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Recommendations

for behaviour change programs


to reduce greenhouse impact in SA

SATC

Ecopolis Architects

A report by Julia Winefield, Conservation Council of SA


produced for the Office of Sustainability as part of the Greenhouse Project

December 2005

Contents
Foreword.............................................................................................................................................................. 3 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Theories of behaviour change......................................................................................................................... 4 A behaviour model............................................................................................................................................ 5 Stages of change............................................................................................................................................... 6 Identifying and understanding barriers .......................................................................................................... 7 Tools ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Intentions and Habits.................................................................................................................................................9 External Conditions ..................................................................................................................................................11 Capacity....................................................................................................................................................................12

Approaches ...................................................................................................................................................... 13
TravelSmart (VIC) .....................................................................................................................................................13 Community EmPOWERment Workshops (VIC)....................................................................................................15 Energy Friends (SA)...................................................................................................................................................16 Energy Efficiency Program For Low Income Households (SA) ........................................................................17 Living Smart (WA) .....................................................................................................................................................18 Sustainability Street (VIC & NSW)...........................................................................................................................18 Our Water Our Future (VIC) ...................................................................................................................................20 One Tonne Challenge (CANADA) ........................................................................................................................22

Recommendations .......................................................................................................................................... 25
Recommendation 1.: Establish a State Government body to ensure coordination, funding and continuity of climate change programs..............................................................................................................25 Recommendation 2.: Recommendation 3.: Recommendation 4.: Recommendation 5.: Recommendation 6.: Recommendation 7.: Recommendation 8.: Address External Conditions, Capacity and Intention/Habits .............................25 Use partnerships and involve community organisations .......................................25 Ensure research and evaluation is part of programs ............................................25 Prioritise projects that are empowering and participatory..................................26 Prioritise a holistic approach to behaviour change..............................................26 Incorporate goal-setting where possible .................................................................26 Incorporate persuasion principles to shape the message...................................26

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 27 Appendix 1 ........................................................................................................................................................ 30 Appendix 2 ........................................................................................................................................................ 31

Recommendations for behaviour change programs to reduce greenhouse impact in SA

Foreword This report considers how to achieve a shift towards more sustainable and greenhouse friendly behaviour and make recommendations for behaviour change programs in South Australia based on these findings. It does this by an examination of evidence-based theories of behaviour change and actual programs that have been run in Australia and Canada. Introduction South Australia is confronting the need for dramatic changes, both to avert dangerous climate change and to adapt to the climate change that is inevitable. Such change will need to work across our whole society, and approaches will need to be flexible and multi-faceted in order to succeed. While greenhouse gas inventories show that householders are responsible for around a third of our states greenhouse gas emissions, the reliance we have on high-emitting sectors such as industry, transport, buildings and agriculture means that arguably the community is responsible for much more. Decisions we make about the products we buy, the food we eat, where we live and how we travel drive the emissions of these other sectors. And it will be these same decisions that will bring our emissions back under control. Human behaviour is at the core of our greenhouse challenge. And clearly, our current patterns of behaviour cannot continue. The question is what will best lead to changes in our behaviour? Behaviour change programs to reduce greenhouse emissions are about reducing our reliance on fossil fuels. There are various ways this can be tackled, notably by encouraging people to: use energy more efficiently (compact fluorescent lights, insulation etc) switch to renewable energy sources (eg solar hot water, hybrid cars) arrange a lifestyle less reliant on energy (eg living close to work so driving is unnecessary or growing some food).

It has been demonstrated that there is very significant potential to reduce emissions with energy efficiency measures alone: estimates of 20% reductions within 20 years are described as highly conservative1. By combining the three approaches, even greater reductions would be well within our grasp. For effective changes like this to happen behaviour change programs must also focus on the broader context which: creates greenhouse-friendly choices facilitates such choices being made and establishes social norms that reinforce these choices. Where greenhouse-friendly choices are non-existent or hard to access, urging behaviour change will result in apathy or resentment. That is not to say that providing better choices (eg through technology) will in itself bring about the change that is needed. As we learn from case studies where individuals living under very similar conditions have dramatically different energy usage2, the human element can never be left out of the equation.

1 2

Lee, R & Denlay, J (2002) Energy Efficiency Potential in South Australia Energy SA, p 1 For example, one household at the Christie Walk ecological housing development used three times as much energy as another almost identical house. See Oliphant, M (2004) Inner City Residential Energy Performance Final Report to State Energy Research Advisory Committee, Urban Ecology Australia page 3 of 32

Recommendations for behaviour change programs to reduce greenhouse impact in SA

While there will always be some individuals sufficiently motivated to change their lifestyles without encouragement, for most people some sort of enabling or intervention is required. The question of this report is what methods will be most effective in South Australia. There is an enormous body of research on behaviour, much of it originating from the discipline of social psychology. In this report, I examine some of the models and look at the key areas for behaviour change intervention. I then discuss tools used to influence these areas and examine how several programs have used these tools. Finally, the report concludes with eight recommendations for achieving a shift to more climatefriendly behaviour in South Australia. The suggestions are that: a body for coordination, funding and continuity of programs is created the three key areas influencing behaviour are all addressed a diversity of programs is achieved with partnerships and the involvement of community organisations research and evaluation are engrained in change programs programs should be empowering and participatory holistic approaches are preferable goal-setting should be used where possible and the principles of persuasion can also be useful.

Theories of behaviour change Most modern theories of behaviour change attempt to understand how external conditions combine with factors internal to individuals to determine their behaviour3. A useful example is Triandis Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour, which says that behaviour is a product of three factors: habits, intention and facilitating conditions. Intention is itself a product of three other factors: attitudes, social factors and emotions. Social factors consist of norms, roles and self-concept. Explaining these elements, Jackson4 says,
Norms, for Triandis, appear to be social rules about what should and should not be done. Roles are sets of behaviours that are considered appropriate for persons holding particular positions in a group (Triandis 1977, 8). Self-concept refers here to the idea that I have of myself, the goals that it is appropriate for this kind of person to pursue or to eschew, and the behaviours that this kind of person does or does not engage in.

So it is a lot to do with how individuals define their own identity in relation to social groups. As a given behaviour is repeated, intention becomes less important, and habit starts to take over. The behaviour becomes a product of routine rather than conscious thought. Because of this, habitual behaviours can be the hardest ones to change. As so many of the decisions in our lives which impact on the environment are habitual, behaviour change programs need to understand and focus on the factors influencing intentions, as it is intention that is needed to change habits. As noted above, external conditions are important in any behaviour, whether habitual or not. A recent Inquiry into Sustainable Communities by the Victorian Parliament5 noted that before consumers choose products and services, there have been a large number of players in the
Ontario Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation (no date) Behavior Change: Theories, Models, and Implications for Policy and Practice 4 Jackson, T (2005) Motivating Sustainable Consumption: a review of evidence on consumer behaviour and behavioural change Centre for Environmental Strategy, University of Surrey, p 94. 5 Environment and Natural Resources Committee (2005) Report of the Inquiry into Sustainable Communities Parliament of Victoria, p 85.
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Recommendations for behaviour change programs to reduce greenhouse impact in SA

production and supply chain influencing environmental outcomes. Therefore interventions targeting these intermediaries are at least as important as those influencing consumer behaviour. Similarly, Voronoff6 discusses research that shows that over 80% of motives for pro or nonenvironmental behaviour have been found to be situational factors, largely uninfluenced by proenvironmental attitudes. So attempts to change habits or intentions without also addressing external conditions will likely have limited success. However where these issues are both addressed, the results can be impressive. A South Australian program to reduce energy use in small households compared the results of households who received information and education alone with those who also received technical measures such as energy efficient appliances. The education program in isolation was not very effective and in some cases actually increased energy usage, as costs were relatively low. However energy savings of 23% to 55% were recorded when the technical measures were included7. Another factor influencing behaviour is the perceived capacity of the individual to perform the desired behaviour (locus of control) and his/her actual capacity, which is a product of skills and circumstances. This accords with the finding that people are happier when they feel a sense of control over their own actions, and are more likely to act environmentally, when they perceive the significance of those actions8. A behaviour model The modified version of Triandis model below can only usefully be understood as a cycle, where practising the behaviour influences many of the factors that determine ongoing behaviour. Many of the factors influence each other too: external conditions (such as infrastructure for cycling or government rebates for solar hot water systems) send strong messages about the values and priorities of our community, which in turn influence norms, roles and self-concept. The usefulness of this model is reinforced by testing it against the tools of various behaviour change approaches discussed below. Different programs target different elements of the behaviour model, whether it is increasing the capacity of the individual to act by providing information or skills or influencing social norms via a social marketing campaign. This report will discuss programs in terms of how they address four areas from the model: Habits, Intentions, External Conditions, and Capacity. These key areas are highlighted on the model.

Voronoff, D (2005) Community Sustainability: A review of what works and how it is practiced in Victoria Environment Victoria, p 16. 7 Lee, R & Denlay, J (2002) Energy Efficiency Potential in South Australia Energy SA 8 Shipworth, M (2000) Motivating Home Energy Action - A Handbook of What Works Australian Greenhouse Office
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Recommendations for behaviour change programs to reduce greenhouse impact in SA

Beliefs about outcomes Attitude Evaluation of outcomes

Norms

Roles

Social factors

Intention

External Conditions

Self-concept

Emotions

Affect

Behaviour

Frequency of past behaviour

Habits Perceived & Actual Capacity

Factors influencing behaviour9

Stages of change Different elements of the behaviour model will have particular significance as an individual moves through the process of permanent behaviour change. Many theories explain the behaviour change process in terms of several cyclical stages. Australian behaviour change specialist Les Robinsons Seven Doors Social Marketing Approach10 is one such theory, which defines each stage in terms of the type of obstacle to be overcome. It is useful to consider how each stage aligns with factors in the behaviour model:
Robinsons Seven Stages 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. knowledge/awareness desire imagine yourself in a different future skills knowing what to do optimism (or confidence) - a sense that the effort will count! facilitation having outside support stimulation having a kick-start (overcoming habit) feedback and reinforcement Relevant Factor in Behaviour Model Attitude Affect Actual capacity Perceived capacity (locus of control) External conditions Habit Social factors

9 10

Based on Triandis Theory of Interpersonal Behavior Robinson, L (1998) The Seven Doors Social Marketing Approach page 6 of 32

Recommendations for behaviour change programs to reduce greenhouse impact in SA

Therefore considering at which point someone is in the change process is a way of identifying the relevant barriers to permanent behaviour change. Once the barriers are known, appropriate tools can be used to help to overcome them. But regardless of how well-designed a program is, some individuals will always be more open to change than others. Robinson segments the population into five categories based on their willingness to change11: innovators early adopters early majority late majority sceptics

He notes the importance of targeting people in each category in the appropriate way. The idea of segmenting the population is not new. It is a common strategy used in marketing and will be discussed more below. Views differ about which segments of the population should be the focus of change programs. Some practitioners argue that energy and resources should not be devoted to those determined not to change. Others argue that influencing early adopters is valid, because other segments will follow. Another perspective is that programs should reach everyone or at least the mainstream, or they will simply be preaching to the converted. Identifying and understanding barriers The relevant barriers for the target group must be understood in order for change programs to address them effectively. In fact, change programs that have not done so may do more harm than good. Communications calling for behaviour change without any understanding of the individuals situation can be viewed as an unfair imposition. The person is quite likely to respond negatively to the message and reject the request outright. This phenomenon known as reactance reduces the likelihood of receptiveness later on12. The need for preliminary research is also a key point made in the approach known as CommunityBased Social Marketing (CBSM), pioneered by Canadian social psychologist Douglas McKenzieMohr13. CBSM advocates a four-step approach that any behaviour change program should follow. The starting point is to identify the barriers to and benefits of the desired behaviour (by literature review, focus groups and surveying of the target population). The next step is to develop a strategy using tools shown to be effective (commitment, prompts, norms, communication, incentives, convenience). The next steps are to pilot the strategy and finally, evaluate the pilot. An example of the kind of research that can be carried out in the preliminary phase is the work done in the US by the Electric Power Research Institute14. The goal was to understand how and why people used energy, and to segment the energy market accordingly. What emerged was six categories of energy users: Pleasure Seekers, Appearance Conscious, Lifestyle Simplifiers, Resource Conservers, Hassle Avoiders and Value Seekers. Between the categories there is significant variation in the main priorities determining choice of appliances and energy usage; for some it is comfort and convenience, for others costs and environment and another group care most about personal control.

11 12

Robinson, L (2001) On making social change, p 5.

Seethaler, RK & Rose, G (forthcoming) Using the Six Principles of Persuasion to Promote Community Based Travel Behaviour Change The Urban Transport Institute 13 McKenzie-Mohr, D & Smith, W (1999) Fostering sustainable behavior: An introduction to community-based social marketing Gabriola Island, BC: New Society 14 Shipworth (2000) page 7 of 32

Recommendations for behaviour change programs to reduce greenhouse impact in SA

In the same way that different barriers will apply to more efficient use of energy for these groups, different incentives will be more or less compelling. Some work from the UK15 has identified similar ways to segment the population in terms of their attitudes and values and how these would shape climate change campaigns. This work is very compatible with the behaviour model used in this report, because it argues that peoples behaviour is largely motivated by core psychological needs. Accordingly, the population can be segmented into three main groups16: Settlers, who have needs for belonging, identity, security/safety they tend to idealise yesterday and dislike change Prospectors, who need the esteem of others and self-esteem they tend to live in the now and seek fashion, status and recognition Pioneers have needs such as an ethical basis for life, finding meaning in life, discovering new truths they tend to look ahead and embrace change so long as it is ethically acceptable.

Examples are given of different approaches that would be applicable for each population segment: For settlers: the American Detroit Project campaign, which portrays SUVs as a threat to safety because they use a lot of petrol imported from terrorist countries. A less xenophobic example could be the disappearance of much-loved local flowers or traditions, eg no snow at Christmas. For prospectors: in the US the hybrid-electric Toyota Prius went from a deep green niche model to a fashion icon when Cameron Diaz and Leonardo di Caprio started driving them (now there are waiting lists for the Prius in the US). For pioneers: the majority of campaigns boycott Esso, ride a bike to work to do your bit for people in remote Pacific islands threatened by sea level rise, buy green electricity to save the climate. As in CBSM, the UK researchers strongly advocate the need for preliminary research, to identify the values and hence motivators and barriers of the target group for programs. The following table demonstrates just how different barriers to change can be17:
Barrier willingness to act (as discussed, a certain proportion of the population will always be unwilling to change) low level behaviours ie, the habitual behaviours discussed by Triandis norms and habits this would correspond with Triandis social factors: eg being influenced by the behaviour of those with whom we identify convenience this relates to external conditions cost (not necessarily financial could be time) is closely related to convenience psychological effects a) environmental problems are more distant and less
15 16

For example: I dont believe climate change is an issue OR If its an issue its up to the government to fix it, not me. When I get home at night, I automatically turn on the heating/cooling. My mother always did our laundry with a dryer. I would recycle, but the collections are too infrequent; the stuff just piles up. To catch the bus to work I would have to leave 45 minutes earlier!

Its hardly going to affect my life is there

Rose, C; Dade, P; Gallie, N & Scott, J (2005) Climate Change Communications Dipping A Toe Into Public Motivation These are based on Mazlows Hierarchy of Needs. Within each group there are sub-groupings, for a more sophisticated breakdown. 17 Voronoff page 8 of 32

Recommendations for behaviour change programs to reduce greenhouse impact in SA tangible than, say, health problems. (This will have a bearing on an individuals attitude towards the issue and behaviour.) b) cognitive dissonance, the discomfort felt when there is incongruence between ones attitude and behaviour the difficulty lies in the fact that individuals are more likely to alter their attitudes than their behaviour when this discomfort arises c) the commons dilemma, which relates to the reluctance of an individual to act in the interests of the greater good if they do not perceive others to be doing the same. This relates back to the social factors discussed earlier. lack of agency this has been described as a lack of sense of personal control18, which indicates it would be about perceived capacity of the individual to act. arent any polar bears in the Arctic.

I didnt have time to investigate the most energy efficient model of fridge in the end but industry contributes much more to global warming that individuals do. None of my friends are making sacrifices, so why should I?

What I do is just a drop in the ocean.

Voronoff goes on to discuss bigger patterns in society that impact particularly on the conditions within which individuals act, such as the dominance of the individualistic/consumerist culture in which market forces are trusted to determine environmental outcomes. Tools Research that has identified the needs and barriers influencing particular social groups will indicate the most appropriate tools to achieve change within those groups and should be a prerequisite for any behaviour change program. Tools can be thought of as ways to overcome barriers so a sticker about turning lights off would be a tool to overcome the barrier of habit. Providing information for example about public transport services or safe bike routes would be a tool where the barrier is lack of knowledge. As the behaviour model demonstrates, there are four areas that behaviour change tools can influence: Intention, Habit, External Conditions and Capacity. In this section, I will discuss tools in terms of these four elements. As noted above, Intention and Habit are closely interrelated. Habit tends to be a large factor in low level behaviours, and this can only be overcome by creating the Intention to change. Once a new behaviour has been established via Intention, it needs to become Habit for the change to be sustained. I will discuss the tools influencing Intentions and Habits together, because they are so intertwined. Although easier to separate, External Conditions and Capacity are also connected. Overwhelmingly positive External Conditions would make it easy for all individuals to live sustainably. However, where External Conditions inevitably present barriers, interventions are needed to increase the Capacity of individuals to overcome them. INTENTIONS AND HABITS EXTERNAL CONDITIONS CAPACITY

Many of the tools used to change behaviour are drawn from six principles about how people can be persuaded (again, from Social Psychology). These principles mostly influence Intention. Principles of persuasion19 Reciprocation: Studies show that people feel an obligation to reciprocate favours with positive behaviour. I would argue this relates to the self-concept element of Intention: the idea people have of themselves.

18 19

Voronoff, p 18. Seethaler, RK & Rose, G (2005) Using the Six Principles of Persuasion to Promote Travel Behaviour Change - Preliminary Findings of Two TravelSmart Field Experiments The Urban Transport Institute page 9 of 32

Recommendations for behaviour change programs to reduce greenhouse impact in SA

This principle can be helpful in the early stages of a behaviour change program to inspire good intentions. For this to work well, the favours must be viewed as unconditional, not as bribes. So it is suggested that incentives should be given freely before any change is called for. It is worth noting that although the incentives referred to this context are likely to be material in nature, incentives should not be defined too narrowly. While material incentives are often used (eg save money by saving energy, giving freebies to program participants), other types of incentives can be even more effective. Commitment and consistency: If people express their commitment to a principle, they will be more motivated to act in ways consistent with that commitment, even if its in a slightly different, but related area. I think this principle also relates to self-concept. The reason for this is cognitive dissonance, the human desire to minimise the gap between attitudes and behaviour. As noted in the previous section, cognitive dissonance can be a double-edged sword, causing people to change their attitudes rather than their behaviour. But while we often assume that behaviour is a product of attitudes, it can work in reverse20. Eliciting a commitment can cause people to change their attitudes to be consistent with a behaviour they have committed to21 or actually carried out. For example: agreeing to wear a badge opposing the logging of old-growth forests tells the wearer they should support paper recycling. As a result, on the next shopping trip, this person will be more likely to buy recycled toilet paper. The effect is strengthened if the commitment is made in public, indicating the influence of social norms. This is most likely to happen if the commitment is elicited without much pressure and the person feels that they had freedom to act differently. They then feel responsible for the consequences of their behaviour and can become their own best persuader. Goal-setting is a form of commitment that also has a built-in evaluation mechanism. It is strongly advocated as a behaviour change tool by the practitioners of the Living Smart program initiated in Fremantle (discussed in the next section). In the evaluation of this program, it is observed that one of the most robust and replicable findings in psychological literature is that setting goals increases performance22. Goal-setting is a way to bring behaviour that is often a product of unconscious habits to a more conscious level and hence it is of interest in this report. For optimal results, the goals need to be both specific and challenging. Not surprisingly, participants are more committed to goals they have set themselves. This increases the level of intrinsic motivation and the positive outcomes. When people see they are meeting their goals, it is also likely to enhance their perceived capacity, which increases motivation. Social proof: Research supports the intuitive notion that people are more likely to comply with required behaviour if they think others, particularly their peers or those they identify with, are doing the same. Here again, norms are at work, as are roles. As Jackson points out23
Modelling plays a key role in the establishment and maintenance of social norms I remember how, where and when to put out the recycling as much from observations of those around me as by information from the council. My identity-related buying behaviours (clothes, cars, appliances eg) are

Jackson Ontario Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation 22 Robson, C (2004) Achieving Environmental Behaviour Change through the use of Goal setting: An Evaluation of the 2004 Living Smart Program School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, p 8. 23 Jackson, p 111.
20 21

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Recommendations for behaviour change programs to reduce greenhouse impact in SA influenced by those on whom my identity is modelled and by those from whom I am hoping to distinguish myself.

This principle is employed in programs that use social networks to promote change. This can be done either by using existing social networks (eg the Moreland Energy Foundations work with Mothers Groups) or by establishing groups of like-minded individuals via the program (as in the case of Sustainability Street and Living Smart, discussed in the next section). Liking: People are more likely to be responsive to a request from someone they like. Various factors contribute to liking. Some are fairly superficial, such as the person being attractive, well-dressed or giving praise. But we also inclined to like people with similar attitudes or background. So as with Social Proof, this principle can be used by designing programs that drive change at the community rather than the individual level. I would suggest this principle relates to the roles discussed in the behaviour model. Authority: People often make decisions based on advice from experts or to comply with the rules of an authority. This principle is probably a combination of norms and roles. So it is helpful if information can be provided by a credible source. This might mean an organisation known for expertise in a particular area or it could mean someone wearing a uniform or identification badge or carrying an official letter. This clearly has implications for beneficial organisations to involve in programs, which will be discussed further later on. Scarcity: This principle is fairly similar to the economic laws of supply and demand: it states that opportunities are perceived as more valuable as they become more scarce. As this relates to competitiveness, it suggests that a combination of self-concept and roles is the driver. It is also about losing an opportunity, which is about locus of control, part of perceived capacity to act in the behaviour model. This reluctance to miss out on an opportunity is the basis for the finding that people are generally more motivated by the idea of losses resulting from inaction than savings as a result of action24. This can be put to good use in behaviour change programs. For example, an alternative to the commonly used You can save money on your power bills simply by changing all your lights to compact fluorescent bulbs! would be, Did you realise you are losing money every time you switch on a light? Install compact fluorescents and keep your hard earned cash! Prompts Prompts are a way to overcome the human trait of forgetfulness. Forgetfulness is generally a product of the Habit element of the behaviour model, as habitual behaviours are precisely those about which we do not need to think or remember. Prompts are a very simple intervention and can take the form of stickers or signs, which should be bright and noticeable and preferably located as close as possible to where the relevant behaviour is carried out. INTENTIONS AND HABITS EXTERNAL CONDITIONS CAPACITY

There are various tools to make it easier for all individuals to make sustainable choices. A simple way of classifying them is whether they make these options available, affordable or desirable. Market forces influence broad-scale provision of products and services. Large companies and industries can show leadership and generate positive change by using some of the tools discussed below. However, sustainable outcomes cannot be left to the whim of commercial enterprises.
24

Shipworth (2000) page 11 of 32

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Where market forces do not deliver accessible, affordable choices, there is a clear need for government intervention. Regulation (available): Minimum performance standards can make unsustainable products or practices illegal, or desirable ones mandatory. Examples would be minimum five star ratings for new buildings and mandatory plumbed rainwater tanks in new houses respectively. Regulation reinforces the social proof principle of persuasion discussed earlier the phenomenon whereby people are more likely to behave in a particular way if they believe others are doing so. Pricing (affordable): There are range of financial instruments to make sustainable products and services affordable or ideally, even more affordable than their less sustainable counterparts, eg tax incentives, subsidies, feed-in laws, rebates, and grants. Information (desirable): People need clear and reliable information to choose more sustainable products. Such tools could include energy and water ratings on appliances, disclosure of energy performance of properties at the point of lease or sale, energy or water bills with accessible usage data and certification or accreditation schemes. INTENTIONS AND HABITS EXTERNAL CONDITIONS CAPACITY

Tools can also make sustainable choices available, affordable and desirable by increasing individuals capacity to know about them, access them or create them. Empowering people (available): When people come together, they can do all sorts of things they could not do alone: creating solutions where they do not exist or lobbying for change via advocacy work. As well increasing peoples actual capacity, this also enhances their perception of capacity or locus of control. Incentives/Concessions (affordable): People can be supported in obtaining more sustainable products or services via discounts or even giveaways, eg free low energy lightbulbs. Incentives can be used to invoke the reciprocation principle of persuasion peoples inherent desire to reciprocate with desired behaviour if they have been given something with no strings attached. Behaviour change theories distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic - or internal and external motivations25. Motivations internal to the individual include feelings of satisfaction and well-being. External factors that can motivate include material rewards and trophies or various forms of social approval/status. External incentives can work well to reinforce desirable behaviour in the early stages, but the motivation must be internalised so the program does not rely on them permanently. External incentives can even undermine internal ones. If behaviour becomes dependent on material rewards, removing them can act as a disincentive26. Research has shown that internal motivators are consistently better predictors of a persons continued involvement in an activity than external ones. However as discussed under Stages of Change, a combination of the two is likely to be the most effective, as the key motivators of an individual will vary during the change process27. So it is worth thinking broadly about what will act as incentives to individuals and communities to change their behaviour, remembering that benefits to health, family life and community relationships may be just as important as financial benefits. Programs offering multiple benefits will generally be more effective than those only offering one or two28. Education (desirable): A tool for increasing capacity is to teach people about the environmental impact of their behaviour, inform them of more sustainable alternatives, and provide information

Ontario Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation Baudains, C (2003) Environmental Education In The Workplace: Inducing voluntary transport behaviour change to decrease single occupant vehicle trips by commuters into the Perth CBD PhD thesis, Murdoch University 27 Ontario Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation 28 Steer Davies Gleave (2001) Program Framework and Engagement Options for the Cool Communities Project Prepared for the Australian Greenhouse Office and Energy Consult
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and skills on how to access or use products and services with lower impacts, eg energy audits, tips about water saving devices. Participatory programs that encourage participants to define the issues and the behaviour to be changed, and enable them to be part of a problem-solving solving process will produce different outcomes to programs which define a problem, present a solution and tell people how they should behave. Capacity building approaches that include empowerment as well as education and incentives will tend to engage people more deeply and permanently in a process of change. Communities can then start to take ownership of an issue, and new social norms are created at a local level by people visibly caring and taking action on an issue together. This essential process does take time though, and as noted by the Municipal Association of Victoria,
Excellent programs can be established but can fail to make long-term impacts upon communities because they tend to lack follow through. Communities usually need extended reinforcement of behaviour change techniques before they become the norm. Therefore, projects need longer term planning and funding arrangements29.

Approaches In previous sections, I have discussed the psychology of behaviour and how it relates to the process of behaviour change. I have argued that different people will have different motivators and barriers to change, which means different tools will be required. I have described some of the tools that are commonly used to achieve behaviour change. This section looks at some different approaches to using these tools, and discusses strengths and weaknesses of each program.

TRAVELSMART (VIC) 30 Area: Transport Behavioural element targeted: Intention Tools used: Research, Reciprocation, Commitment and Consistency, Authority, Social Proof, Liking, Scarcity Description: The program being discussed here is a small subset of the whole TravelSmart program run in Darebin (Melbourne). It involved two field tests to determine the impact of using the six persuasion principles to recruit households to the program. A pilot program was run with 160 households, followed by a simplified version with 800 households. The pilot tested the impact of the six principles of persuasion quite scientifically. There were three stages in the process of recruiting households, a Pre-Intervention Phase, a TravelSmart Announcement Letter and a Recruitment Call. At each stage, an approach that incorporated principles of persuasion was tested against one that did not. The result was eight distinct treatment groups, exposed to varying levels of persuasion. For example: the first stage used for four of the eight groups entailed households being sent a gift of a green shopping bag and a voucher, with an accompanying letter signed by the local council and traders association. The gift invoked principles of Reciprocation and Liking, while the letter asked for a Commitment to reduce plastic bag use. The letters endorsement by the council

quoted in Environment and Natural Resources Committee (2005) Report of the Inquiry into Sustainable Communities Parliament of Victoria, p 121. 30 Seethaler, RK & Rose, G (2005) Rita Seethaler (The Urban Transport Institute) pers comm
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and traders was a use of the Authority principle. Visible use of the bags by shoppers meant Social Proof was incorporated. In the subsequent field test, the differing treatment groups had to be reduced to two: one receiving a Pre-Intervention Phase and a TravelSmart announcement letter with persuasion principles, the other receiving no Pre-Intervention Phase and a letter without persuasion principles. Organisations: The Urban Transport Institute Discussion: Unfortunately, once certain households were omitted due to missing data, the sample sizes of the eight treatment groups of the pilot study were too small to be statistically significant. The only finding that was significant in relation to the persuasion principles was when they were used in the Recruitment Call, where the take-up rate was 2.3 times higher for households exposed to them. This may be a product of the personal contact of a phone call compared to a letter. Certainly, the response rate to before and after surveys was markedly increased where personal contact was made. The simpler larger scale field test was able to confirm that use of persuasion principles increased participation rates. A benefit of the smaller scale of the pilot was that it allowed collection of sociodemographic data, which led to some interesting findings. Only three factors were found to be predictive of participation in TravelSmart. English speakers were 4.8 times more likely to take part; households with one or more bicycles almost six times more likely; and if any household members were already using public transport, the chance of participating became 6.5 times more likely. The discovery about native language has some important implications, as many behaviour change programs rely heavily on communication materials in English. This is not to say that translating promotional materials into other languages will solve the problem. The researchers point to a general dearth of knowledge about how different ethnic groups will respond to social marketing campaigns. The Community EmPOWERment workshops described next have made some effort to increase understanding in this area. Unfortunately the larger experiment was not able to collect socio-demographic data and consequently could not consider how social or cultural factors might determine responsiveness to the persuasion principles. The higher participation rates achieved by the use of persuasion principles did not necessarily translate into long-term changes in travel behaviour. This suggests that incorporating some of the persuasion principles into the post-recruitment phases could be beneficial. Key strengths: Use of persuasion principles to recruit participants, strong research component

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COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT WORKSHOPS (VIC)31 Area: Energy Behavioural element targeted: Capacity Tools used: Research, Education Description: This project also involved research: to understand the social influences on electricity use of low-income households in particular, identify barriers to reducing electricity usage and identify policies to facilitate greater demand management. The research was carried out via workshops that also showed householders how to reduce their energy use, tailored to the specific concerns raised by participants. Organisations: Moreland Energy Foundation (a community organisation) and the Institute for Sustainable Futures working with community organisations, neighbourhood centres and NGOs Discussion: The workshops identified social/cultural obstacles to lower energy use as well as barriers more related to external factors and individual perceived and actual capacity. For example, some of the cultural factors related to peoples ideas about the meaning of home and the hospitality it can offer. In some cultures, hospitality is closely associated with warmth, sometimes radiant sources of heat in particular. Likewise, generous provision of food can be very important. More generally, heat is often associated with health and comfort. Peak energy demand tends to reflect social and cultural practices such as bathing children in a warm environment after work or cooking large meals for guests on weekends. External factors influencing energy use, particularly for people on lower incomes, include poor design of housing, inadequate insulation and inefficient appliances. A related issue is tenants feeling disempowered in their relationship with their landlord and therefore bearing the brunt of inefficient housing. Householders also often perceive utilities as unhelpful or uncooperative, with a widespread perception that the shift to market provision of electricity has eroded consumers rights. Cost was perceived as a major barrier to reducing energy use, as was lack of knowledge, eg about energy efficient behaviours, the electricity market, how best to use appliances etc. Participants noted a need for personalised information. To find out what would help overcome some of the barriers to demand management, participants at six of the 12 workshops were asked to vote on their two preferred policy options in a list of 27. The five most popular options were: 1. Rebates or discounts for energy efficient products 2. Standards for rental housing 3. Energy standards for new homes, appliances, lighting 4. Bills that separate costs 5. Information in different languages. Given the small and non-representative sample used, these findings are not indicative of the population at large. Neither is popularity of policy options a guarantee that they will be the most effective. As has been discussed extensively in this report, behaviour is a product of a complex web of factors; it is not determined by attitude alone. Taking all this and the findings of a literature review into account, the researchers recommended the following options to help householders understand and reduce their energy use: Increased and targeted education (preferably tailored to social/cultural clusters) Training community organisations in energy efficiency education and auditing (or ideally, broader issues including water, waste, transport, health etc)

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Reidy, C; Wilson, E; Cheney, H & Tarlo, K (2004) Community EmPOWERment Research Report Summary page 15 of 32

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Metering and rapid feedback (ie, interval meters ideally combined with interactive displays and online tools) Billing and pricing (eg bills that report on end uses, inclining block tarriffs) Incentives and rebates (eg through demand management funds) Managing peak demand (noting that the potential for households with low discretionary energy usage to do this is limited)

An important theme arising from this research is that a lot of energy related behaviour is tied to social and cultural expectations, which are very difficult to shift. So behaviour change programs need to take cultural differences into account, and to advocate behaviour that is culturally appropriate. It was suggested that this could be done by tailoring information to social/cultural clusters rather than to market segment. A good way to do this is to work with organisations established in or representing the relevant cultural community. The Moreland Energy Foundation is already putting this into practice. A program with Hume City Council called Lowering Emissions, Growing Communities involves energy-saving workshops for Arabic and Turkish-speaking women's groups. After the talks, the women visit the Origin Energy EcoHouse at CERES or St Kilda's Eco Center in the Blessington Gardens to see energy-saving measures in practice. These visits also allow the women to learn about water conservation and gardening. The Mothers and Babies program entails visits to New Mothers and Babies groups, giving talks and providing information kits about how to avoid increasing energy use following this life changing event. While this project was more focussed on research than behaviour change, as discussed this is a vitally important component of any behaviour change program. While this program itself does not address external conditions, it provides a strong base for the broader advocacy work of the Moreland Energy Foundation to overcome such external barriers. Discussing the program in isolation does not reflect this bigger picture. Key strengths: Culturally sensitive, research based

ENERGY FRIENDS (SA)32 Area: Energy Behavioural element targeted: Capacity Tools used: Education, Empowering people, Social proof, Liking Description: The Energy Friends project produced resources for conducting energy audits and included training for community groups either in conducting audits, or in training others to do so. The reasoning was that this would allow for much greater diffusion of knowledge through the community, and leave a longer legacy. Organisations: Conservation Council of SA and Energy SA with resources sponsored by AGL Discussion: The Energy Friends model has broad applicability because it allows for self-audits to be done, training in doing audits, or the train the trainer model. It is therefore an empowering tool for communities, who have access to the resources they need, but the freedom to use them in their own way. Involving people in the actual audit process can lead to them feeling more of an investment in the process and the outcomes. Performing some of the actions necessary eg testing the flow rate of their shower - can trigger the phenomenon of behaviour influencing attitudes discussed under the Commitment tool. Training members of community groups to do audits or train others to do so has obvious merits due to the social nature of behaviour change. The structure of community groups means that people
32

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are likely to learn from someone with a similar background or attitudes, which is known to enhance Liking and receptiveness. The Energy Friends resource could be used by different cultural organisations to promote energy saving actions that are culturally appropriate, as recommended by the EmPOWERment research. Community groups have their own information networks, which assist the process of normalising desirable behaviour, eg when members report on actions they have taken and the benefits they are enjoying as a result. While there are enormous advantages of programs being delivered via community groups in this way, there are risks associated with relying too heavily on volunteers to keep a program alive. Community groups are often stretched and lacking the capacity for ongoing promotion or delivery of services. Adequate funding could ensure that programs taken up with enthusiasm do not run out of steam. A drawback of this model is that it does not contain any ongoing support or contact with participants. As acknowledged previously, knowledge alone cannot be assumed to lead to action. Participants can be daunted by the task of sourcing appropriate energy efficient products, and then installing them. In South Australia there is no demonstration site where such products are on display and householders can see and touch to get a sense of how they work and which product is most suitable. Likewise, there is no obvious directory of contractors with expertise in retrofitting energy and water saving devices. In short, consumers could come out of the energy audit with a desire to change, only to face immediate barriers in doing so. It was suggested33 that a complementary program could entail training in how to retrofit energy efficient products. This would build capacity usefully; a demonstration site and a directory of retrofitters would also improve external conditions. Evaluation of Energy Friends is currently being undertaken by an independent consultancy. Key strengths: Use of existing community groups, development of resources that can be used by anyone

ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR LOW INCOME HOUSEHOLDS (SA) 34 Area: Energy Behavioural element targeted: Capacity Tools used: Incentives, Education Description: The goal of this program by Energy SA is to help low income households reduce their energy use without reducing their comfort. It incorporates the auditing process from Energy Friends. Households in need can receive a free energy audit and a retrofit kit containing low-energy lightbulbs, a AAA showerhead and a draught excluder. The program also includes an option for householders to sell their old and inefficient fridge for $125 so it can be recycled. They may also be eligible for interest free loans to enable the purchase of a replacement low-energy fridge or other appliances and devices (eg blinds or insulation) to reduce their energy usage. The audit and retrofit service is provided by six community welfare organisations throughout South Australia. Organisations: Energy SA with Anglicare SA; Lutheran Community Care; Salvation Army; Uniting Care Wesley Adelaide; Uniting Care Wesley Bowden; and Uniting Care Wesley Port Pirie Discussion: Like Energy Friends, this program uses existing community networks, both to recruit participants and to deliver the services to them. However it is undoubtedly more of a top-down model. Participants receive the energy audit and can learn information useful for their own circumstances, but there is no scope for them to be trained to become active proponents and subsequently train or do audits for others.
33 34

Ibid Energy SA Energy Efficiency for Low Income Households brochure John Denlay (Dept. Transport, Energy & Infrastructure), pers comm page 17 of 32

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Offering financial assistance to low-income households will overcome some important barriers to reducing energy, and the scale of the program is significant, exceeding its target of 10,000 households. Funding welfare organisations to deliver the program does address the issue raised about relying on volunteer groups. However this approach would seem less likely to achieve a culture change. Participants are relatively passive in the once-off audit/retrofit procedure with no long term engagement process. In comparison, the programs discussed next are based on more active engagement of participants, enabling them to decide which issues are of concern, and empowering them to address them. Evaluation of this program is currently being undertaken by an independent consultancy. Key strengths: Large scale, ongoing partnership with community organisations, addresses financial barriers (at individual level) Two Approaches to communities learning about sustainability have a lot of overlap and so will be discussed together. LIVING SMART (WA)35 SUSTAINABILITY STREET (VIC & NSW)36

Area: General sustainability (water, energy, waste, transport) Behavioural element targeted: Intention/Habit, Capacity Tools used: commitment, social proof, authority, education social proof, information, empowering people

Description: Although these two programs have different origins, they are very similar. Both programs consist of a course for participants to gain knowledge and skills in all aspects of sustainable behaviour and focus on empowering communities. Organisations: Developed by Murdoch University, the Meeting Place Community Centre, City of Fremantle, and Southern Metropolitan Regional Council but now available for any individual or group to run Vox Bandicoot, Environs Australia, City of Moreland, Moreland Energy Foundation, City of Wollongong

Discussion: Sustainability Street is about communities achieving change by fostering long-term cooperative relationships and working on projects together. The Living Smart focus is more about individuals setting goals and taking action, although group projects can certainly be a by-product. Living Smart combines workshops on ten topics with smaller discussion group meetings, and some field trips. It was developed with three objectives: increasing awareness of sustainability issues,
Sheehy, L & Dingle, P (2004) Evaluating Environmental Education Programs: How do we know if they work? Murdoch University Robson, C (2004) Achieving Environmental Behaviour Change through the use of Goal Setting: An Evaluation of the 2004 Living Smart Program School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University Peter Dingle (Murdoch University) pers comm 36 Fitzgerald-Ryan, F (no date) All Hands On For Sustainability: The Sustainability Street Approach book one Vox Bandicoot Ian McBurney (Vox Bandicoot) pers comm
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behaviour change, and strengthening community relationships. Sustainability is defined broadly under Living Smart, to include diet, physical health and wellbeing. Living Smart communities may be based around existing social structure such as community centres, businesses, councils or neighbourhoods. The key idea is that the people decide what behaviour they want to change and then learn about how to do things differently together. Goal-setting is central to the Living Smart approach. Goal-setting combines the commitment tool with evaluation and feedback. By bringing behaviour to a more conscious level in this way, it helps to overcome habit. Achieving goals generally increases motivation. An evaluation of the pilot project showed that participants who set goals significantly increased their environmental behaviour, compared to a control group who did not set goals37. A downloadable package of resources has been developed, to allow any community group to run its own Living Smart program, and to do it in its own way. The process for initiating a Sustainability Street is normally more formal38. Each Sustainability Street has a community mentor during a course of six meetings, whose frequency is determined by the community. Vox Bandicoot can provide the mentor, or can train council officers to perform this role, which entails facilitating meetings and providing some information on the three key topics of water, energy and waste. Experts in these fields can also be invited to attend meetings. At the meetings, the community decide which issues in particular they are interested in, and what projects they want to undertake. There are four steps in the process: Mulch (learn), Grow (do), Harvest (celebrate achievements) and Sow (teach others). Once the formal course is completed, the mentor is no longer involved, and it is then up to the community to take ownership of the process, which includes reaching out to others and encouraging them to get involved. This means that a relatively small investment is required in order to create a Sustainability Street that will often then initiate community projects for years to come39. As community members learn new skills, they are empowered to become teachers or enablers of change in others, meaning the environmental and social outcomes continue to spread over time. Goal-setting happens informally in Sustainability Street, in the sense that communities decide what they want to do and report back on achievements. But it is not articulated as a core part of the process, as it is in Living Smart. There are currently around 40 Sustainability Streets in Victoria and New South Wales, with around 20 more likely to take shape next year. Findings indicate three main benefits of Sustainability Street: reductions of up to 20% in water, waste and energy sustainability projects that would not otherwise have happened have been achieved by small groups of people (eg community gardens, food co-ops, festivals etc)

Another project involving Murdoch University and the SMRC is GreenHouses. This project pilot of this project focused on educating participants about energy saving. Like Living Smart, it also used Goal setting, but rather than requiring attendance at lectures and workshops, it offered participants a choice of participating via seminars, receiving an information booklet by post or learning online. It was established that all methods were worth pursuing in future rounds of the project, and the project has now been broadened to also include water and waste issues. 38 Although it is possible for anyone to access the resources and initiate a project. 39 See the testimonial by ESD planner at Manningham Council, Faye Adams at http://www.voxbandicoot.com.au/SustainabilitySt/Manningham%20Testimonial.pdf [accessed December 05] This includes some information about time and resources invested.
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the satisfaction that arises out of making connections between people in the local area.

A strength of both programs is the holistic approach. It is also very participatory: rather than a topdown approach, where the desirable behaviours are identified and then people are persuaded to adopt them, in these programs, information is provided, but it is up to the communities to decide what they want to do and how. As a result, people feel responsible and are much more likely to sustain the behaviour change. The benefits of participatory versus information based approaches were tested in another project at Murdoch University. In a workplace TravelSmart project, three approaches were trialled: one group was exposed to purely an information campaign (posters, brochures, newsletters, speakers); another group had the same information but also had a volunteer to set a positive example and provide support and advice; a third group had both of these but also participated in a group developing a green transport plan for the workplace. Key strengths: Holistic approach, multiple benefits, participatory and empowering Goal-setting, development of resources that can be used by anyone OUR WATER OUR FUTURE (VIC) 40 Area: Water Behavioural element targeted: Intention/Habit, Capacity, External Conditions Tools used: Authority, Reciprocation, Information, Incentives/Concessions, Education, Regulation, Pricing Description: Our Water Our Future is the Victorian Governments Action Plan for safeguarding its water supplies into the future. It is a very broad program, addressing all sectors and industries that use water. Measures of particular relevance to community water usage are: Permanent water saving rules Development of uniform drought restrictions More informative water bills so consumers can monitor their usage more easily Rebates for water saving devices and appliances Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards Scheme Mandatory efficient plumbing measures Rising block tariffs for Melbourne Concession arrangements Community projects, focus on learning by doing, long-term

There is also a behaviour change campaign, with three dimensions. Media campaign This has involved television, radio, press and outdoor advertising about easy ways to save water at home and work. A Water Saver Heroes competition celebrates the water saving achievements of ordinary Victorians. Community engagement The Water Saver Garden Centre pilot program, now in its second year, provides free training and accreditation to garden centres on waterwise gardening techniques. Topics covered include water retention, garden design, irrigation systems, plant selection, water harvesting,

40

Department of Sustainability and Environment, Victoria (2005) Progress Towards Securing Our Water Future Sandie Pullen (Our Water Our Future, DSE) pers comm page 20 of 32

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recycling and permaculture. Currently 27 centres are accredited and there is also interest from retailers. Targeting expert intermediaries in this way makes a lot of sense, as they can have a considerable influence over a large number of people. The Water Saving Is Easy pilot program involves a mobile interactive stand being taken to community events. Trained event staff will show householders simple, cost effective and immediate ways to reduce water consumption at home and in the garden. Personal hands on demonstrations will allow householders to see and touch water saving devices, and learn how to install a water saving tap, fix a leaking one or mulch their garden. They will also receive a Water Saving Information Kit, which includes a voucher towards the purchase of a broad range of the water saving devices demonstrated. Nine community events have been selected for the pilot, which will take place in Melbourne from 26 January to 1 April 06. The intention is to ask visitors to the mobile stand if they would take part in follow-up monitoring of their water usage, to allow some evaluation of the pilot. Education A Water Learn It! Live It! educational kit was developed, to guide schools in water conservation and education across the primary and second curriculum. Over 300 primary and secondary schools have received kits and five professional development days have been held for teachers. Organisations: Department of Sustainability and Environment, Government of Victoria (with private sector and community organisations) Discussion: While this program addresses water rather than energy conservation, it is still interesting to compare its measures to address external conditions to the recommendations from the Community EmPOWERment workshops. Our Water Our Future has implemented many of the measures suggested, ie more informative bills, block tariffs, rebates and education. Its approach in educating intermediaries such as garden centres and educators is an efficient way to raise awareness levels. Clearly, it uses more of the traditional educational model, rather than the empowering and participatory action style discussed above. However the integration of community engagement with the changes to external conditions is likely to enhance its effectiveness. It will be interesting to observe the behaviour change outcomes in the years to come, once these community engagement programs have moved beyond the pilot phase and had some time to achieve their goals. Key strengths: All elements of behaviour targeted

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ONE TONNE CHALLENGE (CANADA)41 Area: Energy Behavioural element targeted: Intention/Habit, Capacity, External Conditions (mostly via related measures) Tools used: Commitment and Consistency, Social Proof, Liking, Authority, Education, Incentives, Information Description: The One Tonne Challenge(OTC) is a campaign to get Canadians to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions from an average of five tonnes a year to four. It is one strand in the Canadian Governments Climate Change Plan 2005, which has a range of measures to create more favourable external conditions for reducing greenhouse emissions (including regulation, labelling, performance standards etc)42. As well as the external mechanisms making it easier for individuals to take action, the OTC raises awareness and increases public acceptance of the need for market transformation. So it is seen as integral to the success of these other measures. The Challenge has had funding of 35 million CAD (equivalent to over $AU40 million) for the first three years, which works out to around $AU 0.40 per capita per annum43. The program has two main strands: marketing and partnerships. The marketing raises the profile of the issue, makes it easy to access information (about actions, incentives and rebates), and supports new social norms. The partnerships are the basis for a range of actions on reducing emissions, within every sector. The result is a nationally coordinated approach, but with the advantages of locally based initiatives resulting in community capacity building. Like the relationship between the OTC and other measures in the Climate Action Plan, the marketing and partnerships approaches support each other. The marketing campaign supports the work in developing partnerships, by demonstrating the Governments commitment to the issue. The partnerships make the choices promoted in the marketing campaign highly visible and accessible. The marketing consists of: a website where users can calculate their greenhouse emissions and search a database listing all the current rebates and incentives for reducing emissions at every level of government the Guide to the One-Tonne Challenge, which provides more than 20 pages of tips to consumers for saving money and reducing emissions an EnerGuide for Houses audit, which includes retrofit incentives tips for reducing fuel costs by driving more efficiently, selecting a fuel- efficient vehicle or keeping vehicles tuned A national advertising campaign with television, print and radio and internet ads featuring well-known comedians, deemed to be quite successful in that it achieved over 50% awareness of the OTC.

Government of Canada (2005) Project Green Moving Forward on Climate Change Colleen Paton (Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resources Canada) pers comm 42 For detail on these measures, the associated costs and the expected emission reductions, see Appendix 2. 43 The Climate Change Plan notes that the Challenge will be funded at 15 million CAD per annum until 2012, though this must be confirmed via budgetary processes.
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Partnerships have been developed with various sectors: Regional governments and community groups Each province or territory has a climate change centre, which provides emission reduction expertise, technical advice and service to individuals, local business and communities. There is a focus on joint programs and promotions (eg to increase public transport use) and building the capacity of environment groups delivering emission reductions. This includes funding support. The Government of Canada has an EcoAction Fund for non profit organisations to receive 50% funding (of up to $100,000) for projects that protect or restore the environment and/or build the capacity of communities to do this in the future. As part of the OTC, half of the EcoAction Fund is now designated for climate change projects44. This formalises a process for building the capacity of communities to achieve behaviour change in their own way. There are now more than 40 communities involved in developing local initiatives. Approaches vary considerably, from anti-idling campaigns to action based approaches targeting multicultural populations. Private Sector Partnerships have been developed with over 20 business and industry partners, including major retailers, manufacturers, utilities and others. This has led to a number of activities to promote the One Tonne Challenge and highlight to consumers the benefits of greener products and services, for example: point of sale promotions coupons and sales flyers promoting energy efficiency products (under the OTC banner) working with utilities on demand side management and renewable energy developing an extranet site with materials for workplace programs engaging employees in greenhouse reductions and challenges (now used by over 600 companies) a program for small and medium-sized enterprises to help company managers to understand the benefits of environmental management programs with vehicle manufacturers and dealers to give all Canadians information and tools to make informed choices and use their vehicles as efficiently as possible

Additional private sector partnership opportunities are under discussion. Youth Youth organisations receive funding for educational initiatives such as a youth version of the OTC and school visits by Olympic athletes. Educators Educators can create and access online resources for incorporating climate change into lesson plans. Organisations: Government of Canada with numerous other businesses, regional governments and other organisations Discussion: While the long-term goal of the OTC is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the focus since it was launched in March 2004 has been on raising awareness of the program and building partnerships. To this end, there are been some good achievements: awareness of the OTC has increased from 6% in September 2004 to 51%, with a third of survey respondents indicating they have taken action survey results suggest this awareness has had a positive impact on related climate change measures: awareness of EnergyStar is higher among those who are also aware of the OTC; participants in the EnerGuide for Houses retrofit incentive program who are also aware of the OTC appear to be going further in their energy retrofits than those unaware of the OTC

44

Although the Fund has four priority areas. page 23 of 32

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over 3.5 million website visits, one million publications distributed, 600 companies using materials over 20 corporate partners involved in joint activities - over 6 million Canadians are reached each quarter through the promotional activities of partners over 40 communities are involved in local challenges - evaluation of these has not yet been undertaken

Given the scale and complexity of the program and the many other measures happening alongside it, quantifying the greenhouse impact of OTC in isolation is exceedingly difficult. However now that awareness levels are higher, more rigorous measurement methodology will be developed. This will involve developing a set of actions, selected on the basis of probability, greenhouse impact and cost. A baseline will be established for each action and an estimate made of the Mt reductions it could achieve. Research will identify the initiatives needed to overcome barriers for each action. The goal is to identify reductions that can be attributed more specifically to the OTC. The One Tonne Challenge is a very promising model for large-scale promotion and coordination of action on climate change. It is a long-term approach, with funding allocated until 2012. It supports communities in developing programs of their own, which can be tailored to relevant target populations, culturally specific and grassroots rather than top-down. The scale and permeation of the marketing campaign in conjunction with this community action gives the climate change issue a prominence and priority that should lead to a long-term shift in the attitudes, norms and behaviour of Canadians. Key strengths: Very broad scale, coordinated approach, long-term, builds capacity of communities to develop their own programs, creates strong partnerships across sectors

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Recommendations Based on the principles of what shapes peoples behaviour, there are some key elements that should be incorporated into a behaviour change program in South Australia. RECOMMENDATION 1.: ESTABLISH A STATE GOVERNMENT BODY TO ENSURE COORDINATION, FUNDING AND CONTINUITY OF CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMS. To be most effective, a diversity of programs targeting different sectors and communities is needed. There is therefore a clear need for coordination to ensure that programs make the best use of available resources, reinforce rather than undermine each others approaches, and neither duplicate nor leave gaps. A coordinating body could establish a register of programs already in existence at different levels, identify gaps and opportunities, provide strategic funding and ensure longevity and continuity of programs across the community. Permanent behaviour change takes years to happen. RECOMMENDATION 2.: ADDRESS EXTERNAL CONDITIONS, CAPACITY AND INTENTION/HABITS

It is not generally within the scope of a single program to achieve favourable external conditions, build capacity of individuals and communities and trigger good intentions and habits. However there is a need for programs to address each of these three areas known to influence behaviour. RECOMMENDATION 3.: USE PARTNERSHIPS AND INVOLVE COMMUNITY ORGANISATIONS

The more diverse organisations can be brought together to deliver programs, the more benefits are likely to be associated with the program45. Community organisations are seen by the community as much more credible and trusted than government 46. Also, as they are of the community, they can stimulate action from the ground up, promoting social diffusion of environmentally responsible behaviours and creating a culture of sustainability. Community organisations can create programs that are culturally sensitive and appropriate. When organisations with different goals come together to advocate a single message, the effect can be very powerful indeed. Programs involving government, the community and the private sector have more pathways for getting the message out. Service industries can be well placed to include information on sustainability in the work they do47 and their representatives are often seen as authorities. Using such intermediaries can be more efficient than trying to reach individuals directly. RECOMMENDATION 4.: ENSURE RESEARCH AND EVALUATION IS PART OF PROGRAMS

Any behaviour change program needs to establish who it is attempting to influence and how best to influence them. To do this, research should be carried out to determine:
45

the driving needs and values, ie what is important to the people in question

For example, programs involving particular ethnic or cultural groups could provide opportunities for non-English speakers to share the language of their heritage with young people, thereby increasing linguistic diversity. Partnering with organisations with a health focus could result in programs that improve physical fitness, as well as reduced greenhouse emissions. Programs that use existing social networks or foster the creation of new ones enhance social capital and wellbeing. 46 Greenpeace research cited in Australian Greenhouse Office (no date) Marketing the National Greenhouse Strategy: a review of relevant social marketing practice 47 For example, the Moreland Energy Foundations Home Energy Action Training Service trains council workers about energy basics, a breakdown of energy around the home, how to reduce energy use and effective techniques for communicating about energy to others. page 25 of 32

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social/cultural influences on their behaviour their knowledge and attitudes about the issue barriers to the desired behaviour and how might people be empowered to define the problems and solutions for themselves.

The research findings should shape the design of a pilot program with clear criteria for evaluation decided in advance. When considering these, it is important to remember that measuring outcomes quantitatively alone (eg reduction in kWh or vehicle trips) can fail to show long-term internal changes within an individual or community. These things can be harder to measure and are likely to require a qualitative component in the evaluation design48. However, they may ultimately be more indicative of successful behavioural change. Once the pilot program has been evaluated, a larger scale program can be designed which incorporates the learning from the pilot. The evaluation should not end after the pilot; all behaviour change programs should ensure that monitoring is carried out throughout the program and for as long afterwards as resources will allow. Monitoring is of no use unless there are resources to ensure rigorous evaluation is carried out. RECOMMENDATION 5.: PRIORITISE PROJECTS THAT ARE EMPOWERING AND PARTICIPATORY

As discussed, participatory approaches empower communities and provide other social benefits. The more South Australians begin to see themselves as active contributors to climate change problems and solutions, the more quickly we will be able to tackle climate change. Empowered communities will also have resources that make them more resilient to the impacts of climate change. RECOMMENDATION 6.: PRIORITISE A HOLISTIC APPROACH TO BEHAVIOUR CHANGE

Many programs focus on a single issue of sustainability (ie, energy, transport, water). Wherever possible, programs should seek to offer a holistic approach and multiple benefits for participants, eg strengthened community relationships, learning new skills, increasing selfsufficiency, health benefits of being more active, saving money, more liveable neighbourhoods, more productive workplaces etc. RECOMMENDATION 7.: INCORPORATE GOAL-SETTING WHERE POSSIBLE

Given the demonstrated impact of incorporating goal-setting, it is worth looking for ways to include this in programs. To work well, participants should receive some basic training in the principles of goal-setting, such as the need for goals to be realistic and flexible. RECOMMENDATION 8.: INCORPORATE PERSUASION PRINCIPLES TO SHAPE THE MESSAGE

The persuasion principles offer useful insights into how people get to the point of wanting to change their behaviour. Using them can increase peoples motivation and reduce the likelihood of negative reactions to messages. The principles will be most effective when informed by research that has identified the needs and values of the relevant population.

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Bibliography 1. 2. Abram, E & Bennett, M (2002) Harnessing community power for greenhouse reductions http://www.adelaide.sa.gov.au/SOC/pdf/abram_bennett.pdf accessed October 05 Allen, WJ (2001) Working together for environmental management: the role of information sharing and collaborative learning. PhD (Development Studies), Massey University http://nrm-changelinks.net/thesis_contents.html accessed November 05 Australian Greenhouse Office (no date) Marketing the National Greenhouse Strategy: a review of relevant social marketing practice http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/government/ngs/communityawareness/pubs/social_marketing.pdf accessed October 05 Baudains, C (2003) Environmental Education In The Workplace: Inducing voluntary transport behaviour change to decrease single occupant vehicle trips by commuters into the Perth CBD PhD thesis, Murdoch University http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/pubfiles/adtMU20040310.121357/02whole.pdf accessed December 05 Darnton, A (2004) Driving Public Behaviours for Sustainable Lifestyles Report 2 of Desk Research commissioned by COI on behalf of DEFRA, Andrew Darnton Research & Analysis Department of Sustainability and Environment, Victoria (2005) Learning to Live Sustainably Victorias approach to learning-based change for environmental sustainability (Draft September 2005) http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/CA256F310024B628/0/2BDA5FDE21AB1A19CA25709100119B24/ $File/content-v-6.pdf accessed November 2005 Department of Sustainability and Environment, Victoria (2005) Progress Towards Securing Our Water Future http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/CA256F310024B628/0/9FFA02A08B720621CA25709F007F75BC/$ File/DSE4680_WaterFutureFA.pdf accessed December 05 Department of Transport Western Australia (2000) TravelSmart: A Cost Effective Contribution to Transport Infrastructure http://www.travelsmart.transport.wa.gov.au/pdfs/present_infra.pdf accessed October 05 Edwards, M (no date) A Future in the Balance: Integral Theory and Global Developmental Pathologies http://www.swin.edu.au/afi/docs/future%20in%20the%20balance%20(edwards).pdf accessed October 05

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8.

9.

10. Energy SA Energy Efficiency for Low Income Households brochure http://www.sustainable.energy.sa.gov.au/pdfserve/programs/households/low_income_en ergy_program/energyprogram_factsheet.pdf accessed December 05 11. Environment and Natural Resources Committee (2005) Report of the Inquiry into Sustainable Communities Parliament of Victoria http://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/enrc/inquiries/sustainablecommunities/ENRCReport_SustainableCommunities_2005-06-14.pdf accessed November 05 12. Fitzgerald-Ryan, F (no date) All Hands On For Sustainability: The Sustainability Street Approach book one Vox Bandicoot 13. Government of Canada (2005) Project Green Moving Forward on Climate Change http://www.climatechange.gc.ca/kyoto_commitments/report_e.pdf accessed December 05 14. Hole, K (2004) Community Education Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions prepared for Sydney Coastal Councils Group, Rockdale City Council and the Institute of Environmental Studies, UNSW, Sydney http://www.ies.unsw.edu.au/partnerships/pdfs/K_Hole_Paper.pdf accessed November 05

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15. Jackson, T (2005) Motivating Sustainable Consumption: a review of evidence on consumer behaviour and behavioural change Centre for Environmental Strategy, University of Surrey http://www.sd-research.org.uk/MotivatingSCfinal_000.pdf.pdf accessed October 05 16. Kassirer, J & McKenzie-Mohr, D (1998) Tools of Change: Proven Methods for Promoting Environmental Citizenship National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Canada http://www.cbsm.com/Reports/Tools.pdf accessed November 05 17. Lee, R & Denlay, J (2002) Energy Efficiency Potential in South Australia Energy SA http://www.sustainable.energy.sa.gov.au/pdfserve/general/pdf/sa_ee_potential.pdf accessed November 05 18. McKenzie-Mohr, D & Smith, W (1999) Fostering sustainable behavior: An introduction to community-based social marketing Gabriola Island, BC: New Society http://www.cbsm.com/Reports/CBSM.pdf accessed October 05 19. NSW EPA on behalf of the Council on Environmental Education (2003) Inventory of NSW Environmental Education Programs http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/inventory+report.pdf accessed November 05 20. OFallon, C & Sullivan, C (2003) Personalised Marketing Improving Evaluation http://www.pinnacleresearch.co.nz/research/personalised_marketing.pdf accessed October 05 21. Oliphant, M (2004) Inner City Residential Energy Performance Final Report to State Energy Research Advisory Committee, Urban Ecology Australia http://www.urbanecology.org.au/publications/residentialenergy/ accessed November 05 22. Ontario Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation (no date) Behavior Change: Theories, Models, and Implications for Policy and Practice http://www.lin.ca/resource/html/behchang.htm accessed October 05 23. Owen, N & Lee, C (1984) Why people do and do not exercise: Recommendations for initiatives to promote regular, vigorous physical activity in Australia. Review and recommendations for Sport and Recreation Ministers' Council. Department of Recreation and Sport, South Australia 24. Padolsky, M (2004) Cool Communities Round 2 Evaluation (unpublished) Australian Greenhouse Office 25. Paine, G (2001) Evaluation Report for Living Waters Living Communities (unpublished) 26. Parliament of Victoria (2005) Report of the Environment and Natural Resources Committee on the Inquiry into Sustainable Communities http://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/enrc/inquiries/sustainablecommunities/ENRCReport_SustainableCommunities_2005-06-14.pdf accessed November 05 27. Reidy, C; Wilson, E; Cheney, H & Tarlo, K (2004) Community EmPOWERment Research Report Summary http://www.mefl.com.au/documents/Community_EmPOWERment_Report_Summary.pdf accessed December 05 28. Robinson, L (1998) The Seven Doors Social Marketing Approach http://media.socialchange.net.au/strategy/ accessed October 05 29. Robinson, L (2001) On making social change http://media.socialchange.net.au/planning_comms/MakingSocialChange.pdf accessed October 05 30. Robson, C (2004) Achieving Environmental Behaviour Change through the use of Goal setting: An Evaluation of the 2004 Living Smart Program School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University http://www.livingsmart.org.au/pdfs/04NovLS2+3EvaluationReport.pdf accessed November 05

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31. Rose, C; Dade, P; Gallie, N & Scott, J (2005) Climate Change Communications Dipping A Toe Into Public Motivation http://www.campaignstrategy.org/valuesvoters/climatechangecommunications.pdf accessed July 05 32. Seethaler, RK & Rose, G (2005) Using the Six Principles of Persuasion to Promote Travel Behaviour Change - Preliminary Findings of Two TravelSmart Field Experiments The Urban Transport Institute http://www.tuti.com.au/Publications/2005/TR44-ATRF05-RKSPOP.pdf accessed October 05 33. Seethaler, RK & Rose, G (forthcoming) Using the Six Principles of Persuasion to Promote Community Based Travel Behaviour Change The Urban Transport Institute 34. Sheehy, L & Dingle, P (2004) Evaluating Environmental Education Programs: How do we know if they work? Murdoch University http://www.aaee.org.au/docs/2004conference/Sheehy%20L.doc accessed October 05 35. Shipworth, M (2000) Motivating Home Energy Action - A Handbook of What Works Australian Greenhouse Office http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/local/motivating/index.html accessed October 05 36. Steer Davies Gleave (2001) Program Framework and Engagement Options for the Cool Communities Project Prepared for the Australian Greenhouse Office and Energy Consult http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/local/program-framework/index.html accessed November 05 37. Tilbury, D; Coleman, V; Jones, A; MacMaster, K (2005) A National Review of Environmental Education and its Contribution to Sustainability in Australia: Community Education Canberra: Australian Government Department for the Environment and Heritage and Australian Research Institute in Education for Sustainability (ARIES) http://www.aries.mq.edu.au/pdf/Volume3_Revised05.pdf accessed December 05 38. Triandis, H (1977) Interpersonal Behaviour Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole 39. US Department Of Health & Human Services (1992) Making Health Communication Programs Work http://www.cancer.gov/pinkbook accessed October 05 40. Voronoff, D (2005) Community Sustainability: A review of what works and how it is practiced in Victoria Environment Victoria http://www.envict.org.au/file/EV_Community_Sustainability_Report_2005.pdf accessed October 05

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Appendix 1 Conversations with: Steve Malcolm, Project Manager, Learning to Live Sustainably, Department of Sustainability and Environment, Victoria Les Robinson, Social Change Media, NSW Carol Davies, NSW EPA, NSW Sue Lennox, OzGREEN, NSW Thea Bray, Project Manager, CoolMOB, Environment Centre NT, NT Reid McNamara, Sustainable Living at Home (SLAH), City of Port Phillip, Vic Rita Seethaler, The Urban Transport Institute, Victoria Euan Williamson, Household Program Coordinator, Moreland Energy Foundation Ltd, Vic Andrew Nance, formerly Energy Friends, SA John Denlay, Energy Efficiency Program For Low Income Households, Department of Transport, Energy and Infrastructure, SA Benjy Lee, Senior Consultant, Vox Bandicoot, Vic Ian McBurney, Director, Vox Bandicoot, Vic Peter Dingle, Murdoch University, WA Marybeth Hayes, Our Water Our Future, Department of Sustainability and Environment, Victoria Colleen Paton, Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resources Canada

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Appendix 2 Six key elements of Canadas 2005 Climate Change Plan49 Harnessing Market Forces The Plan uses market mechanisms to tap GHG reduction potential across the economy. The innovative Climate Fund will invest in emissions reductions from citizens and businesses throughout Canada, spurring innovation at a national level. The Climate Fund will also invest in international emissions reductions in a manner that advances Canada's broader sustainability interest. Participating in the international market brings domestic economic and environmental benefits, as well as a means of advancing our development objectives and gaining experience in a trading market that is expected to be of growing importance over time. A Partnership among Canada's Governments Cooperative action is critical to our success in fighting climate change. The Partnership Fund will maximize potential partnerships with provinces and territories. Under the Partnership Fund, governments will identify mutual priorities and share in the undertaking of major investments in technologies and infrastructure development. The federal government will play a leadership role, by deepening its commitments to green its own operations. Competitive and Sustainable Industries for the 21st Century Associated Cost and Emission Reductions

Climate Fund Funding in the order of $45 billion could reduce emissions by 75115 Mt annually in the 2008 2012 period. Budget 2005 provided a minimum $1 billion over five years. Large Final Emitter System The emission reduction target for the LFE system is set at 45 Mt off the revised baseline. Since LFEs can contribute up to 9 Mt to the GHG Technology Investment Fund, it is possible that 36 Mt would be generated in compliance against our Kyoto target.

Partnership Fund Funding in the order of $23 billion could reduce emissions by about 55-85 Mt annually. Budget 2005 provided at least $250 million over five years, and indicated that funding could grow to $23 billion over the next decade. Greening Government The emissions reduction goal for the federal government from its own operations is being set at 1 Mt, to be funded primarily through internal reallocation. Automobile Industry The automobile industry has agreed to an emission reduction target of 5.3 Mt.

49

This table has been compiled with information from Government of Canada (2005) Project Green Moving Forward on Climate Change All prices are in Canadian dollars. page 31 of 32

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The Plan is designed to spur innovative and technological advancement, situating Canada's industries for a competitive advantage in the 21st century. It outlines a large final emitter system that will enable Canada's largest emitters to contribute to national climate change objectives in a manner that facilitates growth and competitiveness. The Government and the automobile industry have reached an agreement that will see technological advancement realize substantial emission reductions from the sector. Along with fighting climate change, increasing Canada's capacity of wind and other emerging renewable energy will help to diversify our energy mix and position our industries as leaders in growing international markets. Engaged Citizens Citizens are truly Canada's best asset in its fight against climate change. A sustainable environment is important to Canadians, and, through the One-Tonne Challenge and other federal programs, this Plan will provide citizens with the tools they need to take action.

Renewable Energy The initiatives for renewable energy found in Budget 2005 (WPPI, RPPI and tax incentives), combined with other initiatives such as supportive provincial actions, could yield emission reductions of about 15 Mt annually. Budget 2005 provided $297 million over five years and $1.8 billion over 15 years for WPPI and RPPI, and $295 million over five years in tax incentives. Extending the five year funding to 2012 could involve a total cost to Government of about $1 billion. Supplementary incentives through the offset system may be needed to deliver the 15 Mt.

One-Tonne Challenge The One-Tonne Challenge set an emissions reduction goal for Canadians of 5 Mt. It is proposed that an additional $120 million be invested in the program to support that objective. Programs Extension of existing funding for climate change programs through 2012 could bring the cost to the federal government to about $2.8 billion. It is estimated that this level of funding could result in emission reductions of about 40 Mt annually in the 20082012 period. Budget 2005 notes that the $2 billion in program spending is subject to reallocation.

Sustainable Agricultural and Forest Sectors One natural advantage Canada has in rising to the challenge of climate change is our vast forests and agricultural lands. Properly managed, these can be valuable in sequestering GHG emissions from the atmosphere. Sustainable Cities and Communities This Plan recognizes the synergies between the parallel efforts of fighting climate change and greening our cities and communities. The Government of Canada's New Deal for Cities and Communities, which includes significant investment in sustainable infrastructure, will help advance our climate change goals.

Business-as-Usual Sinks The BAU agricultural sink is estimated at 10 Mt annually in the 20082012 period. The BAU forest sink is estimated to be in the range of 020 Mt.

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