofthe State, and eftablifh a wife

adminiftration of the Revenue, engaged a

perfon very capable of the work to draw

himup aMemoirupon the Revenue of the

Romans. It is the very Memoir which is

now published.

The author hath with

equal accuracy and clearnefs given us in it

an idea, as well of the Revenues

of that

renowned nation, as of the manner of re-

ceiving though fufceptible them, and indeed the different of larger perfons details,

employed in that collection.

This piece,

feems ftill to me to take in every thing that

can be deemed eflential upon the fubjeft.

It hath likewife the advantage of offering

nothing but what is drawn out of the au-

thentic monuments of Antiquity, the on- ly

(a)

ii

Bijlorical PREFACE. The author, whofe

giving us juft very moment of its origin, derived from

war various fources of riches, which me

never fuffered to dry up in all the height

of her power. I mail enter into fome par-

ticulars upon this fubjedt, but without con-

fining myfelf ftri&ly to a chronological

exadtnefs.

I readily agree, that it was the poverty

of the firft inhabitants of Rome which

gave rife to this politic oeconomy, whereof She did

ly ones that are capable of

notions in this point.

name is ftill a fecret, hath obferved (but

might have been more particular in his

obfervations) how exceedingly the Roman

revenues increafed by their fuccefsful mili-

tary expeditions.

Rome, almoft from the

I am going to fpeak : but it was found fo

very advantageous, that the practice was

continued in the mod flourifhing ages of

the Republic.

Among the towns of Italy

that were jealous of the conquefts of Ro-

mulus and of the aggrandizing of the Ro-

lized mans, herfelf Veii, the above capital other of rivals. Etruria, figna-

not fail declaring in favour of her neigh-

dred bours years, that were upon attacked condition by that this they new gave peo-

ple. Romulus having vanquished them

in battle, granted them a truce for an hun-

up a part of their territory which lay ad-

joining to the Tyber, and was called Sep-

Hiflorical PREFACE.

iii

they tern Pagi, had or the Seven Burroughs,

the mouth of this river.

and

furrendered likewife the falt-works which

mall here take at notice, that of all the con-

I

ditions impofed upon conquered people by

the Romans, I mall touch only upon fuch

as fome way or other relate to the fubjecl:

treated of in this work.

Tullus Hoftilius trod in the fteps ofRo-

fadion mulus. for When the large he and had fmall overcome cattle the which Sa-

bines, he obliged them, by way of fati-

they had taken, and the booty which they

had carried

off from the peafants

that

cultivated the lands of Rome, to pay fuch

a fine as mould be fixed by the Roman

Senate.

Ancus Martius, when he raifed

the fiege of Velitrce, infilled that the Volfci

mould repair all the damages they had

done :

and made the

valuation there- impofed on them likewife a

of himfelf. Tarquinius of Prifcus, follow-

ing the example

thefe

his prede-

ceflbrs, not only obliged the inhabitants cf

Collatta, a town in the country of the Sa-

bines, to acknowledge him for their Sove-

reign, but

the money which the Latins He had caufed extorted re-

fine to be paid in money.

fHtution to be made to the peafants of all

from them, and condemned them to make

fatisfaction for all the damages they had

done in their incurfions into the Roman

(

a 2

)

terri.

tiljlorical PREFACE. of their alteration made in the money, which muft

of Rome. Under this King there was an

not be omitted in the Preface to a Trea-

tife upon the Revenue of the Romans.

The firft money that they made ufe of

territories.

The Veians, ever ready to raife

all the people of Etruria in arms againft

them, were forced in like manner to yield

to

the valour of Servius Tullius,

who

which he diftributed among the citizens lands,

ftripped them

of part

was made of brick and leather.

This laft

kind of money was called AJjesfcortei\ it

was ufed at Rome before the reign ofNu-

ma, and according to an ancient writer,

there was a fmall mark ofgold upon thefe

leather pieces. Numa next introduced the caufed brafs money to be coined at Rome.

This Prince caufed the figure of an ox or

ram to be ftamped upon the coin. Thefe

animals having ferved for victims at the

Luftral Sacrifice, this was imagined to be

the to embellim reafon why the he coin took with it thefe into his figures. head

I {hall here obferve further, that there was

no other money in the city till the year

ufe of brafs pieces, which were taken by

weight in exchange for merchandife and

provifions.

This lafted

till the reign of

Servius Tullius,

who was the

firft

that

485 from the foundation of Rome,

which time the firft pieces of filver money at

were

Hijlorical PREFACE. worth ounces.

engraved as many points,

were coined.

Sixty-two years afterwards,

they began to ftrike pieces of gold coin.

In thefe firft pieces of brafs money they

Tarquin the Proud, aiming as at they a tyran- were

nical and defpotic fway, employed the

great fums of money which he found in

Sueffa-Pometia, to finim the Temple of

Jupiter Capitolinus, and to recompenfe the

foldiers whom he had allowed to pillage

We (hall fee in the courfe of lerius Publicola finding the Confuls over- public Treafure.

the town.

this hiftorical relation, how thefe examples

animated the Roman Generals to enrich

the Republic.

In the time ofthe Commonwealth, Va-

burdened with the management of the

Revenue, engaged the people to chufe two

men of integrity, who were called <$U(Z-

ftors, and entrufted with the care of the

He caufed this Treafure

to be removed to the Temple of Saturn, State, was compofed of the ordinary tri-

conceiving it a place where it would be

kept with the greateft fecurity. It was af-

terwards divided into two parts j one being the

deligned for

the daily occafions of

butes and imports ; the This other was was the formed reafon

of the gold arifing from the import of the

twentieth penny which was levied upon

the fale of Haves.

(as)

why

vi

Hiftorical PREFACE.

why they called it Aurum vicefimarium.

This laft treafure was never touched but

in the moft pre/Ting exigencies and necef-

fities

of

the State.

When Annibal had

ravaged Italy for ten years together, the

Republic, over-whelmed with difafters and

calamities, implored in vain the fuccour of

twelve of the thirty Latin Colonies:

it

was only in this terrible extremity, that

flie They came took to out the of refolution this treafure of making four thou- ufe

of the gold raifed out of the fale of flaves.

fand pounds, which amount to near two

millions.

Julius Cosfar having invaded the

Roman liberty, plundered this facred trea-

an Hiftorian, Florus, who flouriihes is as much a Poet as

fury.

"

<c

upon

this facl.

Pompey (fays he*) was fcarce drove

nut of Italy,

when the Senate fled from

" Rome, and Ca?far entering the city, and

<c

"

ful finding ; and it when in a manner -the Tribunes empty, did through

the fear and terror which had feized al-

not

" moft all the world, made himfelf Con-

cc

"

 

readily open the Treamry, he ordered

""

the door to be broke open, without any

 

to

its

an

and invio-

"

regard

being

holy

lable place ; fo that

he robbed Bifhopr the pa- of

<e trimony of the Roman people, before

*' he had (tripped them of their Empire."

Some ages&

after, Freculphus,t

4- '-

T

.

.

Lizieux,

Hiftorical PREFACE.

vii

Lizieux, without quoting his authorities,

informed us, that he took out ofthe Trea-

fury four thoufar.d one hundred thirty-fix

pounds of gold, and nine hundred thou-

fand pounds of filver, which make above

forty millions.

This treafure was grea'Jy augmented by

Generals of the army.

Inftead of confiderable contriving how fums to into enrich it, and themfelves, to order all it

the

their care was employed in bringing very

fo, that the vanquilhed enemy mould pay

the charges of the war.

Animated by a

priating they did to not themfelves understand public good, the the riches art and of of piquing appro- con-

love

for the

themfelves upon an heroic difintereftednefs,

quered nations.

Mars and Pluto were not

then fo clofely allied as at prefent.

Thus

after he to make Rome iatisfaction for the charges

That turbulent nation had puties to the Conful Sp. Caflias Ufcellinus

Roman troops ; and thereupon fent De-

foon after another trial of the valour of the

of the war.

to offer him their friendfhip.

the Conful P. Pofthumius,

had

indulged the foldiery the liberty of plun-

dering, caufed all

that remained of the

Ipoils of the Sabines to be fold, in order

The Conful

referred them to the Senate, who feeing

Rome on the point of being attacked by

other enemies, inflicted only a flight pu-

(

a 4

)

nifhment

viii

Hijlorical PREFACE.

nimment on the Sabines.

Caffius exacted care to make their advantage of them,

whenever the enemy, to prevent the ir-

ruption of the Roman legions, implored

their clemency. The Conful P. Servilius knew how to reconcile his compaffion

their country from being ravaged : but he

thrown themfelves at his feet, to hinder

by the Deputies of the Volfci, who had

could not help being moved and foftened

with the intereft ofthe Republic, exacting

from the enemy fubfiftence for his army,

cloathing for his foldiers, and three hun-

benefit from thefe refources, that they took

from them as much wheat as he thought

proper for the fubfiftence of his troops:

and all the nation was obliged to pay a

certain fum of money.

The Roman Generals found fo much

dred hoftages of their rnoft diftinguimed

gentry.

A modern Hiftorian

*

reproach-

eth Servilius with an excefs of weaknefs

on this occafion, but in treat my with opinion cruelty with- a

out any juft reafon.

a brave Roman to

For could it become

people that fubmittedthemfelves, and were

ready to receive the law of the conqueror ?

I ment. cannot bring myfelf to think there would

have been any courage of mind, or any

thing heroical,

in

an

inflexible refent~

* P. Citrou.

Servilius

Hijlorical PREFACE.

Servilius was perhaps to blame on ano-

ther occafion, though his natural genero-

fity and his love for the public good feem there was

where

to have been the motives that influenced

his conduct. It was when he allowed his

foldiers to pillage the camp of the Volfci,

abundance of filver,

goods, cloaths, cattle and flaves, without

referving any fhare thereof for the public them, and enable them to pay their debts,

which had lately tempted them to break

foldiers to make new conquefts, to enrich

treafure. His defign was to encourage his

out into feditions at Rome. generofity.

Pomeda.

He acted in

the fame manner at the taking of Suefla-

It hath been obferved before,

that Tarquin the Proud affected the fame

was for having Accordingly the honours when of a triumph, Servilius

the Conful Appius Claudius, his Collegue, the enemy. The fame law enjoined It them looks diers, provided he did not procure to him-

General the liberty of rewarding his fol-

felf any advantage from the conquefts

made

however, as if the Republic did allow a

was likewife raifcd to of bring the into enemies the Treafury fpoils. all that

as they pleafed of the booty taken from

bited Generals of the army from difpofing

of having infringed the law which prohi-

largefles given to the foldiers, accufinghim

oppofed it vigoroufly, on account of the

Hiftorical PREFACE.

made in the name of the State, and

gave

an account of his conduct and adminiftra- that it did not grant the General an arbi-

tion.

Though this law gave occafion to feve-

trary ral difputes, power with it muft regard however to the diftribution be owned,

public Treafury. booty, and that the booty, gave him an horfe richly har-

riolanus, afiigned him only a tenth part of

nefled, and allowed him to take as much

put a golden crown upon the head of Co-

Corioli, the Conful Cominius, after he had

Thus at the taking of

of the

it tacitly forbad

A

him to give the whole to the foldiery.

part of it was always to be brought to the

of the filver as he could carry off, Coriolanus and to

make choice of ten prifoners.

tirely contented devoted himfelf to the with public taking good, the no ten cavil pri-

foners and the horfe. Perhaps alfo when

the General was known to be a citizen en-

was ftarted againft him with regard to the

execution of this law. Thus the Dictator

Quintus Cincinnatus gave the infantry un-

der his command the rich booty that was

found in the camp of the /Equi, without

account. being blamed or called in queftion on that

It was to the Senate (as appears by the

conduct of Sp. Caffius Ufcellinus towards

the Sabines) that the Genera) referred the

Depu-

Hijlorical PREFACE.

xi

Deputies of towns which fued for peace.

The Senate fometimes Thus the left it Veians to the having Gene-

ral to appoint the articles and conditions

of

the treaty.

fent Deputies to the Conful L. ^milius,

he referred them to the Senate, who wrote

to Lucius to treat thofe rebelsas he thought

proper.

He granted them peace; but re-

quired them to pay all the charges of the

war, tion having and to made furnim another as much revolt, corn the as Con- was

fufficient to fubfift his

foldiers for two

months. Some years after, this fame na-

ful Aulus Manlius,

to whom they fent

their Veians Deputies, to pay the referred charges them of the to the Se-

nate, but by way of provifion ordered the

much corn as they could confume war in two for

one year, and to fupply his troops with as

months ; allowing them however to con-

vert the ftipulated quantity into money.

The Senate granted the Veians a truce of

forty years. and every foldier

It feems however that the General was

inverted with an ordinary power of con-

cluding truces.

For we fee that the Con-

ful QJFabius concluded a truce with the

/Equi, which he made them purchafe at

a dear rate j for he obliged them to fur-

nim his army with corn for two months,

with two coats,

fix

monthspay,andeverything elfe theymight

have

have occafion Hljlorical for in PREFACE. other refpects.

With

regard to the peace which they afked, he

fent the Deputies to the Senate, who em- fhould demand of them in any preffing

Lucius Cornelius acted in the in a clear light the ufual manner obferved

L. Cornelius Maluginenfis reprefents to us

The taking of Antium by the Conful

fame manner with regard to the JEqui.

with regard to the enemies booty.

neceflity.

He

divided that of the Antiates between the

public Treafury and the Roman foldiers.

pence as many auxiliary forces as Rome

demned them to furnim at their own ex-

powered the General to prefcribe them

what conditions he pleafed.

Fabius con-

The gold, filver, and brafs were carried to left the foldiers only the goods, provifions,

and other utenfils of that rebellious people.

However, as hath been already obferved,

the General fometimes took a liberty of

difpenfmg with this rule of carrying part

of the enemies booty to the public Trea-

the Q^aeftors, and the flaves were fold for

the profit of the Republic.

The Conful

fury Mamercus ; fome giving examples up the thereof town have and camp been

already cited. Historians fay limply, that the Haves or

part of the booty were fold, their mean-

ing

I mail obferve farther, that when

Thus we fee the Dictator

of the Fidenates to the pillage of the fol-

diers.

Hiftorical PREFACE.

ing is, that the price thereof was carried

to the public Treafury. Sometimes alfo

the whole was being carried given thither, to the without foldiery. any

thing at all

xtii

Such was the conduct of P. Pofthumius a

military Tribune, who upon the taking of

Bola, caufed all the booty to be delivered

to in the which Quaeftors there was that a followed confiderable the booty, army. to ney be arifing fold from by auction, the fale and to gave the Quaeftors the mo-

caufed every thing that was there found

having recovered the fortrefs of Carvenfe,

After his example, the Conful C. Valerius

It looks as if the fince a modern Hiftorian *, after having

been the general and prevailing cuftom,

related that the fpoils of Anxur, a weal-

thy town, were abandoned to the troops

by the Military Tribunes, adds, that this

liberality of the Generals had been difufed

was taken from the enemy, had always

practice of carrying thither a part of what

for the public Treafury.

for a good while before.

They were af-

terwards very careful in referving part of

the booty for the public Treafury.

It will not be improp