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By Sk.Reshma (101A10107) R.vi aya (101A10107)


(AUTONOMOUS) (Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to JNTUK, Accredited by NBA a d ISO !""#$%""& certified)

'( B( )E**+ NA,A), M+'A-A)AM, K)IS.NA *i/trict(



Cl1/ter co2p1ti 3 i/ be/t c4aracteri5ed a/ t4e i te3ratio of a 12ber of off$t4e$/4elf co22odity co2p1ter/ a d re/o1rce/ i te3rated t4ro134 4ard6are, et6or7/, a d /oft6are to be4ave a/ a /i 3le co2p1ter( I itially, t4e ter2/ cl1/ter co2p1ti 3 a d 4i34 perfor2a ce co2p1ti 3 6a/ vie6ed a/ o e a d t4e /a2e( .o6ever, t4e tec4 olo3ie/ available today 4ave redefi ed t4e ter2 cl1/ter co2p1ti 3 to e8te d beyo d parallel co2p1ti 3 to i corporate load$ bala ci 3 cl1/ter/ (for e8a2ple, 6eb cl1/ter/) a d 4i34 availability cl1/ter/( Cl1/ter/ 2ay al/o be deployed to addre// load bala ci 3, parallel proce//i 3, /y/te2/ 2a a3e2e t, a d /calability( Today, cl1/ter/ are 2ade 1p of co22odity co2p1ter/ 1/1ally re/tricted to a /i 3le /6itc4 or 3ro1p of i terco ected /6itc4e/ operati 3 at 'ayer % a d 6it4i a /i 3le virt1al local$ area et6or7 (-'AN)( Eac4 co2p1te ode (co2p1ter) 2ay 4ave differe t c4aracteri/tic/ /1c4 a/ /i 3le proce//or or /y22etric 21ltiproce//or de/i3 , a d acce// to vario1/ type/ of /tora3e device/( T4e 1 derlyi 3 et6or7 i/ a dedicated et6or7 2ade 1p of 4i34$/peed, lo6$late cy /6itc4e/ t4at 2ay be of a /i 3le /6itc4 or a 4ierarc4y of 21ltiple /6itc4e/( A 3ro6i 3 ra 3e of po//ibilitie/ e8i/t/ for a cl1/ter i terco ectio tec4 olo3y(

*iffere t variable/ 6ill deter2i e t4e et6or7 4ard6are for t4e cl1/ter( 9rice$per port, ba d6idt4, late cy, a d t4ro134p1t are 7ey variable/( T4e c4oice of cl1/ter 4ard6are a d /y/te2 /oft6are a/ 6ell a/ co221 icatio et6or7 tec4 olo3y depe d/ o a 12ber of factor/, i cl1di 3 price, perfor2a ce, a d co2patibility 6it4 ot4er c4aracteri/tic/ of t4e applicatio / t4at 6ill 1/e t4e cl1/ter( Cl1/ter/ are ot co22oditie/ i t4e2/elve/, alt4o134 t4ey 2ay be ba/ed o co22odity 4ard6are( A 12ber of deci/io / eed to be 2ade (for e8a2ple, 64at type of 4ard6are t4e ode/ r1 o , 64ic4 i terco ect to 1/e, a d 64ic4 type of /6itc4i 3 arc4itect1re to b1ild o ) before a//e2bli 3 a cl1/ter ra 3e( Eac4 deci/io 6ill affect t4e ot4er/, a d /o2e 6ill probably be dictated by t4e i te ded 1/e of t4e cl1/ter( Selecti 3 t4e ri34t cl1/ter ele2e t/ i volve/ a 1 der/ta di 3 of t4e applicatio a d t4e ece//ary re/o1rce/ t4at i cl1de, b1t are ot li2ited to, /tora3e, t4ro134p1t, late cy, a d 12ber of ode/( %

%. &ISTOR#

T4e 4i/tory of co2p1ter cl1/ter/ i/ be/t capt1red by a foot ote i

,re3 9fi/ter:/ In

Searc4 of Cl1/ter/; <-irt1ally every pre// relea/e fro2 *EC 2e tio i 3 cl1/ter/ /ay/ =*EC, 64o i ve ted cl1/ter/(((>( IBM did ot i ve t t4e2 eit4er( Customers i ve ted cl1/ter/, a/ /oo a/ t4ey co1ld ot fit all t4eir 6or7 o o e co2p1ter, or eeded a bac71p( T4e date of t4e fir/t i/ 1 7 o6 , b1t it 6o1ld be /1rpri/i 3 if it 6a/ ot i t4e #!?"/, or eve late #!@"/(A T4e for2al e 3i eeri 3 ba/i/ of cl1/ter co2p1ti 3 a/ a 2ea / of doi 3 parallel 6or7 of a y /ort 6a/ ar31ably i ve ted by ,e e A2da4l of IBM, 64o i #!?B p1bli/4ed 64at 4a/ co2e to be re3arded a/ t4e /e2i al paper o parallel proce//i 3; A2da4l:/ 'a6( A2da4l:/ 'a6 de/cribe/ 2at4e2atically t4e /peed1p o e ca e8pect fro2 paralleli5i 3 a y 3ive ot4er6i/e /erially perfor2ed ta/7 o a parallel arc4itect1re( T4i/ article defi ed t4e e 3i eeri 3 ba/i/ for bot4 21ltiproce//or co2p1ti 3 a d cl1/ter co2p1ti 3, 64ere t4e pri2ary differe tiator i/ 64et4er or ot t4e i terproce//or co221 icatio / are /1pported Ci /ideC t4e co2p1ter (o for e8a2ple a c1/to2i5ed i ter al co221 icatio / b1/ or et6or7) or Co1t/ideC t4e co2p1ter o a commodity et6or7( Co /eD1e tly t4e 4i/tory of early co2p1ter cl1/ter/ i/ 2ore or le// directly tied i to t4e 4i/tory of early et6or7/, a/ o e of t4e pri2ary 2otivatio / for t4e develop2e t of a et6or7 6a/ to li 7 co2p1ti 3 re/o1rce/, creati 3 a de facto co2p1ter cl1/ter( 9ac7et /6itc4i 3 et6or7/ 6ere co cept1ally i ve ted by t4e )AN* Corporatio i #!?%( U/i 3 t4e co cept of a pac7et /6itc4ed et6or7, t4e A)9ANET proEect /1cceeded i creati 3 i #!?! 64at 6a/ ar31ably t4e 6orld:/ fir/t co22odity$ et6or7 ba/ed co2p1ter cl1/ter by li 7i 3 fo1r differe t co2p1ter ce ter/ (eac4 of 64ic4 6a/ /o2et4i 3 of a Ccl1/terC i it/ o6 ri34t, b1t probably ot a co22odity cl1/ter)( T4e A)9ANET proEect 3re6 i to t4e I ter etF64ic4 ca be t4o134t of a/ Ct4e 2ot4er of all co2p1ter cl1/ter/C (a/ t4e 1 io of early all of t4e co2p1te re/o1rce/, i cl1di 3 cl1/ter/, t4at 4appe to be co 1/e by all co2p1ter cl1/ter/ i ected)( It al/o e/tabli/4ed t4e paradi32 i et6or7/ to t4e 6orld todayFt4e 1/e of pac7et$/6itc4ed

perfor2 i terproce//or co221 icatio / bet6ee di/co ected fra2e/(

proce//or (/et/) located i



T4e ba/ic b1ildi 3 bloc7/ of cl1/ter/ are bro7e do6 i to 21ltiple cate3orie/; t4e cl1/ter i terco ode/, cl1/ter operati 3 /y/te2, et6or7 /6itc4i 3 4ard6are a d t4e odeG/6itc4 ect (/ee Hi31re 0)( Si3 ifica t adva ce/ 4ave bee acco2pli/4ed over t4e pa/t five

year/ to i2prove t4e perfor2a ce of bot4 t4e co2p1te ode/ a/ 6ell a/ t4e 1 derlyi 3 /6itc4i 3 i fra/tr1ct1re(

(Cl1/ter Co2po e t/) (Hi31re$ 0)

'.1. A(()i*a+i,-.

It i cl1de/ all t4e vario1/ applicatio / t4at are 3oi 3 o for a partic1lar 3ro1p( T4e/e applicatio / r1 i parallel( T4e/e i cl1de vario1/ D1erie/ r1 i 3 o differe t ode/ of t4e cl1/ter( T4i/ ca be /aid a/ t4e i p1t part of t4e cl1/ter co2po e t(

'.%. Mi//)e0a1e.
T4e/e are /oft6are pac7a3e/ 64ic4 i teract/ t4e 1/er 6it4 t4e operati 3 /y/te2 for t4e cl1/ter co2p1ti 3( I ot4er 6ord/ 6e ca /ay t4at t4e/e are t4e layer/ of /oft6are bet6ee applicatio / a d operati 3 /y/te2( Middle6are provide/ vario1/ /ervice/ reD1ired by a applicatio to f1 ctio correctly( T4e /oft6are t4at i/ 1/ed a/ 2iddle6are i/; '.%.1.OSCAR Heat1re/. I2a3e ba/ed I /tallatio ( S1pported by )ed .at !(" a d Ma dra7e !("( 9roce//or/ /1pported; 8&?, Ita i12 (i beta)( I terco ect/; Et4er et, Myri et(

*i/7le// /1pport i develop2e t( Optero /1pport i develop2e t( .i34$availability /1pport i alp4a te/ti 3(

'.%.%.SC#L" Heat1re/; Co22ercial di/trib1tio ( Si 3le /y/te2 i2a3e de/i3 ( 9roce//or/; 8&? a d Optero ( I terco ect/; Et4er et a d I fi iba d(

M9I a d 9-M( *i/7f1l a d di/7le// /1pport(

'.%.'.ROC!S @

Heat1re/; 9roce//or/; 8&?, Optero , Ita i12( I terco ect/; Et4er et a d Myri et(

Co2p1te ode 2a a3e2e t via )ed .at>/ 7ic7/tart 2ec4a i/2( *i/7f1ll o ly(

'.'. O(e1a+i-2 Sys+em.

Cl1/ter/ ca be /1pported by vario1/ operati 3 /y/te2/ 64ic4 i cl1de/ Ji do6/, 'i 18 etc(

'.3. I-+e1*,--e*+.
I terco /i2ple /6itc4e/( ectio bet6ee t4e vario1/ ode/ of t4e cl1/ter /y/te2 ca be do e 1/i 3 ected 6it4 t4e 4elp of #",bE, Myri et etc( I ca/e of /2all cl1/ter /y/te2 t4e/e a d be co

'.4. N,/es.
Node/ of t4e cl1/ter /y/te2 i2plie/ abo1t t4e differe t co2p1ter/ t4at are co of t4e/e proce//or/ ca be of i tel/ or AM* ?I bit( ected( All


3.1. C)5s+e1 N,/es.

Node tec4 olo3y 4a/ 2i3rated fro2 t4e co ve tio al to6er ca/e/ to /i 3le rac7$1 it 21ltiproce//or /y/te2/ a d blade /erver/ t4at provide a 21c4 4i34er proce//or de /ity 6it4i a decrea/ed area( 9roce//or /peed/ a d /erver arc4itect1re/ 4ave i crea/ed i perfor2a ce, a/ 6ell a/ /ol1tio / t4at provide optio / for eit4er 0%$bit or ?I$bit proce//or/ /y/te2/( Additio ally, 2e2ory perfor2a ce a/ 6ell a/ 4ard$di/7 acce// /peed/ a d /tora3e capacitie/ 4ave al/o i crea/ed( It i/ i tere/ti 3 to ote t4at eve t4o134 perfor2a ce i/ 3ro6i 3 e8po e tially i /o2e ca/e/, t4e co/t of t4e/e tec4 olo3ie/ 4a/ dropped co /iderably( A/ /4o6 i Hi31re I(# belo6, ode participatio i t4e cl1/ter fall/ i to o e of t6o re/po /ibilitie/; 2a/ter (or 4ead) ode a d co2p1te (or /lave) ode/( T4e 2a/ter ode i/ t4e 1 iD1e /erver i cl1/ter /y/te2/( It i/ re/po /ible for r1 i 3 t4e file /y/te2 a d al/o /erve/ a/ t4e 7ey /y/te2 for cl1/teri 3 2iddle6are to ro1te proce//e/, d1tie/, a d 2o itor t4e 4ealt4 a d /tat1/ of eac4 /lave ode( A co2p1te (or /lave) ode 6it4i a cl1/ter provide/ t4e cl1/ter a co2p1ti 3 a d data /tora3e capability( T4e/e ode/ are derived fro2 f1lly operatio al, /ta dalo e co2p1ter/ t4at are typically 2ar7eted a/ de/7top or /erver /y/te2/ t4at, a/ /1c4, are off$ t4e$/4elf co22odity /y/te2/(

(Cl1/ter Node/) (Hi31re$ I(#)

3.%. C)5s+e1 Ne+0,1k.

Co22odity cl1/ter /ol1tio / are viable today d1e to a 12ber of factor/ /1c4 a/ t4e 4i34 perfor2a ce co22odity /erver/ a d t4e availability of 4i34 /peed, lo6$late cy et6or7 /6itc4 tec4 olo3ie/ t4at provide t4e i ter$ odal co221 icatio /( Co22odity cl1/ter/ typically i corporate o e or 2ore dedicated /6itc4e/ to /1pport co221 icatio bet6ee t4e cl1/ter ode/( T4e /peed a d type of ode i terco ect/ vary ba/ed o t4e reD1ire2e t/ of t4e applicatio a d or3a i5atio ( Jit4 today:/ lo6 co/t/ per$port for ,i3abit Et4er et /6itc4e/, adoptio of #"$,i3abit Et4er et a d t4e /ta dardi5atio of #"G#""G#""" et6or7 i terface/ o t4e ode 4ard6are, Et4er et co ti 1e/ to be a leadi 3 i terco i terco ect tec4 olo3y for 2a y cl1/ter/( I additio to Et4er et, alter ative et6or7 or ect tec4 olo3ie/ i cl1de Myri et, K1adric/, a d I fi iba d t4at /1pport ba d6idt4/ above

#,bp/ a d e d$to$e d 2e//a3e late cie/ belo6 #" 2icro/eco d/ (1Sec)(



T4ere are /everal type/ of cl1/ter/, eac4 6it4 /pecific de/i3 3oal/ a d f1 ctio ality( T4e/e cl1/ter/ ra 3e fro2 di/trib1ted or parallel cl1/ter/ for co2p1tatio i te /ive or data i te /ive applicatio / t4at are 1/ed for protei , /ei/2ic, or 1clear 2odeli 3 to /i2ple load$bala ced cl1/ter/(

4.1. &i2h Avai)a6i)i+y ,1 $ai),ve1 C)5s+e1s.

T4e/e cl1/ter/ are de/i3 ed to provide 1 i terr1pted availability of data or /ervice/ (typically 6eb /ervice/) to t4e e d$1/er co221 ity( T4e p1rpo/e of t4e/e cl1/ter/ i/ to e /1re t4at a /i 3le i /ta ce of a applicatio i/ o ly ever r1 cl1/ter 2e2ber( Jit4 a 4i34$availability cl1/ter, 2ai te a ce or repair/( Additio ally, if a i 3 o o e cl1/ter 2e2ber at a ti2e b1t ode/ ca be ta7e o1t$of$/ervice for be re/tored 6it4o1t if a d 64e t4at cl1/ter 2e2ber i/ o lo 3er available, t4e applicatio 6ill failover to a ot4er ode fail/, t4e /ervice ca

affecti 3 t4e availability of t4e /ervice/ provided by t4e cl1/ter (/ee Hi31re @(#)( J4ile t4e applicatio 6ill /till be available, t4ere 6ill be a perfor2a ce drop d1e to t4e 2i//i 3 ode( .i34$availability cl1/ter/ i2ple2e tatio / are be/t for 2i//io $critical applicatio / or databa/e/, 2ail, file a d pri t, 6eb, or applicatio /erver/(

(Hi31re @(#) (Hailover cl1/ter/) U li7e di/trib1ted or parallel proce//i 3 cl1/ter/, 4i34$availability cl1/ter/ /ea2le//ly a d tra /pare tly i te3rate e8i/ti 3 /ta dalo e, o $cl1/ter a6are applicatio / to3et4er i to a /i 3le virt1al 2ac4i e ece//ary to allo6 t4e et6or7 to effortle//ly 3ro6 to 2eet i crea/ed b1/i e// de2a d/(

4.%. L,a/ Ba)a-*i-2 C)5s+e1.

T4i/ type of cl1/ter di/trib1te/ i co2i 3 reD1e/t/ for re/o1rce/ or co te t a2o 3 21ltiple ode/ r1 i 3 t4e /a2e pro3ra2/ or 4avi 3 t4e /a2e co te t (/ee Hi31re @(%)( Every ode i t4e cl1/ter i/ able to 4a dle reD1e/t/ for t4e /a2e co te t or applicatio ( If a ode fail/, reD1e/t/ are redi/trib1ted bet6ee t4e re2ai i 3 available ode/( T4i/ type of di/trib1tio i/ typically /ee i a 6eb$4o/ti 3 e viro 2e t(


('oad Bala ci 3 Cl1/ter) (Hi31re$ @(%) Bot4 t4e 4i34 availability a d load$bala ci 3 cl1/ter tec4 olo3ie/ ca be co2bi ed to i crea/e t4e reliability, availability, a d /calability of applicatio a d data re/o1rce/ t4at are 6idely deployed for 6eb, 2ail, e6/, or HT9 /ervice/(

'. Pa1a))e)7"is+1i65+e/ P1,*essi-2 C)5s+e1s.

Traditio ally, parallel proce//i 3 6a/ perfor2ed by 21ltiple proce//or/ i a /pecially de/i3 ed parallel co2p1ter( T4e/e are /y/te2/ i 64ic4 21ltiple proce//or/ /4are a /i 3le 2e2ory a d b1/ i terface 6it4i a /i 3le co2p1ter( Jit4 t4e adve t of 4i34 /peed, lo6$late cy /6itc4i 3 tec4 olo3y, co2p1ter/ ca be i terco ected to for2 a parallel$proce//i 3 cl1/ter( T4e/e type/ of cl1/ter i crea/e availability, perfor2a ce, a d /calability for applicatio /, partic1larly co2p1tatio ally or data i te /ive ta/7/( A parallel cl1/ter i/ a /y/te2 t4at 1/e/ a 12ber of ode/ to /i21lta eo1/ly /olve a /pecific co2p1tatio al or data$2i i 3 ta/7( U li7e t4e load bala ci 3 or 4i34 availability cl1/ter/ t4at di/trib1te/ reD1e/t/Gta/7/ to ode/ 64ere a ode proce//e/ t4e e tire reD1e/t, a parallel e viro 2e t 6ill divide t4e reD1e/t i to 21ltiple /1b$ta/7/ t4at are di/trib1ted to 21ltiple ode/ 6it4i t4e cl1/ter for proce//i 3(


9arallel cl1/ter/ are typically 1/ed for C9U$i te /ive a alytical applicatio /, /1c4 a/ 2at4e2atical co2p1tatio , /cie tific a aly/i/ (6eat4er foreca/ti 3, /ei/2ic a aly/i/, etc(), a d fi a cial data a aly/i/( O e of t4e 2ore co22o cl1/ter operati 3 /y/te2/ i/ t4e Beo61lf cla// of cl1/ter/( A Beo61lf cl1/ter ca be defi ed a/ a 12ber of /y/te2/ 64o/e collective proce//i 3 capabilitie/ are /i21lta eo1/ly applied to a /pecific tec4 ical, /cie tific, or b1/i e// applicatio ( Eac4 i divid1al co2p1ter i/ referred to a/ a < odeA a d eac4 ode co221 icate/ 6it4 ot4er ode/ 6it4i a cl1/ter acro// /ta dard Et4er et tec4 olo3ie/ (#"G#"" Mbp/, ,bE, or #",bE)( Ot4er ect/ /1c4 a/ Myri et, I fi iba d, or K1adric/ 2ay al/o be 1/ed( 4i34/peed i terco


8.1. Th1,52h(5+.
*ata t4ro134p1t be3i / 6it4 a calc1latio of a t4eoretical 2a8i212 t4ro134p1t a d co cl1de/ 6it4 effective t4ro134p1t( T4e effective t4ro134p1t available bet6ee factor/, i cl1di 3 t4e follo6i 3; 9 Total 12ber of ode/ r1 9 S6itc4 arc4itect1re/ 9 Hor6ardi 3 2et4odolo3ie/ 9 K1e1i 3 2et4odolo3ie/ 9 B1fferi 3 dept4 a d allocatio / #% i 3 ode/ 6ill al6ay/ be le// t4a t4e t4eoretical 2a8i212( T4ro134p1t for cl1/ter ode/ i/ ba/ed o 2a y

9 Noi/e a d error/ o t4e cable pla t A/ previo1/ly oted, parallel applicatio / e84ibit a 6ide ra 3e of co221 icatio be4avior/ a d i2po/e vario1/ reD1ire2e t/ o t4e 1 derlyi 3 et6or7( T4e/e be4avior/ 2ay be 1 iD1e to i divid1al applicatio / a d t4e reD1ire2e t/ for i terproce//orGi ter$ odal co221 icatio ( T4e 2et4od/ 1/ed by t4e applicatio pro3ra22er, a/ far a/ t4e pa//i 3 of 2e//a3e/ 1/i 3 M9I, vary ba/ed o t4e applicatio reD1ire2e t/(

8.%. S),0 S+a1+.

I t4e ori3i al i2ple2e tatio of TC9, a/ /oo a/ a co ectio 6a/ e/tabli/4ed bet6ee t6o device/, t4ey co1ld eac4 /e d /e32e t/ a/ fa/t a/ t4ey li7ed a/ lo 3 a/ t4ere 6a/ roo2 i t4e ot4er device:/ receive 6i do6( I a b1/y et6or7, t4e /1dde appeara ce of a lar3e a2o1 t of e6 traffic co1ld e8acerbate a y e8i/ti 3 co 3e/tio ( To alleviate t4i/ proble2, 2oder TC9 device/ are re/trai ed i t4e rate at 64ic4 t4ey i itially /e d /e32e t/( Eac4 /e der i/ at fir/t re/tricted to /e di 3 o ly a a2o1 t of data eD1al to o e <f1ll$/i5edA/e32e t t4at i/ eD1al to t4e MSS val1e for t4e co ectio ( Eac4 ti2e a ac7 o6led32e t i/ received, t4e a2o1 t of data t4e device ca /e d i/ i crea/ed by t4e /i5e of a ot4er f1ll$/i5ed /e32e t( T41/, t4e device </tart/ /lo6A i ter2/ of 4o6 21c4 data it ca /e d, 6it4 t4e a2o1 t it /e d/ i crea/i 3 1 til eit4er t4e f1ll 6i do6 /i5e i/ reac4ed or co 3e/tio i/ detected o t4e li 7( I t4e latter ca/e, t4e co 3e/tio avoida ce feat1re, de/cribed belo6, i/ 1/ed(

8.'. C,-2es+i,- Av,i/a-*e.

J4e pote tial co 3e/tio i/ detected o a TC9 li 7, a device re/po d/ by t4rottli 3 bac7 t4e rate at 64ic4 it /e d/ /e32e t/( A /pecial al3orit42 i/ 1/ed t4at allo6/ t4e device to drop t4e rate at 64ic4 /e32e t/ are /e t D1ic7ly 64e co 3e/tio occ1r/( T4e device t4e 1/e/ t4e Slo6 Start al3orit42, de/cribed above, to 3rad1ally i crea/e t4e tra /2i//io rate bac7 1p a3ai to try to 2a8i2i5e t4ro134p1t 6it4o1t co 3e/tio occ1rri 3 a3ai ( I t4e eve t of pac7et drop/, TC9 retra /2i//io al3orit42/ 6ill e 3a3e( )etra /2i//io ti2eo1t/ ca reac4 delay/ of 1p to %"" 2illi/eco d/, t4ereby /i3 ifica tly i2pacti 3 t4ro134p1t(



O e i2porta t co /ideratio

for 2a y e terpri/e/ i/ to 1/e co2p1te re/o1rce/ a/

efficie tly a/ po//ible( A/ i crea/ed 12ber of e terpri/e/ 2ove to6ard/ realti2e a d b1/i e//$ i telli3e ce a aly/i/, 1/i 3 co2p1te re/o1rce/ efficie tly i/ a i2porta t 2etric( .o6ever, i 2a y ca/e/ co2p1te re/o1rce i/ 1 der1tili5ed( T4e 2ore C9U cycle/ co22itted to applicatio proce//i 3 t4e le// ti2e it ta7e/ to r1 t4e applicatio ( U fort1 ately, alt4o134 t4i/ i/ a de/i3 3oal, t4i/ i/ ot obtai able a/ bot4 t4e applicatio a d protocol/ co2pete for C9U cycle/( A/ t4e cl1/ter ode proce//e/ t4e applicatio , t4e C9U i/ dedicated to t4e applicatio a d protocol proce//i 3 doe/ ot occ1r( Hor t4i/ to c4a 3e, t4e protocol proce// 21/t i terr1pt a 1 iproce//or 2ac4i e or reD1e/t a /pi loc7 for a 21ltiproce//or 2ac4i e( A/ t4e reD1e/t i/ 3ra ted, C9U cycle/ are t4e applied to t4e protocol proce//( A/ 2ore cycle/ are applied to protocol proce//i 3, applicatio proce//i 3 i/ /1/pe ded( I 2a y e viro 2e t/, t4e val1e of t4e cl1/ter i/ ba/ed o t4e r1 $ti2e of t4e applicatio ( T4e /4orter t4e ti2e to r1 , t4e 2ore floati 3$poi t operatio / a dGor 2illio / of #I

i /tr1ctio / per$/eco d occ1r, a d, t4erefore, t4e lo6er t4e co/t of r1 or Eob(

i 3 a /pecific applicatio

(C9U Utili5atio ) (Hi31re$ B(#)

T4e e8a2ple o t4e left /ide of Hi31re B(# /4o6/ t4at 64e t4ere i/ virt1ally o et6or7 or protocol proce//i 3 3oi 3 o , C9U " a d # of eac4 ode are #""L devoted to applicatio proce//i 3( T4e ri34t /ide of Hi31re B(% /4o6/ t4at t4e et6or7 traffic level/ 4ave /i3 ifica tly i crea/ed( A/ t4i/ 4appe /, t4e C9U /pe d/ cycle/ proce//i 3 t4e M9I a d TC9 protocol /tac7/, i cl1di 3 2ovi 3 data to a d fro2 t4e 6ire( T4i/ re/1lt/ i a red1ced or /1/pe ded applicatio proce//i 3( Jit4 t4e i crea/e i protocol proce//i 3, ote t4at t4e 1tili5atio perce ta3e/ of C9U " a d # are dra2atically red1ced, i /o2e ca/e/ to "(


(Applicatio a d 9rotocol 9roce//i 3) (Hi31re$ B(%)



He6 i2porta t cl1/ter applicatio are; ,oo3le Searc4 E 3i e( 9etrole12 )e/ervoir Si21latio ( 9rotei E8plorer( Eart4D1a7e Si21latio ( I2a3e )e deri 3(

;.1. G,,2)e Sea1*h E-2i-e.

I ter et /earc4 e 3i e/ e able I ter et 1/er/ to /earc4 for i for2atio o t4e I ter et by e teri 3 /pecific 7ey6ord/( A 6idely 1/ed /earc4 e 3i e, ,oo3le 1/e/ cl1/ter co2p1ti 3 to 2eet t4e 413e D1a tity of 6orld6ide /earc4 reD1e/t/ t4at co2pri/e of a pea7 of t4o1/a d/ of D1erie/ per /eco d( A /i 3le ,oo3le D1ery eed/ to 1/e at lea/t te / of billio / of proce//i 3 cycle/ a d acce// a fe6 41 dred 2e3abyte/ of data i order to ret1r /ati/factory /earc4 re/1lt/( ,oo3le 1/e/ cl1/ter co2p1ti 3 a/ it/ /ol1tio to t4e 4i34 de2a d of /y/te2 re/o1rce/ /i ce cl1/ter/ 4ave better price$perfor2a ce ratio/ t4a reliability a d reD1e/t t4ro134p1t( ,oo3le i/ able to ac4ieve reliability at t4e /oft6are level /o t4at a reliable co2p1ti 3 i fra/tr1ct1re ca be co /tr1cted o cl1/ter/ of #@,""" co22odity 9C/ di/trib1ted 6orld6ide( T4e /ervice/ for ,oo3le are al/o replicated acro// 21ltiple 2ac4i e/ i t4e cl1/ter/ to provide t4e ece//ary availability( ,oo3le 2a8i2i5e/ overall reD1e/t t4ro134p1t by perfor2i 3 parallel e8ec1tio of i divid1al /earc4 reD1e/t/( T4i/ 2ea / t4at 2ore /earc4 reD1e/t/ ca be co2pleted 6it4i a /pecific ti2e i terval( alter ative 4i34perfor2a ce co2p1ti 3 platfor2/, a d al/o 1/e le// electrical po6er( ,oo3le foc1/e/ o % i2porta t de/i3 factor/;

;.%. Pe+1,)e5m Rese1v,i1 Sim5)a+i,-.

9etrole12 re/ervoir /i21latio facilitate/ a better 1 der/ta di 3 of petrole12 re/ervoir/ t4at i/ cr1cial to better re/ervoir 2a a3e2e t a d 2ore efficie t oil a d 3a/ prod1ctio ( It i/ a e8a2ple of ,CA a/ it de2a d/ i te /ive co2p1tatio / i order to /i21late 3eolo3ical a d p4y/ical 2odel/( Hor e8a2ple, T4e Ce ter for 9etrole12 a d ,eo /y/te2/ e 3i eeri 3 of t4e #B

U iver/ity of Te8a/ at A1/ti i/ co /tr1cti 3 a e6 parallel petrole12 re/ervoir /i21lator called ,e eral 91rpo/e Adaptive Si21lator (,9AS) 1/i 3 a cl1/ter of ?I d1al$proce//or /erver/ 6it4 a total of #%& proce//or/( A typical petrole12 re/ervoir /i21lator co /i/t/ of a co1pled /et of o $li ear partial differe tial eD1atio / a d co /tit1tive relatio / t4at de/cribe t4e p4y/ical proce//e/ occ1rri 3 i a petrole12 re/ervoir( T4ere are % 2o/t 6idely 1/ed /i21lator/( T4e fir/t i/ t4e blac7 oil /i21lator t4at 1/e/ 6ater, oil, a d 3a/ p4a/e/ for 2odeli 3 fl1id flo6 i a re/ervoir( T4e /eco d i/ t4e co2po/itio al /i21lator t4at 1/e/ p4a/e/ 6it4 differe t c4e2ical /pecie/ for 2odeli 3 p4y/ical proce//e/ occ1rri 3 i a re/ervoir(

;.'. P1,+ei- E<(),1e1.

T4e Bioi for2atic/ ,ro1p at )IKEN ,e o2ic Scie ce/ Ce ter i Japa i/ c1rre tly b1ildi 3 t4e 6orld$fir/t pet flop/ /1perco2p1ter M t4e =9rotei E8plorer> (9E) /y/te2 6ill be a /peciali5ed /y/te2 for 2olec1lar dy a2ic/ /i21latio /, /pecifically, protei /i21latio /, a d i/ e8pected to be ready i early %""?( T4e 9E /y/te2 6ill be a 9C cl1/ter eD1ipped 6it4 /pecial$ p1rpo/e e 3i e/ to calc1late o $bo ded i teractio / bet6ee 2olec1lar ato2/( T4e/e calc1latio / co /tit1te t4e 2o/t ti2e$co /12i 3 portio of t4e /i21latio /(

;.3. Ea1+h=5ake Sim5)a+i,-.

Eart4D1a7e /i21latio i/ cla//ified a/ a ,CA 3ive it/ 4i34 2odeli 3 a d co2p1tatio al co2ple8itie/( Hir/t, 21ltiple /patial /cale/ c4aracteri5e t4e eart4D1a7e /o1rce a d ba/i re/po /e ra 3i 3 fro2 te / of 7ilo2eter/ for t4e ba/i di2e /io / to 41 dred/ of 7ilo2eter/ for eart4D1a7e /o1rce/( Seco d, te2poral /cale/ differ fro2 t4e 41 dredt4/ of a /eco d for depicti 3 t4e 4i34e/t freD1e cie/ of t4e eart4D1a7e /o1rce to /everal 2i 1te/ of /4a7i 3 6it4i t4e ba/i ( T4ird, 2a y ba/i / 4ave 4i34ly irre31lar 3eo2etry( Ho1rt4, t4e /oil/ i t4e ba/i / co2pri/e 4etero3e eo1/ 2aterial propertie/( A d fift4, t4ere re2ai / 3reat 1 certai ty i to t4e 2odeli 3 proce// d1e to t4e i direct ob/ervatio of 3eolo3y a d /o1rce para2eter/(

;.4. Ima2e Re-/e1i-2.


T4e Scie tific Co2p1ti 3 a d I2a3i 3 (SCI) I /tit1te at U iver/ity of Uta4 4a/ e8plored cl1/ter$ba/ed /cie tific vi/1ali5atio co22odity 4ard6are co2po e t/ co 1/i 3 a 0%$ ode vi/1ali5atio cl1/ter co2po/ed of ected 6it4 a 4i34/peed et6or7( T4e Ope ,' /cie tific

vi/1ali5atio tool Si2ia 4a/ bee 2odified to create a cl1/ter$a6are ver/io of Si2ia t4at /1pport/ paralleli5atio by 2a7i 3 e8plicit 1/e of re2ote cl1/ter ode/ t4ro134 a 2e//a3e$ pa//i 3 i terface (M9I)( Si2ia i/ able to 3e erate 0* i2a3e/ for fire$/pread /i21latio / t4at 2odel /ce ario/ /1c4 a/ 64e a 2i//ile located 6it4i a pool of Eet f1el catc4e/ fire a d e8plode/( U/i 3 i2a3e re deri 3 for fire$/pread /i21latio / e able/ re/earc4er/ to 4ave a better vi/1ali5atio of t4e de/tr1ctive effect/(



A/va-+a2es ,A C)5s+e1 C,m(5+i-2.

E*,-,mi*a). I fact t4e/e Cl1/ter Co2p1ti 3 /y/te2/ are 1p to #@ ti2e/ c4eaper t4a traditio al /1perco2p1ter/ 6it4 re/pect to 64ic4, for t4e /a2e perfor2a ce( S*a)a6i)i+y. T4e re/o1rce/ are di/trib1ted i ca/e of Cl1/ter Co2p1ti 3( Re)ia6i)i+y. A/ t4e Cl1/ter Co2p1ti 3 /y/te2 co ti 1e/ to operate eve i ca/e of fail1re/ i part/ of it, obvio1/ly 6it4 lo6er perfor2a ce(

"isa/va-+a2es ,A C)5s+e1 C,m(5+i-2.

*iffic1lt to 2a a3e a d or3a i5e a lar3e 12ber of co2p1ter/ 9oor perfor2a ce i t4e ca/e of o $paralleli5able applicatio / 94y/ical /pace eeded i/ co /iderably 3reater t4a t4at of a /i 3le /erver I crea/ed po6er co /12ptio co2pared to a /i 3le /erver



.i34$perfor2a ce cl1/ter co2p1ti 3 i/ e abli 3 a

e6 cla// of co2p1tatio ally

i te /ive applicatio / t4at are /olvi 3 proble2/ t4at 6ere previo1/ly co/t pro4ibitive for 2a y e terpri/e/( T4e 1/e of co22odity co2p1ter/ collaborati 3 to re/olve 4i34ly co2ple8, co2p1tatio ally i te /ive ta/7/ 4a/ broad applicatio acro// /everal i d1/try vertical/ /1c4 a/ c4e2i/try or biolo3y, D1a t12 p4y/ic/, petrole12 e8ploratio , cra/4 te/t /i21latio , C, re deri 3, a d fi a cial ri/7 a aly/i/( .o6ever, cl1/ter co2p1ti 3 p1/4e/ t4e li2it/ of /erver arc4itect1re/, co2p1ti 3, a d et6or7 perfor2a ce( *1e to t4e eco o2ic/ of cl1/ter co2p1ti 3 a d t4e fle8ibility a d 4i34 perfor2a ce offered, cl1/ter co2p1ti 3 4a/ 2ade it/ 6ay i to t4e 2ai /trea2 e terpri/e data ce ter/ 1/i 3 cl1/ter/ of vario1/ /i5e/( A/ cl1/ter/ beco2e 2ore pop1lar a d 2ore perva/ive, caref1l co /ideratio of t4e applicatio reD1ire2e t/ a d 64at t4at tra /late/ to i ter2/ of et6or7 c4aracteri/tic/ beco2e/ critical to t4e de/i3 a d delivery of a opti2al a d reliable perfor2i 3 /ol1tio ( K o6led3e of 4o6 t4e applicatio 1/e/ t4e cl1/ter ode/ a d 4o6 t4e c4aracteri/tic/ of t4e applicatio i2pact a d are i2pacted by t4e 1 derlyi 3 et6or7 i/ critically i2porta t( A/ critical a/ t4e /electio of t4e cl1/ter ode/ a d operati 3 /y/te2, /o too are t4e /electio of t4e ode i terco ect/ a d 1 derlyi 3 cl1/ter et6or7 /6itc4i 3 tec4 olo3ie/(

A /calable a d 2od1lar et6or7i 3 /ol1tio i/ critical, ot o ly to provide i cre2e tal co ectivity b1t al/o to provide i cre2e tal ba d6idt4 optio / a/ t4e cl1/ter 3ro6/( T4e ability ectivity optio /, i crea/e/ ba d6idt4, 64il/t providi 3 i ve/t2e t protectio ( e6, a d to 1/e adva ced tec4 olo3ie/ 6it4i t4e /a2e et6or7i 3 platfor2, /1c4 a/ #" ,i3abit Et4er et, provide/ e6 co i terco T4e tec4 olo3ie/ a//ociated 6it4 cl1/ter co2p1ti 3, i cl1di 3 4o/t protocol /tac7proce//i 3 a d ect tec4 olo3ie/, are rapidly evolvi 3 to 2eet t4e de2a d/ of c1rre t, 2ade i e2er3i 3 applicatio /( M1c4 pro3re// 4a/ bee co2po e t/( t4e develop2e t of lo6$late cy et6or7 4ard6are

/6itc4e/, protocol/, a d /ta dard/ t4at efficie tly a d effectively 1/e



4ttp;GGicl(c/(1t7(ed1Giter$ref M( Ba7er, A( Apo , )( B1yya, .( Ji , <Cl1/ter Co2p1ti 3 a d Applicatio /A, E cyclopedia of Co2p1ter Scie ce a d Tec4 olo3y, -ol(I@, Marcel *e77er, A13( %""?( *( B1te 4of, 9ro3ra22i 3 6it4 9OSIN T4read/,Addi/o $Je/ley, %"""( )( B1yya (ed(), .i34 9erfor2a ce Cl1/ter Co2p1ti 3; Sy/te2/ a d Arc4itect1re/, 9re tice .all, %""B( Jillia2 J( .ar3rove, Horre/t M( .off2a a d T4o2a/ Sterli 3 (A131/t #?, %""#)( CT4e *o$It$+o1r/elf S1perco2p1terC( Scie tific A2erica .i34 9erfor2a ce Co2p1ti 3 for Co2p1tatio al Scie ce( Co2p1ter Scie ce; T4e .ard6are, Soft6are a d .eart of It by Alfred -( A4o, Ed6ard K( Bl12 %"##( %%,eor3ia Tec4 Colle3e of Co2p1ti 3( )etrieved %""B$"B$#0( 9arallel 9ro3ra22i 3; Hor M1lticore a d Cl1/ter Sy/te2/ by T4o2a/ )a1ber, ,1d1la )O 3er %"#"(