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POWER FLOW CONTROL USING

TCSC
(THYRISTOR CONTROLLED SERIES CAPACITOR)
A dissertation su!itted in "artia# $u#$i##!ent o$ t%e re&uire!ent $or t%e
a'ard o$ t%e de(ree o$
)ASTER OF ENGINEERING
in
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
(Po'er A""aratus and S*ste! En(ineerin()
+*
+I,OY -U)AR SAHOO
Uni.ersit* Ro## No/0102
Under t%e Guidan3e o$
Dr4 NARENDRA -U)AR
Pro$essor
De"art!ent o$ E#e3tri3a# En(ineerin(
De#%i Co##e(e o$ En(ineerin(
Uni.ersit* o$ De#%i
5116/5117
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled, 8POWER FLOW
CONTROL USING TCSC (THYRISTOR CONTROLLED SERIES
CAPACITOR)9 which is being submitted by +i:o* -u!ar Sa%oo in
partial fulfillment of the award of M.E. Degree in Electrical Engineering
with specialization in Power Apparatus and ystem Engineering!, is a
record of students own wor" carried out by him under my guidance and
super#ision. The matter embodied in this dissertation has not been submitted
for the award of any degree to the best of my "nowledge and belief.
$Dr. %arendra &umar'
Professor
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
Delhi (ollege of Engineering, Delhi

2
AC-NOWLEDGE)ENT
) e*press sincere than"s and deep sense of gratitude to my Pro+ect ,uide Dr.
%arendra &umar, Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Delhi (ollege of
engineering, for his moti#ation and guidance, without which this pro+ect wouldn!t ha#e
been possible. ) consider myself fortunate for ha#ing the opportunity to learn and wor"
under his able super#ision and guidance o#er the entire period of association with him. )
ha#e deep sense of admiration for his innate goodness.
Also ) am deeply than"ful to Dr Parmod &umar, $-.D', Department of Electrical
Engineering for his #aluable ad#ice for the pro+ect. At the same time ) am than"ful to
Professor P eth $/etd', Mr. umon 0howmic $1ecturer' and Mr. T %agra+an $1ecturer'
to help me out by pro#iding necessary tips on the sub+ect.
) would than" my wife &umudini for her constant encouragement, and my two
and a half year old son Biswajeet who suffered some alienation and negligence during the
course of this wor". ) ac"nowledge the support and contribution of my colleagues Mr.
.&. 2ha , 1ecturer, %)T, Delhi who belie#e in the collecti#e pursuit of "nowledge and
was e#er ready to help me with information and suggestions.
1astly, my deepest gratitude to Almighty ,od whose di#ine light pro#ided me the
perse#erance, guidance, inspiration and strength to complete this wor".
This is to ac"nowledge that, the dissertation has been completed under the A)(TE
/ 3 D Pro+ect, 4Enhancing Power ystem Performance using 5A(T De#ices6 in the
5le*ible A( Transmission systems $5A(T' 1ab.
$+i:o* -u!ar Sa%oo)
Uni.ersit* Ro## No/0102
3
CONTENTS
Pa(e No
Astra3t 2
C%a"ter/2 Introdu3tion 5/;
C%a"ter/5 Literature Re.ie' </7
C%a"ter/; Con3e"t o$ A3ti.e and Rea3ti.e Po'er F#o' =/27
7.8 Acti#e and /eacti#e Power 5low 9
7.: Analysis of Power 5low using P(AD;<.= >
oftware
7.7 Power 5low Analysis of two bus networ" 8=
$imulin" 0loc"'
7.< (onclusion 8?
C%a"ter/< Po'er F#o' Ana#*sis 2=/52
<.8 Principle of Power Transmission 89
<.: (ontrollable Parameter :8
<.7 (onclusion :8
C%a"ter/6 Series Co!"ensation 55/5=
@.8 Principle of eries (ompensation ::
@.: imulation 0loc" for (apaciti#e (ompensation :@
@.7 Types of eries (ompensator :9
@.< (onclusion :9
C%a"ter/7 T%*ristor/Contro##ed Series Ca"a3itor (TCSC) 5>/<0
?.8 )ntroduction :A
?.: Thyristor;(ontrolled /eactor :A
?.7 Physical Model of T(( 7=
4
?.< Modes of operation 78
?.@ Analysis of T(( EBui#alent (ircuit 7:
?.? imulation of T(( (ircuit using P(AD;<.= 79
?.9 T(( teady tate (haracteristics 7>
$imulin" 0loc"'
?.A Dynamic (haracteristics of T(( <:
$.pen 1oop (ontrol'
?.> imulin" 0loc" for T(( (losed 1oop (ontrol <@
?.8= Power 5low (ontrol Csing T(( <9
$imulin" 0loc"'
?.88 (onclusion <>
C%a"ter/= Po'er F#o' So#ution o$ Lar(e E#e3tri3a# Net'or? 61/=1
9.8 .b+ecti#e @=
9.: Power 5low olution @=
9.7 0us Admittance Matri* @8
9.< Power 5low EBuation @:
9.@ Power Mismatch EBuation @@
9.? %et Acti#e and /eacti#e Power @?
9.9 Dariables and 0us Type @?
9.A Power 5low olution Method @9
9.> %ewton;/aphson Algorithm @9
9.8= %ewton;/aphson method for @>
Power 5low Problem
9.88 tate Dariable )nitialization ?8
9.8: ,enerator /eacti#e Power 1imit ?:
9.87 ,eneralized Power 5low olution ?:
for @;0us %etwor"
MAT1A0 Program;@.8 ?@
ummary of .utput ?A
9.8< (onclusion ?>
5
C%a"ter/> Po'er F#o' Contro# Usin( TCSC =2/0;
A.8 Acti#e and /eacti#e Power 5low through T(( 98
A.: Power 5low olution for ?;0us %etwor" 9<
MAT1A0 Program;?.8 99
ummary of .utput A8
A.7 Power 5low olution of 9;0us %etwor" A<
MAT1A0 Program;?.: A9
ummary of .utput >=
A.< (onclusion >7
C%a"ter/0 Con3#usion and Furt%er S3o"e o$ 'or? 0</06
>.8 ummary of wor" ><
>.: (onclusion >@
>.7 5urther cope of Eor" >@
A""endi@ A A )ATLA+ Pro(ra!/542 07
)ATLA+ Pro(ra!/<42 07/0=
A""endi@ A + )ATLA+ Pro(ra!/642 0>/215
A""endi@ A C )ATLA+ Pro(ra!/742 21;/21=
Re$eren3es 21>/210
6
A+STRACTB
)n this pro+ect wor" a re#iew of the salient features of Power 5low (ontrol using T((
are elegantly discussed. This dissertation has been organized into nine chapters where
first (hapter describes the need of power flow control. (hapter 7
rd
and <
th
describes the
concept of acti#e and reacti#e power flow and the Principle of power flow in transmission
line, its analysis with controllable parameter such as load angle, line impedance, and
terminal #oltage. P(AD;<.= F MAT1A0 Program are used to obser#e the #ariation of
acti#e and reacti#e power flow with different #ariable parameters and set of data. 5or
each set of data, output result is obtained. )n the ne*t two (hapters, Principle of series
compensation and T(( with its dynamic characteristics and acti#e power flow control
using T(( with software simulation has been delineated. The conseBuent remaining
(hapters mainly deals with 1oad flow solution of a @;bus networ" by using %ewton;
/aphson method and power flow control using T((, in which the original @;bus
networ" is modified to ?;bus F 9;bus networ" to accommodate one T(( F two T((.
The load flow solution is found for the modified ?;bus F 9;bus networ". The result of load
flow solution shows that the specified amount of acti#e power flow is controlled by the
use of T((. The salient feature of the dissertation is the fact that MAT1A0 and
P(AD;<.= has been thoroughly used to in#estigate the different aspects of power flow
control.
7
2
INTRODUCTION
242 NEED OF POWER FLOW CONTROLB
Electrical networ"s are interconnected to different generating stations and load
centers according to the e*isting plan. 0ut load demands on the system are not constant.
Eith the increase of industrial growth and domestic load, more power is consumed by the
different loads. To fulfill the load demand, either electrical system networ" to be re;
e#aluated or the power carrying capability of the transmission line to be increased.
Economic point of #iew, modification or alteration of electric networ" is costly. Thus aim
is to increase the power carrying capability of transmission line.
245 HOW TO CONTROL POWER FLOW B
The #arious parameters in#ol#ed in power flow are C;DC7DB
$a' load angle
$b' Transmission line impedance
$c' .perating #ariables such as #oltage and current
To control the power flow from one bus to another bus, either of three parameters to be
controlled.
Power systems of today are mechanically controlled. Mechanical switching action
is slow and power flow control is not fast enough according to the load #ariation. Another
problem of mechanical control is that it cannot be initiated freBuently as it leads to wear
and tear.
To maintain both dynamic and steady state operation, the new technology i.e
5A(T $5le*ible ac Transmission ystem' is used which is a power electronics based
system. )ts main role is to enhance controllability and power transfer capability in ac
8
systems. 5A(T technology uses switching power electronics to control power flow in
the range of few tens to a few hundreds of megawatts.
The #arious 5A(T controller are capable of controlling the interrelated line
parameters and other operating #ariables as mentioned in this paragraph. Thus 5A(T
controller go#ern the operation of transmission system by pro#iding series impedance,
shunt impedance, line current, #oltage, phase angle and damping of oscillations at #arious
freBuencies below the rated freBuency. 0y pro#iding added fle*ibility, 5A(T controllers
can enable a transmission line to carry power
Cp to its thermal rating
0y maintaining proper insulation of transmission line without o#er;#oltage.
0y maintaining stability in the system
Thus use of 5A(T technology increases the power carrying capability of e*isting
transmission networ" which is more economical.
24; EARIOUS FACTS CONTROLLERS C;DB
)n general 5A(T controllers can be di#ided into four categoriesG
eries (ontroller
hunt (ontroller
(ombined series;series (ontrollers
(ombined series;shunt (ontrollers
)n this pro+ect, it is considered about one of the eries (ontroller that is Thyristor
(ontrolled eries (apacitor $T((' to control the power flow in the
transmission line. T(( is one of the 5A(T de#ices which consist of a series
capacitor ban" shunted by a thyristor;controlled reactor in order to pro#ide a
smoothly #ariable series capaciti#e reactance by #arying the firing angle of
Thyristor;controlled reactor.
24< O+,ECTIEE AND SCOPE OF DISSERTATIONB
Eith the ob+ecti#e of controlling the power flow in the transmission line using
T((, it is essential to "now the power flow between two buses and the #arious
parameters in#ol#ed in the power flow eBuation. Power Electronic (ontrol in Electrical
9
ystems offers a solid theoretical foundation for the electronic control of acti#e and
reacti#e power in the transmission line. Thus use of 5le*ible A( transmission ystem
5A(T controller, has strong impact on power flow control.
5
LITERATURE REEIEW
A re#iew of earlier paper published on the 5A(T controller shows that a lot of
wor" done on different 5A(T controller. Also se#eral papers published on Thyristor
(ontrolled eries (apacitor $T((' which is used for different application as mentioned
below. till a lot of wor" to be done to impro#e the power flow control in long
transmission line.
542 APPLICATION OF TCSC C2;DB
$a' (ontinuous control of the transmission line series compensation le#el.
$b' Dynamic control of power flow in selected transmission lines within the networ"
to enable optimal power flow condition.
$c' Damping of the power swings from local and inter area oscillations.
$d' uppression of sub;synchronous oscillations.
$e' Enhanced le#el of protection for series capacitors.
$f' Doltage regulation by generating reacti#e power.
$g' /eduction of the short;circuit current.
545 EARIOUS WOR-S ON DIFFERENT APPLICATIONSB
5uerte;EsBui#el, (./.H Acha, E.H Ambriz;Perez, -. C>D presented a paper on
T(( model for the power flow solution of practical power networ"s in which power
flow from one bus to another bus is determined. )n this paper he discussed how T(( can
be incorporated into electrical networ" ha#ing large number of buses. Also he found load
flow solution using %ewton;/aphson method within the specified tolerance.
/. Mohan Mathur, /a+i# & Derma , )EEE Press eries on Power
Engineering,:==: C2;D , discussed the #arious applications of T(( such as impro#ement
10
in system stability, the damping of power oscillations, the alle#iation of sub;synchronous
resonance $/' and the pre#ention of #oltage collapse. )n addition, he described about
two T((!s installation G one in weden, the other in 0razil.
P.-. Ashmole described in )EE publication C7D about the 5A(T controllers and
its utility. )n his discussion in 4)ntroduction to 5A(T6 he described that 5A(T
controller are mainly aim to control three parameters such as #oltage, phase angle and
impedance. According to him the #arious ad#antages of the 5A(T de#ices are G
$a' Potential to control flows as reBuired
$b' 1ess en#ironmental impact than most alternati#e techniBues of
transmission reinforcement .
$c' Depending on the cost benefit analysis could cost less than other
alternati#es.
Also he described about the #arious 5A(T controller, in which T(( is one of the
5A(T controller. De#elopment stage of #arious 5A(T controllers also presented in
that publications.

2onas Person, 1ennart oder C26DC2>D de#eloped a linear model for T(( and he
found that simulation with linear model ta"es few secs as compared to actual model ta"es
an hour to complete.

%arain ,. -ingorani, 1aszlo ,yugyi, C;D has described about all 5A(T
controller in his boo" 4Cnderstanding 5A(T6. .ut of many 5A(T controller T(( is
one of the important 5A(T controller about which he described in details how its range
of reactance #aries from inducti#e to capaciti#e region.
Persson, 2.H /ouco, 1.H oder, 1, C2>D present a related topic on 1inear analysis
with two linear models of a thyristor;controlled series capacitor at Power Tech
(onference Proceedings, :==7 )EEE 0ologna.
Abdel;Moamen, M.A.H Padhy, %.P, C25D presented a paper on Multi;ob+ecti#e
optimal power flow model with T(( for practical power networ"s at Power Engineering
ociety ,eneral Meeting, :==<. In t%is "a"er %e %as dis3ussed %o' t%e trans!ission
#ine #oss in a ;1/us s*ste! 3an e !ini!iFed usin( Ne'tonGs !et%od4
11
Iiaobo Tan and 1uyuan Tong presented a paper on 4(haracteristics and 5iring
angle control of Thyristor (ontrolled eries (ompensation installations6 C5;D 4 T%is
"a"er studies t'o i!"ortant as"e3ts o$ TCSC 3%ara3teristi3sH t%e ti!e 3onstant o$
TCSC d*na!i3 res"onse and i!"a3ts o$ re$eren3e si(na#s $or t%*ristor $irin( an(#es
on TCSC d*na!i3 res"onse4 A t'o sta(e $irin( 3ontro# !et%od is "resented to
a33o!"#is% s!oot% s'it3%in( et'een t%e 3a"a3iti.e re(ion and indu3ti.e re(ion4
E)TDCIPSCAD so$t'are is used to ana#*Fe t%e e%a.ior o$ TCSC 3ir3uit4
/. 0illinton, M. 5otuhi;5iruzaba and ... 5aried des3rie t%e i!"a3t o$ a
T%*ristor Contro##er Series Ca"a3itor (TCSC) on "o'er s*ste! re#iai#it* C5<D 4 In
t%is a""#i3ation t%e TCSC is e!"#o*ed to ad:ust t%e natura# "o'er s%arin( o$ t'o
di$$erent "ara##e# trans!ission #ines and t%ere$ore ena#e t%e !a@i!u! trans!ission
3a"a3it* to e uti#iFed4 A re#iai#it* !ode# o$ a !u#ti/!odu#e TCSC %as een
de.e#o"ed and in3or"orated in t%e trans!ission s*ste!4 T%e resu#t o$ t%e
in.esti(ation s%o's a si(ni$i3ant i!"ro.e!ent in t%e s*ste! re#iai#it* '%en t%e
TCSC is uti#iFed4
Jhao IueBiang and (hen (hen, senior member )EEE de#eloped mathematical
eBuations of T(( for any period of time $including the whole transient process from
firing the thyristos to a study to a steady state' C56D 4 T%e a33urate !at%e!ati3a#
re#ations%i" et'een $unda!enta# i!"edan3e o$ TCSC and t%e $irin( an(#e o$ t%e
t%*ristor is $urt%er deri.ed * usin( Fourier ana#*sis4 T%e .a#idit* o$ t%e
!at%e!ati3a# ana#*sis is de!onstrated * usin( t%e E#e3tro/)a(neti3 Transient
Pro(ra! (E)TP) di(ita# si!u#ations4 T%e test resu#t a(rees 'e## 'it% t%e ana#*ti3a#
and si!u#ation resu#ts and 3#ari$ies t%e .a#idit* o$ t%e assu!"tion t%at t%e #ine
3urrent ?ee"s sinusoida#H '%i3% is ta?en ot% in t%e !at%e!ati3a# ana#*sis and t%e
E)TP di(ita# si!u#ations4
A.Ally and 0. /igby, member of )EEE, in#estigated the impact of T(( to
impro#e the small signal and transient stability under fault condition C55D 4 +ot% t%e
3onstant "o'er and 3onstant an(#e !odes "o'er $#o' 3ontro# are e@a!ined $or a
ran(e o$ 3ontro##er res"onse ti!e4 T%e resu#t indi3ates t%at t%e e$$e3t o$ a "o'er
$#o' 3ontro##er on s*ste! stai#it* is de"endent on ot% t%e !ode o$ t%e 3ontro##er
and its res"onse ti!e4
12
The research wor" is unending on Thyristor (ontrolled eries (apacitor to
impro#e it characteristics and to apply in many more electrical technology to impro#e the
power flow stability, power flow control and in related applications.
;
CONCEPT OF ACTIEE AND
REACTIEE POWER FLOW
;42 ACTIEE AND REACTIEE POWER FLOW C2DC<DB
5rom fig 7.8 which is a two bus system connected two generators and one load
1et
)s K ending end current
)r K /ecei#ing end current
Es K ending end #oltage K Vs
Er K /ecei#ing end #oltage K = Vr
/KTransmission line resistance
R + j X
Ss = Ps + jQs
Sr = Pr + jQr
Vs
= Vr
Load
Generator Is
Ir
To !"s S#ste$
Fig 3.1
13
IK Transmission line reactance
Transmission line impedance J K / L +I K
Z
ending end current

Z
Vr Vs
Is
=
Z
Vs
Z
Vs
Is

s K ending end comple* power K Ds )sM


1
1
]
1



Z
Vs
Z
Vs
Vs Ss

$7.8'
J
N O DsDr
J
O Ds
s
:
1
1
]
1

/eal power or acti#e power flow from sending end is


Ps K /eal $s'
( )
' : . 7 $
cos cos
:
Z
VsVr
Z
Vs
Ps
+

/eacti#e power at sending end is
Ps K )maginary $s'
( )
' 7 . 7 $
sin sin
:
Z
VsVr
Z
Vs
Qs
+

Power system transmission lines ha#e small resistance compared to the reactance i.e /FI
ratio is #ery small. Also power loss in the transmission line is negligible. Thus with this
assumption
/ K =,
>= X Z

i.e O K >=
=
o eBuations $7.:' and $7.7' becomes
' < . 7 $ sin
X
VsVr
Ps
14
[ ] ' @ . 7 $ cos Vr Vs
X
Vs
Qs
5rom the eBuations $7.<' and $7.@', it is clear that for a typical power system with small
/FI ratio, the following important obser#ations are made G
8. EBu $7.<' shows that flow of real power from sending end is proportional to sin N.
That is with small change in phase angle between sending end and recei#ing end #oltage
has significant effect on the real power flow. 0ut small changes in #oltage magnitude will
not ha#e appreciable effect on the real power flow.
)f Es leads Er, then load angle N is positi#e and real power flows from sending
end to recei#ing end.
)f Es lags Er, then load angle N is negati#e and power flows from recei#ing end to
sending end.
:. )f resistance / K = , then ma*imum real power flow from sending end occurs at N
K >=
=
The ma*imum power flow is gi#en by
X
VsVr
P
ma*
7. 5or maintaining transient stability, the power system is usually operated with
small load angle N. Thus cos N Q 8 for N is #ery #ery small. Thus reacti#e power flow from
sending end for small N is gi#en by G
[ ] Vr Vs
X
Vs
Qs
Thus reacti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end is affected #ery much with
small #oltage difference between sending end and recei#ing end #oltage.
;45 ANALYSIS OF POWER FLOW USING PSCAD/ <41
SOFTWARE B
Csing P(AD software, we will analysis how power flow from one end to other end of a
two bus system can be controlled or #aried. The #arious parameters in#ol#ed for power
flow control areG
$a' 1oad angle $ N'
$b' Transmission line impedance #ariation $J'
$c' Doltage #ariation between two ends
15
;4; POWER FLOW ANALYSIS OF TWO +US NETWOR- G
(SI)ULIN- +LOC-)
%
!
&
R=0
1'0 0'0223
%
!
&
1'0 0'0223
1'0 0'0223
%
!
&
%
!
&
R=0
()
Isr
()
Isr
P
o

e
r
%!
PQ
(a
(a
R*S
R*S
R*S
I21
P
o

e
r% !
P QPrs
Psr Qsr
Qrs
Send+n, end-1 Re)e+.+n, end-2
/s /r
*a+n 0 &ontro1s
Fi(/;45
16
CASE/2
5ollowing data are assumed for the purpose of simulation of simple two bus networ" to
analyze the power flow from one bus to another.
Ds K magnitude of sending end #oltage
K :=A #olts $line to line'
s

K phase angle of sending end K 7=


=
Dr K magnitude of recei#ing end #oltage
K 897 #olts $line to line'
r

K phase angle of recei#ing end K =


=
/ K resistance of line K 8 ohm per phase
1 K inductance of line K =.=::7 -enry per phase
Psr K Acti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end
Prs K Acti#e power flow from recei#ing end to sending end
Psr K /eacti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end
Prs K /eacti#e power flow from recei#ing end to sending end
SI)ULATION RESULT FOR CASE/2B
*a+n 0 &ontro1s
2)"rrent3
8'50433
2.o1ta,e P'''
99'8797
1+ne to 1+ne '''
207'996
Psr
2753'25
Qsr
1330'69
Prs
-2536'55
Qrs
186'486
17
CASE/5
$Dariation of load angle i.e load angle is increased with respect to (AE;8'
Ds K magnitude of sending end #oltage
K :=A #olts $line to line'
s

K phase angle of sending end K <=


=
Dr K magnitude of recei#ing end #oltage
K 897 #olts $line to line'
r

K phase angle of recei#ing end K =


=
/ K resistance of line K 8 ohm per phase
1 K inductance of line K =.=::7 -enry per phase
Psr K Acti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end
Prs K Acti#e power flow from recei#ing end to sending end
Psr K /eacti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end
Prs K /eacti#e power flow from recei#ing end to sending end
SI)ULATION RESULT FOR CASE/5B
*a+n 0 &ontro1s
2)"rrent3
10'9641
2.o1ta,e P'''
99'8797
1+ne to 1+ne '''
207'996
Psr
3542'34
Qsr
1730'52
Prs
-3182'16
Qrs
791'236
5rom the result it is clear that with the increase of sending end phase angle from 7=
=
to
<=
=
, there is increase of acti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end$Psr' i.e.
:9@7.:@ watt to 7@<:.7< watt
18
CASE/;
$Dariation of load angle i.e load angle is decrease with respect to (AE;8'
Ds K magnitude of sending end #oltage
K :=A #olts $line to line'
s

K phase angle of sending end K :=


=
Dr K magnitude of recei#ing end #oltage
K 897 #olts $line to line'
r

K phase angle of recei#ing end K =


=
/ K resistance of line K 8 ohm per phase
1 K inductance of line K =.=::7 -enry per phase
Psr K Acti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end
Prs K Acti#e power flow from recei#ing end to sending end
Psr K /eacti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end
Prs K /eacti#e power flow from recei#ing end to sending end
SI)ULATION RESULT FOR CASE/;B
*a+n 0 &ontro1s
2)"rrent3
6'08595
2.o1ta,e P'''
99'8797
1+ne to 1+ne '''
207'996
Psr
1906'71
Qsr
1073'95
Prs
-1795'74
Qrs
-296'969
5rom the result it is clear that with the decrease of sending end phase angle from 7=
=
to
:=
=
, there is decrease of acti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end$Psr' i.e.
:9@7.:@ watt to 8>=?.98 watt
19
CASE/<
$Dariation of line impedanceH i.e increasing the inductance with respect to (AE;8'
Ds K magnitude of sending end #oltage
K :=A #olts $line to line'
s

K phase angle of sending end K 7=


=
Dr K magnitude of recei#ing end #oltage
K 897 #olts $line to line'
r

K phase angle of recei#ing end K =


=
/ K resistance of line K 8 ohm per phase
1 K inductance of line K =.=9:7 -enry per phase
Psr K Acti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end
Prs K Acti#e power flow from recei#ing end to sending end
Psr K /eacti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end
Prs K /eacti#e power flow from recei#ing end to sending end
SI)ULATION RESULT FOR CASE/<B
*a+n 0 &ontro1s
2)"rrent3
2'64708
2.o1ta,e P'''
99'8797
1+ne to 1+ne '''
207'996
Psr
812'436
Qsr
495'911
Prs
-791'43
Qrs
-19'3412
5rom the result it is clear that with the increase of line inductance from =.=::7 - to
=.=9:7 -, there is decrease of acti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end$Psr'
i.e. :9@7.:@ watt to A8:.<7? watt
20
CASE/6
$Dariation of line impedanceH i.e decreasing the inductance with respect to (AE;8'
Ds K magnitude of sending end #oltage
K :=A #olts $line to line'
s

K phase angle of sending end K 7=


=
Dr K magnitude of recei#ing end #oltage
K 897 #olts $line to line'
r

K phase angle of recei#ing end K =


=
/ K resistance of line K 8 ohm per phase
1 K inductance of line K =.=8>A -enry per phase
Psr K Acti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end
Prs K Acti#e power flow from recei#ing end to sending end
Psr K /eacti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end
Prs K /eacti#e power flow from recei#ing end to sending end
SI)ULATION RESULT FOR CASE/6B
*a+n 0 &ontro1s
2)"rrent3
9'55254
2.o1ta,e P'''
99'8797
1+ne to 1+ne '''
207'996
Psr
3118'45
Qsr
1439'99
Prs
-2845'06
Qrs
259'627
5rom the result it is clear that with the decrease of line inductance from =.=::7 - to
=.=8>A -, there is increase of acti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end$Psr'
i.e. :9@7.:@ watt to 788A.<@ watt
21
CASE/7
$Dariation of terminal #oltage as compared to (AE;8'
Ds K magnitude of sending end #oltage
K 897 #olts $line to line'
s

K phase angle of sending end K 7=


=
Dr K magnitude of recei#ing end #oltage
K :=A #olts $line to line'
r

K phase angle of recei#ing end K =


=
/ K resistance of line K 8 ohm per phase
1 K inductance of line K =.=::7 -enry per phase
Psr K Acti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end
Prs K Acti#e power flow from recei#ing end to sending end
Psr K /eacti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end
Prs K /eacti#e power flow from recei#ing end to sending end
SI)ULATION RESULT FOR CASE/7B
*a+n 0 &ontro1s
2)"rrent3
9'55254
2.o1ta,e P'''
120'087
1+ne to 1+ne '''
172'997
Psr
2782'97
Qsr
-645'649
Prs
-2509'58
Qrs
2345'27
5rom the result it is clear that reacti#e power flow from recei#ing end is increased to
:7<@.:9 #ar as recei#ing end #oltage is more than that of sending end as compared to
(AE;8. )n (AE;8, sending end #oltage is more than recei#ing end #oltage. Thus
reacti#e power flows from sending end.
;4< CONCLUSIONB
5rom the abo#e simulation result using P(AD, it is clear that power flow in the
transmission line #aries with #arious parameters such as load angle, line impedance and
terminal #oltage. o power flow control in#ol#es the control of #arious parameters such
as load angle, transmission line impedance and terminal #oltage.
22
4
POWER FLOW ANALYSIS
<42 PRINCIPLE OF POWER TRANS)ISSION
To understand the principle of power transmission it is essential to represent the
transmission line. Transmission line can be represented by a series reactance with the
sending end and recei#ing end #oltages C5D4 This is shown in figure below for one phase
of three phase system and all Buantities such as #oltage and currents are defined per
phase.
jX42 jX42
+
Vs
-
+
Vm
-
+
Vr
-
I
5a6To-$a)7+ne 8oer s#ste$
Vr
Vs
I
Vm
V
x
=
j
X
I
596 P7asor d+a,ra$
:42
:42
FIGURE 4.1
23
5rom 5ig <.8$a',
1et Ds K per phase sending end #oltage magnitude
Dr K per phase recei#ing end #oltage magnitude
Dm K per phase mid point #oltage magnitude
+IF: K The#enin eBui#alent impedance located on the right or left side of
the mid point
N K Phase angle between sending and recei#ing end #oltage
let us assume that the magnitude of the terminal #oltages remain constant and eBual to D.
That is
Ds K Dr K D
The two terminal #oltages can be e*pressed in phasor notations in rectangular coordinates
as follows
Es K D e
+ NF:
K D $cos NF: L + sin NF:' $<.8'
Er K D e
;

+ NF:
K D $cos NF: L + sin NF:' $<.:'
o E! is eBual to a#erage #alue of Es and Er as gi#en by

= +=
=
:
N
Dcos e Dm
:

+

Vr Vs
Vm
$<.7'
The line current phasor is gi#en by
=
>=
:
N
sin
I
:D

X
Vr Vs
I
$<.<'
where the magnitude of RIR is I = 2V/X sin /2 .
5or lossless line, the power is same at both ends and at the midpoint. Thus acti#e power at
sending end $ Ps' is eBual to the acti#e power at the mid point $Pm' and also eBual to the
acti#e power at recei#ing end $Pr'.
I E! Pm Pr Ps
24
Applying the #alue of magnitude of Dm from eBu. $<.7' and the #alue of line current )
from eBu. $<.<'
( ) 54'56 s+n:
X
/
2
:
s+n
X
2/
2
:
/)os P$ Pr Ps
2

,
_


The reacti#e power at the recei#ing;end Pr is eBual and opposite of the reacti#e power Ps
supplied by the sources. Thus the reacti#e power P for the line is gi#en by
:
N
sin D Pr Ps P I
Applying the #alue of current ) in abo#e e*pression we get,
( ) ' ? . < $ cosN 8
I
D
:
N
sin
:
N
sin
I
:D
D Pr Ps P
:

,
_


5rom the abo#e analysis it is clear that acti#e power flow becomes ma*imum
P
ma*
K $ D
:
F I' at N K >=
=
And the reacti#e power becomes the ma*imum
P
ma*
K $:D
:
F I' at N K8A=
=
0y writing a small MAT1A0 program we will analyze how the load angle N control both
the acti#e power demand and reacti#e power demand on sending end and recei#ing end.
Also we will see how reacti#e power demand changes with the any changes in acti#e
power flow.
)ATLA+ PROGRA) 542
%ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE AND REACTIVE POWER FLOW IN A LOSS LESS
TRANSMISSION LINE
(Attached in appendix-A!"
After e*ecution of this program, we come to "now that load angle N is an parameter to
control the both acti#e and reacti#e power according to load demand.
DATA USED :
line #oltageK ::= D
line reactanceK 8.: ohm
RESULT IS BBBBB
25
de#ta P J
8.=eL==< M $watt' $#ar'
= = =
=.==8= =.9==< =.=?87
=.==:= 8.79>@ =.:<7:
=.==7= :.=8?9 =.@<=<
=.==<= :.@>:? =.><7?
=.==@= 7.=A>9 8.<<=A
=.==?= 7.<>7= :.=8?9
=.==9= 7.9>=8 :.?@7>
=.==A= 7.>9:8 7.777=
141101 <41;;; <41;;; (PKJKP!a@)
=.=8== 7.>9:8 <.9779
=.=88= 7.9>=8 @.<8:A
=.=8:= 7.<>7= ?.=@==
=.=87= 7.=A>9 ?.?:@>
=.=8<= :.@>:? 9.8:7=
=.=8@= :.=8?9 9.@:?7
=.=8?= 8.79>@ 9.A:7<
=.=89= =.9==< A.==@<
1412>1 141111 >4177=(PK1H JK5P!a@)
Fig- 4.2
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
x 10
4
P, Q
2Pmax
Pmax
Q
P
ACTIVE AND REACTIVE POWER vs LOAD ANGLE

26
<45 CONTROLLA+LE PARA)ETER B
5rom the abo#e discussion it is clear that the power and current in the transmission line
can be controlled by the following means C5DC;D G
Applying a #oltage in the midpoint can increase an decrease the magnitude of
power.
Applying a #oltage in series with the line, and in phase Buadrature with the current
flow, can increase or decrease the magnitude of current flow. As the current flow
lags the #oltage by >=
=
,there is in+ection of reacti#e power in series.
)f a #oltage with #ariable magnitude and a phase is applied in series, then #arying
the amplitude and phase angle can control both acti#e and reacti#e power. This
reBuires in+ection of both acti#e power and reacti#e power in series.
)ncreasing and decreasing the #alue of the reactance I can also decrease and in
crease the power height of both acti#e and reacti#e power.
Power flow can also be controlled by regulating the magnitude of sending and
recei#ing end #oltages Ds and Dr. This type of control has much influence on
reacti#e power flow than acti#e power flow.
<4; CONCLUSIONB
5rom the abo#e MAT1A0 analysis, we come to "now that how the acti#e and
reacti#e power #aries with the load angle. Analysis clearly shows that the plotted graph
which is obtained from the e*ecution of MAT1A0 code resembles with cur#e drawn in
different boo"s by different author. )n this cur#e we come to "now, as we #ary the line
reactance, the height of acti#e power cur#e #aries.

27
6
SERIES CO)PENSATION
642 PRINCIPLE OF SERIES CO)PENSATION B
A #oltage in series with the transmission line can be introduced to control the current
flow and thereby the power transmissions from the sending end to the recei#ing end C5D4
An ideal series compensator is represented by the #oltage source Dc which is connected
in the middle of a transmission line as shown in 5ig. @.8$a'
jX42 jX42
+
Vs
-
+ +
Vm
1
Vm
2
- -
+
Vr
-
Idea1 ser+es
&o$8ensator
V)
I + - I
5a6To-$a)7+ne 8oer s#ste$
28
5rom 5ig;@.8 $a',
1et Ds K per phase sending end #oltage magnitude
Dr K per phase recei#ing end #oltage magnitude
Dc K per phase mid point #oltage magnitude is applied in series
I K Transmission line impedance
N K Phase angle between sending and recei#ing end #oltage
+IF: +IF:
L
Es
;
L
E!
;
L
Er
;
I
$b'Two;machine power system
;+IcF: ;+IcF:
Vr
Vs
I
Vm
V
x
5)6 P7asor d+a,ra$
:42
:42
FIGURE 5.1
-
j
X
)
4
2
I
-
j
X
)
4
2
I
29
Assuming Ds K Dr K Dc K D
The current flowing through transmission line is gi#en by
jX
Vc Vr Vs
I

$@.8'
)f the series applied #oltage Ec is in Buadrature with respect to the line current, the series
compensator cannot supply or absorb acti#e power. This is because phase angle between
#oltage and line current is >=
=
$i.e cos >=
=
K='. Thus the power at the source Ec terminal
can be only reacti#e. This means that capaciti#e or inducti#e eBui#alent impedance may
replace the #oltage source Ec.
o eBui#alent transmission line impedance of compensated line can be represented by
' 8 $ r X X X X
comp eq

$@.:'
where
X
Xcomp
r
and r is the degree of series compensation and its range is 8 = r and
I
comp
is the series eBui#alent compensation reactance which is positi#e if it is capaciti#e
and negati#e if it is inducti#e.
The magnitude of the current through the line is gi#en by using eBu. $<.<'
: F sin
' 8 $
:

X r
V
I
X
I
eq

Vr Vs
$@.7'
The acti#e power flowing through transmission line is gi#en by using eBu.$<.@'
( )
sin
8
sin
: :
X r
V
X
V
VcI Pc
eq


$@.<'
The reacti#e power Pc at the source Ec terminal is gi#en by using eBu $<.?'
( )
( ) cos 8
8
:
:
:
:


r
r
X
V
X I Qc
comp
$@.@'
5or capaciti#e compensation the line current leads the #oltage Dc by >=
=
whereas for
inducti#e compensation the line current lags the Dc by >=
=
.
30
eries capaciti#e impedance decreases the o#erall transmission line impedance and
thereby increases the transmittable power. Ehereas series inducti#e impedance increases
the o#erall transmission line impedance, thus decreases the transmittable power.
Principle of series compensation is analyzed by using a series capacitor in transmission
line and this is analyzed with the help of PSCAD/<41 software as gi#en below
645 SI)ULATION +LOC- FOR CAPACITIEE CO)PENSATIONB

0'0223
%
!
&
0'0223
0'0223
%
!
&
%
!
&
R=0
Isr
()
Isr
P
o

e
r
%!
PQ
(a
(a
R*S
R*S
R*S
P
o

e
r% !
P QPrs
Psr Qsr
Qrs
Send+n, end-1 Re)e+.+n, end-2
1200'0
1200'0
1200'0 ()
1'0
1'0
1'0
%
!
&
R=0
*a+n 0 &ontro1s
S(RI(S &%P%&ITI/( &;*P(<S%TI;<
Fi(/645
31
DATA FOR THE SI)ULATION +LOC- (Fi(/645) B
Ds K magnitude of sending end #oltage
K :=A #olts $line to line'
s

K phase angle of sending end K 7=


=
Dr K magnitude of recei#ing end #oltage
K 897 #olts $line to line'
r

K phase angle of recei#ing end K =


=
/ K resistance of line K 8 ohm per phase
1 K inductance of line K =.=::7 -enry per phase
( K compensation capacitor K 8:== micro farad
Psr K Acti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end
Prs K Acti#e power flow from recei#ing end to sending end
Psr K /eacti#e power flow from sending end to recei#ing end
Prs K /eacti#e power flow from recei#ing end to sending end
SI)ULATION RESULT WITHOUT SERIES CAPACITORB
*a+n 0 &ontro1s
2)"rrent3
8'50433
2.o1ta,e P'''
99'8797
1+ne to 1+ne '''
207'996
Psr
2753'25
Qsr
1330'69
Prs
-2536'55
Qrs
186'486
SI)ULATION RESULT WITH SERIES CAPACITOR B
32
*a+n 0 &ontro1s
2)"rrent3
13'474
2.o1ta,e P'''
99'8797
1+ne to 1+ne '''
207'996
Psr
4523'73
Qsr
1734'39
Prs
-3979'72
Qrs
631'979
5rom the result it is clear that acti#e power flow from sending end is increased from
:9@7.:@ watt to <@:7.97 watt with the use of 8:== micro farad series capacitor.
64; TYPES OF SERIES CO)PENSATOR C5DB
Thyristor;switched series capacitor
Thyristor;controlled series capacitor
5orced;commutation;controlled series capacitor
eries static DA/ compensator
Ad#anced D(
.ut of these series compensator, Thyristor;controlled series capacitor $T((' is
discussed in the ne*t chapter and a )ATLA+ "ro(ra! is used for it to analyze, how it
control the power flow.
64< CONCLUSIONB
5rom the P(AD simulation result, we concluded that use of capacitor in the
transmission line will pro#ide series compensation of the transmission line. 0y #arying
the capacitor #alue, we can change the power transfer capability of the transmission line.
33
6
THYRISTOR/CONTROLLED
SERIES CAPACITOR
(TCSC)
742 INTRODUCTIONB
The T(( #aries the electrical length of the compensated transmission line with little
delay C=D4 .wing to this characteristic, it may be used to pro#ide fast acti#e power flow
regulation. )t also increases the stability margin of the system and has pro#ed #ery
effecti#e in damping ub;ynchronous /esonance $/' and power oscillation. The
T(( is the parallel combination of Thyristor (ontrolled reactor $T(/' and a fi*ed
capacitor. o before discussing in details about T((, let us discuss about T(/.
745 THYRISTOR/CONTROLLED REACTOR (TCR) C5D B
)t consists of a fi*ed reactor of inductance 1 and a bidirectional thyristor switch E as
shown 5ig ?.8
34
The current through the reactor can be controlled from zero $when the switch is open' to
ma*imum $when the switch is closed' by #arying the firing angle O of the thyristor. Thus
the conduction angle of the thyristor is S K T ; :O. )f the switch is permanently closed
when O K =, then it has no effect of the inductor current.
1et the supply #oltage
wt V wt Vm t v cos : cos ' $
where Dm K pea" #oltage of supply #oltage
Thus instantaneous inductor current can be e*pressed as a function of O as follows G
' sin $sin sin
8
' $
8
' $

wt
wL
Vm
wt Vm
wL
dt t v
L
t i
wt
wt
L
$?.8'
which is #alid for wt
5rom the eBuation $?.8' it is clear that
' $t i
L
is ma*imum when O K = and it is zero when
O K TF:.
The fundamental root;mean;sBuare $rms' current of the reactor can be found as
( )

,
_

: sin
8 :
8
wL
V
I
LF
$?.:'
which is O $firing angle' dependent
+
L
5=6
SW

FIGURE-6.1
35
Thus admittance for the shunt compensator for fundamental current is gi#en by
( )

,
_

: sin
8 :
8
8
wL V
I
Y
LF
L
$?.7'
The impedance of compensator

( )

,
_


: sin
8 :
8
8
' $
wL
I
V
Y
Z
LF
L
L
$?.<'
which is dependent on O.
74; PHYSICAL )ODEL OF TCSC B
The T(( consists of the series;compensating capacitor shunted by a thyristor;
controlled reactor $T(/' as shown in fig. ?.:4C5DC;D. The impedance of the reactor I
1
is
sufficiently smaller than that of the capacitor impedance Ic is ta"en. 0y #arying the
delay angle or firing angle$O' of T(/, the inducti#e impedance of T(/ can be #aried.
Thus T(( can pro#ide #ariable capacitance by means of canceling the effecti#e
/)5=6
I + - +
)
5=6= + + +
L
5=6



S>
FIGURE - 6.2
T7#r+stor-)ontro11ed ser+es )a8a)+tor5T&S&6
36
capacitance by the T(/. Therefore, the steady state impedance of T(( is simply that of
the parallel 1( circuit, consisting of fi*ed capaciti#e impedance Ic and #ariable
inducti#e impedance I
1
.
The effecti#e impedance of the T(( is gi#en by
( )
( )
( ) Xc X
X X
X
L
L c

$?.@'
where I
1
$O' is the #ariable impedance of T(/ which can be ta"en from eBu.$?.<'
that is
( )

: sin :

L L
X X
for ( )
L L
X X $?.?'
where I
1
KU1 and O is the delay angle measured from the crest of the capacitor #oltage or
the zero crossing of the line current.
The T(( beha#es as a tunable parallel 1(;circuit to the line current. As the
impedance of the controlled reactor I
1
$O' is #aried from its ma*imum $infinity' toward
its minimum $U1' i.e. when O #aries from >=
=
to =
=
, then T(( increases its minimum
capaciti#e impedance
( )
!
X X
c

8
min
, until parallel resonance occurs at
( )
L c
X X
and I
T
$O' approaches to it ma*imum #alue I
T$ma*'
Kinfinite. )f we decrease
I
1
$O' further, the I
T
$O' becomes inducti#e and approaches to its minimum #alue of
I
T$min'
KIcI
1
F$I
1
;Ic' at OK=
=
. i.e the effect of capacitor is bypassed by T(/.
Angle O has two limiting #alues $8' one for inducti#e O
1$lim'
and
$:' one for capaciti#e O
($lim'.
The T(( has two operating ranges around its internal circuit resonance G
$8' one is the
( )
:
lim


!
range, where I
T
$O' is capaciti#e
$:' the other is the ( ) lim
=
L

range, where I
T
$O' is inducti#e.
74< )ODES OF OPERATION C=DC2;D B
The T(( has three fundamental modes of operation as follows G
37
$a' Thyristor;bloc"ed mode G )n this mode of operation, the current through the T(/
is zero and the T(( function as a capaciti#e reactance I
c
.
$b' Thyristor;bypassed mode G )n this mode, the thyristor #al#es are fired with no
delay and the T(( has small inducti#e impedance.
$c' Thyristor; phase controlled mode G )n this mode the #alue of the firing angle
determines the direction of the current through the T(/ and the capacitor, enabling the
T(( to wor" as either a capaciti#e or an inducti#e reactance. )n this mode, the thyristor
firing mechanism is controlled to #ary the amount of effecti#e reactance connected to the
system .
746 ANALYSIS OF THE TCSC EJUIEALENT CIRCUIT B
The analysis of T(( operation in the #ernier;control mode is performed based on the
simplified T(( circuit as shown in 5ig. ?.74C>D C2;DC56D
5rom the 5ig;?.7
i
T
$t'
i

$t'
Fig 6.3 S+$81+?+ed T&S& &+r)"+t
38
i

$t' K Transmission line current which is modeled as an e*ternal current source and
assumed to be sinusoidal current.
i
T
$t' K Thyristor;#al#e current
u K switching #ariable
when u K8, thyristor is conducting i.e. switch is closed
when u K =, thyristor is bloc"ed i.e switch is open
( K 5i*ed capacitor used in parallel with T(/ circuit
1 K )nductance used in series with Thyristor bidirectional switch
D
c
$t' K #oltage across the capacitor (
The current through the fi*ed capacitor ( is e*pressed as
( ) ( ) " t i t i
dt
dv
!
S
c
$?.9'
The current through thyristor is gi#en by
" v
dt
di
L
!

$?.A'
1et the line current i

$t' be represented by
( ) wt I t i
m S
cos
$?.>'
)n eBuidistant firing;pulse control, for balanced T(( operation, the thyristors are
switched on twice in each cycle of the line current at instants t
8
and t
7
and these are gi#en
by
w
t


8

w
t

7
where

is the angle of ad#ance $before the forward #oltage becomes zero' or,

H
ma*
= < <
where

is the firing angle of the thyristor. This angle is generated using a reference
signal that can be in phase with the capacitor #oltage. The thyristor switch turns off at
the instants t
:
and t
<
, defined as
w
t t

+
8 :

39
w
t t

+
7 <
where

is the conduction angle, which is assumed to be the same in both the positi#e
and the negati#e cycle of conduction. Also,

:
ol#ing the T(( eBuations $ ?.9';$?.>' results in the steady state thyristor current i
T,
as
( )
1
]
1

t w wt I t i
r m
cos
cos
cos
cos
:
:
:

H
wt
$?.8='
where w
r
is called resonance freBuency and is gi#en by
L!
w
r
8

and
:
8

,
_


L
! r
X
X
w
w

where I
(
and I
1
are capaciti#e reactance and inducti#e reactance respecti#ely.
The steady state capacitor #oltage at the instant
wt
is e*pressed as
( )

tan cos sin


8
)m
:
8

!
!
X
v $?.88'
At
= ,

i wt
, the capacitor #oltage is gi#en by
8 :
' $
! ! !
v v wt v
$?.8:'
5inally the capacitor #oltage is gi#en by
( ) H sin
cos
cos
sin
8
)m
:

,
_

t w wt
X
t v
r
!
!

wt
$?.87'
( ) < < + wt wt X v t v
! ! !
'H sin $sin )m
:
$?.8<'
0ecause the non;sinusoidal capacitor #oltage, #
c,
has odd symmetry about the a*is
wt K =, the fundamental component, D
(5,
is obtained as
( ) ( ) wt d wt t v V
! !F
sin
<
:
=

$?.8@'
The eBui#alent T(( reactance is computed as the ratio of D
(5
to )
m
G
40
( )
( ) ( )
( )
' 8? . ? $
tan tan
8
cos <
: sin :
:
: :
:


+
+


L !
!
L !
!
!
m
!F
!S!
X X
X
X X
X
X
I
V
X


)f we apply

, in eBuation $?.8?' the reactance of T(( becomes as G
( ) ( ) [ ] { }
( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) { } ' 89 . ? $ tan tan cos
: sin :
:
:
8



+ +
!
! X X
! !S!
where
:
8
:
:
8
,
,
<
,

,
_

L
!
L !
L !
L!
L
L!
L! !
X
X
X X
X X
X
X
X
!
X X
!


5rom the eBuation $?.89' it is clear that the reactance of T(( is dependent on the firing
angle of thyristor and this reactance #aries from inducti#e region to capaciti#e region
between firing angle >=
=
to 8A=
=
and at around 8<=
=
there is a condition of resonance.
A MAT1A0 P/.,/AM is written for analyzing the acti#e and reacti#e power flow
control by T((. .utput of the result shows that the compensating coefficient r! is
ha#ing both inducti#e and capaciti#e compensation #alue which #aries according to the
firing angle. 5rom the analysis it is clear that height of load angle cur#e increases with the
more capaciti#e reactance of T((. 0ut the height of the load angle cur#e decrease with
more inducti#e reactance of T((.
41
imilarly the reacti#e power cur#e for capaciti#e compensation is positi#e and reacti#e
power cur#e for inducti#e compensation is negati#e.
Also both acti#e and reacti#e power decreases with the increase of firing angle up to
certain #alue where the reactance of T(( is inducti#e. At >=
=
of firing angle the
reactance of T(( becomes capaciti#e and both acti#e and reacti#e power increases.
)ATLA+ PROGRA)/<42
VA%A1W) .5 A(T)DE A%D /EA(T)DE P.EE/ 51.E
VE)T- DA/)AT).% .5 5)/)%, A%,1E
$Attached in Appendi*;A!'
SET OF DATA
line #oltageK ::= D
line reactanceK :== ohm
inducti#e reactance of T(/K =.8@ ohm
fi*ed capaciti#e impedanceK 87= ohm
phase angleK 7=
=
RESULT IS
a#"%a P3 J3 r
= 8:=.>=>: ;=.=<A? ;=.===A $inducti#e compensation'
8=.==== 8:=.AA7? ;=.=?:7 ;=.==8= $inducti#e compensation'
:=.==== 8:=.A<8? ;=.=A<A ;=.==87 $inducti#e compensation'
7=.==== 8:=.9?99 ;=.8:<7 ;=.==8> $inducti#e compensation'
<=.==== 8:=.?:<@ ;=.:==? ;=.==78 $inducti#e compensation'
@=.==== 8:=.7=@= ;=.79=7 ;=.==@A $inducti#e compensation'
?=.==== 88>.<8@7 ;=.A7A8 ;=.=877 $inducti#e compensation'
9=.==== 88@.9:99 ;:.9=:7 ;=.=<@? $inducti#e compensation'
A=.==== 98.?<>8 ;8@.??=< ;=.?AAA $inducti#e compensation'
>=.==== 7<@.98<7 7<<.=?A? 147611 $capaciti#e compensation'
42
0 20 40 60 80 100
-100
0
100
200
300
400
ACTIVE POWER AND REACTIVE POWER vs FIRING ANGLE
firing angle
P
,
Q
0 50 100 150 200
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
x 10
7
ACTIVE POWER vs LOAD ANGLE
load angle
a
c
t
i
v
e

p
o
w
e
r
(
P
)

w
a
t
t
0 50 100 150 200
-2000
0
2000
4000
6000
REACTIVE POWER vs LOAD ANGLE
load angle
r
e
a
c
t
i
v
e

p
o
w
e
r

(
Q
)

v
a
r
P
Q
r = 0.6500
r = - 0.0008
r = - 0.6888
r = 0.6500
r = - 0.0008
r = - 0.6888
Fi(/74<
747 SI)ULATION OF TCSC CIRCUIT USING PSCAD/<41 G
The basic model of the T(( is implemented in P(AD in order to identify its main
characteristics C=DC5;D4 5or the purpose of the simulation, a constant A( #oltage source
D
s
K 8 "D is used to supply a series /;1 load. The thyristors are fired at an angle of 87=
degree. The wa#eforms of the simulated T(( model are obtained for each element used
in the circuit. .f course with the help of slider used for #arying the firing angle, we can
#ary the firing angle from >=
=
to 8A=
=
and there will be change in wa#eform.
( K 5i*ed (apacitor K :8: micro farad
1 K)nductance used in series with thyristor K =.=8@ -enry
/
1
K 1oad resistance K 8 ohm
1
1
K 1oad inductance K 8 -enry
D
cap
K Doltage across fi*ed capacitor
D
ind
K Doltage across series inductor used with thyristor
D
load
K Doltage across load
)
cap
K (urrent through (apacitor
43
)
ind
K (urrent through series inductor
)
load
K (urrent through load
Alpha K 5iring angle K 87=
=

44

1
'
0
1
'
0
/1oad
1oad .o1ta,e
/1oad
/s
so"r)e .o1ta,e
I1oad
I1oad
1oad )"rrent
)os5t76
/) t7
s+n5t76
/&;
/&;
50'0
T@ARIST;R BIRI<G PCLS(
&;<TR;L &IR&CIT
1
2
BP1
2
2
BP2
/s
BP1
BP2
1D /E 50 @F
%& So"r)e
/&;
T7+s +s t7e /o1ta,e-&ontro11ed
;s)+11ator 5/&;6 )o$8onent'
Bor an +n8"t +n @FE +t +11 o"t8"t
a re8eat+n,E 0 to 360 de,ree
ra$8 ?"n)t+on a.e?or$' T7+s
a.e?or$ +s "sed ?or re?eren)e
+n t7e a9o.e )ontro1 )+r)"+t'
BP1
BP2
%187a
/&;
%187a
L
@
2
L
@
2
/&;
1
8
0
'
0
G
+
B
+
%187a2
%187a2 %187a ;rder
S1+der and
&ontro1
T&S& &@%R%&T(RISTI&S
212'0
0'015
0
'
0
0
1
/
)
a
8
I+nd
I)a8
/
+
n
d
Is
Is
so"r)e )"rrent
/)a8
)a8a)+tor .o1ta,e
I)a8
)a8a)+tor )"rrent
/+nd
Ind")tor .o1ta,e
I+nd
+nd")tor )"rrent
R-L 1oad
%187'''
175
5
%187a ;rder
130
d
e
,
T&S&
&IR&CIT
SI*CL%TI;< R(SCLT
Fi(/ 746
45
TCSC CHARACTERISTICS WAEEFOR)S FOR FIRING ANGLE K 2;1
1
Fi(/747
74= TCSC STEADY STATE CHARACTERISTICS
(SI)ULIN- +LOC-)C=DB
)n this circuit T(( is used in parallel with two transmission line ha#ing inductance of
=.=9>@? - and fi*ed capacitor is ha#ing #alue of 89?.A7 micro farad. Doltage source
applied is 88 "D. 5or the circuit steady state rms load current )
load
is found.
T+$e +s se)
46
Fi(/74=
47
Fi(/74>
5rom the abo#e graph which is obtained after simulation , the )
load
rms current K 8.@:A "A.
This load current also obtained from the /M load current meter.
T+$e +n se)
48
74> DYNA)IC CHARACTERISTICS OF TCSC B
(OPEN LOOP CONTROL)
)n this case the test system comprises of a constant A( #oltage source feeding a linear
eries /;1 load through three parallel branch transmission circuits. The eBui#alent
impedance of each transmission path is ad+usted to be eBual, with one of them including a
T((. The top branch contains a brea"er, #r$, which is used to simulate the opening of
this branch at a gi#en point in time of the transient simulation and to analyze the dynamic
performance of the T(( under the new operating condition. Ehen #r$ opens the
eBui#alent impedance of the transmission system increases and conseBuently the current
supplied to the load drops. The T(( is operated at firing angle of 87=
=
and 0r" opens at
t K =.: secs and the dynamic characteristics of the T(( is obser#ed from the output
graph which is obtained after simulation of the test circuit as gi#en in 5ig ?.> in the ne*t
page.
49
SI)ULIN- +LOC- FOR TCSC OPEN LOOP CONTROL
Fi(/740
50
SI)ULATION RESULT B
Fi(/7421
5rom the simulation result, it is clear that the rms load current is decreased from 8.@:A "A
$steady state #alue' to 8.7A@ "A $when brea"er opens at t K =.: sec'. ,raphical result also
shows the same as )
load
rms #alue decreases at t K =.: sec.
T+$e +s se)
51
740 SI)ULIN- +LOC- FOR TCSC CLOSED LOOP CONTROL B
Fig-6.11
52
SI)ULATION RESULT FOR TCSC CLOSED LOOP CONTROL B
Fi(/7425
5rom the result it is clear that the load current )
load
$rms' which is decreased to 8.7A@ "A in
the open loop control arrangement is automatically regain to its steady state #alue $8.@7
"A'. Thus T(( pro#ides reBuired series compensation to regain the decreased current
to steady state #alue though one of the parallel inductor is in open condition.
5rom the analysis, we come to "now that T(( is good current controller. Thus it can
be utilized as acti#e power controller. This will be discussed in the ne*t simulation bloc".
T+$e +s se)
53
7421 POWER FLOW CONTROL USING TCSC
(SI)ULIN- +LOC-)
Fi(/742;
)n the abo#e bloc", a two bus system is considered for simulation and analyzing the
power flow control. 5or the abo#e bloc" in 5ig;?.87, set of data are gi#en in the ne*t page
and simulation result is shown.
54
5iring angle for thyristor K alpha K87=
=
ending end #oltage $line;line' K 88 "D
/ecei#ing end #oltage $line;line' K 8= "D
ending end phase angle K 7=
=
/ecei#ing end phase angle K =
=
)sr K ending end current
Psr K Acti#e power flow from sending end
Psr K /eacti#e power flow from recei#ing end
Transmission line inductance K =.<@ - $per phase'
5i*ed capacitor of T(( K :8: micro farad
eries inductance of T(( K =.=8@ -
CASE/2 SI)ULATION RESULT FOR FIRING ANGLE K 87=
=
%187'''
180
0
%187a ;rder
130
d
e
,

*a+n 0 &ontro1s
Isr
243'617
Psr
988'702
Qsr
-1191'38

CASE/5 SI)ULATION RESULT FOR FIRING ANGLE K 8@=
=
%187'''
180
0
%187a ;rder
150
d
e
,

*a+n 0 &ontro1s
Isr
218'247
Psr
1270'54
Qsr
-774'321
CASE/; SI)ULATION RESULT FOR FIRING ANGLE K 88=
=
%187'''
180
0
%187a ;rder
110
d
e
,

*a+n 0 &ontro1s
Isr
236'897
Psr
538'39
Qsr
-1300'04
Fi(/742<
55
5rom the three cases of simulation result, it is clear that as we increase the firing angle
from 87=
=
to 8@=
=
, the T(( causes capaciti#e compensation and the real power flow
from sending end is increased from >AA.9: &E to 8:9=.@< &E. imilarly when firing
angle decreases from 87=
=
to 88=
=
, T(( increases the inducti#e reactance of the
transmission line. Thus real power flow from sending end to recei#ing end is decreased
from >AA.9: &E to @7A.7> &E.
7422 CONCLUSION B
Thus with the discussion and simulation result it is #ery clear that, both current
and the power flow in the transmission line can be controlled by #arying the firing angle
of T(( to the desired #alue. %ow in the ne*t two chapter, we will consider the @;bus
networ" and we will find the power flow between two buses using load flow solution.
Also we will find out the desired amount of power flow to be controlled between two
particular bus. 5or the analysis and result we will use %&L&# code.
56
=
POWER FLOW SOLUTION OF
LARGE ELECTRICAL NETWOR-
=42 O+,ECTIEE B
The main ob+ecti#e of a power flow study is to determine the steady state
operating condition of the electrical power networ". The steady state may be
determined by finding out the flow of acti#e and reacti#e power throughout the
networ" and the #oltage magnitude and phase angles at all nodes of the networ"
C<DC>D4
The planning and daily operation of modern power systems call for
numerous power flow studies. uch information is used to carry out security
assessment analysis, where the nodal #oltage magnitudes and acti#e and reacti#e
power flows in transmission lines and transformers are carefully obser#ed to
assess whether or not they are within prescribed operating limits. )f the power
flow study indicates that there are #oltage magnitudes outside bounds at certain
points in the networ", then appropriate control actions become necessary in order
to regulate the #oltage magnitude. imilarly, if the study predicts that the power
flow in a gi#en transmission line is beyond the power carrying capacity of the line
then control action will be ta"en.
=45 POWER FLOW SOLUTION B
A electrical networ" consists of #arious electrical elements such as
generator, load, transmission line, transformer etc. -ere we assume that all the
data for generator, load, and transmission line parameters are gi#en in per unit
system and common MDA base C>D4
0efore building the power flow eBuation it is necessary to "now the bus
admittance matri* for the gi#en networ". -ere we will build a bus admittance
57
matri* for n;bus electrical networ". The same principle can be applied to any
number of buses.
=4; +US AD)ITTANCE )ATRIL B
The 5ig 9.8 shows a simple transmission line connected between ";th and
m;th node and the transmission line parameter are as follows G
/ K resistance of transmission line
I K reactance of transmission line
, K conductance of transmission line
0 K susceptance of transmission line
)
"
K current in+ected at the ";th node
)
m
K current in+ected at m;th node
E
"
K #oltage at ";th node
E
m
K #oltage at m;th node
elf admittance at node;" is gi#en by
: : : :
8
: : : :
#
j
X '
jX (
X '
' #
j
(
jX '
)
$$
+
+
+
+

,
_

+ +
+

$9.8'
: : : :
8
X '
jX
X '
'
jX '
)
$m
+
+
+

+

$9.:'
m$ $m
) )
D
I
D

(
D
$
I
$
(
$
R + j X
G
4
2

+

j

!
4
2
G
4
2

+

j

!
4
2
Fig !.1
58
Also shunt element connected each node contributes to W
bus
matri*. The additional
amount of self admittance is added to y
""
. The contribution of shunt element to W
bus
admittance matri* is gi#en by G
s* s*
s*
s* s*
s*
s* s*
s*"nt $$
X '
X
j
X '
'
jX '
)
: : : :
' $
8
+

$9.7'
where as y
""
is called self;admittance and these elements constitute diagonal element of
W
bus
matri* and y
"m
, y
m"
is called mutual admittance and these elements constitute the off;
diagonal element of the W
bus
matri*. )n general W
bus
matri* for a n;bus networ" can be
written as G
n n
nn n n
n
n
Y Y Y
Y Y Y
Y Y Y
Y+"s

1
1
1
1
]
1





: 8
: :: :8
8 8: 88
$9.<'
=4< POWER FLOW EJUATION C>D B
)n order to de#elop suitable power flow eBuations, it is necessary to find
relationship between in+ected bus currents and bus #oltages. 0ased on abo#e fig 9.8 the
in+ected comple* current at bus;" which is denoted by )
"
may be e*pressed in terms of
comple* bus #oltage E
"
and E
m
as follows G
( ) ( )
m $m $ $$ m $m $ $m $ m $ $m $ $ $
, Y , Y , ) , ) ) , , ) , ) I + + +
= =
$9.@'
where
$m $o $$
) ) Y +
and
$m $m
) Y
imilarly for bus m,
( ) ( )
$ m$ m mm $ m$ m m$ m $ m m$ m mo m
, Y , Y , ) , ) ) , , ) , ) I + + +
=
$9.?'
where
m$ mo mm
) ) Y +
and
$m m$
) Y
The abo#e eBuation can be written in matri* form as G
59
1
]
1

1
1
]
1

1
]
1

m
$
mm m$
$m $$
m
$
,
,
Y Y
Y Y
I
I
$9.9'
where the bus admittances and #oltage can be e*pressed in more e*plicit formG
ij ij ij
j# ( Y +
( )
i i i
j
i i
j V e V ,
i

sin cos +

where i K ",m and + K ",m
The (omple* power in+ected at bus " is gi#en by G
( )
M
M
m $m - $$ $
$ $ $ $ $
, Y , Y ,
I , jQ P S
+
+

where )
"
M
is the comple* con+ugate of the current in+ected at bus "
Applying the #alue of W
i+
and E
i
in
"
we get,

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
M
sin cos sin cos sin cos
m m m $m $m $ $ $ $$ $$ $ $ $ $
j V j# ( j V j# ( j V S + + + + + +
The e*pression for real and reacti#e power in+ected at ";th bus can be determined by
ta"ing real and imaginary parts of the abo#e e*pression of
"
.
o the real power in+ected at ";th bus is
60
( ) ( )X sin cos Y
:
m $ $m m $ $m m $ $$ $
c./
$
# ( V V ( V P + + $9.A'
imilarly the reacti#e power in+ected at ";th bus is
( ) ( )X cos sin Y
:
m $ $m m $ $m m $ $$ $
c./
$
# ( V V # V Q + $9.>'
5rom the eBuations $9.A' and $9.>' it is clear that the powers in+ected at bus " is flown
through the ith element of the transmission line. -owe#er, a practical power system will
consists of many buses and many transmission line elements. This calls for the abo#e two
eBuation to be e*pressed as the summation of the power flowing at each one of the
transmission elements terminating at this bus. This is illustrated in 5ig 9.: and 5ig 9.7 for
the cases of acti#e and reacti#e powers respecti#ely .

The generic net acti#e and reacti#e powers in+ected at bus " areG
$
P
LD
P
GD
P
D
n

)
a
1
D P
D
+ )a1
P
D
1 )a1
%)t+.e 8oer 9a1an)e at 9"s D

Fig-!.2
$
Q
LD
Q
GD
Q
D
n

)
a
1
D Q
D
+ )a1
Q
D
1 )a1
Rea)t+.e 8oer 9a1an)e at 9"s D
Fig-!.3
61

n
i
c./ i
$
c./
$
P P
8

n
i
c./ i
$
c./
$
Q Q
8
where
c./ i
$
P
and
c./ i
$
Q
are acti#e and reacti#e power flows contributed by the mutual
admittance elements i.e from ";bus to m;bus.
=46 POWER )IS)ATCH EJUATIONS C<DC>D B
5or steady state operation of power system, at a gi#en bus the generation, load and power
e*changed through the transmission elements connecting to the bus must add up to zero.
This applies to both acti#e and reacti#e power. These eBuations are termed as 0power
mism.tc* eq".tions1 and at bus " they ta"e the following form G
=
c./
$
sc*
$
c./
$ L$ ($ $
P P P P P P
=
c./
$
sc*
$
c./
$ L$ ($ $
Q Q Q Q Q Q
where the terms
$
P
and
$
Q
are the mismatch acti#e and reacti#e powers at bus "
respecti#ely.
($
P
and
($
Q
represents the acti#e and reacti#e powers in+ected by the generator at bus
" respecti#ely.
L$
P
and
L$
Q
represents the acti#e and reacti#e powers drawn by the load at bus;"
respecti#ely.
5urther for specified le#els of power generation and power load at bus " the power
mismatch eBuations can be written as G
( ) ( ) = XZ sin cos Y [
:
+ +
m $ $m m $ $m m $ $$ $ L$ ($ $
# ( V V ( V P P P $9.8='
( ) ( ) = XZ cos sin Y [
:
+
m $ $m m $ $m m $ $$ $ L$ ($ $
# ( V V # V Q Q Q $9.88'
62
The generic power mismatch eBuations at bus " are G
=
8

n
i
c./ i
$ L$ ($ $
P P P P
$9.8:'
=
8

n
i
c./ i
$ L$ ($ $
Q Q Q Q
$9.87'
=47 NET ACTIEE AND REACTIEE POWERB
The generation and the load at bus " may be measured by the electric utility and in the
parlance of power system engineers, their net #alues are "nown as the 0sc*ed"/ed .ctive
.nd re.ctive powers1 G
L$ ($
sc*
$
P P P

L$ ($
sc*
$
Q Q Q
=4= EARIA+LES AND +US TYPE B
5our #ariables are associated with each bus. These are C=D
#oltage magnitude
V

phase angle
real power P
reacti#e power P
The system buses are generally classified into three types and these are G
S#a3? +us G )t is the reference bus, where the magnitude and phase angle of the #oltage
are specified. This bus ma"es up the difference between the scheduled loads and
generated power that are caused by the losses in the networ".
63
Load +us G At these buses the acti#e and reacti#e powers are specified. The magnitude
and phase angle of the #oltage are un"nown. These buses are called P;P buses.
Re(u#ated uses G These buses are the generator buses. These are also "nown as
#oltage controlled buses. At these buses, the real power and #oltage magnitude are
specified. The phase angle of the #oltages and the reacti#e power are to be determined.
The limits on the #alue of the reacti#e power are also specified. These buses are called
P;D buses.
=4> POWER FLOW SOLUTION )ETHOD G
The most common techniBues used for the iterati#e solution of nonlinear algebra
eBuations are ,auss;eidel, %ewton;/aphson method etc C<D4 As power flow eBuation are
nonlinear in nature, the following three common methods used for the solution of power
flow eBuation.
$a' ,auss;eidel $,' method
$b' %ewton;/aphson $%/' method
$c' 5ast Decoupled power flow solution method
.ut of these three method, use of %ewton;/aphson $%/' method is more powerful for
medium and large networ". This is because it wor"s faster and is sure to con#erge in most
cases. %umber of iteration reBuired is less and the con#ergence process is faster than any
other method. )ts only draw bac" is the large reBuirement of computer memory, which
can be o#ercome through a compact storage scheme. That!s why in this pro+ect %ewton;
/aphson method is used to sol#e power flow eBuation.
=40 NEWTON/RAPHSON ALGORITH) B
This approach uses iteration to sol#e the following set of nonlinear algebraic eBuations
C=DC>D G
64
( )
( )
( ) = , , ,
= , , ,
= , , ,
: 8
: 8 :
: 8 8



n 2
n
n
3 3 3 4
3 3 3 4
3 3 3 4


.r
( ) 1 L F
$9.8<'
where F represents the set of n nonlinear eBuations and L is the #ector of n un"nown state
#ariables.
The essence of the method consists of determining the #ector of state #ariables L by
performing a Taylor series e*pansion of F(@) about an initial estimate L
(1)
G
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ter!s order %i(%er L L L , L F L F
1 1 1
+ + $9.8@'
where
( )
( )
1
L , is a matri* of first;order partial deri#ati#es of F(L) with respect to L and
is called 2acobian which is e#aluated at LKL
(1)
.
This e*pansion in eBuation $9.8@' lends itself to a suitable formulation for calculating the
#ector of state #ariables I by assuming that I
$8'
is the #alue computed by the algorithm at
iteration 8 and that this #alue is sufficiently close to the initial estimate I
$='
. 0ased on this
premise, all high;order deri#ati#es terms in the e*pression. $@.8@' can be neglected.
-ence,
65
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

+
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

= 8
=
:
8
:
=
8
8
8
: 8
:
:
:
8
:
8
:
8
8
8
=
=
:
=
8
8
8
:
8
8
=
n n
X X
n
n n n
n
n
n n
X X
X X
X X
3
X 4
3
X 4
3
X 4
3
X 4
3
X 4
3
X 4
3
X 4
3
X 4
3
X 4
X 4
X 4
X 4
X 4
X 4
X 4


66
( )
( )

2
L F

( )
( )

1
L F

( )
( )

1
L ,

( ) ( )

1 2
L L

)n compact form, and generalizing the abo#e e*pression for the case of
iteration $ i ',
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
8 8 8
+
i i i i i
L L L , L F L F $9.8?'
Ehere i K 8, : \\.5urthermore, if it is assumed that L
(i)
is sufficiently close to the
solution L
(M)
Then ( )
( )
( ) 1 L F L F
M (i)

-ence the eBuation $9.8?' can be written as
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) =
8 8 8
+
i i i i
L L L , L F $9.89'
%ow sol#ing the eBuation $9.89' for L
(i)
,
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2 i 2 i 2 2 i i
L F L , L L

$9.8A'
The iterati#e solution can be e*pressed as a function of the correction #ector
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 i i i
L L NL


,
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2 i 2 i 2 i
L F L , NL

$9.8>'
and the initial estimates are updated using the following relationsG
( ) ( ) ( ) i 2 i i
NL L L +

$9.:='
The calculation is repeated as many times as reBuired using the most up;to;date #alues of
L in the abo#e eBuation. This is done until mismatches NL are within a prescribed small
tolerance $i.e 8e;8:'.
=421 NEWTON/RAPHSON )ETHOD FOR POWER FLOW
PRO+LE) B
imilar analogy can be made for power flow eBuation as described abo#e as the
power flow eBuation is also a nonlinear algebraic eBuation consists of #ariables nodal
#oltage magnitudes D and phase angles . Thus the power mismatches eBuations NP
67
and
Q N
are e*panded around a base point
( ) ( )
( )
1 1
E H O and hence, the power flow
%ewton;/aphson algorithm is e*pressed by the following relationship C>D G
( )
( )
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

E
NE
NO
E
E
J
O
J
E
E
P
O
P
NJ
NP
i
i
$9.:8'
5urther this can be written in this form asG
68
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

E
NE
NO
, ,
, ,
NJ
NP
< ;
5 2
$9.::'
where ,
2
, ,
5
, ,
;
and ,
<
constitutes the 2acobian matri*, each element of the order of
$nb;8' * $nb;8'.
nbK total number of buses
Thus 2acobian matri* are written as G
!
?
2
O
P
,

,
m
E
E
P
,
!
?
5

!
?
;
O
J
,

,
!
!
?
<
E
E
J
,

where " K 8,:, \\,nb


and m K 8,:, \\\,nb
but omitting the slac" bus entries.
69
)t must be pointed out that the correction terms
!
NE
are di#ided by
!
E
to compensate
for the fact that 2acobian terms
!
!
?
!
!
?
E
E
J
and E
E
P

,
_

,
_

are multiplied by
!
E
. )t is shown in the deri#ati#e terms gi#en below that this artifice yields useful
simplifying calculations.
(onsider the /;th elements connected between buses " and m in 5ig.9.8 for which self
and mutual 2acobian terms are gi#en belowG
5or m $ G

( ) ( )X cos sin Y
,
,
m $ $m m $ $m m $
/ m
/ $
# ( V V
P

$9.:7'


( ) ( )X sin cos Y
,
,
,
m $ $m m $ $m m $ / m
/ m
/ $
# ( V V V
V
P
+

$9.:<'
/ m
/ m
/ $
/ m
/ $
V
V
P Q
,
,
,
,
,

$9.:@'


/ m
/ $
/ m
/ m
/ $
V
P
V
V
Q
,
,
,
,
,

$9.:?'
5or m $
$$ $
c./
$
/ $
/ $
# V Q
P
:
,
,

$9.:9'
$$ $
c./
$ / $
/ $
/ $
( V P V
V
P
:
,
,
,
+

$9.:A'
$$ $
c./
$
/ $
/ $
( V P
Q
:
,
,

$9.:>'
$$ $
c./
$ / $
/ $
/ $
# V Q V
V
Q
:
,
,
,

$9.7='
)n general, for a bus " containing n transmission elements /, the bus self;elements ta"e the
following form G

n
/ / $
/ $
$
$
P
P
8 ,
,

$9.78'
70
/ $
n
/ / $
/ $
$
$
$
V
V
P
V
V
P
,
8 ,
,


$9.7:'

n
/ / $
/ $
$
$
Q
Q
8 ,
,

$9.77'
/ $
n
/ / $
/ $
$
$
$
V
V
Q
V
V
Q
,
8 ,
,

$9.7<'
After the con#ergence of the power flow solution, we get the final #alue of state #ariables
i.e. #oltage magnitudes and phase angles ha#e been calculated. Then acti#e and reacti#e
power flows throughout the transmission system are determined Buite straightforwardly.
=422 STATE EARIA+LE INITIALISATION B
The effecti#eness of the %ewton;/aphson method to achie#e feasible iterati#e solutions is
dependent upon the selection of suitable initial #alues for all the state #ariables in#ol#ed
in the study C>D4
The power flow solution starts with initial #alue of #oltage magnitude of 8 p.u. at all PP
buses. The slac" and PD buses are gi#en their specified #alues, which remain constant
throughout the iterati#e solution if no generator reacti#e power limits are #iolated. The
initial #oltage phase angles are selected to be = at all buses.
=425 GENERATOR REACTIEE POWER LI)IT B
5or the iterati#e solution of power flow eBuation, it is essential to chec" the calculated
reacti#e power
c./
$
Q
is within the generator reacti#e power limits C>D G
$ ( ($ $ (
Q Q Q
ma* min
< <
)f either of the following conditions occur during the iterati#e process G
$ (
c./
$
Q Q
ma*

,
$ (
c./
$
Q Q
min

,
0us " becomes a generator PP bus with either of the following mismatch power
eBuations incorporated in Power flow mismatch eBuation asG
71
,
,
min
ma*
c./
$ L$ $ ( $ $
c./
$ L$ $ ( $ $
Q Q Q Q Q
Q Q Q Q Q


Depending on the #iolated limit, together with rele#ant 2acobian entries. The nodal
#oltage magnitude at bus " is allowed to #ary and D
"
becomes a state #ariable.
)t should be remar"ed that bus " may re#ert to being a generator PD bus at some point
during the iterati#e process if better estimates of
./
$
Q
, calculated with more accurate
nodal #oltages, indicate that the reacti#e power reBuirements at bus " can, after all be met
by the generator connected at bus ". -ence, reacti#e power limit chec"ing is carried out
at each iteration.
=42; GENERALIPED POWER FLOW SOLUTION FOR
6/+US NETWOR-B
A @;0us networ" is gi#en in the ne*t page in 5ig;9.< to analyze the power flow solution
and to determine the acti#e power flow and reacti#e power flow from each bus . Also
nodal #oltage magnitude and nodal phase angle is determined where these Buantities are
not "nown. 5or this purpose a computer program is used to sol#e the power flow solution.
72
G(L@I
1
<%H%BG%R@
3
B%RIG%!%G
4
<;IG%
2
GCRG%;<
5
T
1
+
n
e
-
1
T
1
+
n
e
-
7
T1+ne-2 T1+ne-6
T1+ne-5
T1+ne-3
T1+ne-4
Gen-2
Gen-1
L;%G-1
L;%G-2
L;%G-4
L;%G-3
Fig !.4 % 5-!"s <etorD ?or ana1#F+n, t7e 8oer ?1o so1"t+on
73
DATA FOR 6/+US NETWOR- B
TRANS)ISSION LINE DATA B
Total no of transmission line K 9
Trans!ission
Line
F! To Resistan3e
in "4u
Rea3tan3e in
"4u
Sus3e"tan3e
in "4u
Tline;8 Delhi %oida =.=: =.=? =.=?
Tline;: Delhi %a+afgarh =.=A =.:< =.=@
Tline;7 %oida %a+afgarh =.=? =.8A =.=<
Tline;< %oida 5aridabad =.=? =.8A =.=<
Tline;@ %oida ,urgaon =.=< =.8: =.=7
Tline;? %a+afgarh 5aridabad =.=8 =.=7 =.=:
Tline;9 5aridabad ,urgaon =.=A =.:< =.=@
GENERATOR +US DATA
Total no of ,enerator K :
+us No +us T*"e Noda#
.o#ta(
e in
"4u
Noda#
"%ase
an(#e
in "4u
A3ti.e
"o'er
in:e3ted
in "4u
Rea3ti.e
"o'er
in:e3ted
in "4u
Generators
rea3ti.e
"o'er
u""er
#i!its in
"4u
Generators
rea3ti.e
"o'er
#o'er #i!it
in "4u
Delhi;8 lac" 0us 8.=? = un"nown un"nown @ ;@
%oida;: ,enerator
PD 0us
8.== ] =.< ] 7 ;7
LOAD +US DATA
Total no of load K <
+us No +us T*"e Noda#
.o#ta(e
in "4u
Noda# "%ase
an(#e in "4u
A3ti.e
"o'er
dra'n in "4u
Rea3ti.e "o'er
dra'n in "4u
%oida;: 1oad PP
0us
] ] =.:= =.8=
%a+afgarh;7 1oad PP
0us
] ] =.<@ =.8@
5aridabad;< 1oad PP
0us
] ] =.<= =.=@
,urgaon;@ 1oad PP
0us
] ] =.?= =.8
Genera# Para!eters B
Ma*imum )teration K 8==,
Tolerance K 8e ^ 8:
74
)ATLA+ PROGRA)/642
CO)PUTER PROGRA) FOR POWER FLOW SOLUTION
USING NEWTON/RAPHSON )ETHOD B
5or the @;bus networ" shown in 5ig @.<, a computer program is written using )ATLA+
3ode to sol#e the power flow eBuation. These program are attached in &ppendi350#1 .
-ere the main program is shown .
V Main Program to get the output of power flow solution of a gi#en networ"
V0C DATA
V nb K number of buses
V bus type K type of bus
V DM K nodal #oltage magnitude
V DA K nodal #oltage phase angle
V TWPE .5 0C CED )% T-E %ETE./&
V bus type K 8 is slac" or swing bus
V bus type K : is generator PD bus
V bus type K 7 is load PP bus
V bus type K < is generator bus
V The fi#e buses in the networ" are numbered for the purpose of the power
V flow solution, as follows G
V DE1-) K 8
V %.)DA K :
V %A2A5,A/- K 7
V 5A/)DA0AD K <
V ,C/,A.% K @
nbK@H
bus type$8'K8H DM$8'K8.=?H DA$8'K=H
bus type$:'K:H DM$:'K8H DA$:'K=H
bus type$7'K7H DM$7'K8H DA$7'K=H
bus type$<'K7H DM$<'K8H DA$<'K=H
bus type$@'K7H DM$@'K8H DA$@'K=H
V,E%E/AT./ DATA
V ngn K number of generators
V genbus K generator bus number
V P,E% K scheduled acti#e power contributed by the generator
V P,E% K scheduled reacti#e power contributed by the generator
V PMAI K generator reacti#e power upper limit
V PM)% K generator reacti#e power lower limit
ngnK:H
genbus$8'K8H P,E%$8'K=H P,E%$8'K=H PMAI$8'K@H PM)%$8'K;@H
genbus$:'K:H P,E%$:'K=.<H P,E%$:'K=H PMAI$:'K7H PM)%$:'K;7H
75
VT/A%M)).% 1)%E DATA
V ntl K number of transmission lines
V tlsend K sending end of transmission line
V tlrec K recei#ing end of transmission line
V tlresis K series resistance of transmission line
V tlreac K series reactance of transmission line
V tlcond K shunt conductance of transmission line
V tlsuscep K shunt susceptance of transmission line
ntlK9H
tlsend$8'K8H tlrec$8'K:H tlresis$8'K=.=:H tlreac$8'K=.=?H tlcond$8'K=H tlsuscep$8'K=.=?H
tlsend$:'K8H tlrec$:'K7H tlresis$:'K=.=AH tlreac$:'K=.:<H tlcond$:'K=H tlsuscep$:'K=.=@H
tlsend$7'K:H tlrec$7'K7H tlresis$7'K=.=?H tlreac$7'K=.8AH tlcond$7'K=H tlsuscep$7'K=.=<H
tlsend$<'K:H tlrec$<'K<H tlresis$<'K=.=?H tlreac$<'K=.8AH tlcond$<'K=H tlsuscep$<'K=.=<H
tlsend$@'K:H tlrec$@'K@H tlresis$@'K=.=<H tlreac$@'K=.8:H tlcond$@'K=H tlsuscep$@'K=.=7H
tlsend$?'K7H tlrec$?'K<H tlresis$?'K=.=8H tlreac$?'K=.=7H tlcond$?'K=H tlsuscep$?'K=.=:H
tlsend$9'K<H tlrec$9'K@H tlresis$9'K=.=AH tlreac$9'K=.:<H tlcond$9'K=H tlsuscep$9'K=.=@H
V -C%T DATA
V nsh K number of shunt elements
V shbus K shunt element bus number
V shresis K resistance of shunt element
V shrea K reactance of shunt element
V L#e for inducti#e reactance and ;#e for capaciti#e reactance
nshK=H
shbus$8'K=H shresis$8'K=H shreac$8'K=H
V1.AD DATA
V nld K number of load elements
V loadbus K load element bus number
V P1.AD K scheduled acti#e power consumed at the bus
V P1.AD K scheduled reacti#e power consumed at the bus
nldK<H
loadbus$8'K:H P1.AD$8'K=.:H P1.AD$8'K=.8H
loadbus$:'K7H P1.AD$:'K=.<@H P1.AD$:'K=.8@H
loadbus$7'K<H P1.AD$7'K=.<H P1.AD$7'K=.=@H
loadbus$<'K@H P1.AD$<'K=.?H P1.AD$<'K=.8H
V ,E%E/A1 PA/AMETE/
V itma* K ma*imum number of iterations permitted before the iterati#e
V process is terminated
V tolK criterion tolerance to be met before the iterati#e solution is
V successfully brought to an end
itma*K8==H
tolK8e;8:H
nma*K:MnbH
DAKDAM8A=FpiH
MDAbaseK8==H V base MDA
76
YW/,W)XKWbus$tlsend,tlrec,tlresis,tlreac,tlsuscep,tlcond,shbus,shresis,shreac,ntl,nb,nsh'H
YDM,DA,itXK%ewton/aphson$nma*,tol,itma*,ngn,nld,nb,bustype,genbus,loadbus,P,E%,P,E%,
PMAI,PM)%,P1.AD,P1.AD,W/,W),DM,DA'H
YPPsend,PPrec,PPloss,PPbusXKPPflows$nb,ngn,ntl,nld,genbus,loadbus,tlsend,tlrec,tlresis,tlreac,
tlcond,tlsuscep,P1.AD,P1.AD,DM,DA'H
PsendKreal$PPsend'MMDAbaseH V acti#e power sent from each bus
PsendKimag$PPsend'MMDAbaseH V reacti#e power sent from each bus
PrecKreal$PPrec'MMDAbaseH V acti#e power recei#ed at each bus
PrecKimag$PPrec'MMDAbaseH V reacti#e power recei#ed at each bus
PlossKreal$PPloss'MMDAbaseH V acti#e power loss in each transmission line
PlossKimag$PPloss'MMDAbaseH V reacti#e power loss in each transmission line
Pin+ectedK$real$PPbus'MMDAbase'H
PgenKYPin+ected$8,8' Pin+ected$8,:' ;P1.AD$8'MMDAbase Pin+ected$8,7' Pin+ected$8,<'
Pin+ected$8,@'XH
Pin+ectedK$imag$PPbus'MMDAbase'H
PgenKYPin+ected$8,8' Pin+ected$8,:' ;P1.AD$8'MMDAbase Pin+ected$8,7' Pin+ected$8,<'
Pin+ected$8,@'XH
disp $_A(T)DE P.EE/ E%T 5/.M EA(- 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK _'
disp$Psend'
disp $_A(T)DE P.EE/ /E(E)DED AT EA(- 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Prec'
disp $_A(T)DE P.EE/ 1. .% T/A%M)).% 1)%EGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Ploss'
disp $_/EA(T)DE P.EE/ E%T 5/.M EA(- 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Psend'
disp $_/EA(T)DE P.EE/ /E(E)DED AT EA(- 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Prec'
disp $_/EA(T)DE P.EE/ 1. .% T/A%M)).% 1)%EGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Ploss'
disp $_%ET A(T)DE P.EE/ )%2E(TEDF.CTA,E AT ,E%E/AT./F1.AD 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% _'
disp$Pgen'
disp $_ %ET /EA(T)DE P.EE/ )%2E(TEDF.CTA,E AT ,E%E/AT./F1.AD 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% _'
disp$Pgen'
T.TA1,E% K$PPbus$8,8'LPPbus$8,:''MMDAbaseH
T.TA1,E%E/AT).%`A(T)DEP.EE/ Kreal$T.TA1,E%'
T.TA1,E%E/AT).%`/EA(T)DEP.EE/ Kimag$T.TA1,E%'
T.TA1`A(T)DE`1.ADK;$P1.AD$8'LP1.AD$:'LP1.AD$7'LP1.AD$<''MMDAbase
77
T.TA1`/EA(T)DE`1.ADK;$P1.AD$8'LP1.AD$:'LP1.AD$7'LP1.AD$<''MMDAbase
T.TA1`A(T)DEP.EE/`1.KT.TA1,E%E/AT).%`A(T)DEP.EE/ L
T.TA1`A(T)DE`1.AD
T.TA1`/EA(T)DEP.EE/`1.KT.TA1,E%E/AT).%`/EA(T)DEP.EE/ L
T.TA1`/EA(T)DE`1.AD
T.TA1`)TE/AT).% K it
V end of main program
ELECUTION OF )AIN PROGRA) G
Ehen this main program is e*ecuted the list of result is obtained which is summarized as below in
the ne*t page.
SU))ARY OF OUTPUTS B
ACTIEE POWER SENT FRO) EACH +USBBBB
DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
A>.<<@A <:.==:7 :<.@?8< :9.A8:< @<.9@<= 8>.7>8? ?.?7:=
ACTIEE POWER RECEIEED AT EACH +USBBBB
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
;A?.A<@@ ;<=.:97= ;:<.887: ;:9.:@:8 ;@7.<<<A ;8>.7<?8 ;?.@@@:
ACTIEE POWER LOSS ON TRANS)ISSION LINEBBBB
DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
:.?==: 8.9:>7 =.<<A: =.@?=7 8.7=>: =.=<@@ =.=9?A
REACTIEE POWER SENT FRO) EACH +USBBBB
DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
9<.8AA= 89.=:89 ;:.<>8= ;8.?A>9 @.?=7< :.A?9> =.@<>8
REACTIEE POWER RECEIEED AT EACH +USBBBB
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
;9:.>=A< ;89.@8:@ ;=.7@:7 ;=.A7=? ;<.A:>: ;<.?A9A ;@.89=A
REACTIEE POWER LOSS ON TRANS)ISSION LINEBBBB
DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
8.:9>9 ;=.<>=A ;:.A<77 ;:.@:=: =.99<: ;8.A8>> ;<.?:8?
78
NET ACTIEE POWER IN,ECTEDIOUTAGE AT GENERATORILOAD +USBBBB
DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.%
878.<<A8 <=.:A:7 ;:=.==== ;<<.>><? ;7>.>??7 ;?=.====
NET REACTIEE POWER IN,ECTEDIOUTAGE AT GENERATORILOAD +USB
DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.%
>8.:=>9 ;?8.<A@? ;8=.==== ;8<.>>?> ;<.>?>: ;8=.====
TOTAL GENERATIONQACTIEE POWER K
2=24=;1<
TOTAL GENERATIONQREACTIEE POWER K
504=5<2
TOTALQACTIEEQLOAD K
/276
TOTALQREACTIEEQLOAD K
/<1
TOTALQACTIEE POWERQLOSS K
74=;1<
TOTALQREACTIEE POWERQLOSS K
/2145=60
TOTAL ITERATION K
7
=42< CONCLUSIONB
The summary of result are superimposed on the gi#en @;bus networ" shown in 5ig;@.@, so that at
each bus we can find out how much power flows from each bus and the losses on the transmission
line are also mentioned. The summary of output shows that at each bus, power mismatch eBuation
is satisfied. Also power flow solution is con#erges to a prescribed tolerance of 8e;8: within si*
iteration.
79
8
6
'
8
4




7
2
'
9
0
40'28 61'48
Gen-2
Gen-1
131'44 91'20
24'11


0'35
27'81
1'68
19'34
4'68
19'39
2'86
53'44
4'82
27'25
0'83 24'56
2'49

54'75
5'60
40'27
17'51
42'00
17'02
6
'
5
5
5
'
1
7
6
'
6
3
0
'
5
4
8
8
'
4
4



7
4
'
1
8
G(L@I
1
<%H%BG%R@
3
B%RIG%!%G
4
<;IG%
2
GCRG%;<
5
60 + j10
40 + j5
20 +j10
Fig-!.5
%)t+.e and Rea)t+.e 8oer ?1o s7on at ea)7 9"s ?or 5-9"s netorD'
%)t+.e Poer
45 + j15
Rea)t+.e Poer
80
>
POWER FLOW CONTROL USING TCSC
>42 ACTIEE AND REACTIEE POWER FLOW THROUGH TCSC B
As Thyristor (ontrolled eries (apacitor $T((' will control the power flow in the
transmission line of a large electrical networ", here we will model the T(( as a #ariable
reactance which #aries in terms of firing angle of thyristor C=DC>DC2;D4
The fundamental freBuency eBui#alent reactance I
T((
of the T(( which is already
deri#ed in eBuation $?.89' is gi#en by G
( ) ( ) [ ] { } ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) { } + + tan tan cos : sin :
:
: 8
! ! X X
! !S!
where
X
&
$
I
$

/
$

D
I
D
/
D
X
L
Fig-6.1
T&S& )onne)ted 9eteen to 9"ses D and $
81
:
8
:
:
8
,
,
<
,

,
_

L
!
L !
L !
L!
L
L!
L! !
X
X
X X
X X
X
X
X
!
X X
!

The T(( acti#e and reacti#e power eBuations at bus " are
( )
( ) ' : . A $ cos
' 8 . A $ , sin
:
m $ $m m $ $$ $ $
m $ $m m $ $
# V V # V Q
# V V P




where

!S!
!S! $m $$
X
# # #
8


imilarly the acti#e and reacti#e power eBuations at bus m are G
( )
( ) ' < . A $ cos
' 7 . A $ , sin
:
$ m m$ $ m mm m m
$ m m$ $ m m
# V V # V Q
# V V P




where
!S!
!S! m$ mm
X
# # #
8

5or the case when the T(( controls acti#e power flowing from bus " to bus m at a
specified #alue, the set of linearised power flow eBuations is G
82
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

!S!
m
m
$
$
m
$
!S!
!S!
$m
m
m
!S!
$m
$
$
!S!
$m
m
!S!
$m
$
!S!
$m
m
m
m
m
$
$
m
m
m
$
m
$
m
m
$
$
$
$
m
$
$
$
m
m
m
m
$
$
m
m
m
$
m
$
m
m
$
$
$
$
m
$
$
$
!S!
$m
m
$
m
$
V
V
V
V
P
V
V
P
V
V
P P P
Q
V
V
Q
V
V
Q Q Q
Q
V
V
Q
V
V
Q Q Q
P
V
V
P
V
V
P P P
P
V
V
P
V
V
P P P
P
Q
Q
P
P

$A.@'
83
where
!S!
$m
P Q P

, ,
constitute 0power mism.tc* eq".tion1 and these are e*pressed
asG
=
c./
$
sc*
$
c./
$ L$ ($ $
P P P P P P
=
c./
$
sc*
$
c./
$ L$ ($ $
Q Q Q Q Q Q
c./ !S!
$m
re6
$m
!S!
$m
P P P
,

where
re6
$m
P
= T7e a)t+.e 8oer to 9e )ontro11ed ?ro$ 9"s D to 9"s $
c./ !S!
$m
P
,
K calculated acti#e power of the T(( at bus "
imilarly
!S!
V , ,
constitute state #ariables and e*pressed as G
i i

+8

i i
V V V
+8
' $ ' 8 $ i !S! i !S! !S!

+
!S!
is the incremental change in the T(( firing angle at the ith iteration.
The 2acobian elements for the series reactance, as a function of the firing angle
!S!


are gi#en below YAX G
Partial deri#ati#es of the #ariable series impedance model are G
' sin$ m # V V X
X
P
$ $m m $
$

$A.?'
' cos$
:
m # V V # V X
X
Q
$ $m m $ $$ $
$
+

$A.9'
X
X
P
X
X
P
$ $m

$A.A'

Partial deri#ati#es of the firing angle model is gi#en by G

!S!
!S! $
$
X
# P
P
$A.>'

!S!
!S! $
$
X
# Q
Q
$A.8='

!S!
!S!
!S!
X
#
#
:
$A.88'
84
( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) [ ] { }
( )
( ) [ ]
' 8: . A $ 8
cos
cos
tan tan : sin : cos 8 :
:
:
:
:
: 8

'

+
+ +

!
! !
X
!S!
>45 POWER FLOW SOLUTION FOR 7/+US NETWOR-B
Power flow solution for the networ" where T(( is used in the networ" is sol#ed in the
similar way using %ewton;/aphson method already discussed in (hapter;9. )n the ne*t
page a ?;0us networ" is drawn, in which a T(( is used in between %a+afgarh to
Dwar"a. 0y writing a MAT1A0 code in the similar fashion as written in (hapter;9 for
power flow solution, we analyze how the Thyristor;(ontrolled eries (apacitor is
effecti#e for controlling the specified amount of acti#e power in between two buses.
85
G(L@I
1
<%H%BG%R@
3
B%RIG%!%G
4
<;IG%
2
GCRG%;<
5
T
1
+
n
e
-
1
T
1
+
n
e
-
7
T1+ne-2
T1+ne-6
T1+ne-5
T1+ne-3
T1+ne-4
Gen-2
Gen-1
L;%G-1
L;%G-2
L;%G-4
L;%G-3
T&S&1
G
>
%
R
I
%
-
6
Fig "#.2
6-9"s netorD 7ere one T&S& +s +ntrod")ed +n 9eteen
<aja?,ar7 9"s and GarDa 9"s
86
DATA FOR 7/+US NETWOR- IN WHICH TCSC/2 IS CONNECTED B
TRANS)ISSION LINE DATA B
Total no of transmission line K 9
Trans!ission
Line
F! To Resistan3e
in "4u
Rea3tan3e in
"4u
Sus3e"tan3e
in "4u
Tline;8 Delhi %oida =.=: =.=? =.=?
Tline;: Delhi %a+afgarh =.=A =.:< =.=@
Tline;7 %oida %a+afgarh =.=? =.8A =.=<
Tline;< %oida 5aridabad =.=? =.8A =.=<
Tline;@ %oida ,urgaon =.=< =.8: =.=7
Tline;? Dwar"a 5aridabad =.=8 =.=7 =.=:
Tline;9 5aridabad ,urgaon =.=A =.:< =.=@
GENERATOR +US DATA
Total no of ,enerator K :
+us No +us T*"e Noda#
.o#ta(
e in
"4u
Noda#
"%ase
an(#e
in "4u
A3ti.e
"o'er
in:e3ted
in "4u
Rea3ti.e
"o'er
in:e3ted
in "4u
Generators
rea3ti.e
"o'er
u""er
#i!its in
"4u
Generators
rea3ti.e
"o'er
#o'er #i!it
in "4u
Delhi;8 lac" 0us 8.=? = un"nown un"nown @ ;@
%oida;: ,enerator
PD 0us
8.== ] =.< ] 7 ;7
LOAD +US DATA
Total no of load K <
+us No +us T*"e Noda#
.o#ta(e
in "4u
Noda# "%ase
an(#e in "4u
A3ti.e
"o'er
dra'n in "4u
Rea3ti.e "o'er
dra'n in "4u
%oida;: 1oad PP
0us
] ] =.:= =.8=
%a+afgarh;7 1oad PP
0us
] ] =.<@ =.8@
5aridabad;< 1oad PP
0us
] ] =.<= =.=@
,urgaon;@ 1oad PP
0us
] ] =.?= =.8
87
TCSCGs DATA
Total no of T(( K 8
(onnected between G %a+afgarh;7 to Dwar"a;?
(apaciti#e reactance of T(( K >.79@e;7
)nducti#e reactance of T(( K 8.?:@e;7
)nitial 5iring angle K 8<@ degree
5iring angle lower limit K >= degree
5iring angle upper limit K 8A= degree
Acti#e power to be controlled K =.:8 p.u
Genera# Para!eters B
Ma*imum )teration K 8==,
Tolerance K 8e ^ 8:
)ATLA+ PROGRA)//742
CO)PUTER PROGRA) FOR POWER FLOW CONTROL USING TCSC
(THYRISTOR CONTROLLED SERIES CAPACITOR) B
To sol#e the power flow eBuation of abo#e networ" which contains one T(( to control
the reBuired amount of acti#e power between DEA/&A and 5A/)DA0AD, a program
is written in MAT1A0 code and is attached in Appendi* ;( . .nly the main program is
shown here.
V Main T(( ^5A Program to get the output of power flow solution of a gi#en networ"
V0C DATA
V nb K number of buses
V bustype K type of bus
V DM K nodal #oltage magnitude
V DA K nodal #oltage phase angle
V TWPE .5 0C CED )% T-E %ETE./&
V bustype K 8 is slac" or swing bus
V bustype K : is generator PD bus
V bustype K 7 is load PP bus
V bustype K < is generator bus
V The si* buses in the networ" are numbered for the purpose of the power
V flow solution, as follows G
V DE1-) K 8
V %.)DA K :
V %A2A5,A/- K 7
V 5A/)DA0AD K <
V ,C/,A.% K @
V DEA/&A K ?
88
nbK?H
bustype$8'K8HDM$8'K8.=?HDA$8'K=H
bustype$:'K:HDM$:'K8HDA$:'K=H
bustype$7'K7HDM$7'K8HDA$7'K=H
bustype$<'K7HDM$<'K8HDA$<'K=H
bustype$@'K7HDM$@'K8HDA$@'K=H
bustype$?'K7HDM$?'K8HDA$?'K=H
V,E%E/AT./ DATA
V ngn K number of generators
V genbus K generator bus number
V P,E% K scheduled acti#e power contributed by the generator
V P,E% K scheduled reacti#e power contributed by the generator
V PMAI K generator reacti#e power upper limit
V PM)% K generator reacti#e power lower limit
ngnK:H
genbus$8'K8H P,E%$8'K=H P,E%$8'K=H PMAI$8'K@H PM)%$8'K;@H
genbus$:'K:H P,E%$:'K=.<H P,E%$:'K=H PMAI$:'K7H PM)%$:'K;7H
VT/A%M)).% 1)%E DATA
V ntl K number of transmission lines
V tlsend K sending end of transmission line
V tlrec K recei#ing end of transmission line
V tlresis K series resistance of transmission line
V tlreac K series reactance of transmission line
V tlcond K shunt conductance of transmission line
V tlsuscep K shunt susceptance of transmission line
ntlK9H
tlsend$8'K8H tlrec$8'K:H tlresis$8'K=.=:H tlreac$8'K=.=?H tlcond$8'K=H tlsuscep$8'K=.=?H
tlsend$:'K8H tlrec$:'K7H tlresis$:'K=.=AH tlreac$:'K=.:<H tlcond$:'K=H tlsuscep$:'K=.=@H
tlsend$7'K:H tlrec$7'K7H tlresis$7'K=.=?H tlreac$7'K=.8AH tlcond$7'K=H tlsuscep$7'K=.=<H
tlsend$<'K:H tlrec$<'K<H tlresis$<'K=.=?H tlreac$<'K=.8AH tlcond$<'K=H tlsuscep$<'K=.=<H
tlsend$@'K:H tlrec$@'K@H tlresis$@'K=.=<H tlreac$@'K=.8:H tlcond$@'K=H tlsuscep$@'K=.=7H
tlsend$?'K7H tlrec$?'K<H tlresis$?'K=.=8H tlreac$?'K=.=7H tlcond$?'K=H tlsuscep$?'K=.=:H
tlsend$9'K<H tlrec$9'K@H tlresis$9'K=.=AH tlreac$9'K=.:<H tlcond$9'K=H tlsuscep$9'K=.=@H
V -C%T DATA
V nsh K number of shunt elements
V shbus K shunt element bus number
V shresis K resistance of shunt element
V shrea K reactance of shunt element
V L#e for inducti#e reactance and ;#e for capaciti#e reactance
nshK=H
shbus$8'K=H shresis$8'K=H shreac$8'K=H
V1.AD DATA
V nld K number of load elements
V loadbus K load element bus number
V P1.AD K scheduled acti#e power consumed at the bus
V P1.AD K scheduled reacti#e power consumed at the bus
89
nldK<H
loadbus$8'K:H P1.AD$8'K=.:H P1.AD$8'K=.8H
loadbus$:'K7H P1.AD$:'K=.<@H P1.AD$:'K=.8@H
loadbus$7'K<H P1.AD$7'K=.<H P1.AD$7'K=.=@H
loadbus$<'K@H P1.AD$<'K=.?H P1.AD$<'K=.8H
VT(( DATA
V %T((5A K %umber of T((
V T((5Asend K ending bus
V T((5Arec K /ecei#ing bus
V Ic K T((_s reactance $p.u.'
V Il K T((_s inductance $p.u'
V 5A K )nitial firing angle $deg'
V 5A1o K 5iring angle lower limit $deg'
V 5A-i K 5iring angle higher limit $deg'
V 5low K Power flow directionG8 is for sending to recei#ing busH
V ;8 indicates opposite direction
VPsp K Acti#e power flow to be controlled $p.u'
VPta K )ndicate the control status for acti#e power G 8 is onH = is off
%T((5AK8H
T((5Asend$8'K7HT((5Arec$8'K?HIc$8'K>.79@e;7HIl$8'K8.?:@e;7H
5A$8'K8<@H5A1o$8'K>=H5A-i$8'K8A=H5low$8'K8HPta$8'K8HPsp$8'K=.:8H
V ,E%E/A1 PA/AMETE/
V itma* K ma*imum number of iterations permitted before the iterati#e
V process is terminated
V tolK criterion tolerance to be met before the iterati#e solution is
V successfully brought to an end
itma*K8==H
tolK8e;8:H
nma*K:MnbH
DAKDAM8A=FpiH
MDAbaseK8==H V base MDA
YW/,W)XKWbus$tlsend,tlrec,tlresis,tlreac,tlsuscep,tlcond,shbus,shresis,shreac,ntl,nb,nsh'H
YDM,DA,itXK%ewton/aphson$nma*,tol,itma*,ngn,nld,nb,bustype,genbus,loadbus,P,E%,
P,E%,PMAI,PM)%,P1.AD,P1.AD,W/,W),DM,DA'H
YPPsend,PPrec,PPloss,PPbusXKPPflows$nb,ngn,ntl,nld,genbus,loadbus,tlsend,tlrec,tlresis,
tlreac,
tlcond,tlsuscep,P1.AD,P1.AD,DM,DA'H
YPPT((send,PPT((recXKT((PPpower$DA,DM,%T((5A,T((5Asend,
T((5Arec,I'H
DAKDAM8A=FpiH
MDAbaseK8==H V MDA base
PsendKreal$PPsend'MMDAbaseH
PsendKimag$PPsend'MMDAbaseH
PrecKreal$PPrec'MMDAbaseH
PrecKimag$PPrec'MMDAbaseH
PlossKreal$PPloss'MMDAbaseH
PlossKimag$PPloss'MMDAbaseH
Pin+ectedK$real$PPbus'MMDAbase'H
PgenKYPin+ected$8,8' Pin+ected$8,:' ;P1.AD$8'MMDAbase Pin+ected$8,7' Pin+ected$8,<'
Pin+ected$8,@' Pin+ected$8,?'XH
Pin+ectedK$imag$PPbus'MMDAbase'H
PgenKYPin+ected$8,8' Pin+ected$8,:' ;P1.AD$8'MMDAbase Pin+ected$8,7' Pin+ected$8,<'
Pin+ected$8,@' Pin+ected$8,?'XH
90
disp $_A(T)DE P.EE/ E%T 5/.M EA(- 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 50AD_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Psend'
disp $_A(T)DE P.EE/ /E(E)DED AT EA(- 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Prec'
disp $_A(T)DE P.EE/ 1. .% T/A%M)).% 1)%EGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 50AD_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Ploss'
disp $_/EA(T)DE P.EE/ E%T 5/.M EA(- 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 50AD_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Psend'
disp $_/EA(T)DE P.EE/ /E(E)DED AT EA(- 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Prec'
disp $_/EA(T)DE P.EE/ 1. .% T/A%M)).% 1)%EGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 50AD_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Ploss'
disp $_%ET A(T)DE P.EE/ )%2E(TEDF.CTA,E AT ,E%E/AT./F1.AD 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% DEA/&A_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Pgen'
disp $_ %ET /EA(T)DE P.EE/ )%2E(TEDF.CTA,E AT ,E%E/AT./F1.AD 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% DEA/&A_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Pgen'
T.TA1,E% K$PPbus$8,8'LPPbus$8,:''MMDAbaseH
T.TA1,E%E/AT).%`A(T)DEP.EE/ Kreal$T.TA1,E%'
T.TA1,E%E/AT).%`/EA(T)DEP.EE/ Kimag$T.TA1,E%'
T.TA1`A(T)DE`1.ADK;$P1.AD$8'LP1.AD$:'LP1.AD$7'LP1.AD$<''MMDAbase
T.TA1`/EA(T)DE`1.ADK;$P1.AD$8'LP1.AD$:'LP1.AD$7'LP1.AD$<''MMDAbase
T.TA1`A(T)DEP.EE/`1.KT.TA1,E%E/AT).%`A(T)DEP.EE/ L
T.TA1`A(T)DE`1.AD
T.TA1`/EA(T)DEP.EE/`1.KT.TA1,E%E/AT).%`/EA(T)DEP.EE/ L
T.TA1`/EA(T)DE`1.AD
A(T)DE`P.EE/`)%2E(TED`)%`T((K$real$PPT((send''MMDAbase
/EA(T)DE`P.EE/`)%2E(TED`)%`T((Kimag$PPT((send'MMDAbase
5)%A1`5)/)%,A%,E1EK5A
T.TA1`/EA(TA%(EKI
T.TA1`)TE/AT).%Kit
Vend of main T(( program
91
SU))ARY OF OUTPUT B
ACTIEE POWER SENT FRO) EACH +USBBBB
DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 50AD
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
AA.9>:9 <:.??7: :@.@>=? :?.9==@ @<.8>>= :8.==?= 9.8988
ACTIEE POWER RECEIEED AT EACH +USBBBB
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
;A?.:=>8 ;<=.A>:< ;:@.8=9? ;:?.8A=< ;@:.>8<9 ;:=.>@7@ ;9.=A@7
ACTIEE POWER LOSS ON TRANS)ISSION LINEBBBB
DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 50AD
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
:.@A7? 8.99=A =.<A7= =.@:=8 8.:A<7 =.=@:< =.=A@A
REACTIEE POWER SENT FRO) EACH +USBBBB
DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 50AD
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
9<.79>? 8?.>@:8 ;:.???= ;8.@778 @.?@87 :.@8<: =.<<<<
REACTIEE POWER RECEIEED AT EACH +USBBBB
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
;97.8<?8 ;89.7:A9 ;=.=A7: ;8.=>98 ;<.><>8 ;<.78?= ;@.=@=>
REACTIEE POWER LOSS ON TRANS)ISSION LINEBBBB
DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 50AD
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
8.:77@ ;=.79?? ;:.9<>7 ;:.?7=: =.9=:8 ;8.A=8A ;<.?=?@
NET ACTIEE POWER IN,ECTEDIOUTAGE AT GENERATORILOAD +USBBBB
DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% DEA/&A
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
878.<@@> <=.:A8= ;:=.==== ;??.==== ;7>.>?:> ;?=.==== :8.==?=
NET REACTIEE POWER IN,ECTEDIOUTAGE AT GENERATORILOAD
+USBBBB
DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% DEA/&A
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
>8.7789 ;?8.?><= ;8=.==== ;89.<88> ;<.>?A9 ;8=.==== :.@8<:
92
TOTAL GENERATIONQACTIEE POWER K
898.97?>
TOTAL GENERATIONQREACTIEE POWER K
:>.?799
TOTALQACTIEEQLOAD K
;8?@
TOTALQREACTIEEQLOAD K
;<=
TOTALQACTIEE POWERQLOSS K
?.97?>
TOTALQREACTIEE POWERQLOSS K
;8=.7?:7
ACTIEEQPOWERQIN,ECTEDQINQTCSC K
5241111
REACTIEEQPOWERQIN,ECTEDQINQTCSC K
54<220
FINALQFIRING ANGLE K
8<A.<?9@
TOTALQREACTANCE K
;=.=:8?
TOTALQITERATION K
A
The output is superimposed on the gi#en ?;bus networ" in 5ig;A.: for easy reference and
modified figure is shown in 5ig;A.7.
93
Gen-1
131'45 91'33
21.$
8
6
'
2
0




7
3
'
1
4
40'28 61'69
Gen-2
25'10


0'08
27'81
1'53
21.$ 20'95
2'51 4'31
52'91
4'94
26'18
1'09 25'59
2'66

54'19
5'65
40'89
17'32
42'66
16'95
7
'
0
8
5
'
0
5
7
'
1
7
0
'
4
4
8
9
'
7
9



7
4
'
3
7
G(L@I
1
<%H%BG%R@
3
B%RIG%!%G
4
<;IG%
2
GCRG%;<
5
45 + j15
60 + j10
40 + j5
20 +j10
T&S&1
G
>
%
R
I
%

-

6
Fig-#.3
%)t+.e and Rea)t+.e 8oer ?1o s7on at ea)7 9"s ?or 6J9"s
netorD 7ere one T&S& +s "sed to )ontro1 t7e 8oer ?1o'
%)t+.e Poer
Rea)t+.e Poer
94
RESULT/2B
5ig 9.@ is modified and reproduced in 5ig;A.7, in which one T(( is connected between
%a+afgarh and Dwar"a to control :8 ME of power flow from %a+afgarh to 5aridabad.
The power flow solution is obtained in A iteration to a power mismatch tolerance of 8e;
8:. The power flow results are shown in fig;A.7.
ince the T(( cannot generate acti#e power, there is an increase in acti#e power flow
from DE1-) bus to %A2A5,A/- bus $i.e. from <:.== ME to <:.?? ME'. At the same
time there is increase of acti#e power flow from %.)DA bus to %A2A5,A/- bus $i.e
from :<.@? ME to :@.@> ME'. )n total there is increase of acti#e power flow from
%A2A5,A/- to 5A/)DA0AD $i.e from 8>.7> ME to :8 ME'.
)t should be remar"ed that transmission line from %A2A5,A/- to 5A/)DA0AD is
series compensated by the use of T((;8 and there is an increase of acti#e power flow
from 8>.7A ME to :8 ME, which is +ust under AV acti#e power increase. Thus T((
with firing angle control pro#ides a good series compensation in the transmission line
for controlling the acti#e power flow.
>4; POWER FLOW SOLUTION OF =/+US NETWOR-B
The networ" shown in 5ig;A.< consists of two T(( for controlling the power flow. .ne
T(( is connected in between %a+afgarh and Dwar"a. .ther is connected in between
5aridabad and 0adarpur. The MAT1A0 code which is written for one T(( is now
modified with additional data for T((;: and e*ecuted. The power flows #aries in the
transmission line and it is different from the case used for one T((.
95
G(L@I
1
<%H%BG%R@
3
B%RIG%!%G
4
<;IG%
2
GCRG%;<
5
T
1
+
n
e
-
1
T
1
+
n
e
-
7
T1+ne-2
T1+ne-6
T1+ne-5
T1+ne-3
T1+ne-4
Gen-2
Gen-1
L;%G-1
L;%G-2
L;%G-4
L;%G-3
T&S&1
G
>
%
R
I
%
-
6
Fig-#.4
7-9"s netorD 7ere to T&S& +s +ntrod")ed +n 9eteen
<aja?,ar7 9"s to GarDa 9"s and Bar+da9ad to !adar8"r
T&S&2
!%G%RPCR-7
96
DATA FOR =/+US NETWOR- IN WHICH TCSC/2 AND TCSC/5 IS
CONNECTED B
TRANS)ISSION LINE DATA B
Total no of transmission line K 9
Trans!ission
Line
F! To Resistan3e in
"4u
Rea3tan3e in
"4u
Sus3e"tan3e
in "4u
Tline;8 Delhi %oida =.=: =.=? =.=?
Tline;: Delhi %a+afgarh =.=A =.:< =.=@
Tline;7 %oida %a+afgarh =.=? =.8A =.=<
Tline;< %oida 5aridabad =.=? =.8A =.=<
Tline;@ %oida ,urgaon =.=< =.8: =.=7
Tline;? Dwar"a 5aridabad =.=8 =.=7 =.=:
Tline;9 0adarpur ,urgaon =.=A =.:< =.=@
GENERATOR +US DATA
Total no of ,enerator K :
+us No +us T*"e Noda#
.o#ta(
e in
"4u
Noda#
"%ase
an(#e
in "4u
A3ti.e
"o'er
in:e3ted
in "4u
Rea3ti.e
"o'er
in:e3ted
in "4u
Generators
rea3ti.e
"o'er
u""er
#i!its in
"4u
Generators
rea3ti.e
"o'er
#o'er #i!it
in "4u
Delhi;8 lac" 0us 8.=? = un"nown un"nown @ ;@
%oida;: ,enerator
PD 0us
8.== ] =.< ] 7 ;7
LOAD +US DATA
Total no of load K <
+us No +us T*"e Noda#
.o#ta(e
in "4u
Noda# "%ase
an(#e in "4u
A3ti.e
"o'er
dra'n in "4u
Rea3ti.e "o'er
dra'n in "4u
%oida;: 1oad PP
0us
] ] =.:= =.8=
%a+afgarh;7 1oad PP
0us
] ] =.<@ =.8@
5aridabad;< 1oad PP
0us
] ] =.<= =.=@
,urgaon;@ 1oad PP
0us
] ] =.?= =.8
97
TCSCGs DATA
Total no of T(( K :
Data $or TCSC/2
(onnected between G 5rom %a+afgarh;7 to Dwar"a;?
(apaciti#e reactance of T(( ;8K >.79@e;7
)nducti#e reactance of T((;8 K 8.?:@e;7
)nitial 5iring angle K 8<@ degree
5iring angle lower limit K >= degree
5iring angle upper limit K 8A= degree
Acti#e power to be controlled K =.:8 p.u
Data $or TCSC/5
(onnected between G 5rom 5aridabad;< to 0adarpur;9
(apaciti#e reactance of T(( ;:K >.79@e;7
)nducti#e reactance of T((;: K 8.?:@e;7
)nitial 5iring angle K 8<@ degree
5iring angle lower limit K >= degree
5iring angle upper limit K 8A= degree
Acti#e power to be controlled K =.:: p.u
Genera# Para!eters B
Ma*imum )teration K 8==,
Tolerance K 8e ^ 8:
)ATLA+ PROGRA)R745
V Main T(( ^5A Program for T((;8 and T((;: to get the output of power flow solution
of a gi#en networ"
$MAT1A0 P/.,/AM;?.8 is modified and some additional data is added for T((;: and the
portion of modified program is shown below'
V The se#en buses in the networ" are numbered for the purpose of the power
V flow solution, as follows G
V DE1-) K 8
V %.)DA K :
V %A2A5,A/- K 7
V 5A/)DA0AD K <
V ,C/,A.% K @
V DEA/&A K ?
V 0ADA/PC/ K 9
98
nbK9H
bustype$8'K8HDM$8'K8.=?HDA$8'K=H
bustype$:'K:HDM$:'K8HDA$:'K=H
bustype$7'K7HDM$7'K8HDA$7'K=H
bustype$<'K7HDM$<'K8HDA$<'K=H
bustype$@'K7HDM$@'K8HDA$@'K=H
bustype$?'K7HDM$?'K8HDA$?'K=H
bustype$9'K7HDM$9'K8HDA$9'K=H
VT/A%M)).% 1)%E DATA
V ntl K number of transmission lines
V tlsend K sending end of transmission line
V tlrec K recei#ing end of transmission line
V tlresis K series resistance of transmission line
V tlreac K series reactance of transmission line
V tlcond K shunt conductance of transmission line
V tlsuscep K shunt susceptance of transmission line
ntlK9H
tlsend$8'K8H tlrec$8'K:H tlresis$8'K=.=:H tlreac$8'K=.=?H tlcond$8'K=H tlsuscep$8'K=.=?H
tlsend$:'K8H tlrec$:'K7H tlresis$:'K=.=AH tlreac$:'K=.:<H tlcond$:'K=H tlsuscep$:'K=.=@H
tlsend$7'K:H tlrec$7'K7H tlresis$7'K=.=?H tlreac$7'K=.8AH tlcond$7'K=H tlsuscep$7'K=.=<H
tlsend$<'K:H tlrec$<'K<H tlresis$<'K=.=?H tlreac$<'K=.8AH tlcond$<'K=H tlsuscep$<'K=.=<H
tlsend$@'K:H tlrec$@'K@H tlresis$@'K=.=<H tlreac$@'K=.8:H tlcond$@'K=H tlsuscep$@'K=.=7H
tlsend$?'K7H tlrec$?'K<H tlresis$?'K=.=8H tlreac$?'K=.=7H tlcond$?'K=H tlsuscep$?'K=.=:H
tlsend$9'K<H tlrec$9'K@H tlresis$9'K=.=AH tlreac$9'K=.:<H tlcond$9'K=H tlsuscep$9'K=.=@H
VT(( DATA
%T((5AK8H
T((5Asend$8'K7HT((5Arec$8'K?HIc$8'K>.79@e;7HIl$8'K8.?:@e;7H
5A$8'K8<@H5A1o$8'K>=H5A-i$8'K8A=H5low$8'K8HPta$8'K8HPsp$8'K=.:8H
T((5Asend$:'K<HT((5Arec$:'K9HIc$:'K8:.79@e;7HIl$:'K.?:@e;7H
5A$:'K8<@H5A1o$:'K>=H5A-i$:'K8A=H5low$:'K8HPta$:'K8HPsp$:'K=.::H
V Main program
YW/,W)XKWbus$tlsend,tlrec,tlresis,tlreac,tlsuscep,tlcond,shbus,shresis,shreac,ntl,nb,nsh'H
YDM,DA,it,5A,IXKT((5A%ewton/aphson$nma*,tol,itma*,ngn,nld,nb,bustype,genbus,loadbus,
P,E%,P,E%,PMAI,PM)%,P1.AD,P1.AD,W/,W),DM,...
DA,%T((5A,T((5Asend,T((5Arec,Ic,Il,5A,5A1o,5A-i,5low,Pta,Psp'H
YPPsend,PPrec,PPloss,PPbusXKPPflows$nb,ngn,ntl,nld,genbus,loadbus,tlsend,tlrec,tlresis,
tlreac,tlcond,tlsuscep,P1.AD,P1.AD,DM,DA'H
YPPT((send,PPT((recXKT((PPpower$DA,DM,%T((5A,T((5Asend,
T((5Arec,I'H
DAKDAM8A=FpiH
MDAbaseK8==H Vbase MDA
PsendKreal$PPsend'MMDAbaseH
PsendKimag$PPsend'MMDAbaseH
PrecKreal$PPrec'MMDAbaseH
PrecKimag$PPrec'MMDAbaseH
PlossKreal$PPloss'MMDAbaseH
PlossKimag$PPloss'MMDAbaseH
Pin+ectedK$real$PPbus'MMDAbase'H
PgenKYPin+ected$8,8' Pin+ected$8,:' ;P1.AD$8'MMDAbase Pin+ected$8,7' Pin+ected$8,<'
Pin+ected$8,@' Pin+ected$8,?' Pin+ected$8,9'XH
99
Pin+ectedK$imag$PPbus'MMDAbase'H
PgenKYPin+ected$8,8' Pin+ected$8,:' ;P1.AD$8'MMDAbase Pin+ected$8,7' Pin+ected$8,<'
Pin+ected$8,@' Pin+ected$8,?' Pin+ected$8,9'XH
disp $_A(T)DE P.EE/ E%T 5/.M EA(- 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 0PC/_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Psend'
disp $_A(T)DE P.EE/ /E(E)DED AT EA(- 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Prec'
disp $_A(T)DE P.EE/ 1. .% T/A%M)).% 1)%EGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 0PC/_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Ploss'
disp $_/EA(T)DE P.EE/ E%T 5/.M EA(- 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 0PC/_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Psend'
disp $_/EA(T)DE P.EE/ /E(E)DED AT EA(- 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Prec'
disp $_/EA(T)DE P.EE/ 1. .% T/A%M)).% 1)%EGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 0PC/_'
disp $_ %.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK_'
disp$Ploss'
disp $_%ET A(T)DE P.EE/ )%2E(TEDF.CTA,E AT ,E%E/AT./F1.AD 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% DEA/&A 0PC/_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKK KKKK_'
disp$Pgen'
disp $_ %ET /EA(T)DE P.EE/ )%2E(TEDF.CTA,E AT ,E%E/AT./F1.AD 0CGGGG_'
disp $_ DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% DEA/&A 0PC/_'
disp $_ KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKK KKKKK_'
disp$Pgen'
T.TA1,E%E/AT).%`A(T)DEP.EE/ K$Pgen$8,8'LPgen$8,:''
T.TA1,E%E/AT).%`/EA(T)DEP.EE/ K$Pgen$8,8'LPgen$8,:'LPgen$8,@''
T.TA1`A(T)DE`1.ADK;$P1.AD$8'LP1.AD$:'LP1.AD$7'LP1.AD$<''MMDAbase
T.TA1`/EA(T)DE`1.ADK;$P1.AD$8'LP1.AD$:'LP1.AD$7'LP1.AD$<''MMDAbase
T.TA1`A(T)DEP.EE/`1.KT.TA1,E%E/AT).%`A(T)DEP.EE/ L
T.TA1`A(T)DE`1.AD
T.TA1`/EA(T)DEP.EE/`1.KT.TA1,E%E/AT).%`/EA(T)DEP.EE/ L
T.TA1`/EA(T)DE`1.AD
100
SU))ARY OF OUTPUTSB
ACTIEE POWER SENT FRO) EACH +USBBBB
DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 0PC/
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
A>.:<7< <:.97<> :@.<>9= <7.8<>A 7A.78A= :8.==77 ::.>@99
ACTIEE POWER RECEIEED AT EACH +USBBBB
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
;A?.?<A< ;<=.>A:> ;:@.=8<: ;<8.A?<9 ;79.?89@ ;:=.>@8> ;::.7A:@
ACTIEE POWER LOSS ON TRANS)ISSION LINEBBBB
DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 0PC/
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
:.@>@8 8.9@:= =.<A:A 8.:A@8 =.9==@ =.=@8< =.@9@:
REACTIEE POWER SENT FRO) EACH +USBBBB
DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 0PC/
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
9<.:<9< 8?.=89> ;7.A=87 ;9.=78A 8=.=9== ;=.8<@@ ;<.<9=@
REACTIEE POWER RECEIEED AT EACH +USBBBB
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
;9:.>A:8 ;8?.<97@ 8.=7?= ?.<>88 ;88.=:98 ;8.??A8 8.=:98
REACTIEE POWER LOSS ON TRANS)ISSION LINEBBBB
DE1-) DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %.)DA DEA/&A 0PC/
%.)DA %A2A5 %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% 50AD ,C/,A.%
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKKKK
8.:?@7 ;=.<@@? ;:.9?@7 ;=.@<=A ;=.>@98 ;8.A87? ;7.<<7<
NET ACTIEE POWER IN,ECTEDIOUTAGE AT GENERATORILOAD +USBBBB
DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% DEA/&A 0PC/
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKK KKKK
878.>9A< <=.78?< ;:=.==== ;?@.>>98 ;?:.A8?9 ;?=.==== :8.==77 ::.>@99
NET REACTIEE POWER IN,ECTEDIOUTAGE AT GENERATORILOAD
+USBBBB
DE1-) %.)DA %.)DA %A2A5 50AD ,C/,A.% DEA/&A 0PC/
KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKKK KKKK KKKKKKK KKKKKK KKKKK
>=.:?@: ;?7.9<@: ;8=.==== ;8@.<79? <.A::> ;8=.==== ;=.8<@@ ;<.<9=@
101
TOTAL GENERATIONQACTIEE POWER K
89:.:><A
TOTAL GENERATIONQREACTIEE POWER K
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TOTALQACTIEEQLOAD K
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TOTALQREACTIEEQLOAD K
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TOTALQACTIEE POWERQLOSS K
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TOTALQREACTIEE POWERQLOSS K
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6
Fig-#.5
%)t+.e and Rea)t+.e 8oer ?1o s7on at ea)7 9"s ?or
7J9"s netorD 7ere to T&S& +s "sed to )ontro1 t7e
8oer ?1o'
T&S&2
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2
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%&TI/( P;>(R R(%&TI/( P;>(R
103
RESULT/5
5rom 5ig;A.@, we obser#e that T((;8 pro#ides series compensation in the transmission
line between %A2A5,A/- to 5A/)DA0AD bus. This is because acti#e power flow
from %A2A5,A/- to 5A/)DA0AD is increased from 8>.7> ME $shown in fig 9.@' to
:8 ME. At the same time the acti#e power flow from DE1-) to %A2A5,A/- is
increased from <:.== ME to <:.97 ME and from %.)DA to %A2A5,A/- is increased
from :<.@? ME to :@.<> ME as T(( doesn!t generate any acti#e power.
imilarly from 5ig;A.@, we obser#e that T((;: pro#ides series compensation in the
transmission line between 5A/)DA0AD to ,C/,A.%. This is because acti#e power
flow from 5A/)DA0AD to ,C/,A.% is increased from ?.?7 ME to :: ME. At the
same time the acti#e power flow from %.)DA to 5A/)DA0AD is increased from :9.A8
ME to :9.A8 ME and %.)DA to ,C/,A.% is decreased from @<.9@ ME to 7A.78
ME as T(( does not generate any acti#e power.
Also power mismatch eBuation is satisfied at each bus, after using two T((. Thus from
the analysis it is #ery clear that both T(( pro#ides effecti#e series compensation in the
two different transmission line and specified amount of acti#e power is controlled .
>4< CONCLUSIONB
5rom the /esult;8 and /esult;:, we reached at conclusion that, how effecti#ely
Thyristor;(ontrolled eries capacitor $T((' can control the acti#e power flow between
to buses. Eith the use of T((, a specified amount of power can be transferred from one
bus to other as T(( does not consume or generate acti#e power.
104
0
CONCLUSION AND FURTHER
SCOPE OF WOR-
042 SU))ARY OF WOR- B
.b+ecti#e of the whole wor" is to control the power flow in the transmission line.
This can be achie#ed by "nowing the #arious parameters which are in#ol#ed in power
flow in the transmission line. )n chapter 7
/D
and <
th
con#entional method used to
determine the #arious parameters. 5or each of the parameter, we ha#e discussed how can
we control the acti#e and reacti#e power flow in the transmission line. 5or each parameter
we ha#e used P(AD;<.=FMAT1A0 application software to analyze the power flow.
As Thyristor;(ontrolled eries (apacitor $T((' , is a series compensator used
in transmission line to control the acti#e power flow, so in (hapter;@ it is discussed about
the principle of series compensation and simulation bloc" is used to #erify the truth ness,
how capacitor is effecti#e element to reduce the series reactance. 5or this P(AD;<.=
software is used.
)n further discussion in (hapter;?, we ha#e analyzed the characteristics of T((.
0y using P(AD software and we come to "now how effecti#ely, T(( can control the
current and acti#e power flow in the transmission line by #arying the firing angle of
T((.
A practical electrical networ" is ha#ing large number of buses. Thus in this wor",
a @;bus imaginary networ" is considered in (hapter;9 for finding the power flow solution.
%ewton;/aphson method is used to sol#e this networ". 0y using MAT1A0 code for this
networ", power flow between each buses is determined. Power flow solution of this
networ" satisfies the power mismatch eBuation at each bus.
)n (hapter;A, 2acobian matri* is determined for ?;bus networ" in which one
T(( is used in between two buses. Again power flow solution is determined for this
networ" and we come to "now that it also satisfies the power mismatch eBuations at each
bus. At the same time, a specified amount of acti#e power is allowed flow between two
105
buses by using the T((. )n the ne*t section again two T(( is used to analyze the
power flow in different transmission line. -ere also MAT1A0 code is used for finding
the power flow solution of gi#en electrical networ".

045 CONCLUSION B
5rom the e*ecution of simulation bloc" in P(AD and MAT1A0 code, we
reached at a conclusion that Thyristor;(ontrolled eries (apacitor is one of the fast acting
power electronic controller which can pro#ide current and power flow control in the
transmission line by #arying its firing angle. Thus T(( can be used as a series capacitor
to reduce the o#erall transmission line reactance . Depending on the enhancement of
power transfer desired at that time, without affecting other system;performance criteria,
series compensation can be #aried by T((. Thus T(( is one of the important 5A(T
controller, which increases the o#erall power transfer capacity in the transmission line.
04; FURTHER SCOPE OF WOR- B
Eor"s on the topic ne#er ends with limited application. )t has much more area of
application such as damping of the power swings from local and inter;area oscillations,
Doltage regulation of local networ" , reduction of short;circuit current etc. Darious
research wor"s are going on control interaction between multiple Thyristor ;(ontrolled
eries (apacitor $T((' . Also D(;T(( can be combined and used within power
systems to enhance inter;area stability. )n this wor" MAT1A0 code is used for @;bus
networ" for power flow solution. P(AD;<.= can also be used for designing a physical
@;bus networ" to determine the e*act power flow from one bus to another. Though in this
discussion P(AD;<.= software is used for two bus system, but it can be used for large
bus networ". 5urther study can be made on the )nfluence of T(( on 5ault (omponent
Distance Protection and I!"a3t o$ TCSC on t%e Prote3tion o$ Trans!ission Lines4
T%us TCSC 3an e used in !an* $ie#ds4
106
A""endi@/SAG
)ATLA+ PROGRA) 542
VA%A1W) .5 A(T)DE A%D /EA(T)DE P.EE/ 51.E )% A 1. 1E
T/A%M)).% 1)%E
DsKinput $_line #oltageK _'H
DrKDsH
DKDsHVassuming terminal #oltage DsKDrKD
IKinput$_line reactanceK _'H
deltaK$=G8=G8A='_H
delta8KdeltaMpiF8A=H
lKlength$delta8'H
PK$Da:FI .M sin$delta8''HVacti#e power flow on transmission line
PK$Da:FI'.M$ones$l,8';cos$delta8''HV reacti#e power flow
resultKYdelta,P,PXH
disp$_/EC1T ) GGGGG_'
disp $_ delta P P _'
disp$result'
plot$delta,P,delta,P'
)ATLA+ PROGRA)/<42
VA%A1W) .5 A(T)DE A%D /EA(T)DE P.EE/ 51.E
VE)T- DA/)AT).% .5 5)/)%, A%,1E
DsKinput $_line #oltageK _'H
DrKDsH
DKDsH
IKinput$_line reactanceK _'H
IlKinput $_inducti#e reactance of T(/K _'H
IcKinput $_fi*ed capaciti#e impedanceK _'H
deltaKinput $_phase angleK _'HVdifference of phase angle between
Vsending end and recei#ing end
delta8K$=G8=G8A='_HV#ariation of load angle
alphaK$=G8=G>='_HV#ariation of firing angle
alpha8KalphaMpiF8A=H
lKlength$alpha8'H
"Klength$delta8'H
#ar8Kones$l,8'MpiH
#ar:K$#ar8;:.Malpha8;sin$:.Malpha8''H
Il`alphaKIlMpi.F$#ar:'HVreactance of T(/
Ic`newKones$l,8'MIcH
rK$IT`alpha'.FIHVcompensating ratio
IeBK$ones$l,8'MI;IT`alpha'HVreactance of transmission line
Vafter compensation
PcK$Da:Msin$deltaMpiF8A=''.F$IeB'H
PcK$:MDa:FI'M$8;cos$deltaMpiF8A=''.M$r.F$ones$l,8';r'.a:'H
resultKYalpha,Pc,Pc,rXH
disp$_/EC1T )_'
disp $_ alpha Pc Pc r_'
disp$result'
107
Pc8K$Da:F$8;r$8,8''MI'.Msin$delta8.MpiF8A='HVacti#e power for first element of r column matri*
Pc>K$Da:F$8;r$>,8''MI'.Msin$delta8.MpiF8A='HVacti#e power for >th element of r column matri*
Pc8=K$Da:F$8;r$8=,8''MI'.Msin$delta8.MpiF8A='HVacti#e power for 8=th element of < column
matri*
Pc8K$:MDa:FI'M$r$8,8'F$8;r$8,8''a:'.M$ones$",8';cos$delta8.MpiF8A=''HVreacti#e power for
Vfirst element of r column matri*
Pc>K$:MDa:FI'M$r$>,8'F$8;r$>,8''a:'.M$ones$",8';cos$delta8.MpiF8A=''HVreacti#e power for
V>th element of r column matri*
Pc8=K$:MDa:FI'M$r$8=,8'F$8;r$8=,8''a:'.M$ones$",8';cos$delta8.MpiF8A=''HVreacti#e power for
V8=th element of r column matri*
subplot$:,:,8',plot$alpha,Pc,alpha,Pc'
title $_A(T)DE P.EE/ A%D /EA(T)DE P.EE/ #s 5)/)%, A%,1E_'
Ilabel $_firing angle_'
ylabel $_P,P_'
subplot$:,:,:',plot$delta8,Pc8,delta8,Pc>,delta8,Pc8='
title$_A(T)DE P.EE/ #s 1.AD A%,1E_'
*label$_load angle_'
ylabel$_acti#e power$P' watt_'
subplot$:,:,7',plot$delta8,Pc8,delta8,Pc>,delta8,Pc8='
title $_/EA(T)DE P.EE/ #s 1.AD A%,1E_'
Ilabel$_load angle_'
ylabel$_reacti#e power $P' #ar_'
108
A""endi@ A S+G
)ATLA+ PROGRA)/642
CO)PUTER PROGRA) FOR POWER FLOW SOLUTION USING NEWTON/
RAPHSON )ETHOD B
V 0uild up admittance matri*
functionYW/,W)X K Wbus$tlsend,tlrec,tlresis,tlreac,tlsuscep,tlcond,shbus,shresis,shreac,ntl,nb,nsh'H
W/Kzeros$nb,nb'H
W)Kzeros$nb,nb'H
VTransmission lines contribution
for l K 8Gntl Vnumbering of transmission line
" K tlsend$8'H Vsending end of transmission line
m K tlrec$8'H Vrecei#ing end of transmission line
denom K tlresis$l'a:Ltlreac$l'a:H
W/$","' K W/$","' L tlresis$l'FdenomL=.@Mtlcond$8'H Vself conductance
W)$","' K W)$","' ; tlreac$l'Fdenom L=.@Mtlsuscep$8'H Vself susceptance
W/$",m' K W/$",m' ; tlresis$l'FdenomH Vmutual conductance
W)$",m' K W)$",m' L tlreac$l'FdenomH Vmutual susceptance
W/$m,"' K W/$m,"' ; tlresis$l'FdenomH
W)$m,"' K W)$m,"'Ltlreac$l'FdenomH
W/$m,m' K W/$m,m'Ltlresis$l'FdenomL=.@Mtlcond$l'H
W)$m,m' K W)$m,m';tlreac$l'FdenomL=.@Mtlsuscep$l'H
end
V hunt elements contribution
for n K 8Gnsh Vnumbering of shunt connected
" K shbus$l'H Vstarting end of shunt
denom K shresis$n'a:Lshreac$n'a:H
W/$","' K W/$","'Lshresis$n'FdenomH
W)$","' K W)$","';shreac$n'FdenomH
end
Vend of function Wbus
V(arry out iterati#e solution using the %ewton;/aphson method
functionYDM,DA,itX K %ewton/aphson$nma*,tol,itma*,ngn,nld,nb,bustype,genbus,
loadbus,P,E%,P,E%,PMAI,PM)%,P1.AD,P1.AD,W/,W),DM,DA'H
V,E%E/A1 ETT)%,
D K zeros$8,nma*'H
5lag K =H
it K 8H
V(A1(C1ATE %ET P.EE/
YP%ET,P%ETXK%etpowers$nb,ngn,nld,genbus,loadbus,P,E%,P,E%,P1.AD,P1.AD'H
while $it b itma* 3 flagKK='H

V(A1(C1ATED P.EE/
YP(A1,P(A1XKcalculatedpowers$nb,DM,DA,W/,W)'H
109
V(-E(& 5./ P.)01E ,E%E/AT./_ /EA(T)DE P.EE/ 1)M)T D).1AT).%
YP%ET,bustypeXK,enerators1imits$ngn,genbus,bustype,P,E%,PMAI,PM)%,P(A1,
P%ET,P1.AD,it,DM,nld,loadbus'H
VP.EE/ M)MAT(-
YDPP,DP,DP,flagXKPowerMismatches$nma*,nb,tol,bustype,flag,P%ET,P%ET,P(A1,
P(A1'H
V2A(.0)A% 5./MAT).%
Y2A(XK%ewton/aphson2acobian$nma*,nb,bustype,P(A1,P(A1,DM,DA,W/,W)'H
V.1DE 5./ T-E TATE DA/)A01E DE(T./
DK2A(cDPP_H
VCPDATE TATE DA/)A01E
YDA,DMXKtateDariablesCpdates$nb,D,DA,DM'H
itKitL8H
end
VEnd function %ewton;/aphson
V5unction to calculate the net scheduled powers
functionYP%ET,P%ETXK%etpowers$nb,ngn,nld,genbus,loadbus,P,E%,P,E%,P1.AD,
P1.AD'H
V(A1(C1ATE %ET P.EE/
P%ETKzeros$8,nb'H
P%ETKzeros$8,nb'H
for ii K 8Gngn
P%ET$genbus$ii''KP%ET$genbus$ii''LP,E%$ii'H
P%ET$genbus$ii''KP%ET$genbus$ii''LP,E%$ii'H
end
for iiK8Gnld
P%ET$loadbus$ii''KP%ET$loadbus$ii'';P1.AD$ii'H
P%ET$loadbus$ii''KP%ET$loadbus$ii'';P1.AD$ii'H
end
Vend function %etpowers
V5unction to calculate in+ected bus powers
functionYP(A1,P(A1XK(alculatedpowers$nb,DM,DA,W/,W)'H
Vinclude all entries
P(A1Kzeros$8,nb'H
P(A1Kzeros$8,nb'H
for "K 8Gnb
PCMK=H
PCMK=H
for mK8Gnb
PCMKPCMLDM$"'MDM$m'M$W/$",m'Mcos$DA$"';DA$m'';W)$",m'Msin$DA$"';DA$m'''H
PCMKPCMLDM$"'MDM$m'M$W/$",m'Msin$DA$"';DA$m'';W)$",m'Mcos$DA$"';DA$m'''H
end
P(A1$"'KPCMH
P(A1$"'KPCMH
end
VEnd of function calculated powers
110
V5unction to chec" whether or not solution is within generators limits
functionYP%ET,bustypeXK,enerators1imits$ngn,genbus,bustype,P,E%,PMAI,PM)%,
P(A1,P%ET,P1.AD,it,DM,nld,loadbus'
V(-E(& 5./ P.)01E ,E%E/AT./_ /EA(T)DE P.EE/ 1)M)T D).1AT).%
if it d :
flag: K =H
for iiK8Gngn
++Kgenbus$ii'H
if$bustype$++' KK:'
if $P(A1$++'dPMAI$ii''
P%ET$genbus$ii''KPMAI$ii'H
bustype$++'K7H
flag:K8H
elseif $P(A1$++' b PM)%$ii''
P%ET$genbus$ii''KPM)%$ii'H
bustype$++'K7H
flag:K8H
end
if flag:KK8
for iiK8Gnld
if loadbus$ii'KK++
P%ET$loadbus$ii''KP%ET$loadbus$ii'';P1.AD$ii'H
end
end
end
end
end
end
VEnd function ,enerators1imits
V5unction to compute power mismatches
functionYDPP,DP,DP,flagXK powerMismatches$nma*,nb,tol,bustype,flag,P%ET,P%ET,P(A1,
P(A1'H
VP.EE/ M)MAT(-E
DPPKzeros$8,nma*'H
DPKzeros$8,nb'H
DPKzeros$8,nb'H
DPKP%ET;P(A1HVacti#e power mismatches
DPKP%ET;P(A1HVreacti#e power mismatches
VTo remo#e the acti#e and reacti#e powers contributions of the slac"
Vbus and reacti#e power of all PD buses
for "K8Gnb
if $bustype$"'KK8'
DP$"'K=H
DP$"'K=H
elseif $bustype$"'KK:'
DP$"'K=H
end
end
V/e;arrange mismatch entries
""K8H
for " K 8Gnb
DPP$""'KDP$"'H
DPP$""L8'KDP$"'H
""K""L:H
111
end
V(hec" for con#ergence
for "K8GnbM:
if $abs$DPP' b tol'
flagK8H
end
end
VEnd function PowerMismatches
V5unction to built the 2acobian matri*
functionY2A(XK%ewton/aphson2acobian$nma*,nb,bustype,P(A1,P(A1,DM,DA,W/,W)'H
V2A(.0)A% 5./MAT).%
V)nclude all entries
2A( K zeros$nma*,nma*'H
iiiK8H
for " K8Gnb
+++ K8H
for mK8Gnb
if " K K m
2A($iii,+++' K ;P(A1$"';DM$"'a:MW)$","'H
2A($iii,+++L8' K P(A1$"' L DM$"'a:MW/$","'H
2A($iiiL8,+++' K P(A1$"' ; DM$"'a:MW/$","'H
2A($iiiL8,+++L8' KP(A1$"';DM$"'a:MW)$","'H
else
2A($iii,+++' K DM$"'MDM$m'M$W/$",m'Msin$DA$"';DA$m'';W)$",m'Mcos$DA$"';
DA$m'''H
2A($iiiL8,+++' K ;DM$"'MDM$m'M$W)$",m'Msin$DA$"';DA$m''LW/$",m'Mcos$DA$"';
DA$m'''H
2A($iii,+++L8' K ;2A($iiiL8,+++'H
2A($iiiL8,+++L8' K 2A($iii,+++'H
end
+++ K +++L:
end
iii K iiiL:
end
VDelete the #oltage magnitude and phase angle eBuations of the slac"
Vbus and #oltage magnitude eBuations corresponding to PD buses
for "" K8Gnb
if $bustype$""' K K8'
" K ""M:;8H
for m K8 G :Mnb
if " K Km
2A($",m' K 8H
else
2A($",m' K=H
2A($m,"' K=H
end
end
end
if $bustype$""' K K8' e $bustype$""' K K:'
" K ""M:H
for m K 8G :Mnb
if " K K m
2A($","'K8H
else
112
2A($",m'K=H
2A($m,"'K=H
end
end
end
end
VEnd of function %ewton/aphson2acobian
V5unction to update state #ariables
functionYDA,DMXKtateDariablesCpdates$nb,D,DA,DM'H
iiiK8H
for " K8Gnb
DA$"'KDA$"'LD$iii'H
DM$"'KDM$"'LD$iiiL8'MDM$"'H
iiiKiiiL:H
end
VEnd function tateDariableCpdating
V5unction to calculate the power flows
functionYPPsend,PPrec,PPloss,PPbusXKPPflows$nb,ngn,ntl,nld,genbus,loadbus,tlsend,tlrec,
tlresis,tlreac,tlcond,tlsuscep,P1.AD,P1.AD,DM,DA'H
PPsend K zeros$8,ntl'H
PPrec K zeros$8,ntl'H
V(alculate acti#e and reacti#e powers at the sending and recei#ing ends of
Vtransmission lines'
for l K 8Gntl
DsendK$DM$tlsend$l''Mcos$DA$tlsend$l''' L $DM$tlsend$l''Msin$DA$tlsend$l'''M+''H
DrecK$DM$tlrec$l''Mcos$DA$tlrec$l''' L $DM$tlrec$l''Msin$DA$tlrec$l'''M+''H
tlimpedKtlresis$l'Ltlreac$l'M+H
currentK$Dsend;Drec'Ftlimped LDrecM$tlcond$l'Ltlsuscep$l'M+'M=.@H
PPsend$l'KDsendMcon+$current'H
currentK$Drec;Dsend'Ftlimped LDrecM$tlcond$l'Ltlsuscep$l'M+'M=.@H
PPrec$l'KDrecMcon+$current'H
PPloss$l'KPPsend$l'LPPrec$l'H
end
V(alculate acti#e and reacti#e powers in+ections at buses
PPbusKzeros$8,nb'H
for lK8Gntl
PPbus$tlsend$l''KPPbus$tlsend$l''LPPsend$l'H
PPbus$tlrec$l''KPPbus$tlrec$l''LPPrec$l'H
end
VMa"e corrections at generator buses, where there is load in order to get
Vcorrect generators contributions
for iiK8Gnld
++ Kloadbus$ii'H
for ""K8Gngn
llKgenbus$""'H
if ++ K Kll
PPbus$++'KPPbus$++'L$P1.AD$ii'LP1.AD$ii'M+'H
end
end
end
VEnd functions PPflows
113
A""endi@/SCG
)ATLA+ PROGRA)//742
CO)PUTER PROGRA) FOR POWER FLOW CONTROL USING TCSC
(THYRISTOR CONTROLLED SERIES CAPACITOR) B
V 0uild up admittance matri*
functionYW/,W)XKWbus$tlsend,tlrec,tlresis,tlreac,tlsuscep,tlcond,shbus,shresis,shreac,ntl,
nb,nsh'H $This is same as mentioned in Appendi*;0'
V(arry out itrati#e solution using the %ewton;/aphson method where T((
Vcontroller is used in the networ"
functionYDM,DA,it,5A,IX KT((5A %ewton/aphson$nma*,tol,itma*,ngn,nld,nb,
bustype,genbus,loadbus,P,E%,P,E%,PMAI,PM)%,P1.AD,P1.AD,W/,W),DM,\
DA,%T((5A,T((5Asend,T((5Arec,Ic,I8,5A,5A1o,5A-i,5low,Pta,Psp'H
V,E%E/A1 ETT)%,
DKzeros$8,nma*'H
flagK=H
it K 8H
V(A1(C1ATE %ET P.EE/
YP%ET,P%ETXK%etpowers$nb,ngn,nld,genbus,loadbus,P,E%,P,E%,P1.AD,P1.AD'H
while $it b itma* 3 flag K K='
V(A1(C1ATED P.EE/
YP(A1,P(A1XK(alculatedpowers$nb,DM,DA,W/,W)'H
VT(( (A1(C1ATED P.EE/
YP(A1,P(A1,IXKT((5A(alculatePower$P(A1,P(A1,DM,DA,%T((5A,
T((5Asend,T((5Arec,5A,Ic,Il'H
VP.EE/ M)MAT(-E
YDPP,DP,DP,flagXKPowerMismatches$nma*,nb,tol,bustype,flag,P%ET,P%ET,P(A1,
P(A1'H
Vchec" for con#ergence
if flag KK8
brea"
end
114
V2A(.0)A% 5./MAT).%
Y2A(XK%ewton/aphson2acobian$nma*,nb,bustype,P(A1,P(A1,DM,DA,W/,W)'H
VM.D)5)(AT).% 2A(.0)A% 5./ T((;5A;it calculate the T(( eBui#alent
Vreactance
Y2A(XKT((5A2acobian$it,nb,2A(,DM,DA,%T((5A,T((5Asend,T((5Arec,5A,Ic,Il,
5low,Pta'H
V.1DE 2A(.0)A%
DK2A(cDPP_H
VCPDATE TATE DA/)A01E
YDA,DMXKtateDariablesCpdates$nb,D,DA,DM'H
VCPDATE T-E T((;5A DA/)A01E
Y5AXKT((5A`Cpdating$it,nb,D,%T((5A,5A,Pta'H
V(-E(& )MPEDA%(E 1)M)T
Y5AXKT((5A1imits$%T((5A,5A,5A1o,5A-i,Pta'H
itKitL8H
end
VEnd function T((5A %ewton;/aphson
V5unction to calculate in+ected bus powers by T((;5A
functionYP(A1,P(A1XK(alculatePower$nb,DM,DA,W/,W)'H
Vinclude all entries
$This is same as mentioned in Appendi* ^ 0'
V 5unction to calculate in+ected bus powers by T((;5A
functionYP(A1,P(A1,IXKT((5A(alculatePower$P(A1,P(A1,DM,DA,%T((5A,
T((5Asend,T((5Arec,5A,Ic,Il'H
for ii K 8G%T((5A
V(alculate EBui#alent /eactance T((I
IlcKIc$ii'MIl$ii'F$Ic$ii';Il$ii''H
wKsBrt$Ic$ii'FIl$ii''H
(8K$Ic$ii'LIlc'FpiH
(:K<MIlca:F$Il$ii'Mpi'H
AngKpi;5A$ii'MpiF8A=H
I$ii'K ; Ic$ii'L(8M$:MAngLsin$:MAng'';(:Mcos$Ang'a:M$wMtan$wMAng';tan$Ang''H
0mmK ; 8FI$ii'H
0m"K8FI$ii'H
for ""K 8G:
AKDA$T((5Asend$ii'';DA$T((5Arec$ii''H
Pcal KDM$T((5Asend$ii''MDM$T((5Arec$ii''M0m"Msin$A'H
Pcal K ; DM$T((5Asend$ii''a:M0mm ;
DM$T((5Asend$ii''MDM$T((5Arec$ii''M0m"Mcos$A'H
P(A1$T((5Asend$ii''KP(A1$T((5Asend$ii''LPcalH
P(A1$T((5Asend$ii''KP(A1$T((5Asend$ii''LPcalH
if "" KK 8
T((`PPsend$ii'KPcal L +MPcalH
else
T((`PPrec$ii'KPcal L +MPcalH
end
send K T((5Asend$ii'H
T((5Asend$ii'KT((5Arec$ii'H
T((5Arec$ii'KsendH
end
end
115
V5unction to compute power mismatches
functionYDPP,DP,DP,flagXKpowerMismatches$nma*,nb,tol,bustype,flag,P%ET,P%ET,
P(A1,P(A1'H
$This is already mentioned in Appendi*;0'
V5unction to compute power mismatches with T((;5A
functionYDPPXKT((5APowerMismatches$nb,DPP,DM,DA,%T((5A,T((5Asend,T((5
Arec,I,5low,it,Psp,Pta'H
if itd8
for iiK8G%T((5A
if Pta$ii' KK8
0m"K8FI$ii'H
for ""K8G:
AKDA$T((5Asend$ii'';DA$T((5Arec$ii''H
PcalKDM$T((5Asend$ii''MDM$T((5Arec$ii''M0m"Msin$A'H
if $5low$ii'KK8 3 ""KK8'e$5low$ii'KK ;8 3 ""KK:'
DPP$8,:MnbLii' KPsp$ii';PcalH
brea"H
end
send K T((5Asend$ii'H
T((5Asend$ii'KT((5Arec$ii'H
T((5Arec$ii'KsendH
end
else
DPP$8, :MnbLii'K=H
end
end
end
Vend of function T((5APowerMismatches
V5unction to built the 2acobian matri*
functionY2A(XK%ewton/aphson2acobian$nma*,nb,bustype,P(A1,P(A1,DM,DA,W/,W)'H
V2A(.0)A% 5./MAT).%
V)nclude all entries
$This is already mentioned in Appendi*;0'
V5unction to add the T((;5A elements to 2acobian matri*
functionY2A(XKT((5A2acobian$it,nb,2A(,DM,DA,%T((5A,T((5Asend,T((5Arec,5A,
Ic,Il,5low,Pta'H
for ii K 8G%T((5A
V(alculate EBui#alent /eactance T((I
IlcKIc$ii'MIl$ii'FIc$ii';Il$ii''H
wKsBrt$Ic$ii'FIl$ii''H
(8K$Ic$ii'LIlc'FpiH
(:K<MIlca:F$Il$ii'Mpi'H
AngKpi;5A$ii'MpiF8A=H
T((IK ; Ic$ii'L(8M$:MAngLsin$:MAng'';(:Mcos$Ang'a:M$wMtan$wMAng';tan$Ang''H
V(alculate /eactance Deri#ati#e
DT((I8 K ;:M(8M$8Lcos$:MAng''H
DT((I: K (:M$wa:M$cos$Ang'a:Fcos$wMAng'a:''H
DT((I7 K ;(:M$wMtan$wMAng'Msin$:MAng''H
DT((I< K (:M$tan$Ang'Msin$:MAng';8'H
DT((I K DT((I8 L DT((I: L DT((I7 L DT((I<H
0mmK ; 8FT((IH
116
0m"K8FT((IH
for ""K 8G:
AKDA$T((5Asend$ii'';DA$T((5Arec$ii''H
-"mK ;DM$T((5Asend$ii''MDM$T((5Arec$ii''M0mmMcos$A'H
%"mK DM$T((5Asend$ii''MDM$T((5Arec$ii''M0mmMsin$A'H
2A($:MT((5Asend$ii';8,:MT((5Asend$ii';8'K2A($:MT((5Asend$ii';
8,:MT((5Asend$ii';8';DM$T((5Asend$ii''a:M0mmH
2A($:MT((5Asend$ii';8,:MT((5Arec$ii';8'K2A($:MT((5Asend$ii';
8,:MT((5Arec$ii';8';-"mH
2A($:MT((5Asend$ii';8,:MT((5Arec$ii''K2A($:MT((5Asend$ii';
8,:MT((5Arec$ii'';%"mH

2A($:MT((5Asend$ii',:MT((5Asend$ii''K2A($:MT((5Asend$ii',:MT((5Asend$ii'';
DM$T((5Asend$ii''a:M0mmH
2A($:MT((5Asend$ii',:MT((5Arec$ii';8'K2A($:MT((5Asend$ii',:MT((5Arec$ii';
8' L %"mH
2A($:MT((5Asend$ii',:MT((5Arec$ii''K2A($:MT((5Asend$ii',:MT((5Arec$ii'';
-"mH
if it d 8
if Pta$ii'KK8
AKDA$T((5Asend$ii'';DA$T((5Arec$ii''H
E"mK ;DM$T((5Asend$ii''MDM$T((5Arec$ii''Msin$A'M0m"a:MDT((IH
5"mK ;$$DM$T((5Asend$ii''a: ;
DM$T((5Asend$ii''MDM$T((5Arec$ii''Mcos$A'''M0m"a:MDT((IH
if$5low$ii'KK8 3 ""KK8'e$5low$ii'KK ;8 3 "" KK :'
-"mK ;DM$T((5Asend$ii''MDM$T((5Arec$ii''M0m"Mcos$A'H
%"mK DM$T((5Asend$ii''MDM$T((5Arec$ii''M0m"Msin$A'H
2A($:MnbLii,:MT((5Asend$ii';8' K ;-"mH
2A($:MnbLii,:MT((5Asend$ii'' K %"mH
2A($:MnbLii,:MT((5Arec$ii';8' K -"mH
2A($:MnbLii,:MT((5Arec$ii'' K ;%"mH
2A($:MnbLii, :MnbLii' K E"mH
end
2A($:MT((5Asend$ii';8,:MnbLii' K E"mH
2A($:MT((5Asend$ii',:MnbLii' K 5"mH
else
2A($:MnbLii,:MnbLii'K8H
end
end
sendKT((5Asend$ii'H
T((5Asend$ii'KT((5Arec$ii'H
T((5Arec$ii'KsendH
end
end
V5unction to update state #ariables
functionYDA,DMXKtateDariablesCpdates$nb,D,DA,DM'H
iiiK8H
for "K8Gnb
DA$"'KDA$"'LD$iii'H
DM$"'KDM$"'LD$iiiL8'MDM$"'H
iiiKiiiL:H
end
VEnd function tateDariableCpdating
117
V5unction to update T((;5A state #ariables
function Y5AXKT((5A`Cpdating$it,nb,D,%T((5A,5A,Pta'H
if it d 8
for ii K 8G%T((5A
if Pta$ii' KK8
5A$ii' K 5A$ii'LD$:MnbLii,8'M8A=FpiH
end
end
end
V(-E(& )MPEDA%(E 1)M)T
function Y5AX K T((5A1imits$%T((5A,5A,5A1o,5A-i,Pta'H
for ii K 8G%T((5A
V(hec" impedance 1imits
if 5A$ii'b5A1o$ii' e 5A$ii' d 5A-i $ii'
Pta$ii' K =H
if 5A$ii' b 5A1o$ii'
5A$ii'K5A1o$ii'H
elseif 5A$ii' d 5A-i $ii'
5A$ii' K 5A-i$ii'H
end
end
end
V5unction to calculate the power flows in T((`5A controller
functionYPPT((send,PPT((recXKT((PPpower$DA,DM,%T((5A,T((5Asend,
T((5rec,I'H
for ii K 8G%T((5A
0mmK ; 8FI$ii'H
0m"K8FI$ii'H
for ""K 8G:
A K DA$T((5Asend$ii'';DA$T((5Arec$ii''H
Ptcsc K DM$T((5Asend$ii''MDM$T((5Arec$ii'M0m"Msin$A'H
Ptcsc K ;DM$T((5Asend$ii''a:M0mm;
DM$T((5Asend$ii''MDM$T((5Arec$ii''M0m"Mcos$A'H
if "" KK 8
PPT((send$ii,""'KPtcsc L +MPtcscH
else
PPT((rec$ii,""'KPtcsc L +MPtcscH
end
send K T((5Asend$ii'H
T((5Asend$ii'KT((5Arec$ii'H
T((5Arec$ii'KsendH
end
end
118
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SOFTWARE USED G
MAT1A0;?.@
P(AD;<.=
120