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Wireless Network Planning Table of contents

Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Development of Network Planning Technology.......................................................1
1.1 GPRS Basic Principle.......................................................................................................1
1.1.1 GPRS Network Structure........................................................................................1
1.1.2 GPRS BSS and MS Function Introduction..............................................................2
1.1.3 GPRS Signaling Model...........................................................................................4
1.1.4 Wireless Packet Channel Configuration.................................................................4
1.1.5 Packet Access Mode..............................................................................................6
1.1.6 Paging Processing..................................................................................................7
1.1.7 Discontinuous Reception (DRX).............................................................................8
1.1.8 Wireless Resource Distribution...............................................................................8
1.1.9 Packet System Message........................................................................................9
1.1.10 Radio Link Control................................................................................................9
1.1.11 Channel Code and CS Change Control..............................................................10
1.1.12 Radio Link Monitoring.........................................................................................10
1.1.13 Radio Frequency Power Control.........................................................................11
1.1.14 Cell Reselection Control.....................................................................................11
1.1.15 Flow Control and QoS Guarantee.......................................................................12
1.1.16 Mobility Management and Communication Management...................................13
1.2 GPRS Network Planning.................................................................................................14
1.2.1 GPRS Capacity Planning......................................................................................14
1.2.2 GPRS Coverage Planning....................................................................................16
1.2.3 GPRS Frequency Planning...................................................................................19
1.2.4 Summary..............................................................................................................20
1.3 WCDMA System Overview.............................................................................................21
1.3.1 UMTS System Network Composition....................................................................21
1.3.2 System Interface...................................................................................................23
1.3.3 Basic Principle of Spread Spectrum Communication ...........................................24
1.3.4 Some of the Key Technologies in the WCDMA System.......................................27
1.3.5 The Receive Sensitivity of the WCDMA System...................................................32
1.4 WCDMA System Network Planning................................................................................34
1.4.1 The Content of the WCDMA Network Planning....................................................34
1.4.2 WCDMA Wireless Capacity Calculation...............................................................37
1.4.3 WCDMA Service Description and Calculation .....................................................45

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Chapter 1 Development of Network Planning


Technology
1.1 GPRS Basic Principle
1.1.1 GPRS Network Structure
GPRS network has introduced such concepts as packet switching and packet
transmission, which enhanced GSM network’s support for data services in terms of
network system. Figure 11-1 and Figure 11-2 are the composition graphs of the
GPRS network from different perspectives. GPRS, in fact, is another network
superimposed on the existing GSM network. The GPRS network adds to the original
GSM network such entities as Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN), Gateway GPRS
Support Node (GGSN), etc. GPRS shares the BSS system of the existing GSM
network, but both the software and hardware need the corresponding update.
Meanwhile, the interfaces of all the entities of the GPRS network and the GSM
network have to be defined correspondingly. Besides, the MS is required to support
the GPRS service. GPRS supports the interconnection with PSPDN via GGSN, and
the interface protocol may be X. 75 or X. 25. At the same time, GPRS also supports
direct interconnection with IP network.

Figure 11-1 GPRS Network Structure

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SMS-GMSC
SMS-IWMSC SM-SC

E C
Gd

MSC/VLR HLR
D
Gs
A Gc
Gr
Gb Gi
TE MT BSS SGSN GGSN PDN TE
Gn
R Um Gn Gf
Gp
EIR

SGSN GGSN
Signalling Interface
Other PLMN
Signalling and Data
Transfer Interface

图Figure
2.2、GPRS11-2
网络组成GPRS Network Composition

1.1.2 GPRS BSS and MS Function Introduction

I. BSC
BSC is the core control part of the GSM/GPRS base station subsystem. One BSC
can control several BTSs.
For circuit-switched services, the main responsibilities of BSC include:
 Various kinds of wireless resources management
 The mapping from the wireless service channel to terrestrial circuit;
 Circuit-switched call control;
 A interface support and Abis interface support.
For packet-switched services, the responsibilities of BSC include:
 Packet wireless channel configuration;
 Controlling the conversion of the wireless channel between packet-
switched services and circuit-switched services;
 Providing necessary packet calling control support for cells without
PBCCH.
Besides, the operation and maintenance commands on BTS via OMC must be
controlled or transferred by BSC, and the channel configuration for the PCU and the
Pb/G-Abis interface configuration are mainly conducted at BSC.
II. BTS
BTS is the wireless part of the BSS, and controlled by BSC, BTS is the wireless
transceiving equipment serving a specific or several cells.
The main responsibilities of BTS include:
 Realizing the wireless transmission and the related control function
between BTS and MS via the Um interface;
 Accomplishing the layer 1 and layer 2 functions of the Um interface,
and transparently transmitting layer 3 message;
 Helping BSC accomplish part of the layer 3 function of the Um

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interface.
III. PCU
PCU is the equipment introduced by BSS to support GPRS, and its main functions
include:
 Most of the packet wireless resource management functions;
 Packet calling control function;
 Packet data transmission;
 Supporting the Gb interface, the G-Abis interface, and the Pb interface
IV. GPRS MS
(1) Terminal Equipment
Terminal Equipment (TE) is the computer terminal equipment operated and
maintained by terminal subscribers. It is used to transceive the packet data of
terminal subscribers in the GPRS system.TE can be independent desktop computer.
The functions of TE can also be integrated into the hand-held mobile terminal
equipment, and become one entity with the mobile terminal (MT). To some extent, all
the functions provided by the GPRS network are to set up a packet data transport
passageway between TE and external data networks.
(2) Mobile Terminal
Mobile Terminal (MT) on the one hand communicates with TE; on the other hand, it
communicates with BTS via air interface, and the logic link to SGSN can be
established. The MT of GPRS must be configured with GPRS function software to
access GPRS system services. In the data communications process, from the
perspective of TE, the function of MT is equivalent to the Modem connecting TE to the
GPRS system. The functions of MT and TE can be integrated into one physical
device.
(3) Mobile Station
Mobile Station (MS) can be viewed as the integrated entity with all the functions of MT
and TE. It can be one physical entity or two (TE+MT).
MS has three types:
Type A: it allows simultaneous packet switching service and circuit switching service.
Type B: it can be attached to the GPRS network and the GSM network
simultaneously, but it does not allow the simultaneous circuit switching service and
packet switching service.
Type C: it cannot attach to the GPRS network and the GSM network simultaneously.
(4) MS Multiple time slot Capability Level
MS can be divided into 29 levels based on the multiple time slot capability, which has
been detailed in the following table. MSs at different levels have different packet
channels simultaneously available. A handset reports its multiple time slot capability
level in the packet resource request information. BSS should comprehensively
consider such aspects as the MS data traffic, required class of quality of services,
available wireless channel condition, etc. when assigning wireless resources for MS.
The multiple time slot capability of MS should try to be met with the observance of the
principle of making full use of the wireless resources. The multiple time slot capability
is usually represented as X (RX)+X (TX), that is the maximum time slot number
allowed for the downlink and the maximum time slot number allowed for the uplink.
For example, 3+1 GPRS handset refers to the one with three time slots maximally
allowed for the downlink reception and one time slot maximally allowed for the uplink
transmission.

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Multislot Multislot
Maximum number of slots Maximum number of slots
class class
Rx Tx Sum Rx Tx Sum
1 1 1 2 16 6 6 NA
2 2 1 3 17 7 7 NA
3 2 2 3 18 8 8 NA
4 3 1 4 19 6 2 NA
5 2 2 4 20 6 3 NA
6 3 2 4 21 6 4 NA
7 3 3 4 22 6 4 NA
8 4 1 5 23 6 6 NA
9 3 2 5 24 8 2 NA
10 4 2 5 25 8 3 NA
11 4 3 5 26 8 4 NA
12 4 4 5 27 8 4 NA
13 3 3 NA 28 8 6 NA
14 4 4 NA 29 8 8 NA
15 5 5 NA

1.1.3 GPRS Signaling Model

The signaling model of GPRS BSS is shown as in Figure 11-3. Its main responsibility
is to accomplish the protocol layer function such as RLC/MAC, BSSGP, and NS, as
well as the air interface radio frequency related functions.
GMM/SM GMM/SM
LLC LLC
Relay
RLC RLC BSSGP BSSGP

MAC MAC Network Network


Service Service
GSM RF GSM RF L1bis L1bis
Um Gb
MS BSS SGSN
GMM: GPRS Mobility Management LLC: Logical Link Control
RLC: Radio Link Control MAC: Medium Access Control
BSSGP: Base Station System GPRS Protocol
SM: Session Management
Figure 11-3 The Signaling Model of GPRS BSS

1.1.4 Wireless Packet Channel Configuration

I. Wireless Packet Logic Channel Types


The wireless packet logic channels include the following four types:
(1) Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH)
PDTCH is used to transmit subscriber data in the packet switching mode, and the
transmission rate ranges from zero to 22. 8kbps. All PDTCHs are unidirectional, either
uplink (that is PDTCH/U used for the data transmission form MS to the GPRS

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network) or downlink (that is PDTCH/D used for the data transmission from the GPRS
network to MS).
(2) Packet Broadcast Control Channel (PBCCH)
PBCCH is to broadcast the necessary parameters resulted from MS access to the
network because of packet services. Besides, it also broadcasts circuit switching
service parameters, which have already been broadcast by BCCH. MS in the GPRS
Attach mode only monitors PBCCH, and pays no attention to BCCH.
If there is PBCCH in a cell, BCCH will indicate it. That is to say, via system message,
SI13 tells MS that this cell has already been equipped with PBCCH. If there is no
PBCCH, BCCH will broadcast parameters that will be used in the packet services.
(3) Packet Common Control Channel (PCCCH)
PCCCH includes the following types of channels:
 Packet Paging Channel (PPCH): it is only used in downlink to page MS.
 Packet Random Access Channel (PRACH): it is only used in uplink to
request one or more PDTCHs.
 Packet Access Grant Channel (PAGCH): it is only used in downlink to
assign one or more PDTCHs.
 Packet Notification Channel (PNCH): it is only used in downlink to notify
MS of point-to-multipoint multi-path transmission (PTM-M) calling.
If there is no PCCCH in a cell, packet services information can be transmitted via
CCCH. If there is PCCCH, circuit switching services information can be transmitted
via PCCCH.
(4) Packet Dedicated Channel
Packet dedicated channels have the following types:
 Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH): bidirectional, used to
transmit packet signaling in the data transport process.
 Packet Timing advance Control Channel Uplink PTCCH/U: it is used to
transmit random access pulse so as to estimate the timing advance of
MS for packet services.
 Packet Timing advance Control Channel downlink (PTCCH/D): it is
used to renew transmission timing advance information for several
MSs. One PTCCH/D corresponds with several PTCCH/Us.
The PCU of Huawei Technologies Co, Ltd. can support all packet channel functions.
II. Packet Logic Channel Combination Types
The combination types include:
 PBCCH + PCCCH + PDTCH + PACCH + PTCCH
 PCCCH + PDTCH + PACCH + PTCCH
 PDTCH + PACCH + PTCCH
Where PCCCH = PPCH + PRACH + PAGCH + PNCH
When a cell is required to be equipped with PBCCH, the first type will be adopted,
and one cell can only have one channel combination of this kind. When there are
quite a few MSs in a cell and the PCCCH is relatively busy, one or several channel
combinations of the second type can be added. Only when there exists channel of the
first combination type can exist the channel of the second combination type in a cell.
Channels of the third combination type are mainly used for uplink and downlink
packet data transmission. Each cell can be equipped with one or several channels of
this combination type.
The GPRS PCU system of Huawei Technologies Co, Ltd. supports all of the channel

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combination types, where the third type can be divided into fixed PDCH and dynamic
PDCH. The fixed PDCH is specially used for GPRS packet data transport, and cannot
be forcefully occupied by circuit-switched services, while the dynamic PDCH can
dynamically switch from TCH and PDTCH according to service requirements. It is
TCH in the initial state of the system, and it will switch to PDCH when there is packet
service demand, while it will switch from PDCH to TCH when there is circuit service
demand.
III. The Mapping from Logic Channel to Physical Channel
GPRS packet channel adopts 52 multiframe structure, and each packet channel has
52 multiframes. Every four frames constitute a radio block. Therefore, each wireless
channel can be divided into 12 radio blocks and four idle frames. Its structure is
shown as in Figure 11-4.

B0 B1 B2 X B3 B4 B5 X B6 B7 B8 X B9 B10 B11 X

B0~B11£ º12 radio blocks X: idle frames

Figure 11-4 Wireless Channel Structure

where:
 PBCCH channel: it can be mapped to such radio blocks as B0, B3, B6,
and B9. The specific number is determined by the busy degree of its
broadcasting channel, and the mapping sequence is in conformity with
the above-mentioned order.
 PCCCH: PAGCH and PPCH can map to any radio block of the
downlink channels except the one occupied by PBCCH. PRACH is the
uplink frame corresponding with the radio block occupied by PBCCH,
PAGCH, PPCH, etc.
 PDTCH: it can map to all the radio blocks, and it is used for packet data
transmission.
 PACCH: it can map to all the radio blocks, and it is used to transmit the
wireless signaling of the air interface.
 PTCCH: the 12th and 38th uplink frame of each 52 multiframe is a
PTCCH uplink channel, and the 12th and 38th downlink frame of two
consecutive 52 multiframes constitute a PTCCH downlink channel.

1.1.5 Packet Access Mode


When data transport occurs in the upper layer of MS, the RLC/MAC of MS will initiate
the packet access. MS packet access mainly includes the following types: short
access, one-phase access, two-phase access, single block without establishing TBF
access, paging response, cell renewing, and mobility management.
 When the data to be transmitted are less than eight RLC blocks, the
channel request type of MS will be short access, where he number of
data packet will be determined by CS-1 coding.
 When the data to be transmitted are more than eight RLC blocks, and
the RLC mode is required to be the confirmed mode, the channel
request type of MS will be one-phase access or two-phase access.
 If what is to be transmitted is the MS measurement report, the channel
request type is single block without establishing TBF access.
 Besides, the channel request type also includes paging response, cell
renewing, and mobility management. However, this kind of channel
request type is often treated as one-phase or two-phase access.

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For short access and one-phase access, MS will be assigned wireless resources
once and for all such as TFI, dynamic assigned USF or fixed assigned radio block bit
table, etc. Then MS begins transmitting data. For two-phase access channel request,
for the first time only one radio block will be assigned to MS, and MS transmits packet
resource request information via the single assigned radio block. After that, MS will
undergo resource assignment (including TFI, USF, or radio block bit table) for the
second time, and MS begins transmitting data via the assigned resources. Because
the packet channel request is only the eight-bit or eleven-bit access pulse, the carried
information is very little, whereas the packet resource request is a RLC/MAC
signaling packet coded by CS-1. Therefore, it carries comparatively much more
information including TLLI of MS, the multiple time slot capability of MS, wireless
priority, etc. , which is of benefit to the proper resource assignment for MS.
The system of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. supports all the access types, where
such access types as paging response, cell renewing, and mobility management will
be treated as two-phase access treatment.

1.1.6 Paging Processing

In the GPRS/GSM system, paging includes packet paging and circuit paging, which
will be introduced in the following.
I. Packet Paging
When there is downlink data to be transmitted to MS, SGSN should initiate packet
paging to accurately locate MS. The paging request message initiated by SGSN will
be sent to PCU via Gb interface, and PCU will transform it into packet paging request
to be transmitted via Um interface. If there exists PCCCH in the BSS system
configuration, the request message transmits directly via PPCH. If there is no PCCCH
in the BSS system configuration, PCU will send this message to BSC via Pb
interface, and BSC will transmit it via PCH.
After MS receives the packet paging message, it will initiate uplink temporary block
flow (TBF) to establish a procedure, and then send to PCU the paging response
packet as data mode via air interface. PCU then transfers it to SGSN. After SGSN
receives the paging response, within a certain processing period, the downlink data
will be able to be transmitted.
II. Paging Co-ordination
In the GSM network, when a circuit call reaches the MSC which is expected to locate
a certain subscriber, MSC determines the location area the MS has registered in, and
sends the circuit paging message to all BSCs in this location area.
If there exists Gs interface between SGSN and MSC, the GPRS/GSM system will be
run in the Network Operation Mode One. The circuit paging of the GSM service can
be sent via GPRS packet channelThat is to say, if an MS is already GPRS attached,
its circuit paging will go through Gs interface and Gb interface, and reach SGSN via
MSC, and then reach PCU via SGSN. PCU determines which channel will be used for
the transmission.
In Network Operation Mode One, if the MS has been assigned PDCH, then PACCH
will be used for the transmission. If no PDCH has been assigned, and the system has
been configured with PCCCH, then PPCH will be used for the transmission. If no
PDCH has been assigned and the system has not been configured with PCCCH, then
PCU transfers the paging message to BSC via Pb interface, and BSC will transmit
this circuit paging via PCH.
If there is no Gs interface between SGSN and MSC, and the GPRS/GSM system can
only run in the Network Operation Mode Two and Three, the circuit paging message
will be transmit via CCCH.
MS connects to RACH on the reception of this circuit paging message, and initiates

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circuit connection establishing process. If the MS is currently engaged in the GPRS


service, it will initiate GPRS SUSPEND process to suspend the GPRS service. The
MS will not resume the GPRS service until the circuit is released.
The PCU of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. supports the above-mentioned packet
paging and circuit paging functions.

1.1.7 Discontinuous Reception (DRX)

In order to reduce the power consumption when the MS is idle, MS should adopt
DRX. The MS supporting DRX only receives the paging message (packet paging and
circuit paging) from its corresponding paging group in the paging channel, whereas
the MS not supporting DRX has to interpret all the paging messages in the paging
channel. Obviously, MS will greatly reduce its power consumption if it can support
DRX. The algorithm adopted by MS to determine the paging group is the same with
that of PCU or BSC.
During the MS ATTACH/GPRS ATTACH process, it should be informed whether the
GPRS/GSM network supports DRX and the other DRX parameters or not.

1.1.8 Wireless Resource Distribution

I. Medium Access Control Mode


There are three kinds of Medium Access Control (MAC) modes: fixed distribution,
dynamic distribution, and extended dynamic distribution.
 Fixed Distribution
The radio block used by the MS has been allocated by PCU before hand. If the radio
block has been used up and there are still data to be transmitted, PCU has to
distribute radio blocks for a second time.
 Dynamic Distribution
The radio block used by the MS has been allocated by PCU temporarily. When PCU
distributes radio resources to MS, it will assign MS several wireless channels and the
uplink state flag (USF) value for each wireless channel. After the MS receives the
assignment message, it will monitor the USF value of the downlink radio block of the
assigned channel. If this value is the same with the assigned USF value, then MS will
transmit data in the corresponding uplink radio block.
 Extended Dynamic Distribution
The resource distribution mechanism is the same with that of dynamic distribution.
The only difference lies in that the number of time slot used by the MS may exceed its
multiple time slot capability. After MS receives the USF value of one of the channels,
it can transmit data in this channel and the other channels with a bigger number.
The BSS system of Huawei Technologies, Co., Ltd has realized the dynamic
distribution function. It can choose MAC mode according to the subscriber
configuration within the cell or the TRX range.
II. MS Multiple Time Slot Capability
The multiple time slot capability of MS can be divided into 29 grades, which can be
referred to ETSI GSM 05. 02 Standard. MS with different grade may have different
number of packet channels that can be used concurrently. When PCU distributes
radio resources to MS, it should take into consideration the MS data transmission
quantity, the required quality grade of services, available wireless channels, etc. The
MS multiple time slot capability should try to be satisfied while observing the principle
of making full use of wireless resources.
The PCU system of Huawei Technologies at present supports MS with 1~12 grade

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multiple time slot capability, and can make the best resource distribution based on the
MS multiple time slot capability and the radio resources.

1.1.9 Packet System Message

The packet system message is mainly used to broadcast the parameters necessary
for MS to access network because of service demand in a cell. When the cell
supports the GPRS service, BCCH should add new SI13 message. Otherwise, SI13
message will not be broadcast if GPRS is not supported. The cell can be configured
with PBCCH, or not be configured. MS will be notified whether there is PBCCH in the
cell via SI13. PBCCH mainly broadcast the packet system message dedicated to the
GRPS service.
The packet system message includes the following types: PSI1, PSI2, PSI3, PSI3bis,
PSI4, PSI5, and PSI13.
 PSI1 mainly includes information like cell selection, PRACH control,,
control channel description, and power control parameters.
 PSI2 mainly includes reference frequency list, cell allocation table,
GPRS mobile allocation table, and PCCCH description.
 PSI3 mainly includes the BA table of the adjacent cells, serving
cell/nonserving cell selection parameters, etc. PSI3bis mainly includes
the BA table of the adjacent cells, nonserving cell selection parameters,
etc.
 PSI4 mainly includes the PDCH list used in the MS measurement in the
serving cell.
 PSI5 mainly includes measurement report, network control cell
reselection information, etc.
 PSI13 is the same as the SI13 which is broadcast via the BCCH, and it
mainly includes the access-related information which is unique of the
GPRS cell.
PSI1~PSI4 can be broadcast both via PBCCH and via PACCH. PSI5 can be
broadcast only via PBCCH. PSI13 can be broadcast only via PACCH. When there is
PBCCH in a cell, the PSI13 message then will not be broadcast via PACCH, which
will however cyclically broadcast PSI1. When there is no PBCCH in a cell, PACCH
can only cyclically broadcast PSI13 message.
The BSS system of Huawei Technologies, Co, Ltd. can perform the transmission of all
the system messages related to the GPRS service, and it can realize the control
retransmission, fast retransmission, low-speed retransmission of the system
messages. It can also control the system message transmission via PACCH based on
the PBCCH/PCCCH configuration of the cell.

1.1.10 Radio Link Control

Radio Link Control (RLC) layer is mainly responsible for the LLC-PDU packet
disassembling and assembling. It uses a kind of slide-window protocol and ensures
that data are transmitted between the corresponding layers by employing confirmed
or unconfirmed mode. The size of the GPRS RLC slide-window is 64.
When confirmed mode is adopted, each transmitted data block of Temporary Block
Flow (TBF) needs the confirmation from the receiver. Otherwise, it has to be
retransmitted. The TBF cannot be released until all the data have been transmitted
and the confirmation by the receiver has been received. When the unconfirmed mode
is adopted, the transmitted data block needs no confirmation from the receiver. The
lost data or the error data can be replaced by filling bits. TBF can be released once
the data transmission is finished.

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The PCU system of Huawei Technologies, Co. Ltd. supports both the confirmed and
unconfirmed modes. It can specify the uplink data transmission RLC mode according
to the MS request information, and determine the downlink data transmission RLC
mode according to the downlink LLC-PDU packet type.

1.1.11 Channel Code and CS Change Control

GPRS has four types of channel coding modes. The transmission rate and the
number of transmitted RLC/MAC packet bytes of each coding mode are as follows:
RLC/MAC Data Block Size
Channel Coding Mode Rate (kbps)
(octets)
CS-1 23 9. 05
CS-2 33 13. 4
CS-3 39 15. 6
CS-4 53 21. 4
Different channel code modes have different transmission rates and different
requirement for air transmission quality. The higher the transmission rate is, the
higher the requirement for transmission quality is. In the data transmission process,
BSS can dynamically adjust channel code mode according to the changes of wireless
transmission quality so as to realize the purpose of trying to improve transmission
rate on the principle of making full use of radio resources and guaranteeing the
transmission quality.
The PCU system of Huawei Technologies, Co., Ltd. at present supports four code
modes: CS-1~CS-4. It can dynamically change between these four modes according
to the wireless transmission quality.

1.1.12 Radio Link Monitoring

In order to enhance the transmission efficiency in the GPRS system, several kinds of
link monitoring methods have been applied to the Um interface. The PCU system of
Huawei Technologies, Co., Ltd. has realized the following kinds of link monitoring
functions as specified in the protocol:
I. Link Monitoring in the Uplink Dynamic Distribution Mode
When MAC is in the dynamic distribution mode, PCU assigns resources for each TBF
via USF. MS determines its uplink usage right by detecting its USF value on the
assigned channel. Once MS detects its assigned USF, it will transmit data block on
the corresponding uplink channel. If the wireless link quality is bad, and MS cannot
properly receive its USF value, it will not be able to transmit data block to the network
in the corresponding uplink block. According to the protocol requirement, PCU detects
the validity of the links by monitoring the size of N3101. N3101 is initialized to be zero
when the TBF is established. PCU each time assigns one block to one TBF. After that,
it will expect to receive the information of this TBF. If no corresponding data block has
been received, then N3101 will be added one. During this process, once the MS data
block is received, N3101 will return to zero. If the value of N3101 reaches its
maximum value N3101_max, PCU will activate timer T3169. When T3169 spills, TBF
will be released, and the corresponding resources can be used again.
II. Downlink Monitoring
For the downlink TBF, PCU assigns uplink signaling channel for MS by setting the
RRBP on the downlink data block. PCU monitors this signaling channel via N3105
counter so as to test the validity of TBF. N3105 is initialized to be zero when the TBF
is established. PCU each time sets RRBP on downlink data block of TBF. After that, it
will expect to receive the control information of this TBF on the corresponding uplink
block. If no corresponding data block is received, then N3105 will be added one. If
correct reception occurs, then N3105 will return to its original state. If the value of

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N3105 is larger than or the same as its maximum value N3105_max, PCU will
activate timer T3195. Once T3195 spills, TBF will be released, and the corresponding
resources can be used again.
III. Uplink Release Monitoring
PCU ensures the normal release of the uplink TBF via 3103 counter according to the
protocol. N3103 is initialized to be zero when the TBF is established. After PCU has
correctly received all the uplink TBF data, it will send Packet Uplink Ack/Nack (FAI=1
indicates the last confirmation) to MS, and set RRBP in hope that MS will confirm this
message. If PCU does not receive correct packet control Ack/Nack information in the
corresponding uplink block, then N3103 will be added one. If N3103 exceeds the
preset maximum value, PCU will activate T3169. When T3169 spills, TBF will be
released, and the corresponding resources can be used again.

1.1.13 Radio Frequency Power Control

I. Uplink Power Control


The PCU system of Huawei Technologies, Co, Ltd. provides uplink open loop power
control algorithm. The detailed formula can be referred to in the ETSI GSM 05. 08
protocal. The basic idea of the open loop power control is that supposing the uplink
and the downlink have the same path loss, MS therefore can adjust the output power
based on the received signal level. In the GPRS cell there will be SI13 message
broadcast, in which exists a parameter named ALPHA, which will be used by MS to
calculate the output power value of its uplink PDCH (PCH). That is to say, the power
value actually adjusted by MS results from the calculated adjustable power value
multiplied by the ALPHA coefficient. ALPHA ranges from 0. 0 to 1. 0. At present
values except 1. 0 are not used. They are reserved. When the value is 0. 0, it means
that the handset does not perform power control.
II. Downlink Power Control
At present, the PCU of most companies does not support downlink power control.
It should be explained that the above-mentioned condition refers to that in which
handsets perform packet data communications. When voice communication is
needed, it will return to the normal GSM control flow.

1.1.14 Cell Reselection Control

I. Cell Reselection Network Control Mode


There are three kinds of GPRS network control modes: NC0, NC1, and NC2. The
meaning of each network control mode is as follows:
 NC0: MS performs cell selection automatically, and does not send
measurement report.
 NC1: MS performs cell selection automatically, and sends
measurement report.
 NC2 network control: MS sends measurement report and accepts the
cell reselection of the network control.
The BSS system of Huawei Technologies, Co., Ltd can determine network control
mode according to the subscriber data configuration. At present, NC0 mode is
supported.
II. Cell Automatic Reselection
MS monitors the PBCCH/BCCH carrier of the adjacent cell at any time, and
determines the best cell to attach based on the information such as the carrier signal

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intensity, the base station color code in the carrier, etc. Meanwhile, it informs the
system of its own route area by initiating the route area update flow.
III. Cell Change Control
MS regularly submits measuring report to BSS according to the cell system message
broadcasting parameters. BSS takes full consideration of the MS measurement
report, the load of each adjacent cell, etc. and sends cell change command to MS,
requiring the MS to attach to a specific cell.

1.1.15 Flow Control and QoS Guarantee

I. Flow Control
Due to the different physical medium and transmission protocol between Gb interface
and Um interface, the transmission rate of these two kinds of interfaces is different.
The transmission rate of Gb interface is higher than that of Um interface. Besides, in
the downlink data transmission, data transmission via Um interface is limited by such
factors as MS multiple time slot capability, wireless quality, available wireless
channels in the cell, etc. Therefore, the transmission rate is not constant, and the
downlink data needs flow control.
In the normal work of a cell, the PCU system should activate flow control program,
and regularly reports the bucket size and bucket flow speed of this cell according to
the wireless packet channel condition. Meanwhile, it also reports the bucket size and
the bucket flow speed of MS based on the MS occupied wireless resource condition
(the bucket of a cell refers to the maximum packet data quantity saved that this cell
allows. It changes as the number of packet channels in the cell changes. The bucket
of MS refers to the maximum packet data quantity this MS allows. It changes as the
number of assigned MS channels changes. The bucket flow speed refers to the data
transmission rate). SGSN appropriately adjusts the downlink data flow speed of the
cell and each of the MS according to the reported parameters so as to realize the flow
control on the downlink data.
The PCU system of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. can realize the downlink data flow
control, and is able to regularly report the bucket size and bucket flow speed of the
active cell and the active MS to the SGSN. It is also able to adjust the parameters to
be reported according to the cell packet resources and the variation of the MS
occupied resources.
II. QoS Guarantee
The quality of service (OoS) of GPRS mainly includes the following indexes: priority,
delay grade, reliability grade, peak load grade, and average load grade. Each index
can be divided further into several grades. Because these indexes are the point-to-
point requirements for the entire packet data transmission, and it involves many
factors like the air interface radio resources, Gb interface frame relay link resources,
GPRS backbone network transmission bandwidth, and various kinds of GPRS
equipment processing capabilities, the QoS requirement is met all according to the
Best Effort grade at present. That is to say, data will be transmitted as soon as
possible according to the principle of making the best use of resources.
Because services with different QoS occupy different system resources, and the
subscriber service quality is also different, carriers can differentiate subscribers
according to the different QoS grades and adopts flexible charge policies, which is
beneficiary for the spread of the GPRS service.
The PCU of Huawei Technologies, Co., Ltd can assign MS radio resources based on
the radio priority required by the data transmission, peak load grade, and average
load grade. The MS with higher radio priority and higher load grade will be granted
priority in the radio resources distribution. The QoS requirement will be met according
to the Best Effort grade.

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1.1.16 Mobility Management and Communication Management

I. Mobility Management
The mobility management is used in PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) to support
the function of tracing the current location of MS. The mobility management function
of the GPRS network is similar to that of the current GSM system. One or several
cells form a route area (a subset of a location area), and one SGSN provides services
for one or several route areas. The MS location tracing is determined by the MS
mobility management status.
GPRS mobility management mainly includes GPRS Attach/Detach, cell/route area
update, joint route area/location area update, paging, etc. After an MS accomplishes
GPRS Attach, SGSN will establish mobility context for the MS and store the current
location and status information of the subscriber. When the MS roams between
different cells and route areas in the future, it will activate cell/route area update flow,
and SGSN will also store the latest information of this MS so as to realize the location
tracing for the MS. When MS performs such flows as joint GPRS Attach/IMSI Attach,
joint cell/route area update, SGSN will communicate with MSC about MS location
information via Gs interface. In this way only once mobility management flow can
realize the MS location tracing by the packet switching service and circuit switching
service. The detailed flow can refer to ETSI GSM 03. 60 protocol.
Because the layer-by-layer encapsulation feature of packet data, in the mobility
management all the flow signaling except the paging flow is transmitted as data in
BSS. That is to say, BSS is only related to the paging function of the mobility
management. After BSS gets the paging packet from SGSN, it selects the necessary
information and sends the paging information via the air interface.
II. Communication Management
GPRS communication management mainly includes conversation management,
billing management, etc. However, because the upper layer signaling is transmitted
as packet data, BSS almost does not participate in the conversation management
process except transmitting signaling data. In addition, the billing information
collection is mainly performed in SGSN and GGSN. BSS does not participate in the
billing management.

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1.2 GPRS Network Planning


1.2.1 GPRS Capacity Planning
The voice traffic calculation already has mature mode, that is the Erlang table. Traffic
(A), channel number (N) and call loss rate (B) have the following relation. If any two
out of the three parameters are known, the third one can be worked out by the
following formula.
AN
N!
B(N) = A n
 n!
The packet data traffic can not directly employ the Erlang B table, which is due to the
unique features of the packet data. The packet traffic of the fixed network has a
calculation solution, which is very difficult to be used in the mobile environment.
GPRS data traffic model has something to do with application occasions such as
Email, web browsing, online games, etc. Different types of application have different
data quantity, which is determined by the byte number, packet number, delay class,
and service type.

I. The Calculation of Subscriber Average Access Rate


In the real application planning, the busy hour average traffic for each subscriber
should be estimated. Before the estimation, we should first estimate the average
subscriber access rate, which is determined by the CS1-CS2 ratio (the GPRS
channel coding at the initial stage generally employs CS1-CS2), subscriber’s multiple
time slot capability, BLER, header, and the average load factor. Before the calculation
of subscriber average access rate, we should make a series of hypothesises:
 There is no SNDCP compression or decompression, nor segmentation
or recombination (such an IP packet is transmitted as a single LLC
PDU at the LLC layer)
 The LLC frame format is: LLC header (9-byte)+SDNCP header (4 byte)
+ IP data +FCS (3 byte). Each packet occupies one RLC length of
indication byte.
 LLC employs unconfirmed transmission mode; while RLC employs
confirmed mode and considers 10% retransmission rate.
 The average IP packet length is 150 bytes.
 The IP data stream should be continuous at least within the range of
ten IP packets.
 In the RLC confirmed transmission mode, each comparatively long time
interval of IP packets means a TBF connecting and releasing process.
Normaly during each TBF connecting and releasing process, the
consumption of RLC/MAC control block occupies 20% of that of the
total radio block. And also includes the processing time for connecting
and releasing TBF.
Besides, we already know
 Every 20ms one radio block will be transmitted;
 The RLC/MAC header usually occupies three bits. In this condition,
except the tail bit, in such coding methods as CS1, CS2, CS3, and
CS4, the number of the LLC PDU bits transmitted by each RLC data

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packet is 20 bytes, 30 bytes, 36 bytes, and 50 bytes respectively.


 The protocol header of the FR, NS, BSSGP, LLC, and SNDCP of the
Gb interface is 53 bytes.
The following formula can be used to estimate the average data rate of the IP layer in
various kinds of CS coding methods.
M =「A1 / B」
T = (M + 『M×0. 2』+『M×0. 1』) ×20
VIP = A2 / T
VGb=VIP×(150+53) / 150=1. 327 VIP
Where:
 M is the minimum RLC data block number necessary to transmit n LLC
PDUs
 A1 is the total number of all the bytes in n LLC PDUs
 A2 is the total number of all the bytes of n IP packets
 B is the total number of all the LLC PDU bytes supported by each RLC
data block
 T is the time necessary to transmit n LLC PDUs, that is n IP packets
 VIP is the estimated IP layer carrying rate of each PDCH
 VGb is the estimated carrying rate at the Gb interface layer of each
PDCH
「X」represents the upper round-off for X, while『X』represents the lower round-off for
X.
The result of the calculation is as follows:

CS-2 CS-3
CS-1 CS-4
(Kbp (Kbp
(Kbps) (Kbps)
s) s)

U interface physical layer


9.05 13.4 15.6 21.4
speed
IP carrier speed 5.42 8.14 9.77 13.63
Carrier speed needed at the
16 16 32 32
Abis interface physical layer
Carrier speed needed at Gb 10.7 12.9
7.19 18.09
interface physical layer 9 6
Suppose the proportion of the CS1 and CS2 in the designed network is 1:9. The
average IP layer rate per time slot in the network is:
5. 42*10%+8. 14*90%=7. 868Kbps.
Suppose the future mainstream MS type is 3+1, and the subscriber multiple time slot
capability is employed by 60%. The average access rate for each subscriber will be 7.
868*3*60%=14. 162Kbps.

II. The Calculation of Subscriber Average Traffic


At present, the estimation for the subscriber average data rate generally adopts the
following method:
The fixed IP Model (from ChinaNet) will be referred to, and with the consideration of
the mobile data characteristics, the average bandwidth for each subscriber in the
GPRS field can be worked out:

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 S = r1×r2×(A×n×T×r3×R / 3600)
 V = S/A = r1×r2×n×T×r3×R / 3600
where:
 S stands for the local network traffic
 V is the network busy hour subscriber average traffic
 A stands for local subscriber number
 n stands for the average network access times of a subscriber in a
month
 T stands for the average communication duration each time
 r1 stands for the busy day concentration coefficient, which refers to the
percentage of the traffic in the busiest day agaist the traffic in a whole
month. It has nothing to do with the service type, and usually is set to
be 1/20 or so.
 r2 stands for the busy hour concentration coefficient, which refers to the
percentage of the traffic in the busiest hour agaist the traffic in a whole
day. It has much to do with the service type.
 r3 stands for idle-seizure ratio, which refers to the ratio between the
data downloading period and the whole online period. It is set to be 1/4.
 R stands for the subscriber access rate
According to the above method, China Mobile has conducted an estimation on the
average traffic for each GPRS subscriber during 2001-2002, and the result is 180bps.
After the average traffic for each subscriber has been estimated, it will not be hard for
us to plan the capacity of the whole network.

1.2.2 GPRS Coverage Planning

The coverage area of the GPRS is determined by the channel coding scheme. In a
certain coverage area, E/N is a restriction factor. For interference restriction areas, C/I
is the major restriction factor.
In the GPRS system, various GPRS voice channel correction coding schemes should
be in conformity with standard requirement.
BLER(Block Error Rate)=10%
In the condition that BLER=10%, the required C/I value has been worked out by
simulating the four GPRS channel coding schemes (CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4) in some
reference. The simulation condition aims at the RLC/MAC layer. The result is shown
in Table 11-1:
Table 11-1 GPRS Channel Coding Scheme~C/I
Channel Coding C/I (dB, with FH) C/I (dB, without FH)
CS-1 7. 1 10. 8
CS-2 11. 5 12. 8
CS-3 13. 6 13. 7
CS-4 20. 8 17. 2
The coverage area estimation still adopts Okumura-Hata Model (for the distance
longer than one kilometer) and Walfish-Ikegami Model (for small base stations).
Suppose the interference in the serving area is constant and there is no frequency
hopping, it stands for the serving area in different channel coding condition.
Compared with voice and circuit-switched data subscribers, it theoretically refers to
the serving area when the C/I is 9dB.
Table 11-2 The Percentage of the Serving Area with the GPRS Channel Coding
Compared with Voice Subscriber Serving Area (%)

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Channel
Okumura-Hata Walfish-Ikegami
Coding
CS-1 79 80
CS-2 61 63
CS-3 54 57
CS-4 34 37
The channel coding scheme of data subscribers based on circuit-switching
corresponds to 4. 8kbps and 9. 6kbps. We can compare them with the 14. 4kbps
GPRS data subscribers serving areas. For the voice serving area, the GPRS 14.
4kbps data subscriber serving area reduces to 85%; for the 9. 6kbps circuit-switched
data subscribers, GPRS data subscriber serving area reduces to 92%. Figure 11-5
illustrates the coverage of various GPRS channel coding.

cs-1
cs-2
cs-3
cs-4

Figure 11-5 GPRS Various Channel Coding Schemes Coverage Graph

The real GPRS network coverage planning, which is based on the voice coverage
serving area, should determine the GPRS coverage area according to the
corresponding scale, and also determine whether the GPRS network is capable of
continuous coverage or not.
At present, in the GPRS performance estimation, the related performance curve can
be worked out by simulation tools. Figure 11-6 illustrates the relationship between C/I
and distance. The result shows that in the normal GSM busy hour traffic condition,
when the cell peripheral C/I=9dB, 90% coverage can be realized. Once the GPRS
load functions, C/I will decrease with the increase of the GPRS load. When the GPRS
load is 100%, the GPRS coverage area will reduce to the 88% of the original.

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Figure 11-6 The relationship between C/I and distance (GPRS load 0--
100%)

Figure 11-7 illustrates the relationship between C/I distribution probability and GPRS
load. The curve also shows that C/I decreases with the increase of the GPRS load.
On the other hand, when the C/I is 9dB, the coverage rate falls from 90% to 86%.

Figure 11-7 The relationship between C/I distribution and GPRS load (0~
100%)

Figure 11-8 illustrates the relationship between C/I and multiplexing factor, where k
ranges from seven to nineteen. k=7 is not the best condition for the GPRS. The
bigger the multiplexing factor is, the more powerful it will be to support comparatively
heavy GPRS load.

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Figure 11-8 The relationship between noncoverage rate and K (GPRS load
from 0-100%)

1.2.3 GPRS Frequency Planning


The GPRS network frequency planning should consider the network data rate.
Different channel coding schemes should be adopted for different data rates. Just as
what has been mentioned above, different channel coding requires different C/I. The
frequency multiplexing mode is determined by the requirement for C/I.
The classical analysis method can still be used in the study of frequency multiplexing
modes. Suppose the serving cell is represented by the symmetric regular hexagon
and the co-channel interference cell is calculated with the six cells at the first layer.
The following formula can be worked out:
C Q
I = 6 (1)
D
.Q= R = 3 N (2)
Where C stands for carrier;
I stands for co-channel interference;
g stands for path wireless transmission factor, whose value is often set to be 2~5;
D stands for multiplexing distance;
R stands for the cell radius;
N stands for the number of the cells in a multiplexing family.
The first formula has considered Rayleigh attenuation environment rather than the
effect of the log-normal attenuation. Corrections with a certain dB will be made to get
the number of frequency multiplexing families required by different channel coding in
the GPRS network.

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Table 11-3 GPRS Frequency Multiplexing Family


Channel
Coding C/I Threshold (dB) N
Scheme
Voice 9 7~9
CS-1 10. 8 9
CS-2 12. 8 12
CS-3 13. 7 13
CS-4 17. 2 >19

The frequency close multiplexing technology of the current GSM network, which
targets the improvement of the frequency efficiency and has a low requirement for
error code for the voice service, can be used in the GPRS network. But the data
communication has a high requirement for error code, and the dense multiplexing
technology cannot meet the data transmission requirement. Generally, the data
service and the voice service will exist together. The channels required by the GPRS
data services and voice services are dynamically distributed. Therefore, all the
channels which are used by the GPRS services should be guaranteed to satisfy the
C/I requirement in the design.
The fixed GPRS channels should choose the frequencies whose multiplexing
distance can meet the C/I requirement.
The GPRS channels which are not fixed should start choosing the frequencies from
those that have longer multiplexing distance. Compared with voice channels, they
have an option mechanism.

1.2.4 Summary

The GPRS network planning should try to guarantee the QoS of the existing voice
services, and try to reduce the unfavorable effect on the voice services caused by the
GPRS services. At the initial stage, in order to simplify the network planning work, a
location area can include only one routing area. After the GPRS service has been
developed, a location area should be divided into several routing areas according to
the geographic distribution condition and GPRS service distribution condition.
Frequency hopping has no obvious advantage for the GPRS service. It can improve
the CS-1 performance, has no obvious influence for CS-2/3, and lower the CS-4
performance. At the initial stage of the GPRS introduction, in order to avoid network
planning complexity, the original frequency hopping parameters should not be
changed. In order to make full use of the GPRS coding technology advantage and to
reduce the effect on the voice services, independent frequency planning should be
taken for the GPRS network.
It is recommended that at the beginning only the uplink power control be adopted,
and the downlink power control be gradually introduced.
Frequent change of the channel coding method should be avoided. Otherwise, the
concussion effect will be present.
GPRS is a new planning subject. The unsolved problems require further study in the
future.

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1.3 WCDMA System Overview


Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS) is the third generation mobile
communication system adopting the WCDMA air interface. The UMTS system is also
called WCDMA communication system. The UMTS system uses the same structure
as that of the second generation mobile communication system. It includes some
logic network units. Different network units can be divided into groups according to
functions, or subnetworks they respectively belong to.
From the functional view, network units can be divided into radio access network
(RAN) and core network (CN). RAN deals with the functions related to radio access,
while CN deals with all the voice calls, data connection, the switching and routing with
the external networks within the UMTS system. The two units and user equipment
(UE) jointly form the whole UMTS system. Its system structure is shown as in Figure
11-9:
UE RAN 3G CN EXTERNAL

3G CS
MSC£ V̄LR£ ¬
GMSC£ ¬
gsmSSF PSTN

SERVI CE
UTRAN APPLI CATI ON
HLR, SCP

3G PS Internet
SGSN,GGSN

Figure 11-9 The System Structure of the UMTS System

From the perspective of the GPP R99 standard, UE and UMTS Terrestrial Radio
Access Network (UTRAN) have completely new protocol composition, whose design
is based on the WCDMA radio technology. CN adopts the GSM/GPRS definition,
which can realize the smooth transition of the network. Besides, at the beginning
phase of the 3G network construction, the global roaming can be realized.

1.3.1 UMTS System Network Composition

Uu lu

Node B
MSC/ PLMN PSTN
RNC GMSC
VLR ISDN,etc
USIM Node B
Cu lub lur HLR

ME Node B
RNC SGSN GGSN INTERNET
Node B
UE UTRAN CN External Networks

Figure 11-10 UMTS Network Unit Composition

Figure 11-10 illustrates that the UMTS network unit includes the following part:

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I. User Equipment (UE)


UE is the subscriber terminal equipment. It mainly includes radio frequency
processing unit, baseband processing unit, protocol stack module, and application
layer software module. UE transceives data to and from network equipment via Uu
interface so as to provide subscribers with circuit-switched or packet-switched
services including POTS, broadband voice, mobile multimedia, and Internet
applications such as Email, WWW browsing, FTP, etc.
UE includes two parts:
 The Mobile Equipment (ME) provides application and services.
 The UMTS Subscriber Module (USIM) is responsible for the
identification of the subscriber identity
II. The UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN)
UTRAN can be divided into base station (Node B) and radio network controller
(RNC).
 Node B
Node B is the base station of the WCDMA system (radio transceiver), which includes
radio transceiver and baseband processing parts. It can interconnect with RNC via
the standard Iub interface to accomplish the. Uu interface physical layer protocol
processing. Its major functions include: spectrum spread, modulation, channel coding,
and dispread, demodulation, channel decoding, and the mutual conversion between
baseband signals and radio frequency signals.
Node B is composed of the following logic function modules: RF transceiving
amplification, radio frequency transceiving system (TRX), baseband part (BB),
transmission interface unit, and base station control part.
 Radio Network Controller (RNC)
RNC is radio network controller, mainly responsible for the connection establishment
and disconnection, handoverhandover, macro diversity combination, radio resources
management, etc. The detailed functions are as follows:
(1) The function of system message broadcast and system access control.
(2) The mobility management function of handoverhandover and RNC transfer.
(3) The radio resources management and control function of macro diversity
combination, power control, and radio load distribution.
III. CN(Core Network)
CN is responsible for the connection to other networks and the communication and
management of UE. The major function modules are as follows:
(1) VMSC/VLR
VMSC/VLR is the WCDMA core network CS domain function node. It connects to
UTRAN via Iu CS interface, connects to external networks such as PSTN, ISDN, and
other PLMN via PSTN/ISDN interface, connects to HLR/AUC via C/D interface,
connects to VMSC/VLR or SMC via E interface, connects to SCP via CAP interface,
and connects to SGSN via Gs interface. The major function of VMSC/VLR is to
provide CS domain call connection, mobility management, authentication, and
encryption.
(2) GMSC
GMSC is the gateway node between WCDMA mobile network CS domain and
external networks. It is a selectable function node. It connects to external networks
such as PSTN, ISDN and other PLMN via PSTN/ISDN interface, connects to HLR via
C interface, and connects to SCP via CAP interface. Its major function is to
accomplish the incoming and outgoing calling routing function of the VMSC functions.

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(3) SGSN
SGSN is the WCDMA core network PS domain function node. It connects to UTRAN
via Iu_PS interface, connects to GGSN via Gn/Gp interface, connects to HLR/AUC
via Gr interface, connects to VMSC/VLR via Gs interface, connects to SCP via CAP
interface, connects to SMC via Gd interface, connects to CG via Ga interface, and
connects to SGSN via Gn/Gp interface. The major functions of SGSN is to provide PS
domain functions such as routing transfer, mobility management, conversation
management, authentication and encryption.
(4) GGSN
GGSN is the gateway GPRS support node. It connects to SGSN via Gn interface and
connects to external networks (Internet /Intranet) via Gi interface. GGSN provides
data packet routing and encapsulation between WCDMA mobile network and external
data networks. The major function of GGSN is the interface function for the external
IP packet networks. GGSN should provide the gateway function for UE to access
external packet networks. From the perspective of external networks, GGSM
functions as all the subscribers’ IP router of the addressable WCDMA mobile network.
It needs to exchange routing information with external networks.
(5) HLR
HLR is the home location register of the WCDMA mobile network. It connects to
VMSC/VLR or GMSC via C interface, connects to SGSN via Gr interface, and
connects to GGSN via Gc interface. The major function of HLR is to provide functions
like subscriber signature information storage, new service support, and enhanced
authentication.
IV. OMC
OMC function entities include equipment management system and network
management system.
The equipment management system performs the independent network element
maintenance and management, which include performance management,
configuration management, fault management, billing management, and security
management.
The network management system can realize the unified maintenance and
management for all the network elements in the network. The detailed functions also
include performance management, configuration management, fault management,
billing management, and security management.
V. The external networks
The external networks can be divided into two kinds:
 Circuit-switched networks (CS networks) support circuit-switched
connection service such as POTS service. ISDN and PSTN belong to
CS networks.
 Packet-switched networks (PS networks) support data packet
connection service. Internet belongs to PS networks.

1.3.2 System Interface

Figure 2-2 shows that the WCDMA system has the following interfaces:
I. Cu Interface
Cu interface is the electric interface between USIM card and ME. Cu interface adopts
standard interface.

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II. Uu Interface
Uu interface is the wireless interface of WCDMA. UE connects to the fixed network
part of the UMTS system via Uu interface. It can be said that Uu interface is the most
important open interface in the UMTS system.
III. Iu Interface
Iu interface between UTRAN and CN. It is similar to the A interface and Gb interface
of the GSM system. Iu interface is an open standard interface. This enables the
UTRAN and CN connected by Iu interface to be provided by different equipment
manufacturers.
IV. Iur Interface
Iur interface is between RNCs. Iur interface is a unique interface of the UMTS system.
It is used for the mobility management of MS in the RAN. For example, in the soft
handoverhandover between different RNCs, all the data of MS are transmitted from
the working RNC to the candidate RNC via Iur interface. Iur is an open standard
interface.
V. Iub Interface
Iub interface connects Node B and RNC. Iub interface is also an open standard
interface. This also enables the RNC and Node B connected by Iub interface to be
provided by different equipment manufacturers.

1.3.3 Basic Principle of Spread Spectrum Communication

Because the mobile subscribers are expected to be randomly moving all the time, the
multiple access technology which can be used to differentiate and identify dynamic
subscribers’ address must be introduced in establishing the connection between
them. It is the same with the signal multiplexing technology in the fixed
communications. In fact, both of these technologies belong to the signal quadrature
partitioning and designing technology. The difference lies in that the signal
multiplexing aims at differentiating multipath, while multiple access technology aims at
differentiating multiple dynamic addresses. The multiplexing technology realizes in
base band or intermediate frequency part, whereas the multiple access technology
realizes in radio frequency. It makes use of the electronic wave radiated by the radio
frequency to identify dynamic mobile addresses. The familiar multiple access modes
include FDMA and TDMA. When signals are differentiated by quadrature codes, it is
CDMA. CDMA has two major types: DS-CDMA and time slot coding/frequency
hopping. The vivid explanation of DS_CDMA is that the spectrum is spread by
multiplying the positive negative binary base band data wave by the pseudo-random
positive negative binary wave with code snippet rate much higher than the signal rate.
As far as energy is concerned, wave spectrum intensity is reduced to a very low level,
which is similar to the noise. In the DS-CDMA, all subscribers occupy the same
frequency band and the same time slot. The addresses are identified not by the
quadrature parameters or the time slot, but by the self-correlation function of different
address signal code groups.
The DS-CDMA has become the most important multiple access mode in 3G. The DS-
CDMA communication is frequency spread communication. To be more accurate, it
should be called spectrum spread communication, because it is the signal spectrum
bandwidth that has been spread. It is a kind of broadband communication system. Its
major feature is the signal code bandwidth before the spread is far less than the
spread code series (chip) bandwidth.
I. Narrowband and Broadband Communication System
(1) Definition: suppose R stands for the rate of the signal code element to be

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transmitted; T stands for the duration of signal code element; F stands for the
bandwidth occupied for the transmission of signal spread code series.
If R*T=F*T 1, that is when F=R or F=2R, it is called ordinary narrowband
communication system. In digital communication system, frequency shift and phase
shift all belong to the narrowband communication system.
6
When F R, that is when F/R=10-10 (10-60dB), then the system is broadband
communication system.
(2) The broadband communication system is realized by the narrowband
communication system via spectrum spread. The CDMA communication system is a
typical broadband communication system.
II. The Basic Principle of Spread Spectrum Communication System
Following the principle of communication and the famous Shannon formula of the
information theory, C=F*T*lg(1+) as is shown in Figure 11-11:
In the formula, F stands for the frequency-limit bandwidth;
T stands for time-limit time slot, which is usually set to be 1 in the communication
principle;
S
N stands for the power signal/noise ratio;
C stands for channel capacity.
This formula shows a time-limit (T), frequency-limit (F), power-limit (S) continuous
white Gaus channel, whose capacity can be vividly represented by the volume, which
is determined by three most important parameters.

Figure 11-11 Channel Capacity C

S
These three parameters F, T, and lg(1+ N ) forms the volume C. when the volume is
invariant, the three variables can be mutually changed. The revelation of this
dialectical relationship facilitates multiple new communication mechanism
establishment. The spread spectrum communication is a typical example.
S
(3) In the mobile communications, N is the most important contradiction. The
improvement of S/N can be at any cost. Shannon formula indicates that S/N can be
improved by sacrificing frequency band F. When C is invariant, the increase of F can
reduce the receiving S/N threshold value of the receiver lg(1+). This is the basic
principle of spread spectrum communication: bartering F for S/N.

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III. The Major Technical indexes of DS-CDMA


Compared with the traditional communication system, the spread spectrum system
adds spread spectrum modulation at the transmitting end and dispread at the
receiving end. The major technical indexes of the DS_CDMA system include
processing gain G and interference tolerance M.
(1) Processing Gain G
 It refers to the S/N improvement degree after the dispread by the
spread system.
 Additionally, there are two kinds of equivalent definitions: code element
spread multiple at the transmitting end or signal bandwidth spread
multiple.
 It can be represented in the following formula:
(S/N) OUT R PN NR F PN NB
N= (S/N) IN = R = R = B = B

where, R PN ,R stand for pseudo code rate and information code rate respectively;
F PN, B
stand for pseudo code bandwidth and information code bandwidth.
G (dB)=10 lg(N)(dB). The processing gain will be represented by decibel.
(2) Interference Tolerance M
 It refer to the decibel value of the interference higher than the signal the
input end of the receiver can tolerate in the normal working condition:
M = G − [L S + 10 lg (S/N) OUT ]。L S stands for the actual transmission
path loss (dB);
 M explicitly shows the maximum interference receiving value (in
decibel) allowed by the receiver of the spread spectrum system.
 For example,
In the WCDMA system, the 12. 2kbps voice service requires the typical value of
Eb/No to be 5. 0dB or so for the base band demodulation. In the condition that the
code snippet rate is 3. 84Mcps, the processing gain G is 10lg(3. 84M/12. 2k)= 25dB.
Therefore, M=5dB-5dB=20dB, that is, C/I>-20dB, which is far smaller than the GSM
required C/I >9dB. The reason that the capacity of CDMA is larger than the previous
cell system mainly is the lower requirement for C/I and shorter frequency multiplexing
distance, which is 1*1 multiplexing.
IV. The Major Advantages and Disadvantages of Spread Spectrum
Communication
Advantages:
(1) Strong anti-interference capability, and the larger the G is, the stronger the anti-
interference capability is.
(2) For digital communication system, the physical interpretation of the anti-
interference capability of the spread system:
P E  f(E/N 0 ) = f( NE/T
0 F
 FT) = f(S/N  FT)
It illustrates that P E is in direct proportion with the power S/N and signal base FT.
When P E is invariant, S/N is in inverse proportion with FT. Therefore, when FT=10-10
, and P E is invariant, communication can continue in very low S/N. That is to say,
6

very strong interference is allowed.


(3) It has good security. No matter it is direct spread or frequency hopping, after
spread, it will be similar to white noise. Therefore, it has a good security performance.
Digitalized subscribers can have further encryption.

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(4) Low power spectrum density. Because the spread belongs to the broadband
system, the wider the frequency spectrum is, the lower the power spectrum intensity
will be. Therefore, it has good concealment performance. At the same time, it has little
interference for other communication systems and human bodies.
(5) It is easy to realize large capacity multiple access communication. Time and
frequency two-dimension address division increases the number of potential
addresses. Strong anti-interference capability and low power intensity means more
subscribers allowed for interference-limit systems.
(6) It is easy to realize accurate timing and distance measurement. It is suitable for
the parametric variation channel wireless communication. The spread system is more
likely to realize diversity reception in various forms and improve the anti-interference
capability.
Disadvantages:
(1) It will occupy signal frequency bandwidth. The code series (chip) bandwidth after
spread is far wider than the information code series bandwidth before the spread.
(2) The system realization is complicated.
(3) It is difficult to realize synchronization on time variation channels.
(4) At present, it is difficult to realize large capacity communication due to the
limitation of detecting the number of address codes.

1.3.4 Some of the Key Technologies in the WCDMA System

I. WCDMA Channel Coding Scheme


The WCDMA channel coding scheme includes the following parts: correcting
coding/decoding (including speed adaptation), interleaving/deinterleaving,
transmission channel mapping to/separating from physical channel. Besides, some
service combinations may require certain degree of service multiplexing, which will
also be embodied in the design of the channel coder and decoder.
Figure 11-12 illustrates that channel coding scheme is not merely a matter about
correction selection, codec algorithm, and interleaving algorithm. It is also involved in
the communication with the high layer messages, in the acquisition of service quality
instruction from the high layer, and in the acquisition of service multiplexing mode so
as to realize different coding and multiplexing schemes for different services and
provide various kinds of service combinations in the highest efficiency. In order to get
adapted to the transmission in various rates, the channel coding scheme includes the
rate adaptation function. The WCDMA proposes a rate adaptation algorithm aiming at
adapting various service rates to a standard rate.

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Speed m atching
Si CRC Channel coding and inner-fram e DPDCH1
crossing
Inter reuse fram e
crossing
and DPDCH2
physical channel
mapping
Speed m atching
Sj CRC Channel coding and inner-fram e DP DCHL
crossing

Pilot labels

TPC labels MUX DPCCH

Other bit control labels

Figure 11-12 WCDMA Channel Coding and Service Multiplexing

Of course, what determines the channel coding performance is still its error control
scheme. In the WCDMA proposal, there are three kinds of forward error correction
codes: convolution code, Turbo code, and service specific code. The convolution
code follows the second generation technology. The restriction length is 9, and the
common code rate is 1/3 and 1/2. The decoding is the Viterbi algorithm based on the
maximum likelihood. Turbo code is a new technology able to provide higher service
quality.
Turbo code is a new cascading recursion system convolution code. It is made of two
recursive system convolution (RSC) coders with the same structure, by the cascading
of internal interleaver. The major advantage of Turbo code is that among the AWGN
channels, its error correction capability can be close to Shannon limit.
The above analysis shows that the convolution coding and decoding technology
similar to the second generation mobile communication system is still used for low
rate and low performance requirement in WCDMA, while for high rate and high
performance requirement, Turbo code codec scheme will be used. At present, Turbo
code codec technology develops fast, and it has developed into an FEC technology
branch including many kinds of codec methods.
II. Space-time Code
With the increase of mobile subscribers, and the mobile communication service
demand tendency from ordinary voice service to multimedia service, frequency
spectrum resources become scarce. Therefore, the pursuit for the highest frequency
utilization ratio has become a challenging problem for the present and in the future.
This challenge has stirred people to develop highly efficient coding technology,
modulation technology, and signal processing technology to improve the efficiency of
radio frequency. The space-time code is one of the most important solutions proposed
in recent years, aiming at improving radio frequency utilization ratio. In the research of
the space-time code, on the one hand, Da-shan Shiu, Joseph M. Kahn, G. D. Golden
and Foschini have done much work on the layered space-time (LST) code; on the
other hand, Tarokh from AT&T, based on the summary of the previous research on the
transmission diversity, has done some innovative research on the space-time code
based on the transmission diversity. All the analysis and simulation indicates that the
utilization ratio of the two space-time codes above-mentioned can reach 20-
40bps/Hz, which means they can achieve good frequency band utilization ratio. It can
be anticipated that the future mobile communication system featured by the space-

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time code will have extremely large system capacity, excellent communication quality,
and extremely high frequency utilization ratio.
(1) Layered Space-time Code. The layered space-time code is first proposed by
Foschini. It divides the signal source data into several sub data stream and performs
coding and modulation independently. Therefore, it is not based on transmission
diversity. The basic structure of the layered space-time code is as follows: the
transmitter has n transmitting antennae, while the receiver has m receiving antennae
(m ≧n). In the transmitter data from the channel coding will be divided into n
directions, and flow to n antennae. The m receiving antennae at the receiving end
simultaneously receive the signals sent by the n transmitting antenna, and then
perform demodulation, channel estimation, and decoding. The layered space-time
code has the following features:
(a) n antennae use the same frequency band. The sign is in synchronization. The
same constellation graph will be used.
(b) The signals sent by n antenna are independent. This is why the layered space-
time code is not based on transmission diversity.
(c) The total power of the transmission unit antennae is constant, which has nothing
to do with the number of the transmitting antennae n.
(d) The single channel with high SNR will be divided into n overlapping channels with
low SNR so as to improve the frequency spectrum efficiency.
(e) The advantage of layered space-time code is that when m ≧ n, it can be proven
that the system capacity is almost in direct proportion with the number of the
transmitting antennae n.
(f) The channel gain between different receiving antennae has no relationship.
(2) The space-time code based on transmission diversity. In mobile communication
system, diversity is one of the most important methods to provide reliable
communication. The ordinary diversity modes include: time diversity such as channel
coding, interleaving, which are very effective for fast attenuation, but not effective for
slow attenuation; frequency diversity such as spread spectrum; and space diversity.
Multiple antennae receiving diversity and transmitting diversity both belong to space
diversity. In the actual mobile communication system, because of the limitation of MS
size, the battery energy, and the asymmetry of media services, the best mode is that
the base station uses multiple antennae to realize receiving diversity and transmitting
diversity, while MS should not be required to use multiple antennae. Based on this,
Tarokh and other people from AT&T, based on the transmission delay diversity,
formally proposed the space-time code based on transmission diversity. Generally,
the transmitting diversity is considered to be an important technology to enhance the
radio link performance. The space-time code based on transmission diversity can be
divided into Space-time block code and Space-time trellis code according to different
coding modes.
III. High-speed Power Control
A typical problem for the CDMA network is the near and far effect. Because all the
subscribers in the cell use the same frequency, it is important for the whole system to
ensure that every subscriber uses the minimum power to transmit signals. The quality
of the power control mainly determines the CDMA system capacity. It is also far more
complicated than that of GSM.The power control of GSM only considers signal
strength, but the power control of CDMA must be based on S/I.
The power control of CDMA includes forward and backward. The forward power
control includes measurement report power control, EIB power control, and forward
fast power control, which are the three forward power control algorithm gradually
developed. The power control rate develops from 2 times per second, to 50 times per
second, to 800 times per second. It becomes higher and higher, and the performance
is also becoming better and better. The backward power control includes open loop

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and closed loop. The open loop means that MS based on the received power
estimates the necessary transmitting power. Because the attenuation feature of the
forward and backward links is different, the estimation can only get an average
transmitting power. The transmitting power of the backward channel should be
determined both by the estimation result and by the adjustment of the closed loop
power control. The closed loop power control means that the base station judges the
transmission quality on the backward channel, and sends it to the MS to make the
transmitting power adjustment.
IV. RAKE Reception
In the WCDMA system, the multi-path propagation is no longer a negative factor.
Instead, it is an ideal result, because RAKE receiver can combine the signals with the
delay of at least 1 Chip (the data transmission rate of the WCDMA network is 3. 84
Mbps, that is 1Chip=0. 26 microseconds, equivalent to 78 meters) into useful signals.
The working principle of the RAKE receiver is that it demodulates several signals with
different time delay respectively, and then algebraically combines them to improve
reception performance.
V. Multi-subscriber Detection Technology
In the year 1979 and the year 1983, K. S. Schnedier and R. Kohno respectively
proposed the multi-subscriber receiver (multi-subscriber detection) idea, which means
realizing the multi-subscriber detection without multiple access interference by
making use of other subscriber’s known information to get rid of the multiple access
interference, and they also pointed out some research directions. This is the earliest
multi-subscriber detection document. In 1986, S. Verdu developed the multi-
subscriber detection theory. He proposed the asynchronous CDMA best detection
with adaptation filter group and Viterbi decoding. After that, the multi-subscriber
detection has achieved great development and has formed several comparatively
clear thoughts.
Although there are many kinds of multi-subscriber detection algorithm, the basic idea
of the algorithm is the same: trying to make use of the whole subscriber signal
resource to suppress multiple access interference and to avoid near and far effect.
The following part is the brief introduction to various kinds of multi-subscriber
detectors.
(1) Linear Multi-subscriber Detector
The linear multi-subscriber detector is based on certain judgment principle, and
makes judgment of the output series after adding a linear factor to the adaptation filter
whose subscriber number is linear. This kind of detector mainly includes two types:
decorrelation linear multi-subscriber detector and minimum mean-square error multi-
subscriber detector.
(2) Nonlinear Multi-subscriber Detector
It is a hot problem to eliminate multiple access interference by making use of effective
nonlinear multi-subscriber detector. The nonlinear multi-subscriber detector can
mainly be divided into the following kinds: judgment feedback multi-subscriber
detector, serial/parallel interference suppressor, multi-group multi-subscriber detector,
the multi-subscriber detector based on neural network.
The serial/parallel interference suppressor is developed from the traditional CDMA
detector. It first restore interference signal and then takes out the useful signal. The
idea is to arrange the demodulated subscriber signal into order by the signal intensity.
That is to make the signal intensity of the first subscriber greater than that of the
second subscriber, and the rest can be done by analogy. At first the normal
demodulation method will be used to demodulate the first subscriber’s signal, and the
information bit can be acquired after judgment. Making use of the first subscriber’s
demodulated signals, the second subscriber’s interference signal can be restored.
Judgment will be made after subtracting the second subscriber’s signal by the first

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subscriber’s interference. In the same way, subtracting the third subscriber’s signal by
the first and second subscriber’s interference. The rest can be conducted by analogy.
The advantage of this treatment is dual. First, the judgment is made for the strongest
signal. Because it suffers least from the multiple access interference, the judgment
can be most accurate. Secondly, the judgment of other subscribers has already
subtracted the strongest multiple access interference signals. The serial interference
suppressor has simple structure and it greatly improves the performance of the
traditional detector. The requirement for it is that the calculation speed should be
great so as to avoid bringing big time delay for weak subscribers. If the energy of two
subscribers is similar, the serial interference suppressor can be replaced by the
parallel interference suppressor. Good performance can be achieved even without
ordering subscribers. The interference risk device is most likely to get applied in the
WCDMA system due to its simple structure.
In recent years the integration of various technologies has attracted wide attention of
researching people. It includes the following kinds: space-time two perspective signal
processing technology, multi-subscriber detection and channel codec integration
technology, and multi-subscriber detection and power control integration technology.
VI. Soft Handover
GSM only has hard handover, which means connecting to new base stations after
disconnecting the original connection. The soft handover of CDMA refers to the fact
that a handset can connect to several base stations at the same time. Therefore, the
handover from the serving cell to the adjacent cells will not cause any effect.
Meanwhile, in the uplink, the soft handover can bring diversity gain (in fact, in the
downlink there also may be gain, which is determined by the macro diversity gain and
the resultant interference). Soft handover can reduce the undesirable disconnection
and improve the cell peripheral service. The design should take into consideration of
the feature that a cell has soft capacity.
In a cell softer handover may occur. CDMA also have hard handover like GSM
between different frequency points, MSC, and different systems.
VII. Code Planning
In the TDMA system, the frequencies used by one cell cannot be used in the adjacent
cells. But the CDMA frequency multiplexing coefficient is 1. Compared with the
current TDMA, CDMA frequency planning is simple, but it has introduced the code
planning. The code planning at the initial stage of the network construction is very
simple. However, with the frequent use of repeaters, the network will become
complicated and the code planning will also become quite complicated.
VIII. Others
Some of the key technologies in the WCDMA system have been discussed. Research
has indicated that space-time code, intelligent antenna, multi-subscriber detection are
all effective tools to improve the spectrum utilization ratio, and will be used widely in
the future WCDMA mobile communications system. However, there is much to be
improved for the systematic theoretical analysis of the space-time code, and there is
much work to do to combine the space-time code technology with intelligent antenna
technology, multi-subscriber detecting technology, and equilibrium technology. There
is some distance to cover for the real application of the intelligent antenna and multi-
subscriber detecting technology.
Besides, there exists a dynamic relationship between the coverage and the capacity
of the CDMA system. Therefore, the capacity and coverage design of CDMA system
is much more difficult than that of TMDA, and CDMA can provide more service types.
In the 3G phase, it can provide high-speed data service.

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1.3.5 The Receive Sensitivity of the WCDMA System

I. Receiver Sensitivity
In the WCDMA system, sensitivity is related to many indexes such as service rate,
noise coefficient, and interference threshold.
Assuming there is 50% load:
For 12.2kbps channel, the typical value of the uplink sensitivity is -121dBm, while that
of the downlink sensitivity is -117dBm.
For 144kbps channel, the typical value of the uplink sensitivity is -114dBm, while that
of the downlink sensitivity is -111dBm.
For 384kbps channel, the typical value of the uplink sensitivity is -111dBm, while that
of the downlink sensitivity is -108dBm.
II. The Related Factors of the Receiver Sensitivity
1Receiver sensitivity is jointly determined by receiver noise level and baseband
demodulation performance. It is to ensure the lowest signal level of the connection
quality.
(1) Receiver Noise Level.
The base station receiver noise is the minimum noise threshold that communication
system must overcome.
Receive heat noise = KTF*BW
−23
K: Bridgman Constant (= 1.38  10 J/K)
T: Kelvin temperature: 290K in normal temperature
The result is: KT= -174dBm/Hz
F: receiver noise coefficient. According to Huawei NodeB1. 1 actual measurement
data, in normal temperature the value is 2. 3dB, 3dB should be guaranteed within the
full range of temperature. UE receiver noise coefficient is set to be 7. 0dB (the
protocol requires it be no more than 9.0dB).
BW: receiver noise bandwidth. Considering the fact that the entire receiving channel
includes baseband matching filter function, the noise bandwidth should be set to be 3.
84MHz.
(2). Baseband Demodulation Performance
The baseband demodulation performance is influenced by many factors such as
transmission environment, UE moving speed, diversity, and the adopted
demodulation algorithm.
A. Basic Performances Regulated in the Protocol
In the static channel condition, 12. 2kbps voice channel demodulation should be
Eb/N0. The protocol regulates it should be no more than 5. 1dB. The simulation works
out that the baseband demodulation needs 2. 8dB. With the channel physical
realization deterioration 1. 5dB, the demodulation threshold of NodeB is calculated to
be 4. 3dB.
B. The Demodulation Performance under the Power Control Condition
The demodulation performance regulated in the protocol is measure under the
condition that there is no closed loop power control. In the real system, the closed
loop power control is functioning. In this condition, the above demodulation
performance cannot be used directly in the link estimation.
Because the closed loop power control speed is limited, it does little good, sometimes
even bad, to the closed loop power control for the fast moving UE, whose speed is
larger than 50km/h according to the 5. 15. 4 clause of the Wideband CDMA for Third

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Generation Mobile Communications protocol. Therefore, the link estimation in high-


speed environment can directly use the demodulation performance in with the
condition that there is no power control.
The base station baseband demodulation performance in the condition that the power
control is started is as follows:
 CASE 1 Channel
The fixed-point simulation shows that the baseband demodulation needs 4. 49dB.
With the consideration of physical realization deterioration 0. 5dB, the demodulation
threshold of NodeB is calculated to be 4. 99dB. The baseband demodulation
threshold in suburb/rural areas adopts CASE1 channel condition.
 CASE 2 Channel
The fixed-point simulation shows that the baseband demodulation needs 4. 71dB.
With the consideration of physical realization deterioration 0. 5dB, the demodulation
threshold of NodeB is calculated to be 5. 21dB. The baseband demodulation
threshold in urban areas adopts CASE2 channel condition.

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1.4 WCDMA System Network Planning


1.4.1 The Content of the WCDMA Network Planning
The WCDMA system uses different RTT technology with the GSM system, and the
WCDMA system introduces vast support for data service, and carries out the control
based on the QoS of services. Therefore, there exist obvious differences between the
system design methods of the WCDMA and GSM systems.
Take a vivid example first:
In a party there are many guests. Many people speak together, which makes difficult
to figure out what the speaker is saying. If you can speak with your friend at the other
side of the room at the beginning, it will be impossible for you to hear clearly when the
noise rises to a certain degree. This means the radius of the conversation area has
shortened. In this situation you can still talk with your friend as long as you and your
friend speak loudly. This will cause the noise in this room even greater. What the
CDMA network planning engineers are facing now is a similar dynamically varying
network.
The WCDMA system adopts 1*1 frequency multiplexing mode. Cells and subscribers
are differentiated by scrambling and orthogonal codes. The capacity and coverage
are directly influenced by the network interference. The design personnel in design
should take into full consideration how to reduce the unnecessary noise. On the
contrary, the GSM system adopts TDMA technology, and different subscribers are
differentiated by frequency and time slot. Therefore, the factors that affect GSM
system capacity are mainly frequency resource and frequency multiplexing
technology.
The WCDMA system is a noise restrained system, whose coverage depends not only
on the maximum transmission power, but also on system load. The greater the
system load is, the higher the noise base rises, and the smaller the system coverage
is;and vice versa. But the coverage of the GSM network, on the condition that the
frequency planning is good and there is no off-net interference, is only related to the
maximum transmission power, and the capacity is only related to the available service
channels. There is no relationship between coverage and capacity. Therefore, in the
WCDMA design, the relationship between coverage and capacity should be taken into
full consideration to ensure the necessary system performance indexes.
In the WCDMA system, the corresponding relationship between the transmission
power and the cell capacity is in a gradual mode. Network planning engineers must
reduce network full load rate, because it is easy for a cell to get fully loaded. The
detailed parameters depend on various kinds of services. Of course, it is also related
to the risks the carriers want to bear. Generally speaking, in the design, the full load
factor is preset to be 60%. Here the cell breathing effect is applied. The adjacent cells
can share the load mutually, which is called soft load. Due to cost consideration,
network capacity cannot be expanded on a large scale. The mathematic reasoning for
the 3Gservice which has high requirement for data transmission illustrates that the
probability for the serving cell to borrow load capacity from the adjacent cells
increases as the data transmission quantity increases. Because there exists a
dynamic balance relationship between coverage and capacity, there is a great
difference between their planning mode in the wireless network estimation phase. For
the WCDMA system, there exists a mutual adjustment process between coverage
estimation and capacity estimation:
 In the coverage estimation, the traffic (interference threshold) a cell
supports should be assumed first. The coverage of the base station
should be worked out by making use of link estimation result and
appropriate transmission model in different typical environment. Based

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on the result, the number of base stations necessary in the whole


coverage area and the base station configuration can be worked out.
 In the capacity estimation, the traffic (or interference threshold) a cell
supports should also be assumed. The capacity can be estimated
according to the traffic distribution condition (real-time service: Erl/Km2;
none real-time service: kbps/Km2) in the coverage area. The number of
base stations necessary to meet the network capacity requirement and
the base station configuration can be worked out.
 On the other hand, when a subscriber is far away from the base station,
he has to get a large part of the transmission power so that it may
cause power shortage for other subscribers. This means the cell
capacity has something to do with the actual distribution condition of
subscribers. When the subscriber density is very large, this problem
can be solved by conducting statistics on the mean value; whereas
when there are few subscribers, simulation method has to be adopted
to conduct a dynamic analysis on the network.
 What is worth explaining is that the WCDMA network needs to support
services with different QoS and rates, and the actual coverage of a cell
is restricted by the coverage probability of the services that need to be
supported. Therefore, in the wireless network planning, different
coverage probability requirement for various kinds of services the
network supports should be determined. Generally, UMTS network
planning engineers start from the radius of the intermediate-level
services. Thus the actual effective range of a cell can only partially
meet the requirement of advanced services.
 The traffic of the UMTS network is asymmetric; that is to say, the data
transmission on the uplink and the downlink of the network is different.
Network planning engineers should at first work out the value in both
directions, and then combine them properly. In this way, the network
planning work will be very complicated. The uplink is a typical restraint
factor of the UMTS cell effective area, or it can be said that in a certain
load condition the uplink is coverage limited, while the downlink is
capacity limited. The transmission power in the uplink is provided by
the handset, while the transmission power in the downlink is provided
by the base station. The radius of the forward and backward cell is the
same.
Compare the number of base stations generated by the two methods according to
coverage and capacity respectively. If they are not the same, that means there exist
coverage-limited or capacity-limited conditions. Because in the WCDMA system,
there exists a dynamic relationship between coverage and capacity, and the cell
coverage is worked out based on the cell load. Therefore, if the number of base
stations generated by the two methods is not the same, the cell load should be
adjusted once again, and the above coverage and capacity estimation process should
be performed again. The ultimate result should be that the estimated number of base
stations based on the links and the number of base stations based on the capacity
analysis should be the same so that minimum number of base stations will be used to
fully meet the coverage and capacity requirements.
For the GSM network, the focus of the network estimation is on the available
frequency points of carriers and the frequency planning method which can determine
the maximum number of carrier frequencies a cell can support. The cell coverage
change has nothing to do with the network load. Therefore, the coverage and
capacity estimation can be finished once. There is no repetition process necessary.
Due to the unique features and complexity of the WCDMA network, the planning
phase needs a simulation testing process. Normally, based on the coverage
prediction, the Monte Carlo system simulation will be further used to appraise the

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Wireless Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

network performance. At the same time, the statistic result of the system simulation
will be analyzed, and parameter will be adjusted based on the initial result of the
system simulation until the simulation result meets the design and system
performance requirement. Finally, the number of base stations, base station
configuration and location, the height of the antenna, the leaning angle of the
antenna, and the system capacity can be determined so as to generate a detailed
wireless network planning solution.
In the WCDMA system, the power resource is very limited. Therefore, the purpose of
both the power control and the RRM algorithm is to save network resource and
reduce the transmission power of the service channels as many as possible on the
premise that the quality is guaranteed. Therefore, the configuration principle of cell
parameters should take all these factors into consideration.
In the WCDMA system, the pilot pollution is a significant factor, which affects the
network performance. In the GSM system, this kind of problem may not occur,
because the BCCH frequency points normally employ very loose multiplexing mode
(such as 5*3) and they are planned carefully. In the CDMA system, it is a common
problem. The main feature of pilot pollution is that there is no leading cell. To be more
specific, terminals receive pilot signals from multiple cells with the similar power,
which causes the activation set to renew frequently. The pilot pollution increases
network interference and causes handover algorithm not able to work efficiently.
The reasons for pilot pollution generally include:
1. Bad system design; for example, the transmission power of the pilot channel is too
big.
2. Inappropriate choice of the base station location and the antenna leaning angle;
3. Complicated geographic environment and lack of full consideration in design
From the above analysis, it can be known that the WCDMA network planning cost is
much higher than the current mobile communication network planning. 3G network
planning is very complicated, because many system parameters are closely related to
each other, and have to be calculated at the same time, whereas the current mobile
communication network planning calculate these parameters separately.
The complexity of the WCDMA network planning requires us to possess new
technologies and new knowledge at all levels. The first is the well-trained professional
network planning engineers, who are good at system technology. The second is
managers who are familiar with the business and have accurate foresight. At the
beginning phase, they can know exactly the UMTS network expansion condition and
cost. The last is the outstanding planning software tool, which is absolutely necessary
for the 3G network planning.

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Wireless Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

1.4.2 WCDMA Wireless Capacity Calculation

The mobile communications system has three major factors: coverage, capacity, and
quality, which are influenced and controlled by each other.

Figure 11-13 The three Factors in Mobile Communications

I. The GSM System


 The capacity is basically determined by hardware resources. One
carrier contains eight time slots, and the number of the available
carriers and the multiplexing method determine the maximum
simultaneous connection number.
 The coverage is determined by uplink and downlink transmission power
(link balance problem)
 The conversation quality is determined by the interference condition.
Interference can be controlled by network design (multiplexing method,
multiplexing distance, frequency hopping, etc. ) to ensure high quality.
 In GSM system, there is no direct relationship between these three
factors. Each of them can be independently analyzed and designed.
The difficulty of network design lies in frequency planning.

II. The WCDMA System


 The WCDMA system is self-interference system. There is close
relationship between capacity, coverage, and quality.
 The relationship between capacity and coverage;If the designed load
increases, the capacity increases, interference increases, and
coverage decreases, such as the cell breathing.
 The relationship between capacity and quality is that the system

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Wireless Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

capacity can be improved by lowering part of the connection quality


requirement, such as by decreasing target BLER value via external
loop power control;
 The relationship between coverage and quality is that the system
coverage capability can be improved by lowering part of the connection
quality requirement, such as by decreasing data rate via AMRC for
connections with great path loss;

Figure 11-14 The WCDMA is a Self-interference System

III. WCDMA Uplink Capacity Analysis


(1) Uplink Interference Composition is:
I TOT = I own + I other + PN
Where,
 Iown: refers to the interference from subscribers of the local cell
ITOT - Pj refers to the interference each subscriber has to overcome, and Pj refers to
the reception power of the subscriber j.
-Assuming the power control is ideal, then
Pj W 1
( Eb / No ) j = ⋅ ⋅
I TOT − Pj R j v j
hence, Pj:
I TOT
Pj =
1 W 1
1+ ⋅ ⋅
( Eb / No ) j R j v j

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Wireless Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

The interference of the subscribers of the same cell is the sum of the power with
which all the subscribers reach the receiver:
N
I own = ∑ Pj
1

 Iother: refers to the interference from subscribers of adjacent cells.


Adjacent cell subscriber interference is hard to analyze theoretically, since it relates to
so many factors such as subscriber distribution, cell layout method, antenna direction,
etc. .
-The adjacent cell interference factor can be defined as:
I other
i=
I own
When the subscriber distribution is even, for an omnidirectional cell, the typical value
of the adjacent cell interference factor is 0. 55; for a directional cell with three sectors,
the typical value of the adjacent cell interference factor is 0. 65.

 PN: receiver noise base


PN = 10lg(KTW) + NF
-K: Bridgman constant = 1. 38×10-23 J/K
-T: Kelvin temperature, the normal temperature is 290 K
-W: signal bandwidth, WCDMA signal bandwidth 3. 84MHz
-NF: receiver noise coefficient
We can get the result:
10lg(KTW) = -108dBm/3. 84MHz
NF = 3dB (typical value for macro cell base station)
PN = 10lg(KTW) + NF = -105dBm/3. 84MHz
Therefore, the uplink interference gets
I TOT = I own + I other + PN
N
I TOT
= (1 + i ) ∑ + PN
1 W 1
1
1+ ⋅ ⋅
( Eb / No) j R j v j
and
N
I TOT = I TOT ⋅ (1 + i ) ⋅ ∑ L j + PN
1

We can get:
1
I TOT = PN ⋅ N
1 − (1 + i ) ⋅ ∑ L j
1

 Suppose
All the subscribers are 12. 2kbps voice subscribers, and the demodulation threshold
is EbvsNo = 5dB
Voice activation factor vj = 0. 67
Adjacent cell interference factor i = 0. 55

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Wireless Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

The uplink carrier factor is defined as:


N N
1
ηUL = (1 + i ) ⋅ ∑ L j = (1 + i ) ⋅ ∑
1 W 1
1 1
1+ ⋅ ⋅
( EbvsNo ) j R j v j

Figure 11-15 The relationship between capacity and uplink interference

When the carrier factor equals one, ITOT reaches infinitely great, and the capacity in
this situation is called maximum capacity. In the above hypothesis, the maximum
capacity is 96 subscribers illustrated by Figure 11-15.
We can also get the relationship formula between carrier factor and interference.
Based on the above relationship, the noise increase formula is as follows, based on
which Figure 11-16 can be generated:

ITOT 1 1
Noise Rise= = =
PN 1 −(1 +i )
N
1 −ηUL
×∑Lj
1

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Wireless Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

Figure 11-16 The relationship between noise and carrier factor

It can be judged from the figure that when the load is 50%, the noise rises 3dB; when
the load is 60%, noise rises 4dB; when the load is 75%, the noise rises 6dB.
(2) Analysis
The above theoretical analysis has explicitly or implicitly employed the following
abbreviation:
 Soft handover has not been taken into consideration, because
subscribers in soft handover state generate less interference than
normal subscribers;
 AMRC and combined service effects have not been taken into
consideration, because AMRC reduces the voice service rate of part of
subscribers so as to decrease the interference they generate. This also
enables the system to support more subscribers at the cost that the
conversation quality of these subscribers may decrease.
 Different services have different data rates and demodulation threshold.
Although theoretically the above method can still be used for the
analysis, it will make the computing process much more complicated.
 Due to the time-varying feature of mobile environment, even if it is the
same service, the demodulation threshold varies in terms of time.
 Ideal power control hypothesis. The power control commands of the
real system have some error codes, which makes the power control not
ideal and decreases system capacity.
 Suppose the subscriber distribution is balanced, and the adjacent cell
interference is constant.
If all the above factors have been taken into consideration, the system simulation is a
more accurate method: static simulation method Monte_Carlo and dynamic
simulation.
(3) Capacity Design
In order to ensure the system stability, network design cannot be done based on the

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Wireless Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

maximum capacity, because the maximum capacity corresponds to the maximum


noise rise. In the real system, UE has no such powerful transmission power to
overcome the noise. Besides, the greater the carrier factor is, the greater noise rise
caused by the access of new subscribers will be, sometimes the noise can even
break the existing connection. Finally, due to the time-varying feature of mobile
environment, the network will be less stable if the load is too heavy. Therefore, the
designed load for macro cells normally does not exceed 75%. For example, if the load
is designed to be 60%, then the corresponding noise rise will be 4dB.
IV. Downlink Capacity Analysis
(1) Downlink Interference Composition
I TOT = I own + I other + PN
 PN: receiver noise base
PN = 10lg(KTW) + NF
-K: Bridgman constant = 1. 38*10-23 J/K
-T: Kelvin temperature, the normal temperature 290 K
-W: signal bandwidth, WCDMA signal bandwidth 3. 84MHz
-NF: receiver noise coefficient
The result can be:
10lg(KTW) = -108dBm/3. 84MHz
NF = 7dB (UE typical value)
PN = 10lg(KTW) + NF = -101dBm/3. 84MHz
 Iown Interference within the local cell
Downlink subscribers can be differentiated by the mutually orthogonal OVSF codes.
In static condition without multipath transmission, there is no mutual interference;
In multipath transmission, part of energy cannot be received by the Rake receiver and
becomes interference signals. Orthogonalization factor α can be defined to describe
this phenomenon:

( I own ) j = (1 − α j ) ⋅ PT
PL j
In this formula, PT is the total transmission power of the base station, including the
private channel transmission power and common channel transmission power.
N
PT = PCCH + ∑Pj
1

 Adjacent Cell Interference Iother


The signals transmitted by the adjacent cell base stations will cause interference for
the subscribers in the local cell. Because different scrambling is used, these
interferences are non-orthogonal.
Suppose service distribution is even, and the transmission power of all the base
stations is equal. There are k adjacent cell base stations, and the path loss from the
No. k base station to subscriber j is PLk,j. We then can get:
K
1
( I other ) j = PT ⋅ ∑
1 PL k , j
Therefore,

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Wireless Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

I TOT = I own + I other + PN

= (1 − α j ) ⋅
K
PT 1
+ PT ⋅ ∑ + PN
PL j 1 PLk , j

Assume again that power control is ideal, we then can get:


Pj
PL j W 1
( EbvsNo) j = ⋅ ⋅
( ITOT ) j R j v j
And
Rj
Pj = ( EbvsNo ) j ⋅ ⋅ v j ⋅ ( I TOT ) j ⋅ PL j
W
Since
N
PT = PCCH + ∑Pj
1

Hence,
N
 Rj 
PT = PCCH + ∑ ( EbvsNo ) j ⋅ ⋅ v j ⋅ ( I TOT ) j ⋅ PL j 
1  W 
 R   
= PCCH + ∑ ( EbvsNo ) j ⋅ j ⋅ v j ⋅ PL j  ⋅ (1 − α j ) ⋅ T + PT ⋅ ∑
N K
P 1
+ PN 
1  W   PL j 1 PLk , j 
 R   PL j 
= PCCH + ∑ ( EbvsNo ) j ⋅ j ⋅ v j  ⋅ (1 − α j ) ⋅ PT + PT ⋅ ∑
N K
+ PN ⋅ PL j 
1  W   1 PLk , j 

The value of PT can be worked out:


N
 R 
PCCH + PN ⋅ ∑ ( EbvsNo ) j ⋅ j ⋅ v j ⋅ PL j 
1  W 
PT =
 R 
1 − ∑ (1 − α j + i j ) ⋅ ( EbvsNo ) j ⋅ j ⋅ v j 
N

1  W 
Where ij is the adjacent cell interference factor of subscriber j, which can be defined
as:
K PL j
ij =∑
1 PL k , j
Based on the above analysis, carrier factor can be defined.
 R 
ηDL = ∑ (1 − α j + i j ) ⋅ ( EbvsNo ) j ⋅ j ⋅ v j 
N

1  W 
When the downlink carrier factor reaches 100%, the transmission power of base
stations can reach infinitely great, and the corresponding capacity is maximum
capacity.
(2) Analysis
Different from the calculation of uplink capacity, the variables αj and ij in the downlink
capacity calculation formula are both related to the subscriber’s location. That is to

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Wireless Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

say, the downlink capacity is related to subscriber’s space distribution, and can only
be determined by the system simulation. The following are the simulation parameter
table and simulation result graph 11-17.
Parameter DL value Parameter DL value
MCL macro (including antenna Power control range 25 dB
70 dB
again)
Antenna gain (including losses) 0 dBi HANDLING of DOWNLINK
11 dBi maximum TX power
Log Normal fade margin 10 dB Random and uniform
USER DISTRIBUTION
PC MODELLING across the network
#PC steps per snapshot > 150 non orthogonality factor macrocell 0,4
step size PC perfect PC COMMON CHANNEL
Orthogonal
PC error 0% ORTHOGONALITY
HANDOVER MODELING DEPLOYMENT SCENARIO
Handover threshold for candidate Hexagonal with BTS
set Macrocell in the middle of the
active set cell
Choice of cells in the active step BTS type omnidirectional
Maximum ratio Cell radius macro 577 macro
Combining
combining > 19 with wrap
# of macro cells
NOISE PARAMETERS around technique)
noise figure 9 dB bit-rate speech 8 kbps
noise power -99 dBm proposed Activity factor speech 100%
TX POWER Multipath environment macro Outdoor micro
Maximum BTS power 43 dBm Eb/N0 target 6,1 dB
Common channel power 30 dBm
Maximum TX power speech 30 dBm

Figure 11-17 Downlink Capacity Analysis

Simulation Result Analysis:


 When the base station transmission power is 43dBm (20W), it can
support 114 subscribers at the most.

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Wireless Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

 Usually, in order to ensure the stability of the system, the average


transmission power of the base station is not allowed to be greater than
75% of the maximal transmission power, that is 41. 7dBm, and in this
condition it can support 111 subscribers.
 Compared with the uplink capacity, this result is much greater.
Therefore, in this condition, the capacity of WCDMA is restricted in the
uplink, which is completely different from that of the IS95.
 It is generally accepted that the coverage uplink of the IS95 system is
restricted, while the system capacity is restricted in the downlink.
V. Summary
 The capacity analysis of the WCDMA system should take more factors
which are more complicated into consideration:
 The downlink capacity is related with subscriber space distribution,
which makes the analysis difficult;
 The system simulation is en effective tool for the capacity analysis of
the WCDMA system.

1.4.3 WCDMA Service Description and Calculation

I. Service Type
In the WCDMA system, services can be divided into four types based on different
QoS:
 Conversational Class
 Streaming Class
 Interactive Class
 Background
The features and typical examples of these four types of services are shown in the
following table:
Service QOS
Basic Feature Typical Example
Type
Information data time
relationship should be kept
Voice
Conversational Conversational mode with little
Video telephone
time delay and strict
requirement for time delay jitter.
Information data time Multimedia data
Streaming
relationship should be kept. stream
Request response mode
Network browsing
Interactive Data completeness should be
Network games
preserved
Target has high tolerance for
data delay. Email downloading at
Background
Data completeness should be the background
preserved.

II. The Calculation Method of the Blocking Rate for Different Types of
Services
(1) Conversational Services
Conversational services have strict requirement for point-to-point time delay. For
example, it is usually required to be less than 150ms for voice services, and it cannot
exceed 400ms at the most. Otherwise, it will cause difficulty for listening. The

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Wireless Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

parameters for the typical conversational services are shown in the following table.
Conversational services are usually carried in the CS domain. The system can
process conversational services without conducting the calling queuing treatment. In
this situation, the traditional Erlang B formula or the extended Erlang B formula can
be adopted to do the calculation. The extended Erlang B formula is recommended
here, and it is assumed that 50% of the blocked subscribers will retry immediately.

(2) Streaming Services


Compared with conversational services, streaming services have lower requirement
for point-to-point time delay. The parameters for the typical streaming services are
shown in the following table.

Streaming services are also usually carried in the CS domain. Streaming services
have high tolerance for call waiting, and calling queuing mechanism can be provided.
In this situation, the Erlang C formula is adapted to do the blocking probability
(defined as the probability of call waiting exceeding a certain period of time)
calculation for this kind of subscribers.
(3) Interactive Services
Interactive services refer to the type of services that subscribers request data from
servers. It is described by the terminal subscriber request response mode. Therefore,
round-trip time is the most important index for this kind of services. The parameters
for the typical interactive services are shown in the following table

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Wireless Network Planning Chapter 11 Development of Network Planning Techology

Interactive services are usually carried in the PS domain. Interactive services have
certain tolerance for call waiting, and the system can provide queuing mechanism.
The Erlang C formula is adopted to do the blocking rate calculation.
(4) The Calculation of the Background Services
Background services have the largest tolerance for time delay, which can reach up to
the hour level. Because of so large tolerance, the system can store such requests
when it is busy, and respond to it while it is idle. Meanwhile, this kind of service can
terminate any time when a request with higher QoS comes in.
Since background services can be initiated and terminated any time by the system,
both of the above-mentioned Erlang B formula and Erlang C formula do not work. The
usual calculation method is to work out the background services traffic that can be
supported according to the result of the maximal channel number of the system less
busy hour average occupied channel number.
With the consideration of the signaling overhead caused by the transmission startup
and temporary termination, the worked out traffic should be multiplied by an efficiency
factor such as 0. 8.
If the calculated traffic value cannot meet the design requirement, the corresponding
needed channels should be added to ensure enough busy hour traffic.

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