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Polymer Engineering Chewing Gum Manufacturing Process

Group 3: Ma Yijia

A0078069R

Mikaela Verigin A0121045Y

History of Chewing Gums

Originally made of chicle, a natural latex Replaced by butadiene-based synthetic rubber Properties of Chewing Gum Rubber: Non-toxicity Inert to human saliva with kinds of enzyme With viscosity around 1 Pa*s at 37 0C

Butadiene-based Synthetic Rubber

Isobutylene

Isoprene

Isoprene as a diene, provides the extra double bond that cross-link and inert polymer chains

Synthesis Chewing Gum Rubber from Isobutylene and Isoprene


Step 1: Polymerization
Reactant: Isobutylene and isoprene in methyl chloride

Catalyst: Aluminum chloride


Reaction Temperature : -1000C

Step 2:Halogenation
Reactants: Butyl rubber and bromine Advantages:

Highly resistant to acids, bases and oxygen

Synthesis Chewing Gum Rubber from Isobutylene and Isoprene


Step 3: Finishing
Drying and shaping process

Production of Chewing Gum from Butadiene-based Rubber


Flow Chart
Packaging Heating & Mixing

Extruding

Coating

Cooling

Cooling & Drying

Flattening, Cutting& scoring

Heating and Mixing Stage


Sigma Blade mixer
for high viscosity materials with viscosities as high as 10 Pa*s Material: Stainless steel Capacity: 65 % of the mixer's total volume Tip speed: 60 m/min Power consumption: 45 to 75 kW/m3 of mix material
The blades pass the container walls and each other at close clearances (2-3 mm) resulting in homogenous mixing

Extruding Stage
Create objects with a fixed cross sectional area

Pumps material at a specific temperature and pressure while mixing it and exposing it to shear forces

Extruding Stage Option: Single Screw


Single Screw
Poor Mixer
Homogeneous moisture content and particle size required in feed Feed must be preconditioned/premixed Requires less skill to operate Lower Initial Cost

Extruding Stage Option: Double Screw


Twin Screw
Mix efficiently

Better Control on flow


Can have raw materials fed directly into it (we are not using this method)

Co-rotating High Speed (Max700RPM)


Counter-rotating Better for high viscous materials (explain c shape chamber of screws) Slower Speed (Max 150RPM)

Extruding Stage
Three zones
Feed: Ensure that enough material is fed to the screw Compression: Material is heated and kneaded Two sub zones : -plasticizing zone -intensive kneading zone Metering: Feed die (restricted opening) with material

Feed Section
Flights cause volume to be restricted and increase the resistance of movement of the gum material Spaces between screw flights get filled and become compressed

Plasticizing
Frictional and additional hear cause temperature rises to 700C Sugars and flavors absorbed

Compression
Intensive kneading of gum

Metering
Final kneading of the Gum Around 500C High pressure drives flavors into the gum and allows for the gum to be forced out of the die

Has smallest flights (increases pressure and shearing force)

Extruding Stage: Extruder Product


Die High Pressure High Temperature Product in Extruder

Steam

T>Tb
At Room Temperature Steam Leaves the Product Moisture Content decreases Structure Solidifies

Extruding Stage: Center filled Gum


Extruder Die shapes and sizes can produce many different products Example: Center filled gum is extruded as a hollow rope, then liquid is the fed into the hollowed area and the rope is cut into bit sized pieces

Extruding Stage: Varying Die Shape

Stick Gum and Pillow Gum Extrusion Large sheets to be cut and scored

Gum Ball Extrusion Ropes to be cut and Scored

Flattening, Cutting, Scoring, and Cooling Stages


Flattening with giant rollers to get gum material to the right thickness Cutting an scoring Cuts the flattened material into sheets and scored with a single stick pattern Cooling Temperature:15-20 0C Time : Around 24 hr (Until hard enough to coat without breaking/deforming the piece of gum)

Coating Stage
Huge kettles/Pans filled with cooled gum and coating with: Gum Arabic (or other binder/glue agent) Sugar Coated until required crunch is achieved (around 80 coats)

Polished look achieved by


Rubbing against the pan and against other pieces of gum Wax added (i.e. beeswax) Usually 8+ hours to complete process

Packaging Stage
Quality Control

Individual pieces of gum are separated and lined up so that they can be packaged

Why is chewing gum illegal in Singapore?


Singapore The rest of the world

To keep public spaces clean

References

Made How. (2014) How Products are Made. [Online]. http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Chewing-Gum.html Extruders N.D. Frame, "Chewing Gum," in The Technology of Extrusion Cooking. USA: Aspen, 1993, pp. 225-226. Leszek Moscicki, Extrusion-Cooking Techniques: Applications, Theory and Sustainability. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2011. University of Georgia Food Science and Technology FDST 4060. (2010, May) Extruders. [Online]. http://server.fst.uga.edu/kerr/FDST%204060/pdf%20files/14%20Extruder.pdf Aruna Y Kumari, "Theory Study Material Extrusion Technology," Food Science and Technology, ACHARYA N. G. RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY,. Mixer Winkworth Group. Winkworth Explains the Chewing Gum Process. [Online]. www.winkworthgroup.com SEPOR Group. Double Shaft Sigma Mixers.