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# EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014

Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 1 of 19
The EE 518 Course
See course syllabus and web page (http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/) for
details, including weekly reading assignments, which are subject to change later in the quarter.

Homework #1, due Tuesday 1/14, at 8:50 (beginning of discussion section):
From our required class textbook: Oppenheim & Schafer, 3
rd
Edition, published 2010:
Probs. 2.24, 2.66, 2.73
Homework #1 MATLAB Projects and Exercises (on class web site, along with needed
dtft.m file).

Should you be in this class? If your discrete-time signal processing (DSP) and/or mathematics
background is weak, please see background material, such as presented in Fall 2013 in EE 505
PMP and/or make use of inexpensive books such as Hayes, Schaums Outline of Digital Signal
Processing, Second Edition, 2011 and, if also needed, Hsu, Schaums Outline of Signals and
Systems, Second Edition, 2010. This course presumes a solid understanding of linear time-
invariant systems, discrete-time signals, basic sampling, Fourier transforms and some
background in bilateral z-transforms. You also should have some initial experience in
MATLAB.
Review: What you are Expected to Know
Oppenheim & Schafer text sections, which you will review this week, seen in Homework #1:
Chapter 1. Introduction.

Chapter 2. Discrete-Time Signals and Systems.
Introduction. Discrete-time Signals: Sequences. Discrete-time Systems. Linear Time-Invariant
Systems. Properties of Linear Time-Invariant Systems. Linear Constant-Coefficient Difference
Equations. Frequency-Domain Representation of Discrete-Time Signals and Systems.
Representation of Sequence by Fourier Transforms. Symmetry Properties of the Fourier
Transform. Fourier Transform Theorems. Summary.
(Section 2.10 material is not covered in EE 518, yet we use a small amount of this sections
random process concepts in a few weeks.)

Partially, if theres time: Chapter 3. The z-Transform.
Introduction. The z-Transform. Properties of the Region of Convergence for the z-Transform.
The Inverse z-Transform. z-Transform Properties and LTI Systems. Summary.

A Few (of the very many) Applications of DSP
Military
1. sonar and radar and battlefield acoustics
Scientific
1. seismic data (first industry to go digital)
2. signal detection (SETI, subatomic physics)
Health
1. medical ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans
2. genomics and proteomics informatics
Industrial
1. monitoring manufacturing processes via acoustic and vibration emissions
Commercial/Entertainment and Information Technology
1. CD, DVD, and Bluray players, MPEG, MP3, music, sound, and video compression.
EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 2 of 19
2. Speech recognition (Windows 7 and 8, Apples Siri, Googles Android Voice
Search.)
Communications and Information Technology
1. Draft-N, 802ac, and other methods for gigabit wi-fi
2. cell phones 3-4G; such as WiMAX and LTE standards)

Example in figure below, a somewhat dated (e.g. no HDMI interfaces) generic LCD TV
architecture,
1
where the only non discrete-time portion of this block diagram is the green Analog
FE (front end) and the output DACs (digital-to-analog converters).

History of DSP
Back in 1960s:
* numerical analysis (finite difference), too difficult to solve differential equation in continuous
variables, used discrete simulation
* slow simulations of expensive analog systems
* speech processing
Earlier limitations, such as expensive storage and slow computation, have all come around, and
abundant storage and super-fast computation have become advantages of DSP.

DSP systems are now easy to design and test:
1. MATLAB and lots of other tools to facilitate digital system design
2. lots of existing code (e.g., FFTW, Fastest Fourier Transform in the West
www.fftw.org)
3. relatively easy to implement new systems in C/C++or J ava or even FORTRAN

Journals for DSP (see www.ieee.org web page)
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
IEEE Signal Processing Letters
IEEE Transactions Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine (best start for tutorial-type articles)
The above journals are free if access online from University of Washington campus through
ieeexplore.ieee.org

1
from Ashwini Raman, Designing with Multi-PLL and Spread-Spectrum Clocks in Digital Entertainment
Equipment, Cypress Semiconductor, http://www.cypress.com/?docID=9263 .
EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 3 of 19
Our Notation for Discrete Sequences
{ } x is a set of indexed continuous-level values { [ ]} x n n = < < , n = integer, which
often arise from periodic sampling of analog signal

1
[ ] ( ) period frequency
a
x n x nT T f
f
= = = , =

Ex: [ ] x n

Figure 1.1. [1] x =? , [2] x =? , [1.5] x =??
Discrete Time Systems
Discrete Time Systems. A discrete time system maps the input sequence, [ ] x n , to a new sequence,
the output sequence [ ] y n .

Figure 1.2. Discrete Time System

Note: For the .pdf lecture file which is made after hand-written lecture annotations, the mirror-
image of the above figure and most future lecture notes figures might unfortunately sometimes be
seen. This is due to a bug which remains in all versions of Microsoft Jounal and/or Adobe Acrobat.
It is unavoidable, yet you can always see the correct figure orientation by going back to the original
un-annotated EE 518 lecture notes.

Definition 1.1. Linear Systems, i.e., Superposition

{} T is linear iff (if and only if):
when
1 1
{ } y T x = and
2 2
{ } y T x = ,
then:

1 2 1 2 1 2
(additiveproperty) { } { } { } T x x T x T x y y + = + = +
and

1 1
(scalingproperty) { } { } T ax aT x =
resulting in

1 2 1 2
(superposition) { } { } { } T ax bx aT x bT x + = +
EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 4 of 19
Definition 1.2. Time Invariance or Shift Invariance Shifting the input produces an output that is
equivalently shifted, i.e., if [ ] { [ ]} y n T x n = then { [ ]} [ ] T x n N y n N = .

Definition 1.3. Causality A system does not respond until after the input starts, i.e., if [ ] 0 x n =
for
0
n n < then [ ] 0 y n = for
0
n n < . (Output cannot anticipate input.)
Definition 1.4. Bounded Input/Bounded Output (BIBO) or Stable If [ ]
x
x n B n , , < , , then
[ ]
y
y n B n , , < , . (Wheremeans for all.)
A Brief Note on Convolution
There is a nice figure (Figure 2.10) in O&S. Make sure you understand convolution. Two
equivalent ways to view convolution
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
k
y n x n h n x k h n k

=
= =

are shown in figures 1.3 and 1.4 below.

1. As a combination by sum of sequences, each a weighted and shifted version of the
impulse response, shown in Figure 1.3.

Figure 1.3. Convolution: first view.
EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 5 of 19
2. As a set of computations to compute each value of [ ] y n , shown in Figure 1.4

Figure 1.4. Convolution: second view.

Linear time-invariant systems are completely described via convolution with an impulse
response [ ] h n . But an often more illuminating way to to characterize LTI systems is via their
frequency response. But why??

Frequency Domain Representation of Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Discrete-Time Systems
Consider [ ]
j n
x n e

= as an input, to an LTI system, namely
( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
j n k j n j k
k k k k
y n x n h n x k h n k x n k h k h k e e h k e

| |
|
|
|
= = = = \ .
= = = = =

Then define
( ) [ ]
j j k
k
H e h k e

=
=

Aside: is an independent variable representing frequency. This ( )
j
H e

notation will make
more sense when we see the periodicity section on the next page, and even more sense when we
do the z-transform.

For the input [ ]
j n
x n e

= , the output [ ] y n is, with our definition above,
[ ] ( )
j j n
y n H e e

=

Looking at this result in a figure helps show its profound impact:

Figure 1.5. LTI system response (output) to the input
j n
e

.
LTI System
[ ] h n
Input
[ ]
j n
x n e

=

Output
[ ] ( )
j n j
y n e H e

=
Input sequence appears at output
with only a change
in amplitude and
phase.

EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 6 of 19

Thus
j n
e

is an eigenfunction
2
for an LTI system. Namely, applying an LTI system {} T to
certain special inputs produces outputs that are identical to those inputs multiplied by a
(complex) constant.
{ } [ ] ( ) ( )
j n j n j j j n
T e y n e H e H e e

= = =
where ( )
j
H e

is eigenvalue and
j n
e

is eigenfunction.

What is this complex constant? ( )
j
H e

is the frequency response of the system, It signifies how
the system responds to a particular input frequency.

Why is the above important? Most signals can be represented as an infinite sum of complex
exponentials. With linearity and time invariance, weighted sums of the above elementary
eigenfunctions can exactly predict the LTI system output for these signals.
Periodicity of Frequency Response
The frequency response of an LTI system with impulse response [ ] h n is
( ) [ ]
j j k
k
H e h k e

=
=

we can see that

( 2 ) ( 2 )
2
2
( ) [ ] where is any integer
[ ]
( ) ( 1)
j r j r k
k
j k jr k
k
j jr k
H e h k e r
h k e e
H e e

+ +
=

=
=
= =

Thus ( )
j
H e

is periodic with period 2 . This periodicity is one reason for the notation used for
frequency response in our text.
Representations of Sequences by the (Discrete-Time) Fourier Transform
Lets extend the above concept from an impulse response to an arbitrary sequence [ ] x n
( ) [ ] (DT)Fourier Transformor analysisequation
j j n
n
X e x n e

=
=

Is this transform invertible? Yes. As long as [ ] x n can be defined as an infinite superposition of
weighted complex sinusoids of the form
1
( )
2
j j n
X e e

.

Since frequency is a continuous variable, this superposition is an integral

1
[ ] ( ) Inverse(DT)Fourier Transformor synthesisequation
2
j j n
x n X e e d

=

What we sometimes just call the Fourier transform here is often called the discrete-time Fourier
transform (DTFT) elsewhere.

2
Eigenvectors and eigenvalues in Linear Algebra: letAbe a square matrix, x be a vector, be a
scalar. If = Ax x for somex and , thenx is eigenvector and is eigenvalue for matrixA.
Applying the system of matrix multiplication tox is equivalent to multiplyingx by a constant.
EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 7 of 19
( )
( ) ( )
j
j j j X e
X e X e e

= where ( )
j
X e

, , is the signals magnitude frequency response and
( )
j
X e

is the signals phase response or phase shift.

Note: Phase, as so far defined, is not unique. For example, ( ) ( ) 2
j j
X e X e k

= + , where k
is any integer.

Comparison:
( ) [ ] (Discrete Time) Fourier Transform
j j n
n
X e x n e

=
=

Relates to upcoming z-transform via
j
z e

(The unit circle of complex domain z, in polar form , 1
j
z z e z

= = .)

( ) ( ) (Continuous Time) Fourier Transform
j t
X j x t e dt

Relates to the Laplace transform via s j j = +
(The imaginary axis of complex domain s, in rectangular formIm{ } Im{ } s j j = + = .)

Both have units of frequency, but with considerable differences, which we will be carefully
facing:
For discrete-time sequences the frequency variable is radians (dimensionless)
For continuous-time signals the frequency variable is radians/second
Some Symmetry Properties of Fourier Transform
Defining this compact notation for a Fourier transform/inverse transform pair
[ ] ( )
F j
x n X e

then
[ ] ( )
F j
x n X e

where
*
means complex conjugate.

Similarly it can be shown that
[ ] ( )
F j
x n X e

For the remaining symmetry properties, it is helpful to define the following sequences:

( )
( )
[ ] [ ] [ ] [any sequence can be expressed as a sum of symmetric sequences]
1
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [conjugate-symmetric (or even) sequence (if [ ] is real)]
2
1
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [conjuga
2
e o
e e
o o
x n x n x n
x n x n x n x n x n
x n x n x n x n

= +
= + =
= = te-antisymmetric (or odd) sequence (if [ ] is real)] x n

Similarly,

( ) ( ) ( ) [A FT can be expressed as a sum of symmetric functions]
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [conjugate-symmetric (or even) function (if ( ) real)]
2
1
( ) ( ) ( )
2
j j j
e o
j j j j j
e e
j j j
o
X e X e X e
X e X e X e X e X e
X e X e X e

= +
( = + =

=

## ( ) [conjugate-antisymmetric (or odd) function (if ( ) real)]

j j
o
X e X e

( =

EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 8 of 19

Given these definitions, we can now derive the FT transform pair

Re( [ ]) ( )
F j
e
x n X e

as follows

{ } ( ) { }
{ } { } ( )
1 1 1
2 2 2
Re( [ ]) [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] ( ) ( ) ( )
j j j
e
FT x n FT x n x n FT x n FT x n X e X e X e

( = + = + = + =

In similar fashion we can obtain
Im{ [ ]} ( )
F j
o
j x n X e

,
{ }
[ ] ( ) Re ( )
F j j
e R
x n X e X e

= , and
{ }
[ ] ( ) Im ( )
F j j
o I
x n jX e j X e

=
Symmetry Properties of the FT for Real Sequences
For any real [ ] x n
( ) ( )
j j
X e X e

=

i.e., the FT has conjugate-symmetry for real signals. Both sides of this expression can be
expressed in Cartesian form as a sum of its real and imaginary components like this:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
j j j j
R I R I
X e jX e X e jX e

+ =
from which it follows by separating the real and imaginary parts that (for real sequences!) the
real part is even,
( ) ( )
j j
R R
X e X e

=
and the imaginary part is odd,
( ) ( )
j j
I I
X e X e

= .

Furthermore, by expressing ( )
j
X e

in polar form

( )
( ) ( )
j
j j j X e
X e X e e

=, ,
it can be shown for real sequences that the magnitude is an even function of
( ) ( )
j j
X e X e

, ,=, ,
and the phase is can be chosen to be an odd function of
( ) ( )
j j
X e X e

= .

Also,
[ ] ( )
F j
e R
x n X e

So, a sequence that is real and even in time has a FT which is real and even in frequency. These
properties and a few more are given in O&S Table 2.1 on page 56.
EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 9 of 19
Fourier Transform Theorems
Let the FT of [ ] x n and [ ] y n be ( )
j
X e

and ( )
j
Y e

, respectively.

Linearity
[ ] [ ] ( ) ( )
F j j
ax n by n aX e bY e

+ +

Delay
[ ] ( )
d
j n F j
d
x n n e X e

Parsevals Theorem

2 2
1
[ ] ( )
2
j
n
x n X e d

=
, , = , ,

Convolution (important, so we spend more time on it)
[ ] [ ] ( ) ( )
F j j
x n y n X e Y e

Convolution in time corresponds to multiplication in frequency.

Time Reversal
If [ ] ( )
F j
x n X e

, then
[ ] ( )
F j
x n X e

If [ ] x n is real for all n , then ( ) ( )
j j
X e X e

= . It then follows that
[ ] ( )
F j
x n X e

Derivative in Frequency
If [ ] ( )
F j
x n X e

, then

( )
[ ]
j
F
dX e
nx n j
d

Modulation (Windowing) Theorem
If
[ ] ( )
F j
x n X e

and
[ ] ( )
F j
w n W e

then

( )
1
[ ] [ ] [ ] ( ) ( )
2
F j j
y n x n w n X e W e d

=

So pointwise multiplication in time corresponds to periodic convolution in frequency.

What if we want to know more than a systems steady-state response or its steady-state output for
EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 10 of 19
Chapter 3. The z-Transform
The Fourier transform of [ ] x n is
( ) [ ]
j j n
n
X e x n e

=
=

Definition 1. The bilateral z-transform is
( ) [ ]
n
n
X z x n z

=
=

where z is a complex continuous variable.

Compact notation
[ ] ( )
Z
x n X z

Note: Consider
( ) ( ) [ ]
j
j j n
z e
n
X z X e x n e

=
=
, = =

when the sum exists for the values of z where 1 z , ,= . In general
j
z re

=

So
( ) ( ) [ ]( ) ( [ ] ) { [ ] }
j j n n j n n
n n
X z X re x n re x n r e FT x n r

= =
= = = =

( ) X z is complex function of a complex variable defined on the z-plane, shown in Fig 1.6.

Note ( )
j
X e

is evaluation of z-transform around the unit circle.
0 1
( ) ( )
j
z
X e X z

= =
, = , ,
2
( ) ( )
j
z j
X e X z

= =
, = , . So the Fourier transform is unwrapping of the unit circle periodically into
the line.

Figure 1.6. The complex z-plane
{ } Re z
{ } Im z
EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 11 of 19
Convergence of the z-Transform
( ) X z might not converge for all z . For uniform convergence, absolute summability requires
[ ]
n
n
x n z

=
, ,<

The z-transform might converge, for some values of z, even if the Fourier transform (FT) does
not.

Definition 2. Region of Convergence or ROC
{ [ ] }
n
n
ROC z x n z

=
: , ,, , <

i.e., locations in z of absolute summability.
So, if
1
ROC z , then
1
ROC
j
z e

, , for all . (the ROC boundary depends only on the
magnitude of z.) For the signals we work with, the ROC can be a disk or a ring (donut) in thez -
plane, as shown in Fig 1.7.

Figure 1.7. Region of Convergence

The FT exists if and only if the ROC contains the unit circle 1 z , ,= . Uniform convergence
requires absolute summability of [ ]
n
x n z

## . Note: we normally think of the FT as evaluation of z-

transform at 1 z , ,= .

Definition 3. Rational z-Transform A z-transform, when it can be summed and expressed in the
simple form:

( )
( )
( )
P z
X z
Q z
=
is called rational z-transform, where ( ) P z and ( ) Q z are polynomials in z .

The zeros of ( ) X z are { ( ) 0} z X z : =
The poles of ( ) X z are { ( ) } z X z : =

EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 12 of 19
Definition 4. Right Sided Sequence [ ] x n is right sided if there exists anN such that [ ] 0 x n = for
n N < < .
Questions: Is causal sequence right sided? Yes. Is right sided sequence causal? No, not
necessarily, since N could be less than 0.

Definition 5. Left Sided Sequence [ ] x n is left sided if there exists anN such that [ ] 0 x n = for
n N > > .

Definition 6. Two-Sided Sequence If [ ] x n is infinitely long but neither left sided nor right sided,
then [ ] x n is two-sided.

Ex 1: [ ] [ ]
n
x n a u n = . Note: a can be complex
n n j n
a a e

=, ,

1
0 0
( ) ( )
n n n
n n
X z a z az

= =
= =

Convergence requires

1
0
n
n
az

=
, , <

or
z a , ,>, ,
So

1
1
( )
1
z
X z z a
az z a

= = , ,>, ,

There is a pole at z a = and a zero at 0 z = .

Ex 2:
[ ] [ 1]
n
x n a u n =
which is a left sided sequence.

1
1
1 0
( ) 1 ( )
n n k k k
n k k
z
X z a z a z a z
z a

= = =
= = = =

Convergence requires
1
1 a z

## , ,< , i.e., z a , ,<, , .

Note: both of the above examples have same pole-zero diagram with pole at z a = . So the same
z-transform ratio can lead to two different sequences. Therefore it is necessary to give both the z-
transform expression and its ROC to uniquely specify a sequence. This need to specify the ROC
holds for essentially all z-transforms.
EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 13 of 19
Properties of the Region of Convergence (ROC) for the z-
Transform
Property 1. The ROC is a ring or a dish in z-plane centered at the origin, i.e.,
0
R L
r z r <, ,<

Property 2. The FT of [ ] x n converges absolutely if and only if
{ 1} ROC z z :, ,=

Property 3. The ROC contains no poles by definition.

Property 4. If [ ] x n is finite duration sequence, i.e., [ ] x n is non-zero only when

1 2
N n N < <
The ROC will be either { } z or { 0} z or { } z or { 0and } z z .

Property 5. If [ ] x n is a right-sided sequence, then the ROC extends outward from outmost
(largest magnitude) finite pole of ( ) X z to (and possibly including) z = .

Property 6. If [ ] x n is a left-sided sequence, its ROC extends inward from the innermost non-
zero pole of ( ) X z and might include 0 z = .

Property 7. If [ ] x n is two sided sequence, and if the circle
0
z r , ,= is in ROC, then the ROC will
consist of a ring in the z-plane which includes
0
z r , ,= .

Property 8. The ROC must be a connected region.
Note from Property 7, any sequence can be expressed as the sum of a left-sided sequence and a
right-sided sequence. So if the intersection exists, it must be formed by

R L
d z d <, ,<
Hence, poles determine possible types of ROCs.
Table 1.1. Common z-Transform Pairs
Sequence z-Transform ROC
[ ] n 1 All z
[ ]
n
a u n
1
1
1 az

z a , ,>, ,
[ 1]
n
a u n 1
1
1 az

z a , ,<, ,
0
[cos( )] [ ] n u n
1
0
1 2
0
1 (cos )
1 [2cos ]
z
z z

+

1 z , ,>
[ ] [ ]
n n
a u n a u n N
1
1
1
N N
a z
az

0 z , ,>
Note:
0
[cos( )] [ ] n u n is a right-sided sequences whose z-transform converges for 1 z , ,> , yet its
Fourier transform doesnt exist in strict uniform convergence sense.

(See O&S Table 3.1)

EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 14 of 19

Figure 1.8. A 3-dimensional depiction of a z-transform magnitude in dB:
1 2
1 2
1 24 288
1 08 064
20log ( ) 20log dB
z z
z z
H z

. + .
. + .
= .
It has poles around 04 06928 j . . and zeros around 12 12 j . .

Why do we care about z-transforms??

One main reason
[ ] [ ] [ ] ( ) ( ) ( )
Z
y n x n h n Y z X z H z = =

So as in the case of Fourier transform, z-transforms techniques simplify the mathematics needed
to characterize and solve for the responses of LTI systems. But the steady-state restriction of
Fourier transform solutions are greatly expanded via more general solutions of the z-transform.

But if we can now find an ( ) X z , ( ) H z , and ( ) Y z , how can we then determine the
corresponding [ ] x n , [ ] h n , and/or [ ] y n ? This next section covers that.

EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 15 of 19
The Inverse z-Transform
The inverse z-transform equation can be written as

1
1
[ ] ( )
2
n
C
x n X z z dz
j

=

Integrating the real variable over ( , ) is equivalent to integrating the related complex
variable
j
z re

= over the contour C, which is denoted by the contour integral .
C

The contour C
is a counter-clockwise closed circular contour centered at the origin with radius r such that
{ } ROC z z r : , ,= ,

because r may be anything in the region of convergence.

Easier Ways to Compute the Inverse z-Transform
Inspection Technique
Use the known z-transform pairs (O&S table 3.1, page 110) and the z-transform properties (such
as linearity!) (O&S table 3.2, page 132).

Partial Fraction Expansion Technique
There are some common forms of the z-transform for which we can get the inverse relatively
easily by inspection. The goal of the partial fraction expansion technique is to get a given
z-transform expression in such a form.
When

0
0
( )
( )
( )
M
k
k
k
N
k
k
k
b z
P z
X z
Q z
a z

=
= =

We can factor the denominator and numerator and get

1
0 1
1
0
1
(1 )
( )
(1 )
M
k
k
N
k
k
c z
b
X z
a
d z

where c
k
represents the non-zero zeros and d
k
represents the non-zero poles of X(z).

Case 1. N M > and the poles are all first order poles (i.e., all the poles are unique).

1
1
( )
1
N
k
k
k
A
X z
d z

=
=

Note: The residue for the pole
k
d is

1
(1 ) ( )
k
k k
z d
A d z X z

=
=
since

1
1
1
1
(1 )
(1 ) ( )
1
N
l k
k k
l k l
l
A d z
d z X z A
d z

, =

= +

The first term is obtainable by long division (example later). The second term is obtainable by
the same procedure used when . N M > This technique of finding the partial fraction expansion
of a z-transform is referred to as the Heaviside cover-up method, and works also for cases with
repeated roots (see text and links on class web site for more details). In its most general form,
the z-transform can be written as

EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 16 of 19

1
max( 0)
0
1
0
0
max( 0)
1
0 1 1
( ) ( )
1
u i
M
k
M N
k
r k
r N
k
r
k
k
N S M N
r ik
r
r i k
i
b z
X z B z M N
a z
A
B z
d z

,
=

=
=
,

= = =
= + <
= +

where

Number of unique poles in denominator
order of -th pole
is obtained by long division
u
i
r
N
S i
B
=

( )
1
1
1
(1 ) ( )
( ) ( )
i
i
i i
i
s k
s
ik i s k s k
i i
w d
d
A d w X w
s k d dw

=
(
=
(
!

Power Series Expansion Technique
Expand the z-transform X(z) as a sum of terms of
n
z

.

Ex:

2 1
1 1
( ) 1
2 2
X z z z z

= +
then

1 1
[ ] [ 2] [ 1] [ ] [ 1]
2 2
x n n n n n = + + +

Long Division
Do polynomial division to find successive terms of X(z).
Ex:

1
1 2
1 2 3
1 2 1
1 2
1 2
1 2 3
2 3
2 3 4
3 4
1 20
( )
1 04 012
1 1.6 0.52 0.400
1 04 012 1 20
1 04 012
1.6 0.12
1.6 0.64 0.192
0.52 0.192
0.52 0.208 0.0624
0.400 0.0624
1
z
X z
z z
z z z
z z z
z z
z z
z z z
z z
z z z
z z

+ .
=
+ . .
+ +
+ . . + .
+ . .
+
+
+
+

1 2 3
16 052 0400 z z z

+ . . + . +

So, using the power series expansion technique,

[ ] 0( 0), [0] 1, [1] 16, [2] 052, [3] 0400, x n n x x x x = < = = . = . = .

EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 17 of 19
Some Example Problems
A Hard Problem (that you should understand, but perhaps cannot solve): Example 1
(Shows that: a) complex number impulse responses can also be handled by the procedures we
have, b) resorting to Fourier transforms isnt always appropriate, and c) that there are solvable
hard problems.)

Consider the LTI system with impulse response
1 ], [
2
] [ =
|
.
|

\
|
= j n u
j
n h
n

Determine the steady-state (i.e. for large n) response for the input

] [ ) cos( ] [ n u n n x =

EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 18 of 19
A Medium Problem (that you should be able to solve): Example 2

A band-limited (with bandwidth B) continuous-time signal ) (t x
c
is sampled at a sampling
frequency B
T
f
s
s
2
2
1

|
.
|

\
|
= =

## . Determine the energy of the resulting discrete-time signal,

2
[ ]
d
n
E x n

=
=

, as a function of the energy of the original continuous-time signal,
2
( )
c c
E x t dt

=

, and of the sampling period
s
f
T
1
= .
EE518 PMP Digital Signal Processing Winter 2014
Week 1, January 7
Prof. Les Atlas, atlas@uw.edu http://www.ee.washington.edu/class/pmp518/2014wtr/
TA: De Dennis Meng, demeng@uw.edu Page 19 of 19
Example 3 (which shows some alternative strategies for problem-solving)
Consider an LTI system with frequency response

2
4
1
2
1
( ) ,
1
j
j
j
e
H e
e

= < _

Determine the output y[n] if the input x[n] is
[ ] sin
4
n
x n

1

=

( )