Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 28

@ 2 December 2013

Final Report
REVIEW OF SITUATION ANALYSIS OF CHILDREN AND WOMAN (ASIA):
Creating a Holistic Child-Friendly Planning Tool

written by Center for Population and Policy Studies Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta 2013

Table of Contents

Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................................v Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................ vii I. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 1.2 Development Policy for Indonesian Children .................................................................. 1 Regional Planning Processes in the Decentralized System ........................................ 5 1.2.1 Regional Planning Processes .................................................................................... 5 1.2.2 Opportunities and challenges in the fulfillment of children's rights in the regional planning context ................................................................. 7 II. Asia (Analisis Situasi Ibu dan Anak) ............................................................................................... 9 2.1 2.2 2.3 The development of ASIA ........................................................................................................ 9 Challenges and obstacles in implementing ASIA in the regional level ................. 10 Evaluation on the implementation of ASIA in Polewali Mandar district and Surakarta City .................................................................................................... 11 2.3.1 ASIA in Polewali Mandar Regency ........................................................................ 11 2.3.2 ASIA in Surakarta City ............................................................................................... 13 2.3.3 Good practices and challenges in the implementation of ASIA in Polewali Mandar and Surakarta ....................................................................... 14 III. Conclusions and Recommendations ................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.1 3.2 Conclusions ..................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Recommendations ........................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

Annex .................................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

Abbreviations

APBD ASIA Bangda Bapermas PPPA and KB

: Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Daerah (Local Budget) : Analisis Situasi Ibu dan Anak (Situation Analysis of Women and Children) : Bina Pembangunan Daerah (Regional Development Bureau) : Badan Pemberdayaan Masyarakat, Pemberdayaan Perempuan, Perlindungan Anak and Keluarga Berencana (Agency for Community Empowerment, Women Empowerment, Child Protection and Family Planning) : Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah (Regional Board for Planning and Development) : Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (National Development Planning Board) : Badan Keluarga Berencana dan Pemberdayaan Perempuan (Board of Family Planning and Women's Empowerment) : Badan Keluarga Berencana, Pemberdayaan Masyarakat dan Pemberdayaan Perempuan (Agency for Family Planning, Community Empowerment and Women's Empowerment) : Biro Pusat Statistik (Statistics Bureau) : Bank Rakyat Indonesia : Badan Usaha Milik Daerah (Regional-Owned Enterprises) : Badan Usaha Milik Negara (State-Owned Enterprises) : Convention on the Rights of the Child : Dinas Pendidikan, Pemuda dan Olahraga (Education, Youth and Sports Office)

Bappeda Bappenas BKBPP

BKBPM&PP

BPS BRI BUMD BUMN CRC Dikpora

vii

Disnakertrans DPRD Dukcapil FGD IPM Juknis KB Kemendagri Kemendikbud KLA Kabid Sosbud Kodim KPPPA

: Dinas Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi (Manpower and Transmigration Office) : Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (Regional Legislative Board) : Kependudukan dan Catatan Sipil (Population and Civil Registration Agency) : Focus Group Discussion : Indeks Pembangunan Manusia (Human Development Index - HDI) : Petunjuk Teknis (Technical Guidance) : Keluarga Berencana (Family Planning) : Kementerian Dalam Negeri (Ministry of Home Affairs) : Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (Ministry of Education and Culture) : Kota Layak Anak (Child-Friendly City) : Kepala Bidang Sosial Budaya (Head of Social and Culture Division) : Komando Distrik Militer (Military Office at District Level) : Kementerian Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindungan Anak (Ministry of Womens Empowerment and Child Protection) : Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (Non Governmental Organization NGO) : Millenium Development Goals : Musyawarah Perencanaan Pembangunan (Community Participatory Planning for Development) : Non Governmental Organization : Peraturan Menteri Negara Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindungan Anak (Regulation of The State Minister for Womens Empowerment and Child Protection) : Perusahaan Listrik Negara (State Owned Electricity) : Program Nasional Bagi Anak Indonesia (The National Programme for Indonesian Children)

LSM MDGs Musrenbang NGO Permeneg PP&PA

PLN PNBAI

viii

PTPAS

: Pelayanan Terpadu Perempuan dan Anak Surakarta (Integrated Services for Children and Women in Surakarta) : Pengarusutamaan Pemenuhan Hak Anak (Childrens Rights Mainstreaming) : Rencana Aksi Daerah (Regional Action Plan) : Rencana Kerja Pembangunan Daerah (Local Development Work Plan) : Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah (Mid-Term Development Plan) : Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah (Regional Mid-Term Development Plan) Daerah

PUHA RAD RKPD RPJM RPJMD RPJMN SBA SK SKPD UNS

: Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional (National Mid-Term Development Plan) : System Building Approach : Surat Keputusan (Decree) : Satuan Kerja Perangkat Daerah (Regional Implementing Agency) : Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta

ix

I.

Introduction

1.1 Development Policy for Indonesian Children


Children's rights have been a major concern at the global level since the ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). All the UN country members including Indonesia had ratified the CRC to ensure the protection of children from all forms of violence, abandonment, discrimination and exploitation. In many societies, children are regarded as a half individual (have not yet matured) whose rights are often overlooked. Furthermore, some traditions oblige children to obey adults in all situations hence they are in a vulnerable position to be abused. The ratification of the CRC by the Indonesian government through the issuance of the Presidential Decree No. 36/1990 provided an opportunity for legal framework and policy development to better addressing such issues. Since the Indonesian government declared its commitment to the growth and development of children by ratifying the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) twenty-three years ago, some progress has been made in the development of policies for children in Indonesia, as seen in the adoption of the principles of UNCRC in important legislations and regulations. One of the most important is the enactment of the Law on Child Protection No. 23/2002 where it stipulates the protection of 15 rights of children (Box 1.) which are based on the CRC principles, they are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Non discrimination For the best interest of the child Right to live, survival, and growth Apreciation of children rights

With the enactment of the Law on Child Protection, any kind of violences against children that were previously regarded as part of local culture and traditions can be addessed, where the proprietor can be brought to justice. However, there are areas where protection of children still faces considerable challenges, including in the issue of trafficking, child labor, and children living on street1.

(www.kulonprogokab.go.id%2Fv21%2Fgetfile.php%3Ffile%3DARTIKEL-HARI-ANAK-NASIONAL-23JULI-2011-MENJAMIN-PERLINDUNGAN-TERHADAP-ANAK.pdf)

Children rights stipulated in the Law of Child Protection 1. Right to live, grow, develop, and participate in accordance to human dignity, as well as protection from violence and discrimination. 2. Right for a name as a personal identity and citizenship status. Children born either from legal marriage or from outside marriage as long as born within Indonesia has rights for a citizenship 3. Right to practice worship according to his/her religion. 4. Right to know his/her parents and being taken care of by their own parents 5. Right to be adopted if his/her own parents could not ensure his/her live and growth. 6. Right to receive health care and social insurance. 7. Right to get education and lessons. 8. Right to express opinion and being listen, to accept, seek, and give information 9. Right to rest and enjoy leisure time, play with peer, recreation, and make creation according to his/her talent and intellectual for self-development. 10. Right to get rehabilitation, social assistance, and social welfare for children with disabilities 11. Right to protection from discrimination, economic and sexual exploitation, negligent, violence and abuse, injustice, and other abusive treatment 12. Right to protection from abuse in political activities, involvement in arms conflict, social unrest, and war. 13. Right to protection from torture, or inhuman punishment 14. Right to get freedom in accordance to the law 15. Right to get legal and other assistances

The policy development for protection of children rights has been actually identified in the National Long-Term and Mid-Term Development Plans (RPJP and RPJMN). The RPJPN determines directions to develop human resources capacity through improvement of various programs in health, education, women's empowerment and child protection. The empowerment of children and women is directed to improve the quality of women and children life, roles, and welfare, as well as to reduce violence, exploitation, and discrimination. Along with the direction of the RPJPN, the development of adopted child becomes a priority in the National Mid-Term Development Plan (Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional/ RPJMN (20042009). The priority has been extended to be incorporated in the RPJMN 2010-2014 which mandated the formulation of policies and guidelines of children and gender mainstreaming in all ministries and government institutions. In addition, various development paths in improving the quality of human resources in Indonesia are in line with the commitments and agreements at the international level, such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). The MDGs set development targets priority in health area such as improving maternal health, reducing infant and child mortality, combating HIV and AIDS, malaria, and other infectious diseases, realizing basic education for all, and promoting gender equality and women's empowerment.

The Indonesian government, through the Bappenas has also formulated the National Programme for Indonesian Children (PNBAI). The PNBAI confirms the basic principles in the fulfillment of children's rights, including the right to have the optimum level of health, education, and protection. The PNBAI contains a number of basic activities in health, education, child protection and HIV and AIDS prevention. In general, the focuses of the main activities in the PNBAI 2015 are: 1. To ensure the strengthening of legal system through the endorsement of policies and legislations that protect children needs and interests and the socialization of these regulations in all levels of society. To carry out advocacy to legislative, units of planners, professionals, related sectors and private sectors in order to ensure the adoption of the national programs for children in order to fulfill the rights of children. To enhance the roles and participation of public institutions, including the press, private sector and NGOs, in the efforts to empower family, community, and to build partnership with the private sector in implementing the national programme for children. To increase public awareness of the role and status of women and families in relation to children health; mitigation and impact of HIV and AIDS; children education, the important of delaying age of marriage, and reproductive and mental health of children and adolescents. To ensure the provision of services in various areas including health, education, and social protection, which cover children from all levels of society, including children who come from remote areas, slums, poor family, and children who lives on street.

2.

3.

4.

5.

One of the efforts to translate the PNBAI into an action plan is by the lauching of the Child Friendly City by the Ministry of Women's Empowerment and Child Protection (KPPPA), a strategy to accelerate mainstreaming children rights through policies, programs, and development activities at the local level. The strategy involves encouraging regencies or cities to achieve child-friendly regency/city through developing a child rights-based development system which ensure the translation of government commitment to child rights fulfillment through the allocation of government, community, and business resources to the implementation of policies, programmes and activities for children2. KLA was launched in 2006, and started with a pilot project in five cities in Indonesia. The KPPPA has issued a guideline to develop KLA through the enactment of the Ministerial Decree No. 2/2009, and give an award to a regency/city which shows strong commitment to KLA development (assessed through 38 indicators). The award has motive local government to develop child-friendly regencies/cities among local governments in Indonesia. There were many district/city established KLA task force whichconsists of various elements of local government (Bappeda and SKPDs), police, attorneys, NGOs and community organizations, professional organizations, Chamber of Commerce, Donor Agencies, Children's Forum, P2TP2A, PKK, etc.
2

(Ministerial Regulation No 11/2011)

Figure 1
Regional regulation No. 8/ 2003 on the civil registration and certificate Policies in Surakarta City related to Child Protection Regional regulation No. 3/ 2006 on the eradication of commercial sexual exploitation Regional regulation No. 4/ 2012 on child protection Major regulation No. 3/ 2007 on the elimination of the worst forms of work for children KLA Major Regulation No. 17/ 2010 on the Technical guideline of child friendly village development

Figure 1 Mapping of laws, regulations, and policies regarding the national development of for Indonesian children

Several ministries regulations issued by the KPPPA on KLA

The Ministry decre No.36/ 1990 on CRC ratification

Mapping of laws, regulations, and policies regarding the national development of for Indonesian children

4
PNBAI Policies in Polewali Mandar related to Child Protection

CRC

UUPA No. 23/2002

Regional regulation No. 8/ 2012 on community participation Regional regulation No. 7/ 2012 on child protection on health and education sector Regional regulation No. 5/ 2004 on free birth certificate registration Regional regulation No. 5/ 2009 on free education

President decree No. 7/ 2003 on KPAI establishment

Regional regulation No. 6/2012 on the improvement of education quality and access

However, the assessment conducted in 2010 by the KPPPA found that local governments enthusiasm to implement KLA tend to be framed within the view of competition to win a national award, rather than a strategy to mainstream children's rights. Based on these findings, the KPPPA has made efforts to change the perception of local governments, and to motivate them to consider KLA as an instrument to respect, fulfill and protect the rights of children. The KPPPA realizes that in order to achieve such goals, KLA should be integrated into the existing planning processes at the local level. Hence a planning tool is required to assist local governments designing program and activities, calculating and allocating suitable budget, and monitoring and evaluating programmes and activities in various sectors to fulfill children rights. Recently the KPPA designed PUHA, an analytical tool designed to help the analysis of problems related to the fulfillment of children's rights in the local level. Yet, as it is only recently being developed, PUHA has not been implemented in the local level.

1.2 Regional Planning Processes in the Decentralized System


1.2.1 Regional Planning Processes
In 2001 Indonesia adopted a decentralized system that placed district as an autonomous region with authority similar to that owned by the provincial government3. Regional planning process is carried out top-down as well as bottom-up, based on the principle that planning is an integral part of the national development planning system, carried out by local governments along with stakeholders in accordance to their role and authority. The planning process should be integrated with spatial planning, and based on local condition and potential in accordance to the local and national development dynamic. At the national level, the BAPPENAS plays an important role in coordinating the planning and budgeting processes through facilitating the harmonization among related agencys to ensure linkages and coherence between long, medium, and short-term development plans. At the local level, decentralization has created opportunityies for local stakeholders to respond to the development of child welfare, one of which is the issuance of the Government Regulation No. 40/2006 on the national development planning procedures that requires the involvement of community participation through musrenbang forum held at the villages, districts, regencies and provinces in the formulation of annual work plan. The BAPPEDA plays an important role in facilitating musrenbang and policymaking process to ensure the coordination and synchronization of local development plans with the national development priorities and objectives. The relation between local and national development planning can be seen in Figure 2. The local planning processes produce planning documents which consists of the Regional Long-Term Development Plan (RPJPD), Regional Medium-Term Plan (RPJMD) and Regional Development Plan (RKPD). At the SKPD level, the documents are SKPD Strategic Planning (RENSTRA) and annual Work Plan (RENJA). The regional planning

Holtzappel, Coen J.G. (2009) Introduction: The regional governance reform in Indonesia, 1999 -2004, in Coen J.G. Holtzappel and Martin Ramstedt (eds), Decentralization and Regional Autonomy in Indonesia: Implementation and Challenges, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore, pp1-58

consist of the following stages (according to the Law No. 25/2004 and Law No. 32/2004): (1) Preparation of preliminary draft The preliminary draft of RPJMN and RKPD prepared by the Bappeda based on inputs from SKPD and stakeholders. The preliminary RPJMD draft contains local government head vision, mission, and programmes. The vision, mission, and programs are formulated by referring to the RPJPD and National RPJM, regional strategic environmental condition, and result of evaluation results on the implementation of the previous-RPJMD. Meanwhile, the RKPD preliminary draft contains regional economic framework design, priority programmes which are oriented to fulfill people's basic rights and to achieve sustainable equitable development, work plans and funding . The RKPD draft funded by both APBD and other sources by encouraging community participation. (2) Community Participatory Planning for Development (musrenbang) The RKPD and RPJMD preliminary draft are discussed in the Musrenbang which is conducted by Bappeda by involving stakeholders. Musrenbang for discussing RPJMD is carried out to socialize, discuss and reach agreement on the preliminary draft. Work plan draft (Renja) for each sector is made by related SKPD and then coordinated by the head of Bappeda to become RKPD Draft. The draft is then consulted at musrenbang with stakeholders from community. The regency/city RKPD preliminary draft is discussed in regency/city musrenbang to integrate SKPDs work plans and sub-districts development plans, while the provincial Musrenbang is carried out to integrate districts/cities work plan. The Musrenbang at village level is held in January, the district Musrenbang is held in February; the regency/city musrenbang is regency/city in March, while musrenbang at the national level is held in April. (3) Formulation of final draft Based on the musrenbang results, the head of BAPPEDA makes a final draft of regency/city/province work plans. The final draft of RPJMD is formulated by Bappeda which discussion is led by the regional head. Meanwhile, the final draft of work plan is compiled by the Bappeda completed with estimated budget. (4) Establishing the plan The final draft is submitted to the Regional Representative Council (DPRD) in the form of Regional Regulation Draft (Raperda). Raperda on RPJPD is discussed by the DPRD and local leaders, then consulted to the Ministry of Home Affairs. The Raperda then is endorsed at least six months after the head of province/district is inaugurated. The RKPD in the provincial level is endorsed by the Governors Regulations, while the RKPD in district/city level is endorsed by district/mayors regulations. The RKPD will serve as the basis for preparing the Local Budget Draft (RAPBD).

Figure 2.

Flow Chart of National Development Planning Document

To implement those various documents, each SKPD prepares a Strategic Plan (Renstra) and Work Plan (Renja). The SKPDs formulated the strategic planning which contains the vision, mission, objectives, strategies, policies, programmes, and development activities in accordance with their duties and functions, and refer to the RPJMD. Meanwhile, the SKPDs work plan is formulated by referring to the RKPD preliminary draft, RenstraSKPD, evaluation on the implementation of previous programme and proposed programmes and activities proposed by community. The SKPD work plan includes policies, programmes, and activities which are carried out by the government or by community.

1.2.2 Opportunities and challenges in the fulfillment of children's rights in the regional planning context
The decentralization system actually provides an opportunity for pursuing equitable development and reducing huge disparity in social -economyy, including in the fulfillment of children and women rights, through strengthening democratic governance at the local level. However, these objectives have not been fully realized. The gap in health and education between provinces, between regencies, between rural and urban areas, between gender groups and between the economic statuses has been even widened4. The Regional Autonomy Law 2001 stipulates that government's obligation in the area of 'child protection' become the obligation of the district/city government. However, this also has not become priority of the local governments in their program and activities.

SitAn 2010, UNICEF.

There were several obstacles hinder the fulfillment of children and women rights in local environment. First, the financial capacity of local governments are varied, where the gap between rich and poor regions is very wide. Second, local stakeholders particularly children and women have not been able to participate in the policy making process hence policies, budgets, strategic planning, and implementation of programmes and activities still do not fully responded to women and children needs and interests. Third, the executive and legislative capacityies to design and implement policies and regulations at the local level are also varied. Many local governments are not able to use the allocated budget to develop coherent and effective projects, or to translate their strategic plans into annual work plans5. In addition, the local autonomy has brought the devolution of (pemekaran wilayah) provinces, districts, and sub-districts. The devolution of regions has puts pressure both on the central government budget as the central revenue should be shared to more areas, and on the region itself in fulfilling the requirements for providing human resources and delivering basic services. To increase local revenue, local governments often make the education and health sectors as a source of local revenue, which resulting in the reduction of children access to health and education services6.

5 6

SitAn 2010, UNICEF. SitAn 2010, UNICEF.

II. Asia (Analisis Situasi Ibu dan Anak)

2.1 The development of ASIA


ASIA is a regional planning tool that provides a reliable, accurate and relevant data about the situation of children and women which can be used by districts/cities to design programmes and activities in order to fulfill children and women rights. ASIA is developed by the Ministry of Home Affairs in 1998 through intensive cooperation with Bappenas and UNICEF. ASIA is using a life cycle and human rights-based approach to programming (HRBAP). The aadoption of the rights-based approach was carried out in several stages, starting from the use of four stages in 2007, which then continued to the adoption of seven stages in 2009. The seven stages of the situation analysis of children and women are as follows: 1) Assessment on the gaps and problems existed in the fulfillment of children and women rights; 2) Analysis of direct, indirectt and underlying causes of the gaps in fulfillment of children and women rights; 3) Analysis of role pattern; 4) Analysis of capacity gap; 5) Formulation of key actions; 6) Identification of potential partnerships; and 7) Formulation of policy and programme recommendations. Through the above logical steps in performing situation analysis of children and women and based on reliable, accurate and relevant data, it is expected that ASIA will provide a logic and through analysis that can be referred by local governments in preparing, monitoring and evaluating the annual, medium-term and long-term programmes. To encourage districts/cities to integrate ASIA in their planning process, the Ministry of Home Affairs has issued a Ministerial Circulation Letter No. 640/751/SJ in 2009 that encourages local governments to integrate ASIA in process of national development meeting (musrenbang) from village to district level. In addition, the Ministry of Home Affairs has also published a Technical Guidelines for Preparing ASIA in 2009 (Petunjuk Teknis Penyusunan ASIA tahun 2009) which provides technical guidance for the preparation and development of ASIA to SKPDs in local governments.

ASIA aims to achieve the followings: a. To ssupport the regional planning process that combines top-down and bottom up approach in order to influence policy, strategy and budget creating an environment that conducive for the fulfillment of the rights of children and women, To provide the situation analysis of the fulfillment of the rights of children and women, To pprovides the analysis of the direct, indirect and structural causes of gaps, To formulate recommendations for improvement in policies, programmes, and activities to respond to the fulfillment of the rights of children and women and also to accelerate the achievement of development goals, including the achievement of the MDGs, To eenhance the national and regional levels institutional capacity to develop, implement, monitor, and evaluate programmes and activities in the fulfillment of the rights of children and women, To assist local governments to develop programmes and activities and calculate and allocate budget to support the realization of Child-Friendly Cities in various sectors.

b. c. d.

e.

f.

2.2 Challenges and obstacles in implementing ASIA in the regional level


Although ASIA has been introduced since 2009, not all areas can implement it. Of the approximately 409 regencies in Indonesia, only a few regencies that have conducted ASIA, mostly in pilot project locations where Bappenas, Ministry of Home Affairs and UNICEF provide facilitation, training and stimulant funding for the preparation and integration ASIA into their development planning processes. These pilot project locations include Situbondo, Bondowoso, Pasuruan, Pemalang, Brebes, South Central Timor regencies, four regencies in West Sulawesi, Manokwari, three regencies in Aceh (although it is not called ASIA), Polewali Mandar, and Surakarta. In these areas, the local governments have successfully compiled ASIA, but it still needs efforts to integrate it into the planning process. In Jayapura, ASIA is still in the stage of socialization and not yet actually being implemented to analyze the situation of women and children rights in the region (interview with Bangda - Kemendagri, 16 January 2013). There are several problems identified that challenge the adoption of ASIA by districts/cities, and provincial goverments as a part of their planning process. The Ministerial Circulation Letter that is the current legal standing for ASIA only contain encouragement to local government to adopt ASIA, hence it has little power to enforce local governments to use ASIA to be part of of their planning process. In addition, the Minister of Home Affairs Circulation Letter has not been well socialized to staff in local levels therefore there were many SKPDs do not understand or comprehend the goals, benefits, or method of preparing ASIA. ASIA has not only been well socialized among

10

regencies or cities, but also within district staff and stakeholders, for example Bappeda, SKPD, the board and the community elements/leaders. As a result, they have different view and perceptions on the importance of adopting ASIA in their local planning. Another obstacle in implementing ASIA by local government is the lack of data required to perform the situation analysis. ASIA requires valid, accurate, and disaggregated data on the situation of children and women in an area (for example updated data on maternal and infant mortalityy, data on violence on women and children, and data on HIV and AIDS prevalence which). Not all regions have the capacity to produce or to manage data, especially in new regions result of pemekaran). The above obstacles were the factors that slowing down the implementation of ASIA by district/cities in Indonesia

2.3 Evaluation on the implementation of ASIA in Polewali Mandar district and Surakarta City
2.3.1 ASIA in Polewali Mandar Regency
Polewali Mandar Regency is a new district as a result of devolution of province and regency in South Sulawesi. In 2005, Majene, Mamuju and Polewali-Mamasa were splitted from South Sulawesi Province to form the new province of West Sulawesi. Polewali and Mamasa were then divided into two separate regencies namely Polewali Mandar and Mamasa Regency. The total area of Polewali Mandar is 2,022.30 km2 and administratively divided into 16 districts, with 109 villages and 23 sub-districts. In 2011, the population is recorded 401,272 people7. For a considerable period of time, this area was one of the most isolated regions in South Sulawesi caused by several things, among others: remoteness from the provincial capital (Makassar), mountainous geography condition with poor road infrastructure; and differences in traditions and community structure of Mandar ethnics to the major Bugis and Makasar ethnics8. The number of poor people in Polewali Mandar is still quite high despite declining from the period 2005 (112,200 people or 30.71 percent of the total population) to 2008 (78,300 people or 21.80 percent). Meanwhile, the Human Development Index in 2008 was 65.91, lower than the average HDI of West Sulawesi Province (68.55). ASIA was first introduced in Polewali Mandar in 2009. The preparation of ASIA document began with the formation of ASIA Team under the head of district decree. The ASIA team is led by the Head of Bappeda, where the head of the Bappeda socio-culture division serve as the coordinator. Member of ASIA team are Bappeda social welfare division; BPS BKKB and PP; Civil Registration Office; Population and Civil Registration Agency; PLS division of Education, Youth and Sports Office; Nutrition coordinator; Health Office; and Social Affairs, Manpower and Transmigration Office. ASIA team also consists of non-governmental representatives; those were from Asyariah Mandar University, NGOs, Mandar Institute, LK2BS, Yasmin, and Suara Tipalayo Radio. In 2009, ASIA team preparing ASIA document in three months. The document then was updated annually (2010, 2011 and 2012). The document has been printed as many as
7 8

http://polewalimandarkab.bps.go.id. (http://www.polmankab.go.id/?page_id=58)

11

20 copies and they have been disseminated to relevant agencies, while the soft copy version was disseminated to all sectors and districts in Polewali Mandar. ASIA has been integrated into musrenbang in 2010 where Bappeda socialized ASIA in Papandangan sub-district. In addition, the integration of ASIA into musrenbang has been done in two pilot locations, namely Takatidung village in Polewali sub-district and Bulo village in Bulo sub-district. These activities consisted of ASIA integration into RPJM planning in village/sub-district and ASIA integration in village musrenbang. In 2011, ASIA integration into RPJM has been carried out in two locations, namely Tumpiling Village in Wonomulyo Sub-District and Tonrolima Village in Matakali Sub-District. In 2013, ASIA integration into musrenbang has been carried out in Papandangan Village in Anreapi sub-district. The process of integration of ASIA in the musrenbang took form of FGD. ASIA programme has given positive impacts on Polewali Mandar district, as follows: The result of the ASIA has become inputs for the head of district in determining local development priorities. There has been a steady increase in Human Development Index, although it is still relatively low. The increase in HDI has been contributed by the implementation of programmes related to education, health, and community empowerment. The gaps/issues identified in ASIA and its recommendation has become inputs for SKPD to design programmes and priorities. Before it is endorsed as RKPD, the ASIA team would evaluate the SKPD work plan to ensure that the work plan incorporate programs and activities which are recommended by ASIA. The budget for programs for fulfilling the rights of children and women has been increasing from year to year, although the amount has is significant compare to the magnitude of the problems due to local budget limitation. Most of SKPDs have been able to calculate budget for children. From the calculation, SKPDs can identify gaps in budget allocation and can plan advocacy for budget increase. Bappedas capacity to carry out planning has been improving by implementing ASIA, as it can be used to identify problems and causes of problems in local context. Furthermore, ASIA has been used as a reference statistical data on various indicators. The ASIA can be used to evaluate the success or failure of programs by looking at the statistical trend of certain indicators. Polewali Mandar has given priority on addressing the problem of malnutrition, infant and maternal mortality, and school dropout rates. These three areas are the components of the Human Development Index which is an indicator of social development of a region. This priorityy also reflects the synchronization of the regional development plan and the achievement of MDGs goals and targets which are currently the national development priorities.

12

The situation analysis of children and women that are carried out by Polewali Mandar has comprehensively analyzed the causes of the unfulfilled children and women rights which includes the direct, indirect and underlying causes that touches the issues of policy and legal framework. This is inline with one of the 2015 PNBAI programs which is to ensure the existence of policies and legislation in favor of the interests of the children as part of strengthening the legal system. The local government in cooperation with the parliament has issued several regulations on protection of children and women rights, including: * * * * The Regional Regulation on Participation 2012 The Regional Regulation on Child Protection 2012 The Regional Regulation No. 5 2004, Financing Exemption in Obtaining Certificate The Regional Regulation No. 5 2009, Free Tuition (Polewali Mandar in 2012 awarded the Muri record for being the regency which most widely returning children to school). The Regional Regulation No. 29, Improving the quality of education The Regional Regulation No. 20 2012, Child Protection on education and health

* *

The Polewali Mandar district has also involved private sector to contribute to the children-and-women-related development, such as mobilizing CSR funds to finance household data collection. The data has been used by SKPD as input for planning program, and for developing ASIA. The role pattern analysis has identified the role of the press and NGOs in advocacy the ASIA in planning process. This is also in line with the program of 2015 PNBAI through encouraging the press and NGOs participation in the ASIA development and advocacy, as part of the efforts to increase family security and empower community. In this regards, the Bappeda staff has also several times invited NGOs and the press to meetings with the parliament in the advocacy of programs for children and women.

2.3.2 ASIA in Surakarta City


As an administrative region, Surakarta City was established in 19469. The city occupies 44.04 km2 area which is inhabited by 545,653 people in 2012. Surakarta consists of five districts which are divided into 51 sub-districts10. The region strategic position in Central Java, between Semarang and Yogyakarta lines, makes the the region become important business center for surrounding regencies. Despite its economic strategic position in trade line, the number of poor people in Surakarta has been rising in recent times. In 2009 the number of poor people is 107,000 people, and it increased to 125,000
9 10

(http://surakarta.go.id/konten/sejarah-pemerintahan) (http://dispendukcapil.surakarta.go.id/index.php/profilpenduduk/tahun-2012/90kuantitaspenduduk/96-jumlahdanpersebaranpenduduk).

13

in 2010 and to 130,000 in 201111. Yet, the HDI has increased from 75.8 in 2004 to 77.86 in 2010. In 2011, the HDI of Surakarta city reached 78.18, higher than the average HDI of Central Java Province. ASIA was introduced in Surakarta in 2009. ASIA development began with the formation of ASIA team under the Mayor of Surakarta decree. ASIA team was headed by Bappeda, while the member consists of various elements from SKPDs and non-government; they are staff from Education and Sport Office, Health Office, Population and Civil Registration Office, BPS and Child Protection division of Bapermas. Non-governmental members of ASIA team consisted of Population Research Centre UNS, Centre of Gender Research and Development UNS, LSM Kakak, and PT PAS. In 2009, ASIA document was prepared in three months, and ASIA document updating has been performed each year (2010, 2011, and 2012). ASIA document has been printed and disseminated to SKPDs and relevant stakeholders. ASIA Program in Surakarta has brought positive impacts as can be seen from the adoption of the issues identified in the ASIA 2009 in the development priority of Surakarta city government. On the other hand, KLA program has been socialized to the sub-district level (in sub-district level up to the city, community have children forum and they participate in musrenbang). Children through children forum have been involving in the sub-district level musrenbang up to city level. Similarly, Surakarta City has issued Regional Regulations on child protection which is formulated based on ASIA data and analysis. Surakarta City put priority on health and education sectors as can be seenfrom the significant amount of the budget allocation for education sector in 2013, which comprise of 17-18 percent of the total budget. Meanwhile, the priority of health sector is addressing maternal and infant mortality. In Surakarta City, KLA program had been run before ASIA was introduced. Hence, the SKPD and Bappeda had integrated KLA indicators into their programs. Therefore there has been conducive environment created for the fulfillment of children and women rights which has contribute to the relatively easy acceptance of SKPDs to integrate programs that addressing children and women issues.

2.3.3 Good practices and challenges in the implementation of ASIA in Polewali Mandar and Surakarta
1. Coordination, facilitation, and socialization, and implementor capacity and commitment in the process of preparing ASIA documents Positive impacts of the ASIA programme in Polewali Mandar and Surakarta have been contributed by several good practices which can be emulated by other district/cities which intended and currently are developing ASIA.

11

Tim Koordinasi Penanggulangan Kemiskinan Kabupaten/Kota. http://tkpkd.org/Berita.asp?Wilayah= 3372KOTA%20SURAKARTAKabu&Stat=Kabu&ID=285).

14

Facilitation from the Central Ggovernment At the central level, ASIA program was facilitated by Bappenas who conduct: (1) overall coordination of programs cooperation between Unicef and the Government of Indonesia, including ASIA, (2) coordinating and monitoring ASIA implementation, (3) developing ASIA approach which is suitable with the context of development in Indonesia, and also (4) providing technical support to the implementation of ASIA in regions. In addition, the Ministry of Home Affairs plays a role in (1) Assessing the suitability of ASIA and regional planning (2) Issuing supporting regulations for the implementation of ASIA by local government to improve children and women welfare (3) Providing technical support in the implementation and replication of ASIA in region (4) Socializing ASIA to local government (5) Coordinating ASIA implementation in regions (6) Cooperating with all local and national facilitators in improving ASIA guidelines to be applied by implementers in regions. Facilitation from Unicef UNICEF plays a role in (1) Providing budget for piloting ASIA in Polewali Mandar and Surakarta in the first and second year, (2) Providing technical support to the Government of Indonesia through Bappenas and the Ministry of Home Affairs on ASIA implementation in Indonesia, and providing assistance in socialization and development of ASIA guidelines, (3) Providing technical for ASIA implementation by local government. Coordination and facilitation by Bappeda At the local level, the coordination of the implementation of ASIA is carried out by Bappeda. Bappedas role, especially the Head of Socio-culture division, both in Polewali Mandar and Surakarta in facilitating and coordinating the development of ASIA documents is very important. Bappeda has a central role in developing and disseminating ASIA Development Technical Guidlines to other SKPD staffs. The socialization of ASIA approach and methods are given by the national and local facilitators, while the socialization to other SKPD staff in the process of producing ASIA document becomes the responsibility of Bappeda. In addition, Bappeda also involve in evaluating SKPD work plan before it is endorsed as RKPD. In this process, Bappeda gives inputs to SKPD on programs that better be incorporated into the work plan and vice versa, which programs which better to be eliminated from the work plan because they are not addressing problems identified in the ASIA. Local government commitment One of local government's commitments to ASIA program is indicated by budget allocation of ASIA development activity. Strong commitment has been shown by both governments of Polewali Mandar and Surakarta which allocate budget for developing ASIA activities, although the amount were limited and were attached to other budgetary post. Allocation of funds from local budgets is an important

15

component to encourage local government's commitment, to grow the sense of ownership among staff/SKPD toward ASIA programme and to ensure programme sustainability. In Polewali Mandar and Surakarta, the local governments set up ASIA Team which is supported by district/major letter of decision (SK). The SK is given to all ASIA team members which consist of SKPDs staff (Education, Health, population and civil record, Bapermas PPA, and Social welfare), academics, and NGOs. In addition, the Mayor of Surakarta in 2011 issued SK for the establishment of KLA Task Force (Gugus Tugas KLA). The SK given to the ASIA team members gave them authority and responsibility, and confidence in performing tasks related to ASIA development. Implementer capacity The ASIA Team in Polewali Mandar can develop ASIA effectively due to the availability of updated data on household. This data gathered through several data collection performed by the BPS and SKPDs. The BPS in Polewali Mandar has carried out community-based poverty census in 2007 with UNICEF financial support. In addition, the Education Office and BKBPP has a regular household data collection. The Education Office has developed a community-based data collection started from 2004, and in 2012, the data collection has covered fourteen sub-districts. The data collected included children who drop out of school and children do not go to school . The data collection was funded by financial support from BUMN and BUMD, and CSR from private companies, including BRI and PLN. Meanwhile, BKBPP collected household data through the involvement of the family planning cadres in villages. The data collections cover all households in Polewali Mandar, and include data on households members, type of contraception used, marital status, number of children, child spacing, educational status, and access to healthcare. The data is not only used by the BKBPP but also by the Health Office, Police/Polres, and Kodim. The problem existed in the management data is the limited capacity of the SKPD staff in performing data analysis. Staff rotation The socialization of ASIA technical guideline among ASIA members and SKPDs staff in Polewali Mandar and Surakarta has been going relatively well. However, high level of mutation and rotation of staff among staff the government units made impede its effectiveness. Socialization process such as training and workshop often have to be deliver repeatedly, as the staffs who were involved in developing ASIA but then rotated to other unit did not transfer their knowledge to the staff who replaced him/her. Consequently, the replacement staff must first be trained before they can involve in the process of developing the ASIA. Gap in knowledge and skills in preparing ASIA document ASIA teams in Polewali Mandar and Surakarta have sufficient knowledge and skills on producing ASIA document. The ASIA documents produced by both regions have demonstrated good analysis on the problems existed in the regions

16

related to the fulfillment of children and women rights. However, the focus group discussions carried out with the ASIA team members shows that not all staff understand the approach and methods used in ASIA. In Polewali Mandar those who fully understand the life cycle and HRBP approaches, and the 7 steps of developing ASIA were the Bappeda staffs and a few of other SKPD staffs. Similarly, in Surakarta, It is only the Bappeda and academics who understand the concept and methods of developing ASIA. The role of other SKPD staff was focused on filling matrix forms, while the analysis of data performed by the Bappeda staffs and academics. This has led to a high dependency of the process of development ASIA on the hands of Bappeda staff, specifically the head of the social and cultural unit, hence it threaten the sustainability of the ASIA development in the future, especially with the trend of mutation of staff that is currently happening in both regions. 2. Integration process of ASIA into the consultative development planning forum (musrenbang) Advocacy of ASIA recommendations is still limited to SKPD In general, recommendation on programs for improving children and women welfare in ASIA has been adopted in the SKPD work plans. However, the SKPDs which referred ASIA during planning process were limited to the SKPD staff who involved in the ASIA Team. Furthermore, those SKPDs only adopted several ASIA recommendations. The socialization of ASIA documents to SKPDs staff is still limited hence they have not been able to fully understand the relevance of ASIA recommendations to their planned programs and activities. Another obstacle in integrating ASIA recommendations into SKPDs programs and activities was the lack of influence of the ASIA team members to the planning process in their units. This is caused by the lack of authority owned by most of the ASIA Team members within in the local government structure. Some of the SKPD staff who is involved in the ASIA team members mostly coming from echelon 2 and 3, but some were only low rank staff. Most of these staff complained that they could not influence the planning process in their unit because they are not programmer or decision maker. Limited budget for ASIA document preparation activities and integration into regional planning process Both in Polewali Mandar and Surakarta, the budget for integrating ASIA into village, sub-district and district musrenbang was very limited if it is not unavailable. The government of Polewali Mandar allocated Rp. 50 million to conduct ASIA annual update. But they were struggled to allocate adequate budget for the ASIA integration into musrenbang. In 2010, Polewali Mandar district has facilitated the socialization and discussion of ASIA in a village musrenbang. From the FGD, it is found out that people's understanding on development program or activities are physical development, such as building bridges or roads. Therefore, facilitation and socialization ASIA to community through musrenbang is very important to increase their awareness on program and activities that are pertinent to children and women.

17

The gap between the time period of ASIA development and SKPD planning process In Surakarta, the integration of ASIA into local planning process is impeded by the time lag of the ASIA development and the local planning process. Actually, ASIA development should be carried out simultaneously with the RKA, but in practice ASIA was developed after the formulation of RKA has completed. Musrenbang was held in January yet, the ASIA document has not been available in that time, hence the SKPD could not refer to ASIA during planning programmes and activities. Limited budget available for programss and activities for children and women Both in Polewali Mandar and Surakarta, budget has not been allocated to adequately respond most pressing issues or problems, moreover to address children and women issues. The main obstacles to this are the limited amount of local budgets (APBD). In Polewali Mandar district, in 2012 for example, 63 percent of the local budget was spent on operational salaries, while the amount of programme expenditure was only Rp. 127 billions. In 2013, the local budget has further decreased by 10-12 percent due to the allocation for local election as much as Rp. 15 billion. With such limited local budgets, the programme for children and women often receives less attention. Inflexible budget allocation for children and women program and activities Another obstacle in designing program and activities for addressing children and women issues is the lack of flexibility in using budget due to the fix budget line determined by the Ministry of Home Affairs regulations. It is often, the programmes and activities that have been agreed (based on ASIA recommendation) could not be included in the budget structure. Budgeting the programmes and activities currently must refers to the fix budget lines determined by the Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation No. 13/ 2006 on Regional Financial Management, which does not necessarily include program and activities that correspond to the ASIA programmes recommendations. As the result, ASIA program recommendation are often only 'anchored' at an already existing program, thus making these activities less sustainable in terms of financing, while their accountability and performance are difficult to be measured. 3. Adequacy of the ASIA technical guidelines to assist local governments incorporating childrens rights into program planning From FGDs with ASIA team, it is found out that they expected a guideline that is more practical and easy to comprehend. Some improvement can be done by adding more sample cases, and simplifying the matrices (for the example: role pattern and capacity gap which consist of three matrices can be merged into one matrix). Some of the local staff considers that ASIA Technical Guideline is too thick and not handy, hence they suggested that the book is divided into two; book I contains the concept and approach of ASIA and KLA, while book II contains step by step instructions on how preparing ASIA document. In addition, they expect that ASIA is completed with a budgeting tool which is easy to be understood. The

18

SKPD staff admitted that they have difficulty preparing program budgeting/costing, thus they expect training on budgeting and costing complementing a module with clear and easy instructions. 4. Challenges and opportunities in integrating ASIA and KLA in mainstreaming children rights into development planning process The support and commitment for an effort to integrate ASIA and KLA has emerged on the national and local levels. At the national level, the KPPPA expected ASIA to be able to support the implementation of KLA in regions. The integration between ASIA and KLA is intended to reduce the tendency of local authorities to focus on achieving physical indicators (such as infrastructure development), and encouraging them to achieve KLA indicators by creating an environment where the rights of children and women are respected and protected in whole areas of life. At district level, local government staff both in Polewali Mandar and Surakarta expects that the ASIA methods can be used to achieve KLA indicators so that they can effectively use budget for achieving two program goals simultaneously (ASIA which the report is submitted to Bappenas, and KLA which the report is submitted to the KPPPA). There is an opportunity for the integration and synergy between ASIA and KLA because they both share similar approaches and indicators. ASIA and KLA refer to the same concept framework and legislation, so they can be used in synergy to ensure the fulfillment of children rights in the local planning. Recently the KPPA developed PUHA (Mainstreaming Childrens Rights), an analytical tool recently developed by the KPPPA to assist local government achieving KLA indicators. PUHA objectives and method of analysis share similarities with ASIA and are interrelated. PUHA analysis results are also consists of program recommendation which are intended to be integrated into development planning and budgeting. As the process is similar, there is an opportunity to develop module which integrate ASIA and PUHA so that the SKPDs in the local level will not be burdened with carrying two activities and preparing two reports which are actually substantively the same. In the regional level however, the integration of the KLA and ASIA still poses of challenges such as shown by the lack of cooperation among sectors in developing KLA and ASIA. In Surakarta City, the ASIA Team and KLA task force are still working separately, evenmore there is an assumption among SKPDs that ASIA is a program belong to Bappeda, while KLA is a program belong to the Bapermas PP&PA. SKPDs still has different perception about the scopes, objectives and benefits of each program. Bappeda ASIA has a wider scope than KLA so that it serves as an umbrella program, while the Bapermas PP&PA considers the other way around. As the consequence, the two units have different view on which should become the leading sector in implementing program for children and women. This disconnected and gap becomes a challenge to the integration of ASIA and KLA in Surakarta City. Furthermore, there is a lack of local government commitment in implementing KLA, such as found during try out the revised ASIA technical guideline in Sleman district. In the district, there is a lack of leadership and initiative in the agency which responsible for dealing with child protection issues, that is the Agency for Family Planning, Community Development and Women's Empowerment (BKB PM&PP). The SKPD

19

rejected the KLA draft (Raperda) since it is deemed will burden the local budget (Harian Kedaulatan Rakyat, 6 March 2013). The initiative for Child Protection Bill (Raperda) had come from the council in collaboration with academia instead.

20

21