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Garcinia Cambogia

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Latin Name: Garcinia cambogia
Common Names: citrin, gambooge, Brindal Berry, Gorikapuli, HCA, Hydroxycitric acid, Malabar
Tamarind
Synonyms: Gutta gamba. Gummigutta. Tom Rong. Gambodia. Garcinia Morella.
Saskrit name: Vrikshamla, Kankusta
Distribution: SE Asia, West and Central Africa, India

Introduction : Garcinia cambogia is a small, sweet, exotic fruit native to South


India and Southeast Asia. Garcinia has garnered a lot of attention of late as a
popular natural weight loss aid. The reason is that the rind of this pumpkin like
fruit is rich in a substance called hydroxycitric acid / HCA, a principle extract of
Garcinia cambogia. Garcinia is a source for a revolutionary natural diet ingredient
which is currently a rage in America, Japan, Europe, and other western
countries.

Plant Description : Garcinia cambogia is a moderate-sized, evergreen tree and


the flowers are unisexual, sessile and axillary. The leaves are dark green,
shining, elliptic to obovate. It bears sweet-sour mixed fruits native to SE Asia and
India. The fruit may resemble a small yellow or reddish pumpkin, or it may have a
unique purple color. The fruit of Garcinia cambogia has been traditionally used in
food preparation and cooking, having a distinctive taste. Garcinia has garnered a
lot of attention of late as a popular natural weight loss aid. The reason is that the
rind of this pumpkin like fruit is rich in a substance called hydroxycitric acid /
HCA.

History : In Ayurveda, it is said that the sour flavors, such as those from Garcinia, activate
digestion.Garcinia has also been considered to make foods more filling and satisfying, and has been used
routinely for many centuries with no known toxicity. This herb has been used historically in India to
support the treatment of various health conditions.

Method for collection of the Resin : In order to obtain the gum-resin incisions are made into the tree, or
a large slice is pared from the bark, from which the juice flows thick, viscid, and bright-yellow, which is
scraped off and dried in the sun. If left on the tree, it speedily concretes into dry tears or irregular masses.

1.Ceylon gamboge:- It is generally collected, by making incisions into the bark, into which bamboo joints
are inserted to catch the oozing fluid, which subsequently solidifies. It is removed from the bamboo by
slowly rotating them over a fire until the water has dried out sufficiently to allow the receptacle to be
detached from the hardened gamboge.

2.Pipe gamboge:- The best kinds are the pipe gamboge, consisting of cylindrical pieces, often cohering
together, forming irregular masses weighing several pounds.
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Phytochemistry : The plant contains acids tartaric, citric and phosporic. The latex of Garcinia cambogia
contains two polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivatives, camboginol (I) & cambogin(II)

Chemistry : The major phytoconstituent in Garcinia cambogia is Hydroxycitric acid. This principalacid has
been found to suppress the fatty acid synthesis, lipogenesis, food intake, and promotes glycogenesis,
gluconeogenesis and induced weight loss. How it works : Garcinia Cambogia fills the glycogen stores in
the liver and other tissues, thereby reducing appetite while increasing energy levels. Garcinia Cambogia
lowers the production of triglycerides and cholesterol and may also increase thermogenesis, the burning
of calories. Unlike chemical stimulants commonly used in weight loss products, Garcinia Cambogia does
not act on the central nervous system. This means that Garcinia Cambogia will not cause insomnia,
nervousness, changes in blood pressure or heart rate and its effectiveness will not diminish with time.Who
can take Garcinia? Because herbal medicines are relatively mild and gentle on the human body, Garcinia
can be taken by practically everyone,regardless of age and gender.

Garcinia can be taken for the following reasons:

Helps reduce body’s ability to store fat.

Lowers body weight through appetite control.

Lowers serum triglycerides.

Creates a process in the body called thermogenesis.

Helps with catarrhal conditions of the throat, urinary system, and uterus

Benefits & Uses :

1. Garcinia has also been considered to make foods more filling and satisfying.
2. Garcinia cambogia was able to decrease the acidity and to increase the mucosal defence in the
gastric areas, thereby justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent.
3. Garcinia does not contain any addictive components and can be taken without fear of addiction for
extended periods of time.
4. Garcinia also contains significant amounts of Vitamin C and has been used as a heart tonic.

5.Garcinia, when taken over a period of time, has the ability to slow production of fat and help

the body metabolize it more efficiently.


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Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a


randomized controlled trial.
Heymsfield SB, Allison DB, Vasselli JR, Pietrobelli A, Greenfield D, Nunez C.

Department of Medicine, Obesity Research Center, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia


University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10025, USA. sbh2@columbia.edu

CONTEXT: Hydroxycitric acid, the active ingredient in the herbal compound Garcinia cambogia,
competitively inhibits the extramitochondrial enzyme adenosine triphosphate-citrate (pro-3S)-lyase.
As a citrate cleavage enzyme that may play an essential role in de novo lipogenesis inhibition, G
cambogia is claimed to lower body weight and reduce fat mass in humans.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of G cambogia for body weight and fat mass loss in
overweight human subjects.

DESIGN: Twelve-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

SETTING: Outpatient weight control research unit.

PARTICIPANTS: Overweight men and women subjects (mean body mass index [weight in
kilograms divided by the square of height in meters], approximately 32 kg/m2).

INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomized to receive either active herbal compound (1500 mg of
hydroxycitric acid per day) or placebo, and both groups were prescribed a high-fiber, low-energy
diet. The treatment period was 12 weeks. Body weight was evaluated every other week and fat
mass was measured at weeks 0 and 12.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Body weight change and fat mass change.

RESULTS: A total of 135 subjects were randomized to either active hydroxycitric acid (n = 66) or
placebo (n = 69); 42 (64%) in the active hydroxycitric acid group and 42 (61%) in the placebo group
completed 12 weeks of treatment (P = .74). Patients in both groups lost a significant amount of
weight during the 12-week treatment period (P<.001); however, between-group weight loss
differences were not statistically significant (mean [SD], 3.2 [3.3] kg vs 4.1 [3.9] kg; P = .14). There
were no significant differences in estimated percentage of body fat mass loss between treatment
groups, and the fraction of subject weight loss as fat was not influenced by treatment group.

CONCLUSIONS: Garcinia cambogia failed to produce significant weight loss and fat mass loss
beyond that observed with placebo.
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G ARCI NI A CAM B O G I A EXT RA CT


RES EA R CH CE N T ER

Garcinia Cambogia Extract May Reduce Abdominal Fat


An article published in the July, 2008 edition of the peer-reviewed journal Bioscience, Biotechnology, and
Biochemistry described a study in which an obesity-prone breed of mice were fed garcinia cambogia extract in
order to determine the various biological effects that the popular herbal weight loss remedy would have on the
animals' bodies. The scientists went much further than simply measuring whether the mice would lose weight using
garcinia extract.

Mechanisms Behind Garcinia Weight Loss


They were actually interested in uncovering the potential mechanisms that might underly garcinia weight loss. In
order to accomplish this, they fed the garcinia fruit extract to the mice on a regular basis and then studied the
specific effects that the supplement had had on the mices' fat-producing genetic transcription. The scientists
measured the levels of mRNA codings for various genes that are known to control the production of various types
of body fat, especially "visceral fat" which forms in the abdomen.

Genetic Effects of Garcinia Extract


While garcinia kola has been known for quite some time to produce a noticeable reduction in abdominal fat in many
human subjects, this study may shed some light on the reasons for why this might be the case. The mice fed
garcinia cambogia extract showed much lower levels of belly fat as well as blood lipids that the mice who did not
receive the garcinia tincture. A number of specific fat-producing genes were isolated which control the production
and regulation of these and other types of body fat in the mice, which had been effectively modulated by garcinia
cambogia supplementation.

Garcinia Cambogia Safety


This study did not thoroughly address issues surrounding garcinia safety or help to determine who should not use
garcinia cambogia, but it did provide an incredible boon to future researchers in the area of fat loss and also the
reversal of certain types of diabetes and insulin-resistance. Garcinia extract was also found to ameliorate some
types of metabolic resistances such as these in the mice used in this study.
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Garcinia Cambogia Extract for Humans


While this study was performed only on mice, and a particular genetically idiosyncratic breed of mice at that, it still
may give indication of certain metabolic change that may be taking place in human subject when they take a
garcinia cambogia extract supplement or even sit down to sip a cup of garcinia cambogia tea, since these
individuals possess many of the same genes that were found to be altered in the mice in this study.

Future study of Garcinia Cambogia Weight Loss


Hopefully we will see more of this type of genetic research in the coming years not only so that we may learn about
garcinia weight loss but also so that we may understand more about weight loss diets, and body fat accumulation
and amelioration in general. Since obesity has been found in study after study to be directly related to overall death
rates as well as rates of quality-of-life reducing degenerative diseases, this research into the mechanisms behind
garcinia cambogia extract's help with weight reduction should help us to better understand how people can be more
healthy.

Welcome to the Garcinia Cambogia Extract Research Center


Thank you for visiting the Garcinia Cambogia Extract Research Center. This blog has only one purpose, and that is
to make the peer-reviewed clinical literature on garcinia cambogia fruit and extract available and accessible to the
general public.

Garcinia Cambogia fruit extract has been described as an effective weight loss aid and has been investigated fairly
extensively to that end. It tends to be difficult for the public to find straightforward information about garcinia fruit
extract because, like other weight loss supplements, it has the potential to be a very lucrative product and so is
highly attractive to marketers.

However, Garcinia Cambogia and its cousins Garcinia Mangostana, Garcinia Indica, and Garcinia Atroviridis have
been found to have many benefits outside of being a potential weight loss aid. This blog will go through the
available research carefully in order to allow you to draw your own conclusions about garcinia extract and its
potential for use as a dietary supplement. Topics such as garcinia cambogia side effects will be addressed to the
extent that they are addressed in the available literature. We will do our best to be comprehensive and to stick to
what is written in the peer-reviewed research on the effects of garcinia extract. However, you will be ultimately
responsible for contacting your doctor for any questions or clarifications before taking any action.

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Garcinia Research

Introduction : Many research on Garcinia cambogia are been publise to establish its weightloss ability by
slowing down production of fat and the body to metabolise it more efficiently.

1. STUDY: When Garcinia extract and insulin were added simultaneously, the accumulation of lipid
droplets was inhibited and the peak droplet area shifted to become smaller (10-20 microm). The
activities of glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, a marker of adipose differentiation, were not
significantly inhibited by the Garcinia extract.

CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the Garcinia extract inhibits lipid droplet accumulation
in fat cells without affecting adipose conversion.

2. Physico-chemical properties of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract derived from Garcinia


Cambogia and its effect on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and
DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathological changes over a
period of 90 days.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2004 May;260(1-2):171-86.

RESULTS: The findings show that 90 day treatment of HCA-SX results in a reduction in body
weight, and does not cause any changes in major organs or in hematology, clinical chemistry, and
histopathology.

3. Body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile in response to a novel
hydroxycitric acid-based dietary supplement.
Gene Expr. 2004;11(5-6):251-62.

CONCLUSION: Under the current experimental conditions, HCA-SX proved to be effective in


restricting body weight gain in adult rats. Functional characterization of HCA-SX-sensitive genes
revealed that upregulation of genes encoding serotonin receptors represent a distinct effect of
dietary HCA-SX supplementation.

4. Effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum leptin and insulin in mice.


Fitoterapia. 2003 Apr;74(3):267-73.

In this study we examined the effects of 3.3% Garcinia cambogia extract on 10% sucrose loading
in mice for 4 weeks. Treatment was found to have no effect on body weight, fat pad weight or
serum glucose level. On the other hand, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, NEFA were
observed. Levels of serum insulin and leptin, as well as the leptin/WAT ratio, were lower in the
treated mice than in the control.

CONCLUSION: The findings suggested that G. cambogia extract efficiently improved glucose
metabolism and displayed leptin-like activity.

5.
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6. Effects of (-)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables.


Mattes RD, Bormann L. Purdue University, 212 Stone Hall, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1264,
USA.
Physiol Behav. 2000 Oct 1-15;71(1-2):87-94.

(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) reportedly promotes weight loss, in part, through suppression of
hunger. However, this mechanism has never been evaluated in humans in a controlled study. No
effects of the HCA were observed on appetitive variables. The active treatment group did not
exhibit better dietary compliance or significant correlations between appetitive variables and
energy intake or weight change. This study does not support a satiety effect of HCA.

7. 1998 Garcinia article in JAMA


Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled
trial.

Heymsfield SB. besity Research Center, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University


College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10025, USA.

CONCLUSION: Garcinia cambogia failed to produce significant weight loss and fat mass
loss beyond that observed with placebo.

An overview of the safety and efficacy of a novel, natural(-)-hydroxycitric acid


extract (HCA-SX) for weight management.
Preuss HG, Rao CV, Garis R, Bramble JD, Ohia SE, Bagchi M, Bagchi D.

Department of Physiology, Medicine and Pathology Georgetown University Medical Center,


Washington, DC 20057, USA.

Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a safe, natural supplement


for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, a key
enzyme which facilitates the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides.
Previous studies in our laboratories have demonstrated the superior bioavailability of
a novel calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia (HCA-SX,
Super CitriMax). Greater bioavailability of HCA-SX was observed when taken on an
empty stomach. HCA-SX was also shown to exhibit concentration-dependent release
of serotonin in isolated rat brain cortex, which may explain its appetite suppressive
action. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation, primary eye irritation and
90-day chronic toxicity studies, as well as Ames bacterial reverse mutation and
mouse lymphoma tests, were assessed to determine the safety of HCA-SX. In the
90-day toxicity study, dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX were assessed
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on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation and
DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathology in male
and female Sprague-Dawley rats. No remarkable toxicity results were detected,
demonstrating the safety of HCA-SX. Furthermore, clinical studies to evaluate the
safety and efficacy of HCA-SX over a period of eight weeks were conducted in 60
human volunteers. Subjects were given a 2,000 kcal diet/day, participated in a 30
min walking exercise program 5 days/week and given an oral dose of placebo or
4666.7 mg HCA-SX (providing 2,800 mg HCA) in three equally divided doses 30-60
min before meals, Body weight, BMI, lipid profiles, serum leptin, serotonin and
excretion of urinary fat metabolites were determined at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of
treatment. At the end of 8 weeks, body weight and BMI decreased by 5.4% and
5.2%, respectively. Food intake, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and serum leptin
levels were significantly reduced, while HDL and serotonin levels, and excretion of
urinary fat metabolites (a biomarker of fat oxidation) significantly increased. No
significant adverse effects were reported. These results demonstrate the safety,
bioavailability and efficacy of HCA-SX in weight management.

Efficacy of 12 weeks supplementation of a botanical extract-based weight


loss formula on body weight, body composition and blood chemistry in
healthy, overweight subjects--a randomised double-blind placebo-
controlled clinical trial.
Opala T, Rzymski P, Pischel I, Wilczak M, Wozniak J.

Department of Mother's and Child's Health, Poznan University of Medical Science, Polna St
33, Poznan, Poland.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of composite
extracts in reducing weight, as the main outcome measure. Secondary measures of the study
were body composition change.

DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

SETTING: Tertiary university clinic.

SUBJECTS: hundred and five subjects, 5 of them withdrawn consent, 2 drop-outs not related
to study preparation.
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INTERVENTION: two tablet per meal concept supposed to generate a "psychological"


therapy-like approach during 12 weeks supported by measured physical activity. The tablets 1
(one hour before meals, comprises extracts of Asparagus, Green tea, Black tea, Guarana,
Mate and Kidney beans) and 2 (taken half an hour after meals, comprises extracts of Kidney
bean pods, Garcinia cambogia, and Chromium yeast) are taken twice daily with two main
meals. RESULTS: A significant change of the Body Composition Improvement Index (BCI)
was observed in the active extract group compared to placebo (p = 0.012). Weight, BMI, waist-
to-hip ratio was not statistically different between groups. Body fat loss was greater in active
group (p = 0.011) compared to placebo. A weight loss parameter corrected for exercise was
introduced and found to be higher in active group (p = 0.046) than in placebo, meaning that the
formula was more efficacious, due to a concurrently performed exercise program--a
recommended strategy for life style modification.

CONCLUSIONS: A significant change of the Body Composition Improvement Index and the
decrease in body fat was statistically significant in active extract subjects compared to placebo.
A change in some outcome measures like: weight, BMI failed to produce significant difference
between groups.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9820262?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pu
bmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=3&log$=relatedarticles
&logdbfrom=pubmed

Evaluation of the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of Garcinia cambogia plus


Amorphophallus konjac for the treatment of obesity.

Vasques CA, Rossetto S, Halmenschlager G, Linden R, Heckler E, Fernandez MS,


Alonso JL.

Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Ciências Farmacêuticas, Centro Universitário Feevale, RS-


239, 2755, 93352-000 Novo Hamburgo-RS, Brazil. carlosrv@feevale.br

Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), the main compound of Garcinia cambogia extract, is a competitive
blocker of ATP-citrate-lyase, presenting a potential inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis.
Glucomannan fibers, abundant in Amorphophallus konjac, seem to reduce the absorption
kinetics of dietary fat. Therefore, the aim of this double-blind randomized study was to
evaluate the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of standardized extracts of G. cambogia (52.4%
HCA) plus A. konjac (94.9% glucomannan) in the treatment of obesity. Fifty-eight obese
subjects (BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2)) were assigned to the placebo group (n = 26) or the
treatment group (n = 32); no dietary restrictions were applied. Over a 12-week period,
subjects were given daily doses of either Garcinia (2.4 g) plus Konjac (1.5 g) or placebo prior
to their main meals (3 times/day). Before the start of treatment, and every 4 weeks
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thereafter, the following were recorded: height, weight, circumferences and body
composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), lipid profile and glucose levels. The
treatment had no significant effect on anthropometric parameters, REE, triglycerides or
glucose levels. However, a significant reduction was observed in total cholesterol (-32.0 +/-
35.1 mg/dL) and LDL-c levels (-28.7 +/- 32.7 mg/dL) in the treated group, the final levels
being significantly lower than those of the placebo group (p = 0.008 and p = 0.020,
respectively). The results obtained suggest that the treatment had a significant
hypocholesterolemic effect, without influencing the anthropometric or calorimetric
parameters tested.