Vibration
Intiouuction
Vibration plays an important role in nature and engineering.
Many engineering products (automobiles, jet engines, rockets,
bridges...) require a good insight in the concept of vibration for
efficient product design, development and performance evalua
tion. Vibrations are fluctuations of a mechanical or structural
system about an equilibrium position.
Vibrations are initiated when an inertia element is displaced
from its equilibrium position due to energy being imparted to the
system through an external source (cf. Figure 1 and Figure 2).
A restoring force or moment then proceeds to pull the element
back towards equilibrium.
Examples:
Figure1
Figure2
Basic Concepts
Various quantities, e.g. the position x(t) of a particle, undergo
more or less regular changes over time. The processes in
volved in these changes are called vibrations or oscillations.
Examples:
waves of the oceans
movement of a piston in an engine
vibrations in an electrical circuit
Frequently, a quantity x(t) will have the same value at regular
time intervals I (Figure 3), during an oscillatory process:
x(t +I) = x(t) [1]
If the oscillatory process involves movement, the motion is
called a periodic vibration. The time I is referred to as the
PERIOD of the vibration.
Figure3
The quantity
=
1
I
[2]
is called the FREQUENCY of the vibration. It represents the num
ber of cycles per unit time (a CYCLE is the motion completed
during 1 period). The dimension of frequency is 1/time. Its unit
is Hertz (abbreviated Hz):
1Ez = 1s
1
Harmonic Vibrations
Harmonic vibrations are characterized by the fact that the quan
tity x(t) is given by a cosine or sine function:
x(t) = A. cos(t) or x(t) = B. sin(t) [3]
Figure4
: Angular/circularfrequency
AorB : Amplitudeofvibration
Since I = 2n (cf. Figure 4) and = 1 I , it follows that:
=
2n
I
= 2n
[4]
Harmonic vibrations that are represented by pure cosine or
pure sine curves are subjected to special initial conditions.
For x(t) = A. cos(t), we have the initial conditions:
x(u) = A
x (u) = u
Similarly, for x(t) = B. sin(t) the initial conditions are:
x(u) = u
x (u) = B
Harmonic vibrations with arbitrary initial conditions can always
be represented by
x(t) = C. cos(t o) [5]
C : Amplitude
o : Phaseangle(cf.Figure 5)
Figure5
Harmonic vibrations [5] can also be obtained through a super
position of two vibrations of the form of [3]. Using the trigono
metric formula
x(t) = C. cos(t o)
= C. cos(t)cos(o) +C. sin(t)sin(o)
[6]
and setting
A = C. cos(o) and B = C. sin(o) [7]
we obtain
x(t) = A. cos(t) +B. sin(t) [8]
The representations of harmonic motions by equations [5] and
[8] are therefore equivalent and interchangeable.
Fiee vibiations
Free vibrations occur naturally with no energy being added to
the vibrating system.
Undamped free vibrations
Consider a block (mass m) that moves on a smooth surface
(Figure 6). It is connected to a wall with a linear spring (spring
constant k).
Figure6
The system has 1 DOF, given by the horizontal position of the
block.
Figure7:Freebodydiagram(FBD)showinghorizontalforces
= mo):
kx = mx  mx +kx = u [9]
Setting
2
=
k
m
[10]
equation [9] is rewritten as:
x +
2
x = u [11]
Equation [11] is a 2
nd
order, linear homogeneous differential
equation having constant coefficients. Its general solution is
given by
x(t) = A. cos(t) +B. sin(t) [12]
where A and B are integration constants.
4. Use initial conditions to determine integration constants:
x(u) = x
0
x (u) = :
0
=
A = x
0
B =
:
0
Equation [12] becomes
x(t) = x
0
. cos(t) +
:
0
. sin(t) [13]
Equation [12] is equivalent to
x(t) = C. cos(t o) [14]
With C =
_
x
0
2
+_
:
0
,
_
2
o = orcton _
0
o
,
x
0
]
Problem 6.1
Find the equation of motion of a block of mass m, suspended
by a linear spring (spring constant k), which is displaced
downwards from its equilibrium position and released with no
initial velocity.
Problem 6.2
A small mass "m" is fastened to a vertical wire that is under
tension I. What will be the natural frequency of vibration of the
mass if it is displaced laterally a slight distance and then re
leased?
Figure8
Problem 6.3
A rod (length l, with negligible mass) carries a mass m at its
upper end. It is supported by a linear spring (cf. drawing be
low).
Describe the motion of the rod if it is displaced from its vertical
position (small displacement to the left) and then released with
no initial velocity.
Figure9
The "momcnt orm" r is the perpendicular distance from the
z oxis to the arbitrary element Jm. Since the formulation in
volves r, the value of the moment of inertia is different for each
axis about which it is computed.
For a point mass, the moment of inertia is calculated from
equation [16] (where r is the perpendicular distance between
the point mass and the axis of rotation).
I = m. r
2
[16]
(for a point mass)
Parallelaxis theorem
If the moment of inertia of the body about an axis passing
through the body's mass center is known, then the moment of
inertia about any other parallel axis can be determined by using
the parallelaxis theorem.
Figure10
I = I
u
+ m J
2
[17]
Perpendicularaxis theorem
Radius of gyration
The moment of inertia of a body about a specified axis is some
times calculated using the radius of gyration, k. This is a geo
metrical property which has units of length. For a given solid, if
its mass and radius of gyration are known, the bodys moment
of inertia is obtained using equation [18]
I = m k
2
[18]
Composite bodies
If a body consists of a number of simple shapes such as disks,
spheres, and rods, the moment of inertia of the body about any
axis can be determined by adding algebraically the moments of
inertia of all the composite shapes computed about the axis.
Problem 6.4
Determine the moment of inertia for each of the following
situations:
Problem 6.5
Determine the moment of inertia I
Problem 6.6
The paraboloid shown is formed by revolving the shaded area
around the x oxis. Determine the radius of gyration k
x
. The
density of the material is p = SHg m
3
.
Problem 6.7
The right circular cone shown is formed by revolving the
shaded area around the x axis. Determine the moment of iner
tia I
x
and express the result in terms of the total mass m of the
cone. The cone has a constant density p.
Problem 6.8
The body of arbitrary shape has a mass m, mass center at 0,
and a radius of gyration about 0 of k
u
. If it is displaced a slight
amount 0 from its equilibrium position and released, determine
the natural period of vibration.
Problem 6.9
The bent rod shown has a negligible mass and supports a
collar at its end. If the rod is in the equilibrium position shown,
determine the natural period of vibration for the system.
+k0 = u
[24]
k

= k
]
[26]
Springs in series
Consider two springs in series (Figure 15).
Figure15
Find the stiffness of the equivalent spring k

.
In the case of arbitrarily many springs in series, the spring con
stant of the equivalent spring is found from
The flexibility (compliance) of a spring is defined as the inverse
of the stiffness:
lcxibility () =
1
k
[27]
Problem 6.10
An elastic beam (exural rigidity EI) with negligible mass sup
ports a box (mass m) as shown below. Find the natural circu
lar frequency of the system.
Problem 6.11
Determine the natural circular frequency of the system(s)
shown below.