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Sierra |1 James Sierra English 1102 Elizabeth Hinnant 3/29/14

Annotated Bibliography (Final Draft)


Mazo,Giovana, Alice, Nepomuceno, Mauren,Salin, Janeisa ,Virtuoso, Graciella Weiers, ,. Golden Age Gym: Reasons For Entry Permanence and Satisfaction Among Participating Older Adults. Brazilian Journal of Kineanthropometry & Human Performance. Feb 2, 2014.Web. 29 Mar. 2014 In this journal the authors describe how the Brazilian Ministry of Health on April 7th, 2011 implemented a health fitness program within the public health system. The program or study was implemented to help promote the overall health of the general populations of Brazilian cities. A sample was selected out of the population with 163 subjects of both genders and over the age of 60. The subjects were to perform multiple exercises that ranged from going to the gym, cycling, dancing and walking. Throughout the study the subjects were closely monitored by health officials that collected data on the group. In order to participate the subjects had to be a part of the program for at least 6 months and had to be interviewed after their exercise session. The results of the study showed a positive reaction to the program by the elderly, as many were encouraged to continue with exercising based on their concern for autonomy, health benefits and independence.

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The purpose of including this article in my research is to help support the point that age is not a factor in determining who benefits more from personal exercise training. All of the 163 subjects in the article benefited one way or another from the exercising study. It incorporates many of the topics that I cover in my Ethnography dealing with the motivation factors that often compliment exercise. These include health benefits, social interactions, and increase independence from their family. While this article covers a great number of points including the authors point of Intrinsic motivation was a predominant factor for older adults to enter and remain in the AMIs (5).This intrinsic motivation is what helped many of the subjects to keep going to the exercise session labeled as AMI (Programa Academia da Melhor Idade or exercise program). A lot of older adults are afraid of losing their ability to take care of themselves. McClaran, Steve. The Effectiveness of Personal Training on Changing Attitudes Towards Physical Activity. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2003) 2:10-14. Web. 29 Mar. 2014. This article focuses on the benefits of one on one personal training and the effective methods for changing attitudes towards physical activity. 129 participants were given a form to self-assess their stage of motivational readiness for exercise. Individuals in the group were assigned personal trainers for 10 weeks and were to reevaluate their attitude toward physical activity after the 10 week program. The results indicated that one on one personal training is a very effective method for changing attitudes to increase the amount of physical activity that one would not have without a trainer.

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The information from this article will help to reinforce parts of my ethnography including data from which I can make a stronger argument on how personal trainers are a benefit to clients who want to get in shape. The first paragraph of this journal, emphasizes the importance of personal training on the physiological, psychological and social benefits of daily life. McClaran uses his information to point out an important fact about society Unfortunately, more people in the U.S. are becoming less active, significantly contributing to a sustained increase in obesity. While there was a gradual increase in the percent of overweight people leading up to the mid 1980s, the unprecedented increase since then has reached epidemic proportions (10). Further study of this article will help to incorporate the scholarly voices in to my ethnography and the future direction of the paper. Lovell, Geoff, John, Parker, and Ansari, Walid. Perceived Exercise Benefits and Barriers of Non-Exercising Female University Students in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. ISSN16604601. 1 Mar. 2010 Web. 29 Mar. 2014. This journal contains information on a study that represents the attitudes of young female university students towards exercise benefits and exercise barriers. 200 nonexercising females at the university were selected to take a survey that highlighted the specific barriers of exercises and benefits of exercise. The result of the survey indicated that most female students perceived physical performance to be the greatest benefit from exercising. The other benefits included psychological outlook, preventive health, life

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enhancement and social interaction were scored lower in the survey. The greatest barrier was physical exertion compared to expenditure, exercise milieu, and family discouragement. Overall, the findings were only specific to female college students at this particular university and not a direct representation to all female college students. The purpose of this journal in my ethnography is to enforce my point on how people perceive exercise in public. Granted the selection of only 200 college students doesnt represent the whole public it does however give a sample of the basic attitudes expressed toward exercise. The authors indicate, In 2007, over 50% of American adults did not achieve the ACSM target level of PA (Physical Activity) for health benefits (785). This is a large number of the population that is largely either miss informed about the benefits of exercise or the barriers outweigh the benefits. Even at the college/university level where the majority of the students registered were female students only 28%-50% participated in physical activity. This article will provide a good strong argument on the need to help increase physical activity and correlate the importance of personal training. Biddle, Stuart. Motivation and Perceptions of Control: Tracing Its Development and Plotting Its Future in Exercise and Sports Psychology. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 1999, 21 1-23.Web. 29 Mar. 2014. Author Stuart Biddle claims, that there is a correlation between motivation, perceived control, attributions, self-efficacy, and achievement goals towards exercise.

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The overall summary of this journal is to highlight the importance of how most people perceive the process of working out to their particular circumstances. Through his research Biddle uses other authors to argue his point on how most athletes use different forms of rewards or reinforcements to help keep up their motivation to continue training and improving in their sport. Using the research from Biddle I will use his examples of common misconceptions people have toward exercise. Incorporating his list of key words I can present multiple angles in my ethnography. Judging by the research there is ample supply of data that focus on the, control-related constructs used in exercise and sport psychology (Biddle 19). However, even in the article Biddle himself claims, Clear conclusion are not obvious from this analysis in terms of deriving a rank order of good to bad(19). Mata J Silva M, Teixeria P, et al. Motivational Spill-Over During Weight Control: Increased Self-Determination and Exercise Intrinsic Motivation Predict Eating Self-regulation. Health Psychology (series online). November 2009: 28 (6) 709-716. 29 March 2014. This article summarizes the results of a study where a group of women who were overweight underwent rigorous exercise and diet mortifications. The group consisted of overweight or obese women around the ages of 23 and 50 years old. The participants had to undergo weekly and biweekly physical activity for an average of one year. The results

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after one year indicated that 75% of the group was motivated enough to continue with their daily exercises and diet mortifications even after the study had concluded. Matas argument will enforce my argument on why a personalized training session does help with weight loss and increase the level of motivation for the client. Unfortunately, most of the women had multiple trainers in there study so it would be difficult to point out how particular methods of motivation were used on the subjects. I can only highlight the data taken and put into the tables in the article. This is the clearest way to share information on how particular trials or events helped motivate clients to do their best. Once again, this only a sample of the population of obese women and a larger group could provide different results. My intent of using this article is to highlight or cite the points that carry the most weight in enforcing my main points and argument throughout my paper. One side note is that all women who participated in this survey were able to see the benefits and relationships of how a controlled exercise regimen and strict diet can provide positive results.

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