Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

Correction of exercises p.

202-203:

15. a) Since the coins are all different then:


The distribution of the coins can be in the form of:
First candidate Second candidate Third candidate
6 0 0
5 1 0
4 2 0
3 3 0
4 1 1
3 2 1
2 2 2

Of course, these distributions can be permuted among the


candidate, that is in the first case the first candidate can
have 0 coins, the second 6 and the third 0, and so on….
The coins in the first case undergo two processes:
Process 1: choosing these coins.
6C 6 = 1

Process 2: permuting these coins among the three


candidates, in other words, the number of ways the three
numbers 6,0 and 0 can be arranged.
3P 3
=3
2!

So the results from the first case are:


3 ×1 = 3

The coins in the second case, also undergo two processes:


Process 1: choosing the coins.
6C 5 ×1C 1 = 6

Process 2: arranging the numbers 5,1, and 0.


3P 3 = 6

The results from the second case are:


6 × 6 = 36
And so on…
Case number Process 1 Process 2 Result
3 6C 4 × 2C 2 = 15 3P 3 = 6 6 ×15 = 90
4 6C 3 × 3C 3 = 20 =3 3 × 20 = 60
3P 3
2!
5 6C 4 × 2C 1×1C 1 = 30 3P 3 3 × 30 = 90
=3
2!
6 6C 3 × 3C 2 × 1C 1 = 60 3P 3 = 6 360
7 3P 3 90
=1
3!
6C 2 × 4C 2 × 2C 2 = 90

Total number of cases:


3+36+90+60+90+360+90=729.

b) Use the rule:


(6 + 3 − 1)C (3 − 1) = 28

(Partition of like objects p. 199)

16. Same procedure like number 15- a.


1st 2nd Process 1 Process 2 Results
candidate candidate
8 2 10C 8 × 2C 2 = 45 2P 2 = 2 90
7 3 10C 7 × 3C 3 = 120 2P 2 = 2 240
6 4 10C 6 × 6C 6 = 210 2P 2 = 2 420
5 5 10C 5 × 5C 5 = 252 2P 2 252
=1
2!

The total number of cases is: .


90 + 240 + 420 + 252 = 1002
17. Since any two points of intersection belong to a line, then
to construct a triangle all we need 3 points of intersection,
that is 3 lines. So, simply:
.
5C 3 = 10

18. Consider the three cases:


Intersection between two lines:
Number of cases =
m! m ( m − 1)
mC 2 = =
2!( m − 2 ) ! 2

Every two lines intersect once, so in total:


1
1× m (m − 1) = m (m − 1)
2
Intersection between two circles:

Number of cases:
n! 1
nC 2 = = n (n − 1)
2!( n − 2 ) ! 2

But every two circles intersect in two points, then total


number of intersections is:
1
2 × n (n − 1) = n (n − 1)
2

And finally, the intersection between a line and a circle:

Total number of cases is :


nC 1× mC 1 = n × m
However, a line and a circle intersect in two points so the
total number of cases is:
2× n × m

In total the maximum number of intersection points is


1
n (n − 1) + m ( m − 1) + 2m .n
2
19. We divide the problem into three cases:

a) Choosing one of the 4 collinear points and another point


from the 8 that are non-collinear
4C 1× 8C 1 = 32

b) Choosing 2 of the 8 non-collinear points


8C 2 = 28

c) Choosing any two of the four collinear points ( any two


will generate the same line) which gives only one case.
Total number of cases: 32+28+1=61

20. a)
12!
5!× 7!

b)
12!
6!× 6!
c)
12!
6!× 6!× 2!
d)
12!
4!× 4!× 4!
e)
12!
4!× 4!× 4!× 3!

21. Partition of like objects:


(n + r − 1)C (r − 1) = (5 + 4 − 1)C (4 − 1) = 8C 3

22. Partition of like objects:


Since none of the compartments is empty, then each
compartment contains one object for sure. After placing one
object in each of the five compartments, the number of
objects left to be placed is 3
(n + r − 1)C (r − 1) = (3 + 5 − 1)C (5 − 1) = 7C 4

23. The sum is 10=1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1.


So, we have ten 1’s that are considered to be identical
objects and that need to be portioned among four
compartments .
(x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 )

a. So again, partition of identical objects:


(n + r − 1)C (r − 1) = (10 + 4 − 1)C (4 − 1) = 13C 3

b. We can change the question into: in how many ways


can 10 identical objects be placed in 4 compartments if
each compartment contains at least one object?
This is similar to number 22: after placing one 1 in each
of the four compartments, the number of ones left is 6.
So again, partition of identical objects:
(n + r − 1)C (r − 1) = (6 + 4 − 1)C (4 − 1) = 9C 3