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INVENTION OF WHEELS The wheel is everywhere on all our cars, trains, planes, machines, wagons, and most factory

and farm equipment. What could we move without wheels? But as important as the wheel is as an invention, we don't know who exactly made the first wheel. The oldest wheel found in archeological excavations was discovered in what was esopotamia and is !elieved to !e over fifty"five hundred years old.

Development of a Functional Wheel The following steps and developments took place to invent a functioning wheel, more or less in this order# This is Heavy $umans reali%ed that heavy o!&ects could !e moved easier if something round, for example a fallen tree log, was placed under it and the o!&ect rolled over it. The Sledge $umans also reali%ed a way to move heavy o!&ects, with an invention archeologists call the sledge. 'ogs or sticks were placed under an o!&ect and used to drag the heavy o!&ect, like a sled and a wedge put together. Log olle! $umans thought to use the round logs and a sledge together. $umans used several logs or rollers in a row, dragging the sledge over one roller to the next.

Traditional means Wal"ing (n ancient times, people often covered long distances on foot. )or instance, *di +ankaracharya traveled all over (ndia. Walking still constitutes an important mode of transport in ur!an areas. (n the city of improve the transit conditions for pedestrians, the than ./ skywalks, as part of the #alan$uin um!ai, to further etropolitan um!ai

,egion -evelopment *uthority, has commenced the construction of more um!ai +kywalk pro&ect.

* photo of a palanquin at 0aranasi. 1. 234/s 5alanquins also known as palkis, were one of the luxurious methods used !y the rich and no!lemen for travelling. This was primarily used in the olden days to carry a deity or idol of a god, and many temples have sculptures of god !eing carried in a palki. 'ater on, it was primarily used !y 6uropean no!lemen and ladies from the upper classes of society prior to the advent of

the railways in (ndia.

odern use of the palanquin is limited to !eing an

ostentatious method for the !ride to enter indian weddings. N%S% Space Shuttle *fter a gap of six years, 7*+* returned to human spaceflight in 2432, with the advent of the +pace +huttle. The +huttle's first mission, +T+"2, took off on *pril 28, 2432, demonstrating that it could take off vertically and glide to an unpowered airplane"like landing. 9n +T+":, during *pril ;"4, 243<, ). +tory usgrave and -onald $. 5eterson conducted the first +huttle 60*, to test new spacesuits and work in the +huttle's cargo !ay. +ally =. ,ide !ecame the first *merican woman to fly in space when +T+"> lifted off on ?une 23, 243<, another early milestone of the +huttle program. 9n ?anuary 83, 243: a leak in the &oints of one of two +olid ,ocket Boosters attached to the 1hallenger or!iter caused the main liquid fuel tank to explode >< seconds after launch, killing all > crew mem!ers. The +huttle program was grounded for over two years, while 7*+* and its contractors worked to redesign the +olid ,ocket Boosters and implement management reforms to increase safety. 9n +eptem!er 84, 2433, the +huttle successfully returned to flight. Through mid"2443, 7*+* has safely launched:. +huttle missions since the return to flight. These have included a wide variety of scientific and engineering missions. There are four +huttle or!iters in 7*+*'s fleet# *tlantis, 1olum!ia, -iscovery, and 6ndeavour.

T %NS#O T%TION IN %N&IENT E'(#T &ha!iots

)or their daily use even the pharaohs preferred the chariot. $orses were introduced into 6gypt !y the $yksos in the 2>th century. *lthough the art of riding was known and occasionally practiced, horses were generally not mounted until half a millennium later, !ut were harnessed to chariots. 6xpensive to keep, they never !ecame a popular means of transportation and served only the elite and the military.

Sledges Wheeled vehicles were never widely used and for heavy loads they were not strong enough anyway. @iant statues and the like were loaded onto wooden sledges and dragged !y large num!ers of men. +maller loads were also often transported !y sledge. (n the tom! of 5etosiris Aca.<// B16B there is a depiction of a mummy !eing transported to its tom! on a wheeled hearse, which was, even in this late era, unusual. The little naos following the hearse on the other hand was loaded onto a sledge.

To facilitate the movement of sledges on packed, sun!aked soil, small amounts of water were poured on the ground !efore them, turning the top layer into a slick, smooth surface. rollers. ore rarely the sledges were placed on