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10 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE APRIL 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
DISCLAIMER: MUSCLE &PERFORMANCE is an Active Interest Media publication. AIM, as publisher, does not endorse and makes no representation, warranty or guarantee concerning the safety or effectiveness
of either the products and services advertised in this magazine or the weightlifting or other techniques discussed or illustrated in this magazine. The publisher expressly disclaims any and all liability relating to the
manufacture, sale or use of such products and services and the application of the exercises discussed or illustrated in this magazine. The purchase or use of some of the products, services or techniques advertised
or discussed in this magazine may be illegal in some areas of the United States or other countries. Therefore, you should check federal, state and local laws prior to your purchase or use of these products, services
or techniques. The publisher makes no representation or warranty concerning the legality of the purchase or use of these products, services and techniques in the United States or elsewhere. Because of the
nature of some of the products, services and techniques advertised or discussed in this magazine, you should consult a physician before using these products or services or applying these exercise techniques.
CONTENTS
0
5
.
1
4
DEPARTMENTS
15 BODY SHOP: Training, Nutrition and Supplements
24 PEAK PERFORMANCE: Leveling the Playing Field
26 FOR WOMEN: Wave Bye-Bye to Flabby Arms
28 PRO CORNER: Julien Greaux
58 PRODUCT INSIDER: Novex Biotech Growth Factor-9
61 TOP SHOP: Product Overviews
66 5 WAYS TO: Boost Growth Hormone
FEATURES
31
MUSCLE-BUILDING
BASICS: THE
OLYMPIC LIFTS
The snatch and the clean-
and-jerk are more than just
amusingly named exercises.
Theyre historical and
historically dicult multi-joint
lifts that, if executed properly,
can have a place in every
workout regimen. By Bob
LeFavi, Ph.D., CSCS, USAW
45
FAST TIMES
Want to trim the fat?
We normally would not
recommend that you stop
eating, but strong research
supports the idea of periodic
fasting for a leaner body and
improved health. By Matthew
Kadey, MS, RD
53
TURN UP THE HEAT
Interested in getting leaner and
improving your sex life? Take
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TRUESTRENGTH.COM/Dave
D o i n g Wh at Mat t e r s Mo s t
Muscle & Performance is printed monthly in the U.S.A. 2014 by Active Interest Media, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is strictly pro-
hibited. The information in Muscle & Performance is for educational purposes only. Its not intended to replace the advice or attention of health care professionals. Consult your physi-
cian before making changes in your diet, supplement and/or exercise program. MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE, 24900 Anza Dr., Unit E, Valencia, CA 91355 - Toll Free: (800) 423-2874
MAY 2014 VOL. 6 NO. 5
GROUP PUBLISHER Cheryl Angelheart
EDITORINCHIEF Jordana Brown
GROUP CREATIVE DIRECTOR Alexander Norouzi
GROUP ADVERTISING DIRECTOR Donna Diamond
ADVERTISING ACCOUNT MANAGERS Laura (Flores) Thorne, Bill Moir, Julie Stone
COPY CHIEF Jeannine Santiago COPY EDITOR Gretchen Haas
SPECIAL PRO)ECTS EDITOR Vicki Baker
AJR MANAGER Alice Negrete
PRODUCTION MANAGER Patrick Sternkopf ART DIRECTORS Dana Collins, Paul Duarte
CONTRIBUTING WRITERS Mathew Kadey, MS, RD; Bob LeFavi, Ph.D., CSCS, USAW; C.J. Logan; Lara McGlashan, CPT;
Isaiah Rhodes, NSCA-CPT; Steven Stiefel
FEATURED CONTRIBUTORS Peter Lueders, Mike OHearn, Robert Reiff
Efrem Zimbalist III Cbairman & CEO
Andrew W. Clurman President & COO
Brian J. Sellstrom Executive Vice President & CFO
Patricia B. Fox Executive Vice President of Operations
Nelson Saenz Vice President of IT
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MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM MAY 2014 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE 15
THE BODY SHOP
SUPPLEMENTS BY STEVEN STI EFEL. TRAI NI NG AND NUTRI TI ON BY C.J. LOGAN.
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in
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ith
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rk
P
ycnogenol comes from the bark of French maritime
pine trees, and we've known for years that it supports
antioxidant and nitric-oxide levels. A new study, though,
demonstrates that it also supports exercise performance
and endurance and reduces muscle cramping and the soreness
that often follows intense workouts.
That study, published in The Journal of Sports Medicine and
Physical Fitness, examined two groups of athletes. The frst
group, recreational athletes, were given the Army Physical Fitness
Test (maximum push-ups and sit-ups for two minutes each, plus
a timed 2-mile run) multiple times over four to eight weeks. The
second group, trained triathletes, ran a standard 100-minute
triathlon (0.47-mile swim, 12-mile bike ride and 5K run) 10 times
over 30 days. In each group, roughly half the subjects were given
100 milligrams of Pycnogenol daily while the others were not.
The results showed that both the Pycnogenol groups experienced
signifcant improvement in all areas. The recreational athletes
decreased the time of the run by an average of nearly two minutes
and increased push-up endurance by an average of 25 percent
and sit-up endurance by an average of 15 percent. The triathletes
reduced the time of their splits, with total triathlon time declining from
an average of 1:40:24 to an average of 1:29:44. They also reported
signifcantly less muscle cramping.
Its likely that these results stem from Pycnogenols ability to help
deliver oxygen to muscle tissue while reducing carbon dioxide,
spurring greater blood fow in and out of muscles for faster recovery.
In addition, the compound increases nitric-oxide production, which
allows greater fow of blood and nutrients to muscle tissue during
workouts, resulting in more effective workouts and faster recovery.
Because Pycnogenol works to increase nitric oxide in a different way
than argninine, reap all these benefts by adding 50 to 100 milligrams
of Pycnogenol to your regimen whenever you take a supplement that
contains arginine or citrulline (namely, before workouts).
16 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
THE BODY SHOP
MAX STACK
THE 4 GS OF FAT LOSS
You want to reduce body fat? Gee, who doesnt? While getting
lean always requires following a sensible dietary plan and cut-
ting calories moderately, you can achieve even better results
and maintain muscle mass when you add the following
supplements to your fat-loss regimen.
Garcinia Cambogia
This popular fat burner is included in many products and is
sometimes listed on labels as hydroxycitric acid. It increases
lipolysis (fat burning), boosts brain serotonin levels and helps
the body use fats for energy while driving carbohydrates to-
ward muscle glycogen storage.
Green Coffee-Bean Extract
This supplement works as a fat burner and energy booster,
both desirable benefts for those who are training hard while
cutting calories. It comes from coffee beans before theyve
been roasted and is therefore higher in chlorogenic acid, which
has been shown to elevate fat metabolism in the liver and sup-
press fat absorption. It also helps prevent the dietary fats and
carbs you consume from being stored as body fat.
Green-Tea Extract
Green tea contains epigallocatechin gallate, a catechin that
boosts metabolic rate to encourage burning fat. EGCG also
helps protect norepinephrine, a stimulatory brain chemical,
which supports additional fat burning. In addition, green tea
contains theanine, which helps you relax and sharpens mental
focus, particularly benefcial when cutting calories for fat loss.
Guarana
Guarana's high caffeine content provides multiple fat-burning
benefts, including helping to release fat from storage so that
it can be burned during exercise. In addition, it increases
strength and reduces pain associated with exercise. Those
who take guarana report that it has a slower onset than caf-
feine anhydrous, which makes it more tolerable at higher
doses.
Find Them All In: Top Secret Nutritions Ab Igniter
DECISIONS, DECISIONS
CHOOSE YOUR OWN WORKOUT
Wondering whether it`s better to do lifting or cardio frst in
your workout? A study recently published in the Journal of
Strength and Conditioning Research says either way is fne.
Two groups of college students enrolled in an eight-week
program of four weekly workouts; one group did resistance
training followed by aerobic exercises in each workout, and
the other did the opposite. The lifting portion consisted of
three sets of eight to 12 reps of fve to six different exercises,
and the cardio sessions were 30 minutes in duration at a
70 to 80 percent heart rate. Post-study results showed that
performance and ftness markers didn`t differ signifcantly
between the two groups, and researchers suggest basing
your decision on which to do frst off personal preference.
Our advice is to choose the order that best suits your goals:
If maximizing strength and/or muscle size is top priority, do
your lifting frst. If you`re training for an endurance event like
a road race or triathlon, lead off with cardio.
A
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.
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18 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
THE BODY SHOP
BY THE NUMBERS
MENU MATH
Ever wondered whether the inclusion
of nutritional information (calories and
macronutrient fgures) on restaurant
menus helps people eat better? A
study released in late 2013 says it
most certainly does. Researchers
from the Drexel University School
of Public Health in Philadelphia
surveyed more than 600 individuals
who had eaten at large chain restau-
rants, some with labeled nutritional
info on the menus, some without.
The patrons eating at the labeled
restaurants, the researchers found,
ate meals with 151 fewer calories,
224 milligrams less sodium and 3.7
grams less saturated fat, on average,
than those dining at establishments
without such info on menus. Twenty-
six percent of all people who dined
at labeled restaurants said they used
the nutritional facts to help decide
what to order; these individuals con-
sumed a whopping 400 fewer calo-
ries per meal than those who ignored
the food facts.
BRAINBOOSTERS
SIZE MATTERS
At this point, its not
news that fsh oil is
critical to good health.
But new research has
illuminated yet another
beneft. As we age, our
brains, like so many
other of the body`s tis-
sues, tend to shrivel.
But a study published
in the journal Neurology
followed aging subjects
for eight years and
concluded that those
who supplemented with
omega-3 fatty acids had
greater brain volume
than those who had
not. The importance of
this should not be lost
on the young: You can
boost brain function
and maintain better
brain size and function
at any age by consum-
ing more omega-3s.
BILLION
$108.9
The cost of coronary heart disease in the
United States every year, according to the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention;
this includes the cost of health-care services,
medication and lost job productivity.
TO YOUR HEALTH
SUPPLEMENTAL
LIFE
This may not come as
much of a shock, but a
recent review of existing
research published in
Nutrition Journal points
to additional benefts that
come with supplementa-
tion: Those who take
supplements are more
inclined to take better
care of themselves in
other ways, too. Theyre
more likely to consume
healthier diets, exercise
regularly and keep their
weight in check. They`re
also less likely to smoke.
GET DEFINED
SYNERGY
In the supplement
world, synergy de-
scribes the interaction
or cooperation of two
or more supplements
to produce a combined
beneft greater than the
sum of their separate
effects. In other words,
synergistic supple-
ments work along these
lines: 1 + 1 = 3 (or at
least more than 2).
Think Pycnogenol and
arginine; caffeine and
yohimbine, beta-alanine
and creatine.
O
Team Beast
TM
Athlete
Brandan Fokken
LIKE A
BEAST
TRAIN

1995 - 2014 Beast Sports Nutrition. All Rights Reserved


THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION.
THIS PRODUCT IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT, CURE, OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.
pre-workout formula that
maximizes intensity
and energizes the body
to compete at the highest level.*
O
Team Beast
TM
Athlete
Brandan Fokken
LIKE A
BEAST
TRAIN

1995 - 2014 Beast Sports Nutrition. All Rights Reserved


THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION.
THIS PRODUCT IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT, CURE, OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.
pre-workout formula that
maximizes intensity
and energizes the body
to compete at the highest level.*
ON SALE
Team Beast
TM
Athlete
Brandan Fokken
LIKE A
BEAST
TRAIN

1995 - 2014 Beast Sports Nutrition. All Rights Reserved


THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION.
THIS PRODUCT IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT, CURE, OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.
pre-workout formula that
maximizes intensity
and energizes the body
to compete at the highest level.*
ON SALE
MAY
Team Beast
TM
Athlete
Brandan Fokken
LIKE A
BEAST
TRAIN

1995 - 2014 Beast Sports Nutrition. All Rights Reserved


THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION.
THIS PRODUCT IS NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT, CURE, OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.
pre-workout formula that
maximizes intensity
and energizes the body
to compete at the highest level.*
20 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
THE BODY SHOP
THREE GREAT MOVES FOR
STUBBORN LOWER ABS
Weighted Hanging Knee Raise
Rest your forearms on the pads of a vertical bench (aka Roman chair),
hold onto the handles and secure a light dumbbell (10 to 15 pounds)
between your feet with your legs extended toward the foor. Keeping
your upper back fat against the bench pad throughout, bend your legs
to lift your knees straight up until your thighs are past parallel with the
foor. At the top of the rep, crunch your pelvis upward so your glutes
come off the pad. 3 sets, 10 to 12 reps
Decline Reverse Crunch
Lie reversed on a decline bench set to around 30 degrees, grasping the
ankle pads with your hands. With your legs and hips bent 90 degrees,
contract your abs to bring your knees toward your chest and lift your
glutes off the bench. Squeeze the abs for a count or two before lower-
ing your legs back down. 3 sets, 10 to 15 reps
Double Crunch
Lie on the foor with your hands behind your head and legs extended
and raised a few inches off the foor. Simultaneously bring your knees
to your torso while crunching your upper body toward your legs.
Squeeze in the middle, then lower back down without letting your feet
touch the foor between reps. 2 sets, 20 reps
1)
2)
I
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o
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b
y

P
a
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l

D
u
a
r
t
e
REVENGE OF THE SMITH
ONE-ARM OVERHEAD PRESS
Despite getting bashed left and right be-
cause of a so-called lack of functionality,
the Smith machine is great for packing on
size, thanks to its fxed path of motion that
allows the target muscle to move heavy
loads with minimal help from stabilizers.
Get the most out of this under-appreciated
training tool with this killer move.
Target: middle and front deltoids
Position a fat bench in the Smith ma-
chine and set the bar about halfway up the
column. Keep the weight relatively light.
Sit sideways on the bench with one
shoulder directly underneath the middle of
the bar. Grab the midpoint of the bar with
one hand, unlatch the safety hooks, and
start with your arm extended overhead
and your nonworking hand on the bench
for stability.
Bend your elbow to lower the bar down
until its just above your shoulder, then ex-
plosively press it back up until your elbow
is extended but not locked out. Repeat for
reps, then switch arms.

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24 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
PEAK PERFORMANCE
F
ew sports are pigeonholed
like fielu hockey. Nost people
think the game is playeu a)
exclusively in the Noitheast-
ein 0niteu States anu b) only by high
school anu college giils. So basically, it's
the female veision of laciosse, iight.
Wiong. Exhibit A: the Bay Aiea Fielu
Bockey Association, a San Fiancisco-
baseu men's club with five compet-
ing teams in the vicinity. Point being,
fielu hockey isn't just a spoit foi giils
22 anu youngei. If you'ie a guy (oi a
woman oluei than 22, foi that mattei),
you can most ceitainly paiticipate.
Anu if you'ie looking to get into phe-
nomenal caiuiovasculai shape, maybe
you shoulu.
"Fielu hockey is unique in that it ie-
quiies a couple of uiffeient eneigy sys-
tems," says Caioline Nichols, a membei
of the 0.S. national fielu hockey team
anu paiticipant in both the Beijing
(2uu8) anu Lonuon (2u12) 0lympics.
"You actually spenu a goou amount of
thiough. You can uo this woikout on a
tiack oi a tieaumill.
STAY LOW: "Anothei unique thing
about fielu hockey is that the type of
iunning you'ie uoing is most often bent
ovei, so you'ie iunning in moie of a
cioucheu oi squatteu position," Nichols
says. Because of this, she iecommenus
uoing meuicine-ball "squat walks" in
the gym. These involve holuing the ball,
squatting uown as fai as possible anu
walking foi uistance in this loweieu
position. Running "lauueis" S yaius
anu back, 1u anu back, 1S anu back,
up to 2S anu back is anothei way
to tiain youi bouy to stay low because
making all those cuts foices you to.
GET A GRIP: Like soccei, fielu hockey
uemanus a lot of youi lowei bouy. But
hanuling the stick iequiies a high lev-
el of grip strength in addition to keen
hanu-eye cooiuination. "A lot of the
tiaining we uo in the gym iequiies the
stick, anu we'll even auu extia weight,
like a piece of iebai tapeu to the enu
of it," Nichols says. "Nost of oui giip
stiength comes fiom the left hanu, so
we uo a lot of left-hanu giip woik. Anu
we uo it with the stick because it's a
unique giip that you can't ieally iepli-
cate with a uumbbell."
FULLY EQUIPPED: To play a fielu hock-
ey game, fiist you neeu a gioup to play
with. 0SA Fielu Bockey's website is a
gieat place to stait. visit teamusa.oig,
choose "Fielu Bockey" unuei the spoits
menu, then, unuei the "Playeis" uiop-
uown box, click on "Finu a Club." Theie,
a map of the 0niteu States will uiiect
you to existing clubs in youi aiea foi
oiganizeu pickup games.
You'll also neeu some basic equip-
ment: a stick, a ball, stanuaiu athletic
appaiel (shoits anu a t-shiit), shoes
(tuif shoes oi cleats, uepenuing on
whethei you'll be playing on tuif oi
giass) anu shinguaius. AsicsAmeiica.
com is a goou online stoie foi clothes
anu shoes, anu BaiiowSpoits.com will
have you coveieu on all spoit-specific
equipment. Next step. Stait playing.
"Fielu hockey can be a little fiustiat-
ing when you fiist stait," Nichols says,
"but if you just stick with it, you'ie going
to have that uay when it's going to click,
anu eveiything takes off fiom theie.
0nce you ieally get the hang of it, fielu
hockey is a tiuly iewaiuing spoit."
LEVELI NG THE PLAYI NG FI ELD
Think feld hockey isn't geared toward your demographic? Give it another look
for a huge cardiovascular boost.
BY C.J. LOGAN
youi time jogging, then you ieach an
uppei-enu spiint, but only foi a cou-
ple of seconus at a time, anu then you
spenu a uecent amount of time walk-
ing in a iecoveiy style. So it hits eveiy
single gate."
START SPRINTING: To piepaie youi-
self foi the physical uemanus of a game,
Nichols iecommenus BIIT-style iun-
ning woikouts in an open fielu. 0ne ba-
sic ioutine she offeis entails 1u seconus
of all-out spiinting alteinating with 1u
seconus of iest foi 1u to 12 inteivals.
Rest two to thiee minutes, then iepeat
foi two moie iounus. To mimic the
stait-anu-stop anu change-of-uiiection
elements of fielu hockey, spiint 2S
yaius anu back ("shuttle" style), then
iest 1u seconus.
Again sticking with the 1:1 woik-to-
iest iatio, anothei woikout Nichols
likes is iunning haiu foi thiee minutes
(ioughly 8uu meteis) anu then iesting
foi the same amount of time, five times
26 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
FOR WOMEN
ILITARY PUSHUP
Setup: Get into a push-up position
with your hands directly beneath your
shoulders and your head, hips and
heels all in line.
Move: Bend your elbows and keep them
in close to your body as you lower to the
flooi. When youi chest neaily touches
the flooi, extenu youi aims anu piess
yourself back up to the start.
Tip: Think about brushing your rib cage
with your elbows with each rep to keep
your arms in the proper position.
W
hen it comes to trouble
spots, the backs of your
arms probably rank right
up theie with muffin
tops and saddlebags. But with summer
tank-top season approaching, its time
to tame those triceps.
This workout uses isolation and com-
pound motions to target those trouble-
some tris, building shapely muscle that
will make your arms look incredible.
Do this workout once or twice a week,
and in about two months, you should
be jiggle-free.
FLIPGRIP DUBBELL IBA
Setup: Stand with your feet hip-width
apart and hold a set of dumbbells at
your sides with your palms facing be-
hind you. Fold forward from your hips
until youi back is flat anu benu youi
elbows, pinning them to your sides.
Move: Keep your upper arms steady as
you straighten your arms, pressing your
palms toward the ceiling. Pause a mo-
ment at full extension, then ietuin to the
stait, flip youi palms to face foiwaiu anu
then extenu youi aims again. Retuin to
the start to complete one repetition.
Tip: Bon't iush; uo each pait of this ex-
ercise slowly and deliberately.
RAB DIP
Setup: Sit on the flooi with youi knees
bent anu feet flat on the flooi, anu place
your hands on either side of your hips.
Lift your hips up so youre balanced be-
tween your heels and your hands and
youi bum is about 6 inches off the flooi.
Move: Bend your elbows and touch
youi bum to the giounu, then extenu
your arms and lift your hips and walk
backward two steps on your hands and
heels to complete one rep.
Tip: Keep your chest lifted and your
shoulders back to protect your joints
and put the work on your triceps.
OERHEAD DUBBELL
TRIEPS ETENSION
Setup: Stand with your feet hip-width
apart and hold a dumbbell with both
hands straight up overhead, elbows in
close to your ears.
Move: Slowly bend your elbows and
lower the weight behind your head as
fai as you can. Then extenu youi el-
bows and press the weight all the way
back up to the start.
Tip: Keep your elbows in as close to your
heau as you can; uon't let them flaie out.
LYING ROSSBODY
DUBBELL TRIEPS ETENSION
Setup: Lie faceup on a bench and hold
a set of dumbbells straight up over
your shoulders with your palms fac-
ing your feet.
Move: Keeping your upper arms station-
ary, bend at the elbow to slowly lower
one dumbbell across your body to touch
the opposite shouluei, then extenu back
to the start. Continue, alternating sides.
Tip: Foi a little extia bonus, squeeze
and contract your nonworking triceps
isometrically while your opposite arm
is doing a rep.
EXERCISE SETS REPS
Military Push-Up 3 10-12
Flip-Grip Dumbbell Kickback 3 12-15 each arm
Crab Dip 3 10
Overhead Dumbbell Triceps Extension 3 12-15
Lying Cross-Body Dumbbell Triceps Extension 3 12-15 each arm
WAVE BYE-BYE TO FLABBY ARMS
Jiggle-proof your triceps with these fve moves.
BY LARA MCGLASHAN, CPT
28 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
J ULI EN GREAUX
Hes a martial artist, hes a cover model and hes an actor. Find out how this
French import nds the energy to handle it all.
BY I SAI AH RHODES, NSCA-CPT
A
s 30-somethings go, Julien
Greaux isnt really that excit-
ing. He doesnt smoke. He
doesnt do drugs. Hes never
had a sip of alcohol. He rarely goes out.
While most of his peers are planning their
next cheat night, Greaux is philosophical-
ly steeling himself against temptation. If
they never ever invented ice cream, you
wouldnt be craving it, he says.
But before you go judging him for all
the vanilla living, take another peek at
the pic here. Yeah. Sometimes boredom
begets brilliance. How I live might be
boring for some people, but for me, its
just the way I like to be, Greaux says.
PRO CORNER
What has your experience with mar-
tial arts done for your physique?
I have been practicing martial arts for
30 years. I started with judo, then ka-
rate shotokan, taekwondo, muay Thai
and kickboxing. I used to compete in
karate when I was a kid. Martial arts
are my life I love everything about
them. Its more than a sport to me; its
a way of life. I loved competing, but it
was never my motivation. A ight is a
ight for me you dont stop it. We
ight all the way or I walk away. Its not
a game. Mostly, it brings you respect
for yourself and others. Because of
that, Im very disciplined. P
h
o
t
o

C
o
u
r
t
e
s
y

o
f

L
e
e

L
H
G
F
X

P
h
o
t
o
g
r
a
p
h
y
RUDE BOY
In addition to all his other pursuits,
Julien Greaux has launched his own
clothing line. Called Team Rude Boy,
it specializes in MMA, motocross,
ftness and surfng lifestyle wear. For
more info, visit teamrudeboy.com.
JULIEN GREAUX
Birth Date: June 28, 1976
Birthplace: Brittany, France
Residence: Los Angeles
Height: 5`9"
Weight: 180 to 185 pounds
How do you manage to keep in shape
year-round? Whats your diet like?
My conditioning comes from a mix be-
tween my training method and my diet
not one or the other. I mix things up
all the time: heavy weights, explosive
sets, giant sets, bodyweight exercises,
plyometrics. My diet is super clean. I
eat what my body needs, not what my
stomach wants, which is purely mental.
Im not a big eater.
For breakfast, I usually have two
scoops of oatmeal mixed in a blender
with a scoop of GAT Supertein and wa-
ter. For my second meal, its one big
chicken breast, steamed veggies and a
big sweet potato with a piece of fruit.
My third meal is the same as breakfast,
and my fourth meal is the same as my
second one, although sometimes I eat
white ish instead of chicken. I also try
to eat red meat twice a week, and I eat
whole-grain tortillas and a bunch of
fruit. Im so used to eating this way that
I know if I eat too much or not enough.
I dont count anything.
How do supplements play into your
training and recovery?
Im very happy with GAT. I use Nitraf-
lex preworkout and Adenolex post-
workout and the reviews are true
they give sick results! I also have some
Muscle Martini before and after my
workout, and I use Supertein for all my
shakes. I do take JetFuel on and off, too.
Whats the story with your upcom-
ing independent film Parabellum?
Parabellum is a movie I star in, wrote
and produced. Im super proud of it.
People have no idea how much work it
takes. Parabellum is the story of Philippe
Moreau, an ex-convict who just got out
of jail in Paris and is trying to ind a job,
but nobody wants to hire him because of
his past. So he tells his wife and daugh-
ter that hes going to go to the States and
try his chances there and plans on hav-
ing them come when hes ready. Hes a
cab driver, and one day, he meets a cus-
tomer who will change his point of view
on the American dream.
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IF
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S

The snatch and the clean-and-jerk are m
ore
than just am
usingly nam
ed exercises. Theyre
historical
and historically difcult
m
ulti-
joint lifts that, if executed properly, can have a
place in every workout regim
en.
By Bob LeFavi, Ph.D., CSCS, USAW
Photography by Robert Reiff
FITNESS ICON
MIKE OHEARN,
KICKIN IT
OLYMPIC STYLE
32 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
I
f youve been hanging around gyms
long enough, youve no doubt no-
ticed that there are three main
groups of serious lifters, folks train-
ing with weights who have an interest
beyonu geneial fitness.
Fiist, theie aie the bouybuilueis.
Whether or not those in this category
compete is not impoitant. What is iel-
evant is their common goal: manipu-
late resistance to bring about increased
muscle size, uefinition anu balance.
This group comprises the vast majority
of lifters, folks who are dedicated to op-
timal physique uevelopment.
Seconu, theie aie the poweilifteis.
Their goal is to maximize muscle strength
the force produced by a muscle or
muscle gioup. Foi a poweiliftei, effoits
in the gym center around how much total
weight can be lifted; they usually couldnt
caie less how they look uoing it. This is
a relatively small group of lifters, and
theyre typically found among the gyms
powei iacks anu chalk buckets.
Thiiu, theie aie the weightlifteis. The
term weightlifting (as one word) is
not a geneiic one; it iefeis specifically to
those performing the Olympic-style lifts
the snatch anu the clean-anu-jeik (e.g.,
to use the term Olympic-style weight-
liftei" is to be ieuunuant). While the
goal of weightlifters is similar to that of
powerlifters to maximize the amount
of weight lifted the former group is
also concerned with muscle balance and
othei factois impoitant to bouybuilueis.
Anu you woulu have a haiu time finuing
a bodybuilder who wouldnt want the
dense, massive quads, hams and back of
a goou weightliftei.
There are only a few thousand weight-
lifters (USA Weightlifting athletes) in
the 0niteu States. In fact, theie aie moie
0SAW coaches than theie aie athletes.
Fortunately, with more recognition be-
ing given to weightlifting through the
growth of CrossFit and recent advance-
ments in elite sports training (strength-
and-conditioning programming), more
and more athletes are becoming inter-
esteu in the 0lympic lifts. Bowevei, the
plain truth is that very few of us grew
up performing a snatch or a clean-and-
jeik. Because they'ie geneially not in
our usual library of exercises, we are
not sure how to use those lifts in our
tiaining ioutines oi even what benefits
they offei.
34 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
Olympic Lifts for Muscle Building
The Olympic lifts may very well be the most
underused and underappreciated lifts for
building muscle mass. There are four physi-
ological means by which these movements
help increase muscle size and balance. First,
the snatch and the clean-and-jerk are complex,
multi-joint movements that activate a larger
percentage of muscles than any other single
lift. Lifters interested in balanced mass build-
ing want to ensure that all musculature, at
one point or another, is contracting against a
iesistance. The 0lympic lifts aie efficient ways
to stimulate a large percentage of musculature
in a single lift.
Second, these lifts require so much coordi-
nation and synchronization of muscle groups
that the effect transfers to other movements.
For instance, after learning how to clean prop-
erly, a persons front squat invariably gets
better. Why? Because the movements neuro-
logical and biomechanical patterns have been
iefineu thiough iepetition, anu "syneigist"
(assisting) muscles have been trained to sta-
bilize joints anu optimize technical efficiency
throughout the lift. What results is an en-
hanced ability to maximize force production
in that movement, and that leads to a greater
adaptation and more mass.
Third, the snatch and clean-and-jerk lifts re-
quire a full range of motion in joints. It may be
surprising for some to learn that weightlifters
aie seconu only to gymnasts in tests of flex-
ibility anu have flexibility scoies bettei than
powerlifters and control subjects. Muscle con-
traction throughout the full range of motion
results in the development of a balanced mus-
culature around joints, not only adding to the
appearance of fullness and mass around those
joints but also to protection against injury.
Fourth, the downward compressive forces on
the core musculature inherent in these lifts also
aid in building muscle mass. Often the reason a
lifter cant come out of a deep squat is poor core
strength. As a person trains the Olympic lifts,
his or her lower back, abdominals, obliques,
hip flexois anu extensois all uevelop. Suie,
these muscles will be stronger and look better,
but thats not the real effect. Because the core
muscles are stronger, you can withstand train-
ing with higher intensity in all lifts and that
helps bring about greater mass.
Its All About Technique
Success in the Olympic lift is unequivocally
technique-driven. Cheating never leads to
progress in these lifts. Though we review the
optimal technique for the snatch and clean-
and-jerk here, we do recommend getting
a good coach if youre really serious about
achieving perfection.
Clean
36 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
Grip
Grasp the bar in a standard, pronated (palms
down), closed grip. Now, tuck your thumb un-
uei youi inuex fingei anu if youi fingeis
aie long enough youi miuule fingei, as well.
This is called a hook grip, and it will ensure
you'll maintain contiol of the bai uuiing the
rapid and explosive second pull. It may take
a while foi you to get accustomeu to the feel,
but once you do, you wont be able to imag-
ine how you ever grasped the bar any other
way. (See Determining Proper Grip Width
on Page 42.)
Starting Position
Beteimine the optimal wiuth of youi feet if you weie to peifoim a veitical jump.
This position, which is likely with youi feet just outsiue shouluei wiuth, shoulu be
the same position of youi feet as you step unuei the bai. Now, look uown at the
bai fiom uiiectly above it. The bai shoulu be ovei the wiue pait of youi foot ap-
pioximately ovei youi shoe's seconu set of eyelets. Youi elbows shoulu be pointeu
out to the sides, not behind you, and your knuckles should be under the bar.
Nost impoitant, youi shoulueis shoulu be slightly in fiont of the bai. The easiest
way to do this is to keep a natural arch in your lower back and then incline your
toiso to the point at which youi shoulueis aie aheau of the bai anu you aie main-
taining youi giip. Nake suie youi feet aie flat on the flooi. (This is wheie soliu
lifting shoes can help.) Common pioblems aie tight ankles, which will cause you
to rock onto your toes at the starting position, and a rounded lower back, which
will cause you to uiop youi toiso anu subsequently fall foiwaiu. Youi eyes shoulu
be looking stiaight aheau not uown at the flooi oi up at the ceiling. The balance
of the liftei shoulu be on the balls of the feet with the heel still in contact with the
flooi. (See "12-Point Checklist foi Staiting Position" on Page 42.)
First Pull
At the stait of the pull off the flooi,
ensure that your arms are tight and
that the movement is initiated by
the pushing of youi feet against the
flooi. The fiist pull is moie of a uiive
with the lower body than a pull with
the upper body.
The key in the fiist pull is this: As
the bai tiavels fiom the flooi to the
level of youi knees, you shoulu uo
everything you can to maintain the
angle of youi toiso. That is, youi
hips and shoulders should rise at
the same iate. Think of the bai as
stationary and that what you are
ieally uoing is moving the platfoim.
If you uo this, when the bai gets to
knee height, your shins will become
veitical anu the bai will want to uiift
away fiom you to a point unuei youi
shoulueis. Keep youi wiists flexeu
and your knuckles under you to
pievent this uiifting. At this point,
you'll feel the weight moie in youi
miufoot.
38 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
Transition
As the bar passes the knee, tuck it in
toward your hips (actually move it up
your thighs). This is called the scoop,
and it is as if you are scooping the bar
toward you with your knuckles down.
But remember, youre scooping the
bar with your elbows rotating toward
you, not your shoulders; keep them
forward.
Now, this is important: During this
transition, not only are you tucking
the bar in toward you as you prepare
for the second pull, but you are also
moving your knees forward. This
re-bends your knees while bring-
ing the bar closer to your hips. It is
common for the bar to scrape your
thighs during the transition, which
ends at the point called the power
position the point of contact at
which the second pull begins. Exactly
where that point of contact is will de-
pend on your limb length and wheth-
er you are performing the snatch or
clean-and-jerk. Normally, the second
pull begins somewhere between
midthigh and hip.
Note: These lifts are not made up
of a series of steps with noticeable
starts and stops all put together.
That is, movement fiom the fiist pull
to the transition to the second pull
should appear seamless and should
be executed with increasing speed,
particularly as the bar moves to the
second pull.
Second Pull
Once the bar is in the power position, forcefully and rapidly extend your hips
(pop them quickly forward) as you go up on your toes. This is called triple ex-
tension and is vital to bring about optimal bar speed. The upward motion of the
bar during the second pull is initially the result of a forceful hip extension and, to
a lessei extent, knee extension anu ankle plantai flexion.
As the bar leaves your hips, perform a fast, hard shrug, being careful to keep
your elbows high and outside. Avoid leaning back except to make a path for the
bar, which should rise in as straight a line upward as possible. A common mistake
in the second pull is for the bar to arc out in front of the body. This can occur es-
pecially if the bar ricochets off the hips too violently or your elbows drift behind
you. Think of your hips as carrying the bar upward after extending forcefully
forward. When the bar reaches its maximum height, your elbows should be as
high as possible and on the sides of your body.
Up to this point, the technique described applies to the snatch and the clean-
and-jerk. The only differences between the two lifts through the second pull are,
of course, your grip width and the fact that the bar may contact your thighs slightly
higher toward the hips in the snatch than the clean-and-jerk when in the power
position. However, at the top of the second pull, the movements differ dramatically.
At the top of the second pull in the clean-and-jerk, immediately move your el-
bows forward rapidly in an arc under the bar. At the same time, release the hook
grip (a tight grip can inhibit arm speed) and drop into the receiving position by
pulling youiself unuei the bai. Set youi heels haiu against the flooi anu benu youi
knees to the proper height depending on whether you are performing a power
clean (in which you dont squat all the way down) or a squat clean (in which you
enter a deep squat). You have now racked the bar and are ready for the jerk.
At the top of the second pull in the snatch, drop into the receiving position by
pulling yourself under the bar and rapidly locking out your elbows. Try to lock
out at the same time as you reach the bottom of the receiving position. If you
lock out after you reach bottom, you will be more likely to press out at the top.
To complete the snatch, stand and shift your feet inward, keeping your elbows
locked and the bar slightly behind your head.
For the snatch and the clean-and-jerk, try to receive the bar at the highest eleva-
tion with your torso and shoulders rigid at a perpendicular or slightly forward angle
to the flooi. This will help pievent the bai fiom ciashing uown on you at the bottom
of the receiving position.
40 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
How to Fit Olympic Lifts
Into Your Routine
There are two important concepts to consider when working these lifts into your
present training routine. First, they always should be performed after a warm-
up but before heavy, low-speed strength movements (i.e., squat, deadlift, bench
press, etc.), endurance exercises or partial-movement exercises. This is because
they are highly technical and require a tremendous amount of skill, fast move-
ments, mental focus and physical or metabolic energy.
Second, technique in these complex lifts begins to break down after six repeti-
tions. Therefore, sets of 12 to 15 reps likely dont result in a smoother technique
anu may be counteipiouuctive in the effoit to iefine youi technique. Keep youi sets
to a maximum of six reps and youll maintain good technique throughout the set.
Jerk
When the bar is in the receiving po-
sition on a clean-and-jerk, you may
need to shift your feet into a position
more closely resembling your jump-
ing position. Keep youi elbows in
front of the bar, which should be sup-
ported primarily by your shoulders.
The main coaching point here is to
"uip anu uiive." Keeping youi toiso
upright and your weight back on
your heels at the beginning of the
dip, drop your hips smoothly and
straight down by 8 to 10 percent of
your height. Be careful not to dip too
quickly; this creates space between
your shoulders and the bar, mean-
ing the bar will not be resting on the
shoulders during the drive.
Drive the bar straight up, not for-
ward. Be sure to extend completely
at your hips, knees and ankles. Dur-
ing a split jerk, your hips should
move directly under the bar. Your
back foot should land slightly be-
fore your front foot with your el-
bows locking iapiuly. Keep youi
fiont foot flat anu youi shin veiti-
cal. Support your back foot with the
entire width of the ball of your foot.
Keep youi back knee bent anu sta-
ble with your feet hip-width apart.
Recovery
(From Split Jerk)
To recover from the split jerk,
press up with your front leg and
step back one half step. Then
move your back foot up under-
neath your hips. Finish by sliding
your front foot back the last few
inches, all the while maintaining
torso and shoulder stability.
Bob LeFavi, Ph.D., CSCS, USAW, is
a professor of sports medicine at
Armstrong Atlantic State Univer-
sity in Savannah, Ga., and a se-
nior coach for USA Weightlifting.
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42 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
DETERMINING PROPER GRIP WIDTH
One of the few things that differs at the start of the
two Olympic lifts is where you grip the bar. Heres a
guide to the two grips.
Grip for snatch: Raise your elbows up to the side
so theyre even with your shoulders and your upper
arms are parallel to the oor. Then drop your hands
down so you are in a scarecrow position. Have a per-
son behind you measure the distance from elbow to
elbow across your back. Mark this distance on the
bar. When you perform the snatch, these marks
should be between your index and middle ngers.
Grip for clean-and jerk: Grasp the bar so that when
its racked in the receiving position, your hands are
just outside your shoulders.
12-POINT CHECKLIST FOR STARTING POSITION
If your starting position is off, your chances of a
smooth, efcient lift are dramatically decreased.
Like an airplane pilot in the cockpit, run through this
12-point checklist before takeoff.
1. Bar over wide part of foot
2. Feet in a vertical jump position
3. Toes pointed slightly out
4. Bar close to shins but not touching them
5. Hips slightly higher than knees
6. Lower back in a natural lordotic concave curve
7. Arms straight with elbows rotated outward
8. Head up with eyes focused straight ahead
9. Shoulders slightly in front of the bar
10. Weight on balls of feet
11. Heels in contact with the oor
12. All body levers feel tight
WANT TO TRIM THE FAT? WE NORMALLY WOULD NOT
RECOMMEND THAT YOU STOP EATING, BUT STRONG
RESEARCH SUPPORTS THE IDEA OF PERIODIC FASTING
FOR A LEANER BODY AND IMPROVED HEALTH.
By Matthew Kadey, MS, RD
46 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
ithin the pages of
E.B. Whites famed novel Charlottes
Web is advice from an old sheep who
informs Templeton, a rat prone to glut-
tony, that he would live longer if he ate
less. Switch to the real world, and it
turns out that the sheeps advice may
hold water.
No one would argue that eating less
is the key to losing weight. But those
in fitness circles generally take that
knowledge and reduce their total in-
take but continue to eat at regular
intervals throughout the day to keep
their metabolism humming along
and put the kibosh on gorge-inducing
hunger pangs. Still, there are other
ways to drop body fat, and one way
thats supported by a growing num-
ber of research studies involves shut-
tering the kitchen for prolonged pe-
riods an eating pattern known as
intermittent fasting.
When most people hear the word
fast, what comes to mind is the fasting
in response to political convictions or
religious motivations such as Ramadan.
In reality, we already partake in daily
fasting. The word breakfast is exactly
that the time of day when you break
the fast from the night before. Intermit-
tent fasting, loosely deined as short-
term periods of up to 24 hours during
which you go without (or with very
few) calories, simply extends the fast-
ing time frame between noshes.
What it is not is a draconian detox
regime on which you follow strict di-
etary rules such as guzzling nothing
but green juices that are about as ap-
petizing as cough syrup. With short-
term fasting, you need only restrict
your eating for a set amount of time
ranging anywhere from eight to 24
hours. And the beneit is, when you do
eat, you can serve up just about what-
ever foods you please.
A (MUSCULAR) BODY OF RESEARCH
A 2013 extensive review of the medi-
cal literature published in The British
Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease
determined that participating in regu-
lar bouts of intermittent fasting can
pay off with lower blood sugar and
fat levels, healthier blood pressure
48 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
numbers and improved body compo-
sition, all of which may help fend off
coronary woes and diabetes. Why?
Lead researcher James Brown, Ph.D.,
a lecturer at the School of Life and
Health Sciences at Aston University in
Birmingham, England, believes one of
intermittent fastings main effects is to
improve our cells sensitivity to insu-
lin, which of course is a hormone that
regulates blood sugar. Poor insulin
sensitivity is a key component of meta-
bolic syndrome, a group of risk factors
that include a larger waistline, high
blood pressure, and elevated blood tri-
glyceride and sugar levels that raises
your risk for heart disease, diabetes
and other health woes. There is also
some evidence that intermittent fast-
ing can reduce levels of intra-abdom-
inal fat tissue, which is clearly benei-
cial for overall health, Brown adds.
Similarly, a 2012 study conducted
by researchers at the Intermountain
Medical Center in Utah had 30 healthy
volunteers take part in a single-day
water-only fast as well as a day of
eating their usual ration of food. Not
surprisingly, fasting resulted in a loss
of bodyweight, a little more than 3
pounds. But the kicker is that much
of the pudge stayed off two days after
regular eating resumed. Beyond im-
proving blood-sugar control, bouts of
fasting also appear to alter genes in a
way that encourages the body to burn
up more of its fat stores. So youre es-
sentially improving your bodys abil-
ity to use fat as an energy source, a
worthy perk for people seeking out a
six-pack they are proud to launt. This
study also found that fasting resulted
in a surge of human growth hormone,
an anabolic hormone that may reduce
any risk of muscle loss associated
with fasting.
More proof you shouldnt be put off
by the f-word: Its apparent that pe-
riods of fasting can help quell inlam-
mation in the body by lowering the ac-
tivity of circulating pro-inlammatory
compounds. Continually digesting and
assimilating food may place added
stress on the body, which could drive
up inlammation and cell-damaging
oxidative stress. It is now widely ac-
cepted among scientists that inlam-
mation is a major player in disease
progression. The National Institute
of Aging believes that fasting for one
or two days a week also may improve
brain function, such as fending off
memory loss. The mild stress that
fasting imposes on brain cells may en-
hance their function much like your
muscles beneit from the stress of
heaving iron.
Its hypothesized that the improved
health and body-composition out-
comes brought on by intermittent fast-
ing could be one of the main reasons
members of the Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints, who are encour-
aged to fast for two consecutive meals
on a regular basis, historically have
lower rates of chronic diseases. Stud-
ies, albeit on animals, have indeed sug-
gested that shunning around-the-clock
eating can extend life span.
Another worthy beneit of intermit-
tent fasting is that it may help you bet-
ter identify real signs of hunger and put
a greater emphasis on nutrient-dense
foods when you do eat on non-fasting
days. Plus, it just might be the easiest
so-called diet out there, requiring no
counting of calories or restricting of
certain food groups. As borne out in
published studies, intermittent fasting
is beneicial and adherable long term,
a form of eating that one uses over the
course of a lifetime for long-lasting
health beneits, Brown says.
INTERMITTENT FASTING, LOOSELY DEFINED
AS SHORT
-
TERM PERIODS OF UP
TO 24 HOURS DURING WHICH YOU
GO WITHOUT (OR WITH VERY FEW)
CALORIES, SIMPLY EXTENDS THE FASTING
TIME FRAME BETWEEN NOSHES.
50 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
Want to fnd out whether you can shave inches off
your waistline and keep your ticker beating strong
by spending less time with a fork and knife in
hand? Follow these guidelines for successful in-
termittent fasting.
PICK YOUR FAST TIME: While there are no stead-
fast rules when it comes to intermittent fasting,
the basic format is to alternate days of normal"
caloric intake with days of pronounced calorie re-
striction. You can choose how long you want to
go without calories - eight, 12, 16 or 24 hours
- and for how many days a week.
A popular intermittent fasting method is the
5:2 strategy, in which two days a week (not in
successionj are classifed as fast" days and en-
ergy intake is restricted to no more than about
500 calories. On the fve non-fasting days, you
can eat your normal calorie load. Common 24-
hour fasts involve lunch-to-lunch or dinner-to-
dinner fast periods, which is benefcial if you
have social commitments and takes advan-
tage of sleeping, when you wouldn't be eat-
ing anyway. Everyone is different, so you
need to experiment to fnd a fasting method
that works for you," advises James Brown,
Ph.D. Consider scheduling fast days when
your mind is going to be occupied by other
chores. This way, you'll be distracted and
less likely to open the fridge out of habit.
Another way to manage the fast is to do
a 16:8 fast, confning all caloric intake to
eight hours a day. Limiting your eating in
this way makes it very hard to overeat,
meaning you can be a little more lax with
your food choices than normal.
START SLOW: lf it has become a habit to nosh several
times a day, intermittent fasting may take some getting
used to. Many people fnd it less daunting and more ap-
pealing to ease their way into fasting by, say, skipping
breakfast once a week to extend their overnight fast
until midmorning or later. Or try having an earlier dinner,
say around 6 p.m., and then push your breakfast back
to about 10 a.m. You can even experiment with a more
manageable eight-hour fast by forgoing snacks and
lunch between your frst and last meals of the day. This
way, you can slowly build up your tolerance for longer
fasting periods.
DONT OVERDO IT: lt's called intermittent because the
idea is to take a break from eating, not forgo it for very
long periods, which can lead to health concerns and loss
of lean body mass. A good guideline is to fast for no more
than 24 hours and no more than once or twice a week.
DRINK UP: When fasting, it's important to guzzle plenty
of fuids to stay hydrated and minimize empty stomach"
sensations that could cause you to reach for the cookie
jar. Water, seltzer water and unsweetened tea are great
calorie-free hydration options.
KEEP TRAINING: lf your training goal is to shed fat, then
exercising in the middle of a fast can create a metabolic
environment that favors fat burning because carbohydrate
stores become limited. On the fip side, if you're training
to reach a ftness goal such as nailing a certain squat
weight or PR run time, it's likely best to work up a vigor-
ous sweat
on a non-fast day. Regard-
less, common sense should prevail here: lf you feel
exhausted and lightheaded when exercising while fast-
ing, it's time to reach for some grub. Some fasters will
aim to halt their fasts and workouts at the same time. So
if you're fasting from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m., for example, hit the
gym at 4:30 p.m. and then have a healthy postworkout
meal.
HAVE CONTROL: Compensatory gorging on nutritional
dreck is no way to reward yourself for a fast well done.
The best way to eat after ending a fast is to approach
your diet as if you didn't fast at all. So, in other words,
post-fast meals and snacks should be fush with whole
foods like vegetables, lean proteins and healthy fats,
not deep-dish pizza and cheesecake. ln particular, em-
phasize protein. A 2013 Purdue University study found
that during periods of energy restriction, a diet rich in
protein can help preserve muscle mass even as body-
fat levels drop.
KNOW YOUR LIMITS: lnitially, headaches, fatigue and a
cranky mood can be symptoms of fasting. While many
people will move past these as their bodies become ac-
customed to fasting, for some, fasting is not in the cards
and unwell feelings persist. lf you always feel lousy on a
fast, then intermittent fasting is likely not for you. Also,
if you have any medical issues, be sure to talk to your
health-care provider before starting a fasting program.
F
A
S
T
I
N
G

C
H
E
A
T

S
H
E
E
T
S
L
O
W
in
t
e
r
m
it
t
e
n
t
f
a
s
t
in
g
MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM MAY 2014 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE 51
MEGA PROTEIN
WHEN YOUR
WORKOUT
RECOVERY
DEMANDS IT
CLAY MATTHEWS
All-Pro Linebacker
2014 CytoSport, Inc. MUSCLEMILK.COM
MEGA PROTEIN
WHEN YOUR
WORKOUT
RECOVERY
DEMANDS IT
CLAY MATTHEWS
All-Pro Linebacker
2014 CytoSport, Inc. MUSCLEMILK.COM
MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM MAY 2014 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE 53
SUPPLEMENT IN FOCUS
O
therwise known in scientiic circles as Pausi-
nystalia yohimbe, yohimbe is a tall evergreen
tree that grows naturally in western Africa
and has been used for centuries to increase
male sexual performance and sex drive. In more recent
years, scientists have discovered that yohimbe bark is a
concentrated source of a bioactive compound called yo-
himbine, which is responsible for most of yohimbes ac-
tions in the body. Today, you can ind yohimbe bark, yo-
himbe extract (standardized for yohimbine alkaloids)
and pure yohimbine HCL in supplements formulated to
increase sexual performance and promote fat burning. If
youre interested in trying out a yohimbe- or yohimbine-
based supplement, then read on to ind out how this stuff
works and what it can do for you.
TURN UP THE HEAT
Interested in getting leaner and improving your sex life? Take yohimbe.
GET IT ON
Before the introduction of drugs like iagra, yohimbine
was commonly prescribed to treat erectile dysfunction.
Yohimbine is a potent and speciic alpha-2-adrenoreceptor
(A2R) blocker. These receptors are located throughout the
body and are commonly found in blood vessels that provide
blood low to the penis for achieving erection. When theyre
activated by the hormones epinephrine or norepinephrine,
blood vessels become constricted and limit blood low to
the penis a condition that promotes erectile dificulty.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine levels rise in response to
stress and increasing age and weight, so it stands to reason
that erectile dysfunction gets worse when were stressed
out, get older andor fall out of shape. This is where yo-
himbine can come to the rescue, blocking norepinephrine
54 MUSCLE & PERFORMANCE MAY 2014 MUSCLEANDPERFORMANCEMAG.COM
and epinephrine from binding to receptors in penile blood
vessels and promoting widening of the blood vessels and
increased blood low to the penis. All in all, yohimbine is a
pretty effective treatment for mild erectile problems, espe-
cially those caused by short-term psychological stress.
But beyond improving the quality of erections, yohimbine
has been shown to increase sexual arousal in men and wom-
en. This aphrodisiac effect is caused by a few known mecha-
nisms. First, in the brain, yohimbine blocks the receptors on
nerves that spit out norepinephrine. Normally, these recep-
tors act like brakes, limiting the amount of norepinephrine
released from these nerves. Yohimbine releases the brakes,
allowing the nerves to spit out more norepinephrine into the
brain, leading to a feeling of arousal. Second, in the body, yo-
himbine boosts sex drive by increasing blood low to sexual
organs and heightening nerve excitability in the nerves that
control the sensitivity of the genitals.
A placebo-controlled study carried out several years ago in
Germany and published in the International Journal of Impo-
tence Research showed that, compared to those who received
a placebo, subjects who took yohimbine had greater overall
improvement in sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, frequency
of sexual contacts and quality of erection (penile rigidity)
during sexual contactintercourse.
BURN IT OFF
In terms of fat burning, yohimbine acts by increasing the re-
lease of fat from fat cells into the bloodstream so it can be
used for energy. This occurs by at least three mechanisms.
First, yohimbine blocks A2Rs that reside on fat cells that
(when activated) limit the amount of fat thats allowed to
be released. Hence, blocking them removes this limitation
and allows fat to move freely into the bloodstream. Second,
as youll recall, yohimbine encourages norepinephrine re-
lease, and norepinephrine also increases fat release into the
bloodstream. Finally, yohimbine inhibits certain enzymes
that break down and inactivate norepinephrine. That means
theres more norepinephrine hanging out around fat cells,
which of course results in increased fat release.
Although there have been many scientiic and anecdotal re-
ports of yohimbines fat-burning potential in individuals with
higher body-fat levels, yohimbine supplementation has been
shown to decrease body-fat levels even in lean professional
athletes. In a study published in Research in Sports Medicine,
lean professional soccer players either took 10 milligrams of
yohimbine twice daily or a placebo. In just three weeks, those
who took yohimbine saw their fat mass go from an already
very lean 9.3 percent down to .1 percent, whereas the pla-
cebo group had no change.
TAKE IT IN
Remember that although yohimbe and yohimbine work simi-
larly, their dosing is very different because of differences in
purity. With yohimbine HCL supplements, we recommend
to 20 milligrams two to three times per day between meals.
For yohimbe supplements, we recommend 00 to 2,000 mil-
ligrams two to three times per day between meals. If youre
supplementing for fat burning, take one of your doses 20 to
30 minutes before training. Always start with the lowest dose
to test your tolerance. And, if youre using yohimbe, there
may be notable differences in purity from product to product
(noted on label as percent standardization for yohimbine).
Make sure to adjust doses upward or downward accordingly.
Yohimbe and yohimbine supplements are not for everyone
because tolerance varies from individual to individual. The
side effects associated with yohimbe or yohimbine supple-
mentation are related to increased levels of epinephrine and
norepinephrine in the brain and body. Those who are sensi-
tive or take large doses may have increased blood pressure
and heart rate as well as headaches, dizziness, anxiety, nau-
sea and sleeplessness. If youre being treated for high blood
pressure, heart disease or kidney disease or are taking any
other prescriptions, you should consult your doctor before
taking yohimbe or yohimbine.
SCI ENTI STS HAVE DI SCOVERED
THAT YOHI MBE BARK I S A
CONCENTRATED SOURCE
OF A BI OACTI VE
COMPOUND CALLED
YOHI MBI NE, WHI CH
I NFLUENCES
SEXUAL
PERFORMANCE
AND FAT
BURNI NG.
DEMAND MORE
F O R T H O S E W H O
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F
or the hard-training athlete, growth hormone is many
a splendid thing. Produced naturally by the body, this
stuff repairs tissue, builds muscle, burns fat, enhances
metabolism and speeds overall recovery. It may sound
too good to be true. While this hormonal fountain of youth is not
without limits, there are ways you can manipulate certain aspects
of training and diet to keep your natural growth-hormone levels
topped off night and day.
1
REST LESS
Are you one of those rest until Im ready types? Well, if youre
jacked, were not going to argue with your approach. But if youre
genuinely in need of some GH-induced gains, you may want to
watch the clock a bit more. Studies have shown that
resting one minute or less sends growth-hormone lev-
els higher, which translates to more muscle growth.
Try training in weight ranges that are heavy but still
allow for adequate recovery in that time. The surge in
GH may help you adapt to shorter rest over time.
2
TRAI N HI GH VOLUME
Beating up your muscle bellies with higher volume
is known to produce more mass, but could the resul-
tant spike in GH be largely to thank? A 2003 study
published in the journal Medicine & Science in Sports
& Exercise found that experienced subjects perform-
ing more sets during a strength-training workout had
higher levels of growth hormone than those doing
less. Try adding one set per exercise to your normal
bodypart workouts to see an instant boost.
3
POSI TI VE + NEGATI VE
Another study published in the journal Medicine &
Science in Sports & Exercise found that a workout fo-
cusing on the concentric, or positive, portion of each
rep yielded greater levels of GH than one focusing on
the eccentric, or negative, portion of each rep. But
when compared using a relative load (youre stron-
ger on the negative portion of a rep), GH increases
were found to be about the same. The take-home?
Dont marginalize either part of the rep explode on
the concentric portion and take a nice, slow descent
on the negative.
4
VOLUME MATTERS
A 2009 study in the British Journal of Sports Medicine
showed that lactic-acid accumulation helps trigger
higher levels of growth-hormone production. Lactic
acid is only produced in response to intense anaero-
bic training. Activities like kettlebell swings, battle
ropes, CrossFit-style training and Olympic lifts all
of which focus on high-intensity anaerobic activity
can crank your GH production into overdrive.
5
TAKE GLUTAMI NE
Glutamine boosts immunity, enhances muscular re-
covery and also can help you tolerate higher levels of
lactic acid. (See No. 4.) But a study published in The
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed that a
relatively small amount of glutamine (2 grams) sig-
nificantly incieaseu giowth-hoimone levels. To keep
your glutamine (and thus, your GH) levels high, mix
in 5 grams of the stuff up to four times per day, with
one dose before training and one before bed.
GUARANTEED GROWTH
Crank up your bodys own production of this wonder hormone
with just a few simple tricks no pharmacists required.
BY I SAI AH RHODES, NSCA-CPT
5 WAYS TO BOOST GROWTH HORMONE
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2
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&

N
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2
.
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ENDURANCE
& STRENGTH
*

PUMPS
*
&
PERFORMANCE
*

ENERGY
& FOCUS
BSN

Pros know: To finish strong, you have to start strong.


And whether youre going for muscle growth, endurance,
or improved overall performance, nothing sets the tone
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another step closer to your goal. N.O.-XPLODE

2.0. Once you


try it, you will never train without it!

START STRONG. WORK HARD. FINISH FIRST.


Team bsn
athlete
Ryan Hughes
IFBB Mens Physique Competitor
www.BSNonline.net