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Revision Questions for Examine Ecological Systems Exam 1 Semester 1 2009 This is a list of the revision questions from

m the online quiz, for those of you who dont like computers and prefer the art of paper. Not all the questions here will be in the exam. Some questions in the exam are not listed here The exam will be a mixture of multiple choice, short and long answer. What is an abiotic factor? A. Any non-living component of an ecosystem B. Any living component of an ecosystem C.Parts of organisms that are now dead, but were once living D. Parts of organisms that are living but will soon be dead Which of the following bests describes physical resources? A. Those abiotic factors that an organism requires to survive B. Those abiotic factors that control how well an organism survives C.Those abiotic factors that are made of matter D. The abiotic factors that are made of energy Which of the following bests describes physical factors? A. Those abiotic factors that an organism requires to survive B. Those abiotic factors that control how well an organism survives C.Those abiotic factors that are made of matter D. The abiotic factors that are made of energy

Which of the definitions below best describes the Law of the Minimum? A. There is always one factor that controls or limits the health, distribution and abundance of an organism B. There is always more than one factor that controls or limits the health, distribution and abundance of an organism C.There is always a range for each factor or resource that controls or limits the health, distribution and abundance of an organism D. There is never a range for each factor or resource that controls or limits the health, distribution and abundance of an organism Which of the definitions below best describes the Law of Tolerance? A. There is always one factor that controls or limits the health, distribution and abundance of an organism B. There is always more than one factor that controls or limits the health, distribution and abundance of an organism C.There is always a range for each factor or resource that controls or limits the health, distribution and abundance of an organism D. There is never a range for each factor or resource that controls or limits the health, distribution and abundance of an organism Which one of the following is not an example of light as an abiotic factor? A. Quality of light (i.e the colour or wavelength) B. The intensity of the light (i.e amount of power) C.The length of the light period D. The absence of light E. All of these answers are examples and are correct Which of the following is not an example of how climate is an abiotic factor? A. Mid-latitude desertification B. El Nino / La Nina cycles C.Humidity D. Maritime and continental climates

Define the term nutrient. A. Any substance that aid the growth of an organism B. Any substance that is absolutely required by an organism to exist C.Food D. All of these answers are correct What is a biome? A. A major terrestrial unit of vegetation encompassing many ecosystems, communities etc B. The most inclusive level of populations and communities C.Several populations interacting in an environment D. A group of organisms of the same species Which of the following is not a biome? A. Tundra B. Schlerophyl forest C.Chaparral D. Tropical savanna E. Mountainous regions (complex zones) F. Desert Which definition applies to the term individual? A. Unique member of a population B. A group of organisms of the same species C.A group of populations which display interaction D. The most inclusive level organization in an environment

Which definition applies to the term population? A. Unique member of a population B. A group of organisms of the same species C.A group of populations which display interaction D. The most inclusive level organization in an environment Which definition applies to the term community? A. Unique member of a population B. A group of organisms of the same species C.A group of populations which display interaction D. The most inclusive level organization in an environment Which definition applies to the term ecosystem? A. Unique member of a population B. A group of organisms of the same species C.A group of populations which display interaction D. The most inclusive level organization in an environment Which definition applies to the first law of thermodynamics? A. Also called the Law of Conservation, stating that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but simply changed from one state to another B. Energy transfers are not efficient, and that some energy is always lost as heat, noise etcetera Which definition applies to the second law of thermodynamics? A. Also called the Law of Conservation, stating that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but simply changed from one state to another B. Energy transfers are not efficient, and that some energy is always lost as heat, noise etcetera

Which of the following is not a source of energy in ecosystems? A. Sunlight B. Nutrients C.Organic chemicals D. Inorganic chemicals E. Minerals F. All of these answers are correct What is a heterotroph? A. An organism that obtains its energy through the assimilation of organic substances B. An organism that obtains its energy through the assimilation of inorganic substances C.An organism that obtains its energy through the assimilation of sunlight D. An organism that obtains its energy through the assimilation of detritus A photosynthetic autotroph is an organism that A. An organism that obtains its energy through the assimilation of organic substances B. An organism that obtains its energy through the assimilation of inorganic substances C.An organism that obtains its energy through the assimilation of sunlight D. An organism that obtains its energy through the assimilation of detritus A chemoautotroph is an organism that A. An organism that obtains its energy through the assimilation of organic substances B. An organism that obtains its energy through the assimilation of inorganic substances C.An organism that obtains its energy through the assimilation of sunlight D. An organism that obtains its energy through the assimilation of detritus

What is biomass? A. The mass of plant matter (usually expressed as a dry mass) B. The rate at which plant matter is made or lost C.The chemical reaction that converts light energy into matter D. The chemical reaction that converts matter into chemical energy What is primary productivity? A. The mass of plant matter (usually expressed as a dry mass) B. The rate at which plant matter is made or lost C.The chemical reaction that converts light energy into matter D. The chemical reaction that converts matter into chemical energy Gross primary productivity is A. The amount of energy or biomass fixed by photosynthesis B. The amount of energy or biomass fixed by photosynthesis minus the amount of energy or biomass lost through respiration C.The rate at which plant matter is made or lost D. All of these answers are correct! E. None of these answers are correct! Net primary productivity is A. The amount of energy or biomass fixed by photosynthesis B. The amount of energy or biomass fixed by photosynthesis minus the amount of energy or biomass lost through respiration C.The rate at which plant matter is made or lost D. All of these answers are correct! E. None of these answers are correct!

Assuming the presence of light, which of the following factors is not the key factor controlling primary productivity? A. Temperature B. Nutrient availability C.Altitude Photosynthesis is A. The mass of plant matter (usually expressed as a dry mass) B. The rate at which plant matter is made or lost C.The chemical reaction that converts light energy into matter D. The chemical reaction that converts matter into chemical energy Respiration is A. The mass of plant matter (usually expressed as a dry mass) B. The rate at which plant matter is made or lost C.The chemical reaction that converts light energy into matter D. The chemical reaction that converts matter into chemical energy What does the term compensation point refer to? A. When photosynthesis is equal to respiration B. When photosynthesis is greater than respiration C.When respiration is greater than photosynthesis D. Any of these situations refers to the compensation point What is secondary production? A. Energy or biomass gained from consumption of plant matter by herbivores B. Energy or biomass gained from consumption of primary producers C.Energy or biomass gained from consumption of organisms higher than plants D. Energy or biomass gained from consumption of organisms higher than herbivores E. Energy or biomass gained from consumption of organisms higher than carnivores F. All of these answers are correct

What is a primary consumer? A. Consumer of plant materials B. Consumer of primary producers C.Consumer of organisms higher than plants D. Consumer of organisms higher than herbivores E. Consumer of organisms higher than carnivores What is a secondary consumer? A. Consumer of plant materials B. Consumer of primary producers C.Consumer of organisms higher than plants D. Consumer of organisms higher than herbivores E. Consumer of organisms higher than carnivores Which one of the following is not a Lindeman efficiency? A. Ingestion B. Assimilation C.Production D. Digestion Ingestion efficiency is A. The proportion of available energy eaten by a heterotroph B. The proportion of energy digested and absorbed by a heterotroph C.The proportion of absorbed energy that is used or stored by a heterotroph D. The ratio of biomass input to biomass output

Assimilation efficiency is A. The proportion of available energy eaten by a heterotroph B. The proportion of energy digested and absorbed by a heterotroph C.The proportion of absorbed energy that is used or stored by a heterotroph D. The ratio of biomass input to biomass output Production efficiency is A. The proportion of available energy eaten by a heterotroph B. The proportion of energy digested and absorbed by a heterotroph C.The proportion of absorbed energy that is used or stored by a heterotroph D. The ratio of biomass input to biomass output What is the detritus cycle? A. The cycle whereby dead organic and inorganic material is recycled B. The biogeochemical cycle C.The nutrient cycle D. All of these answers is correct! Which of the following does not constitute a food source in the detritus cycle? A. Cast-off B. Excreta C.Food scraps D. Dead organisms E. Plants What is a food chain? A. A pictorial description of how food moves through an ecosystem B. A qualitative analysis of energy flows in ecosystems C.A simple depiction of which plants and animals exist in an ecosystem D. All of these answers are correct!

Why are food chains poor at conveying information about an ecosystem? A. Because they are not quantitative B. Because they do not show the complex interactions that exist between organisms C.Because they are linear D. All of these answers are correct The rule of energy distribution can be (simply) called the? A. 1%, 10% rule B. 10%, 10% rule C.10%, 1% rule D. 1%, 1% rule What is a food web? A. A pictorial description of food sources in ecosystems B. A dynamic and complex assessment of food sources in an ecosystem C.A qualitative assessment of food sources in an ecosystem D. All of these answers are correct! Why is a food web considered a good way of describing ecosystem relationships? A. Because they are simple to determine and draw B. Because they are highly quantitative C.Because they show how complex the interactions between competing food sources in an ecosystem can be D. Because they are fun to draw! E. All of these answers are correct!

Which one of the following is not a type of food pyramid? A. Numbers B. Biomass C.Energy D. Species Number pyramids can sometimes be inverted. Why cant energy pyramids do the same? A. They can? Really? I didnt know that! B. Because of the second law of thermodynamics C.Because of the first law of thermodynamics D. Because of both the first and second laws of thermodynamics E. BecauseI dont know, they just can manget over it! What is meant be the term troph? A. Food B. Nutrient C.Energy D. All of these answers are correct! E. None of these answers are correct!