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u No false alarms

Leak Detection and Localisation

Zero false alarms by Leak Pattern Recognition Ultra-fast leak detection Easy retrofit using existing field instrumentation Interfaces to existing SCADA system

Leak Detection & Localization PipePatrol

Now is the time to consider a good and reliable leak detection system...
Imagine how a 1% leak in a 20 line can translate into 450,000 barrels per year or could contaminate 10 square kilometres of lake within 24 hours if left undetected. KROHNEs PipePatrol allows you to react quickly and reliably to:
External damage Theft Corrosion leaks Contamination Explosions Legislation Safety issues Environmental issues

There are many leak detection possibilities, but how many are really a viable proposition?
A good and reliable leak detection system should:
Detect small leaks ... ... very quickly Not give false alarms! Locate the leak precisely Be operator friendly Require no maintenance Remain sensitive even under transient conditions Permanently be available 24/7

Spontaneous leaks typically occur during start-up, shut-down and operational changes. This is logical, since under these conditions the pressure in the pipeline changes. Unfortunately, the changing pressure causes transients; inlet and outlet flow will vary drastically. A good leak detection system should be able to cope with these transients reliably and retain its ability to detect small leaks very quickly.

Leak Detection & Localization PipePatrol 3

How do I choose the right system for my situation?

PipePatrol - The KROHNE Leak Detection System
Developed in conjunction with leading experts from one of Germanys technical universities, PipePatrol was initially designed for the most demanding pipelines in the German (petro)chemical industry. After extensive testing they released it for the Oil & Gas industry. Continuous development over the years has led to the suite of systems that KROHNE markets under the name PipePatrol. PipePatrol can use existing instrumentation, meaning installation is not an issue. KROHNEs PipePatrol has been successfully implemented on gas and liquid pipelines throughout the world, thereby easily fulfilling regulations such as the German TRFL and recommendations such as the American API 1130 and API 1155.

Rapid, reliable / right all times

A good leak detection system, such as PipePatrol, will give you an easy to understand operator interface, will give an unmistakable alarm, and moreover, being right all times, it wont send you out in the middle of a storm chasing a phantom leak. It will interface seamlessly with your existing systems, placing very few demands on your instrumentation nor on your personnel. The operator only sees what he needs to see; training is therefore limited to a few hours.

No False Alarms

Leak Detection & Localization PipePatrol

What are the benefits of E-RTTM?

E-RTTM stands for Extended Real Time Transient Modelling.

E-RTTM is probably the only technology that allows fast and sensitive leak detection in transiently operated pipelines

E-RTTM is the only proven technology that compares what is happening with what should be happening in the pipeline to give a consistently sensitive assessment of pipeline integrity. Unlike other systems it does not simply compare the outlet flow with the inlet flow. It uses the pressure and temperature at inlet and outlet to calculate the flow. This calculated flow is subsequently compared to the measured flow for both inlet and outlet. The E-RTTM model instantaneously analyzes this data to determine the status within the pipeline. Because E-RTTM uses relative values, it is not affected by and can work efficiently under transient conditions without any notable effect on its sensitivity. Extending RTTM by a Leak Pattern Recognition has created a highly sensitive, reliable and false-alarmfree leak detection system.

Measured inlet and outlet flow deviate considerably...

The difference between the calculated flow and the measured flow is the residual (and is essentially zero for a leak free pipe).

When the residual changes, PipePatrol analyses the shift: Is this simply sensor drift, ... or a true leak?

E-RTTM uses existing instrumentation ...

Pressure at inlet and outlet* Temperature at inlet and outlet* Flow at inlet and outlet* Ambient temperature* * These can be taken from existing instrumentation. Before commissioning, PipePatrol records the pipeline data under working conditions. Using this data allows PipePatrol to reach maximum sensitivity without knowing the exact pipeline properties. Throughout its operational life, PipePatrol records all data which means that the critical parameters can be tuned to continuously guarantee maximum performance.

We measure in buckets not barrels

There is a 10 inch pipeline in Northern Germany - stretching over a distance of 31 km. A series of tests were done on an installed PipePatrol System at flow rates between 210 and 265 m3/h while creating a leak in the pipeline at 22.4 km from the inlet. In only 30 seconds, PipePatrol was capable of detecting a leak of only 0.5 % of the nominal flow. This means only 35 litres leaked out before the leak was detected.

35 litres are only 3 bucketfuls. No false alarms

Apart from the outstanding and highly welcome performance, PipePatrol features unique leak pattern recognition. This leak pattern recognition comes from the underlying technology of Extended Real-Time Transient Modelling (ERTTM). The basic RTTM goes much further than simple compensated mass balance. It takes transients into consideration. Transients are omnipresent in any pipeline as a result of drawing off product, filling, packing, product changes, ramping up and ramping down. RTTM measures the pressure and temperature at the inlet and outlet, and calculates the flow from this. It then compares the calculated flow with the actual flow measured by (already existing) flow meters (any flow meter present can be used). The result is a comparison of measured versus calculated flow at inlet and outlet (not simply at the outlet like traditional systems), which alone provides much better results.

Leak Detection & Localization PipePatrol

No false alarms Pipeline Leak Detection and Localization for Liquid and Gas Pipelines.

Well tell you where the leak is.

On the aforementioned 10 inch pipeline in Northern Germany, PipePatrol not only detected the leak but also localised it. The leak was created by releasing Naphtha from the pipeline into a tanker truck that was positioned at 22.4 km along the 31 km long pipeline. The figure shows:
Blue Line:

The inlet residual (difference between calculated and measured flow at inlet)
Green line:

The outlet residuals during (difference between calculated and measured flow at outlet) Two phenomena can be seen from these residuals: 1. The outlet residual starts to deviate from zero before the inlet residual does. This effect occurs because the leak was created closer to outlet and the negative pressure wave therefore arrives at outlet earlier then it does at inlet. In other words, this is the Wave Propagation Method! 2. The outlet residual deviates more than the inlet residual. Again, this is caused because the leak was closer to outlet and the pressure gradient at outlet behaves differently from the pressure gradient at inlet; here the Gradient Intersection Method is seen. Of course PipePatrol does not ask an operator to interpret these graphs, but shows an arrow on a map, indicating the leak location. On this 10 inch, 31 km long pipeline the this was done with an average accuracy of 0.5%.

Leak Detection & Localization PipePatrol

Where is the leak?- Exactly.

Wave Propagation Method - using time of flight

A spontaneous leak will cause a negative pressure wave in the pipeline, simply because gas or liquid is leaking out. This pressure wave will travel through the pipeline at the velocity of sound of the gas or the liquid in the pipeline. Depending on the location of the leak the pressure wave will arrive at one end before it arrives at the other. The leak position can be calculated from the difference in the arrival times at inlet and outlet.

Wave propagation

Gradient intersection

Gradient Intersection Method

Under zero leak conditions, the pressure drop is evenly distributed along the pipeline. When a leak occurs, the pressure drop in the section before the leak is higher than the pressure drop in the section after the leak. This is logical, since gas or liquid is leaking out; more gas is being transported through the pipeline before the leak than after the leak. The leak location is found at the point where the two gradients intersect.

- using interpolation

Functions PipePatrol is a system for leak detection and localization that also functions during pumping and rampup and ramp-down conditions, and provides permanent monitoring during stationary and transient conditions. Supporting functions include batch tracking and instrument error analysis. Provides standalone operation without human interaction Fulfils American API 1130 (Computational Pipeline Monitoring for Liquid Pipelines) and German TRFL (Technical Rules for Pipelines), as well as numerous local standards in countries such as Russia, Canada, Brazil, Malaysia Liquid and gas pipelines from simple single lines up to complex nets (where instrumentation is appropriate). Liquid applications cover single batch and multi-batch operation with or without DRA PipePatrol uses existing standard flow, pressure and temperature instrumentation at inlet and outlet. Substation instrumentation improves performance. Interfaces to any SCADA system. Standard interfaces include Modbus / Modbus+ and OPC

Standards and Regulations

Areas of Application

On-site instrumentation Connectivity

From the well head, through pipelines, onto tankers and into the terminals and refineries; the flow of oil and gas products needs to be measured accurately and reliably. That is the world of KROHNE Oil & Gas. The scope of KROHNE Oil and Gas starts with custody transfer flow metering for oil, gas and liquefied gas and continues through tank management, loading and offloading and leak detection and localisation systems. KROHNE Oil & Gas is part of the KROHNE Group. KROHNE Oil & Gass headquarters are located in Breda, the Netherlands, close to Europes major Oil and Gas centres.

We have grown dynamically and now have one of the industrys largest teams of engineers solely dedicated to oil and gas. KROHNE Oil & Gas has manufacturing facilities in the Netherlands, UK, Malaysia, USA, Brazil, Colombia, Middle East. The headquarters in Breda services the worlds oil industry through its own offices and through the KROHNE group, in more than 60 countries worldwide. The parent company, KROHNE, has 42 owned subsidiaries and representatives for every country in the world. We make use of this network to maintain a high level of service for our customers. KROHNE Oil & Gas provide specialised knowledge firsthand with the backing of the worlds most knowledgeable concern in the field of flow measurement technology.

KROHNE Oil & Gas Overview Systems

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KROHNE 10/2009 Subject to change without notice


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KROHNE Oil & Gas

Minervum 7441 4817 ZG Breda The Netherlands Tel.: +31-76.711.2000 Fax.: +31-76.711.2001 koginfo@krohne-oilandgas.com