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Capitalism K

Capitalism Critique Table of Contents Capitalism Criti#ue $ %able o& Contents.................................................................................................................! Summar'..................................................................................................................................................................( Glossar'...................................................................................................................................................................3 Capitalism Criti#ue $ !)C S*ell.............................................................................................................................+ Capitalism Criti#ue $ !)C S*ell.............................................................................................................................5 Capitalism Criti#ue $ !)C S*ell............................................................................................................................., Lin- $ .n&rastru/ture .nvestment............................................................................................................................. Lin- $ .n&rastru/ture .nvestment.............................................................................................................................0 Lin- $ 1ailroads.......................................................................................................................................................9 Lin- $ 2ig*"a's....................................................................................................................................................!0 Lin- $ 2ig*"a's ...................................................................................................................................................!! Lin- $ 2ig*"a's ...................................................................................................................................................!( Capitalism 3ad .mpa/t $ Collapse .nevitable........................................................................................................!3 Capitalism 3ad .mpa/t $ Collapse .nevitable........................................................................................................!+ Capitalism 3ad .mpa/t $ 4ar................................................................................................................................!5 Capitalism 3ad .mpa/t $ %errorism.......................................................................................................................!, Capitalism 3ad .mpa/t $ 5/onom'.......................................................................................................................! Capitalism 3ad .mpa/t $ 5nerg' Crisis.................................................................................................................!0 Capitalism 3ad .mpa/t $ 5nvironment..................................................................................................................!9 Capitalism 3ad .mpa/t $ 5nvironment .................................................................................................................(0 Alternative 66 1e7e/tion..........................................................................................................................................(! Ans"ers %o8 %ransition 4ars................................................................................................................................(( Ans"ers %o8 %ransition 4ars................................................................................................................................(3 Ans"ers %o8 9ermutation......................................................................................................................................(+ Ans"ers %o8 9ermutation......................................................................................................................................(5 Ans"ers %o8 Capitalism is .nevitable....................................................................................................................(,

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Capitalism K

Summary Capitalism is the word we use to describe the current economic system of the United States and the vast majority of the world. It is associated with the quest to earn money and profit from the creation of products and services. Under capitalism a small number of individuals own the companies and factories that produce the goods and profit off the labor of the majority of the population has to work for them. It is characterized by vastly unequal resources and opportunities between the rich and the poor. he !Capitalism Critique" argues that the affirmative reinforces this system by making it easier for corporations to move their goods but then just keep the profits for themselves and their wealthy leaders. he #$C link argument is that the transportation infrastructure that the %ffirmative invests in will mostly be used to help the rich and will reinforce the already e&isting divide between the rich and the poor. here are many arguments in the file about why capitalism is a poor system because it means we e&ploit and destroy the earth and it's natural resources and fight others in order to gain more money. ! he alternative" is to reject the system of capitalism that the %ffirmative participates in order to find a more just and equitable system.

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Capitalism K

Glossary Vocabulary Accumulation. (hen you accumulate items you add to the number of items that you possess. Authentic. )eal* true Bourgeoisie. (ealthy individuals. Capitalism. Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are owned. Commodified. If you take a good +say an apple, and assign it an economic value-make it available for sale* that item is commodified. Coopted. Social movements are coopted when more powerful forces are able to focus the energies of that movement on supporting the cause of the more powerful force. E ploit. % person is e&ploited when his or her labor is used and they are not properly compensated for that labor. !egemony. .egemony refers to dominant global power. he US is considered to be the dominant global hegemon now. "deology. %n ideology is a set of ideas that constitute a person's goals* actions* and e&pectations +(ikipedia,. "mperialism. (hen a country attempts to e&pand its authority beyond its e&isting territory it is referred to as an imperialist power. #as$ing. /asking refers to covering something up so that it doesn't look like it is. In this conte&t* a program to temporarily address inequality could mask-cover up more widespread inequality. %eoliberalism. /odern capitalism. &reemption. 0reemption refers to attacking before you are attacked. &re'ailing. 0revailing means winning. he side that prevails in the game is the winner. &roletariat. he proletariat is the working class. (esist. o resist is to stand against* to oppose. Socialism. Socialism is an economic system in which the means of production are owned by everyone.

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Capitalism Critique )%C Shell


A. *ederal transportation in'estment pri'ileges the rich at the e pense of the poor+ reinforcing the inequalities of capitalism Eric #ann et al+ members of the 1abor-Community Strategy Center* ,--.. +2ric /ann* 3ikanza )amsey* 4arbara 1ott5.olland* and 6eoff )ay* !%n 2nvironmental 7ustice Strategy for Urban ransportation". http8--urbanhabitat.org-files- #9:;2ric9:;/ann.pdf,. %cross the United States* federal and state transportation funds fa'or suburban commuters and auto o/ners at the cost of the urban poor+ the /or$ing class+ the lo/est income communities of color+ the elderly* high school students* and the disabled. 0eople dependent on public transit for their transportation needs suffer dilapidated buses* long waits* longer rides* poor connections* service cuts* overcrowding* and daily e&posure to some of the worst tail5pipe to&ins. he movement for first5 class* regional transportation systems that give priority to the transit dependent requires the mobilization of those e&cluded and marginalized from politics5as5usual* and will challenge the pro5 corporate consensus. Equity demands a mass mo'ement of funds from the high/ay and rail interests to bus systems* from suburban commuters+ corporate de'elopers+ and rail contractors to the urban /or$ing class of color . Such a transformation /ill not happen< cannot happen< until a mass mo'ement of the transit0dependent is built from the bottom up. % ransit Strategy for the ransit5=ependent In #>>?* the 1abor-Community Strategy Center +1CSC, in 1os %ngeles founded the 4us )iders Union +4)U,<now the largest multi5racial grassroots transportation group in the U.S.<with more than ?*;;; members representing the roughly @;;*;;; daily bus riders. he 4)U's #: years of organizing* significant policy and legal victories* and analytical and theoretical e&pertise can be used as a resource for the urgent work of mass transit reconstruction in U.S. urban communities. he needs and the leadership capacity of the urban working class of color must play a central role in developing sustainable communities . 1e must aim to2 reduce suburban spra/l3 promote ecological and en'ironmental public health3 create non0 racist public policy3 and focus on the transportation needs of society4s most oppressed and e ploited. The needs of the /or$ing class and communities of color are both an end in themsel'es and an essential building bloc$ of any effecti'e organi5ing plan

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Capitalism Critique )%C Shell B. Capitalism ma$es social inequality+ economic turmoil and en'ironmental destruction ine'itable 1ise+ 0rof of =evelopment Studies A Universidad %utBnoma de Cacatecas* /e&ico* ,-)+)aDl =elgado (ise* .umberto /Erquez Covarrubias* )ubFn 0uentes* )eframing the debate on migration* development and human rights8 fundamental elements* Gctober* :;#;* www.migracionydesarrollo.org, %t the end of the first decade of the :#st century* a general crisis centered in the 6nited States affected the global capitalist system on se'eral le'els +/Erquez* :;;> and :;#;,. he consequences have been varied8 Hinancial. The o'erflo/ing of financial capital leads to speculati'e bubbles that affect the socioeconomic frame/or$ and result in global economic depressions. Speculati'e bubbles in'ol'e the bidding up of mar$et prices of such commodities as real estate or electronic inno'ations far beyond their real 'alue+ leading ine'itable to a subsequent slump +Hoster and /agdof* :;;>I 4ello* :;;J,. Gverproduction. Gverproduction crises emerge when the surplus capital in the global economy is not channeled into production processes due to a fall in profit margins and a slump in effective demand* the latter mainly a consequence of wage containment across all sectors of the population +4ello* :;;J,. 2nvironmental. En'ironmental degradation+ climate change and a predatory approach to natural resources contribute to the destruction of the latter * along with a fundamental undermining of the material bases for production and human reproduction +Hola5 dori and 0ierri* :;;KI .inkelammert and /ora* :;;L,. Social* Gro/ing social inequalities* the dismantling of the welfare state and dwindling means of subsistence accentuate problems such as po'erty* unemployment+ 'iolence+ insecurity and labor precariousness* increasing the pressure to emigrate +.arvey* :;;MI Schierup* .ansen and Castles* :;;J,. The crisis raises questions about the pre'ailing model of globali5ation and* in a deeper sense* the systemic global order* /hich currently undermines our main sources of /ealth<labor and nature<and o'ere ploits them to the e tent that ci'ili5ation itself is at ris$. he responses to the crisis by the governments of developed countries and international agencies promoting globalization have been short5sighted and e&clusivist. "nstead of addressing the root causes of the crisis+ they ha'e implemented limited strategies that see$ to rescue financial and manufacturing corporations facing ban$ruptcy . In addition* government policies of labor fle&ibilization and fiscal adjustment have affected the living and working conditions of most of the population. These measures are desperate attempts to prolong the pri'ileges of ruling elites at the ris$ of imminent and increasingly se'ere crises. In these conditions* migrants ha'e been made into scapegoats+ leading to repressi'e anti0 immigrant legislation and policies +/assey and SEnchez* :;;J,. % significant number of jobs have been lost while the conditions of remaining jobs deteriorate and deportations increase. /igrants' living standards have drastically deteriorated but* contrary to e&pectations* there have been neither massive return flows nor a collapse in remittances* though there is evidence that migrant worker flows have indeed diminished.

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Capitalism Critique )%C Shell C. Gur alternative is to reject the %ff's capitalist model of development . #o'ements against capitalism are possible no/3 our 7ob is to attac$ the imperialist system at e'ery turn 1ise+ 0rof of =evelopment Studies A Universidad %utBnoma de Cacatecas* /e&ico* ,--8 +)aDl =elgado* Horced /igration and US Imperialism8 he =ialectic of /igration and =evelopment* Crit Sociol* ?K8 MJM* 0roNuest, he theoretical framework outlined in this article for understanding the dialectic relationship between development and migration has four critical components. % Critical %pproach to $eoliberal 6lobalization Contrary to the discourse regarding its inevitability +on this see 0etras and Oeltmeyer* :;;;,* we posit that the current phase of imperialist domination is historical and can and should be transformed. In this regard* it is fundamental to notice that PQtRhe principal factor generating international migration is not globalization but imperialism* which pillages nations and creates conditions for the exploitation of labor in the imperial center' +0etras* :;;M8 K#S:,. % Critical )econstitution of the Hield of =evelopment Studies The favoring of a singular mode of analysis based on the belief that free markets work as powerful regulatory mechanisms* efficiently assigning resources and providing patterns of economic convergence among countries and their populations* has clearly resulted in failure. $ew theoretical and practical alternatives are needed* and we propose a reevaluation of development as a process of social transformation through a multi5dimensional* multi5spatial* and properly conte&tualized approach* using the concept of imperialism as an alternative explanatory framework of international capitalist expansion and the growing ine ualities! +0etras and Oeltmeyer* :;;;,. his integral approach requires the consideration of the strategic and structural aspects of the dynamic of uneven contemporary capitalism development* which should be examined at the global" regional" national" and local levels. Hor this purpose it is crucial to understand* inter alia* a, the central role played by foreign investment in the process of neoliberal restructuring of peripheral economies* and b, the new modalities of surplus transfer characterizing contemporary capitalism. he Construction of an %gent of Change he globalization project led by the US% has ceased to be consensual8 it has only benefited capitalist elites and e&cluded and damaged an overwhelming number of people throughout the world. #conomic" political" social" cultural and environmental changes are all needed but a transformation of this magnitude is not viable unless diverse movements" classes" and agents can establish common goals$ he construction of an agent of change re uires not only an alternative theory of development but also collective action and hori%ontal collaboration8 the sharing of e&periences* the conciliation of interests and visions* and the construction of alliances inside the framework of South5South and South5$orth relations. % )eassessment of /igration and =evelopment Studies he current e&plosion of forced migration is part of the intricate machinery of contemporary capitalism as an e&pression of the dominant imperialist project. In order to understand this process we need to redefine the boundaries of studies that address migration and development8 e&pand our field of research and invert the terms of the unidirectional orthodo& vision of the migration5development ne&us in order to situate the comple& issues of uneven development and imperialist domination at the center of an alternative dialectical framework. his entails a new way of understanding the migration phenomenon.

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9in$ "nfrastructure "n'estment


:;;;< "nfrastructure pro7ects are enablers of capitalist consumption (illiam Connolly+ 0rofessor of 0olitical heory at 7ohns .opkins University* ,-), +(illiam 2* TSteps toward 2cology of 1ate Capitalism*T heory and 2vent Ool. #K Issue #* :;#:* /use, oday* perhaps the initial target should be on reconstituting established patterns of consumption by a combination of direct citizen actions in consumption choices* publicity of such actions* and social movements to reconstitute the state-market supported infrastructure of consumption. By the infrastructure of consumption " mean state support for mar$et subsystems such as a national high/ay system * a system of airports* medical care through private insurance* etc.* etc.* that enable some modes of consumption in the 5ones of tra'el+ education* diet+ retirement* medical care* energy use+ health+ and education and render others more difficult or e&pensive to procure.:# To shift several of these in the correct direction /ould already reduce e&tant inequalities. o change the infrastructure is also to affect the types of work and investment available. Social movements that work upon the infrastructure and ethos in tandem can make a real difference directly* encourage more people to e&tend their critical perspectives* and thereby open more people to a militant politics if and as a new disruptive event emerges . &erhaps a cross5state citi5en goal should be to construct a pluralist assemblage by moving back and forth between shifts in role performance* revisions in political ideology* and adjustments in political sensibility* doing so to generate enough collective energy to launch a general strike simultaneously in several countries in the near future. Its aim /ould be to reduce inequality and to reverse the deadly future created by established patterns of climate change by fomenting significant shifts in patterns of consumption* corporate policies* state law and the priorities of interstate organizations. %gain* the dilemma of today is that the fragility of things demands shifting and slowing down intrusions into several aspects of nature as we speed up shifts in identity* role performance* cultural ethos* market regulation* and citizen activism.

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9in$ "nfrastructure "n'estment :;;;< "n'estment in infrastructure+ especially as economic stimulus+ 7ust /or$s to hide the e'ils of capitalism 7ason Smith+ assistant professor of history at the University of $ew /e&ico* ,--= +7ason Scott* T he $ew =eal Grder*T 2nterprise and Society Ool. > $um ? :;;L* p. K:@5K, By using the lens of political economy to focus on the %e/ >eal?s public /or$s spending+ /e can begin to see the outlines of a different interpretation. he huge amount of funds devoted to public construction* the far5reaching federal efforts invested in directing this money* and the long0run impact of the infrastructure itself form the components of the story of a public works revolution. > This re'olution helped 7ustify the ne/ role of the federal go'ernment in American life * legitimi5ing<intellectually and physically<what has come to be known as @eynesian management of the economy. By sponsoring this infrastructure+ %e/ >ealers remade the built en'ironment that managed the mo'ement of people+ goods+ electricity+ /ater+ and /aste. %mong the $ew =ealUs projects were some of the largest and most significant structures ever built in human history. #; These programs not only anticipated the national high/ays and the military5industrial comple&I in the post/ar period government5sponsored economic de'elopment also loo$ed abroad. Hor e&ample* .arry Truman?s 0oint IO program was concei'ed of as an international 0(%* building roads and airports in countries li$e Afghanistan and Vietnam . Similarly* 1yndon 7ohnsonUs vision of e porting @eynesian style economic de'elopment to Southeast %sia by replicating the ennessee Oalley %uthority on the /ekong =elta reflected the powerful e&ample set by the $ew =eal. %fter (orld (ar II* construction firms like 4echtel and 4rown V )oot +today a subsidiary of .alliburton, took their e&pertise overseas as well. The %e/ >eal?s public works programs employed millions of unemployed workers* both urban and rural* while building the infrastructure that helped integrate the disparate regions of the country into a national mar$et

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9in$ (ailroads :;;;< !igh speed rail infrastructure /ill only reinforce urban capitalism and the mobility of business to e ploit /or$ers =eike &eters+ %ssociated Haculty at Center for /etropolitan Studies* ,--8 +Summer :;;>. T he )enaissance of Inner5City )ail Station %reas8 % 3ey 2lement in Contemporary Urban )estructuring* =ynamicsT, he ongoing remaking of urban cores through urban redevelopment mega)pro*ects is part and parcel of the !urbani%ation of neoliberalism" +4renner and heodore :;;:, and post5Hordist restructuring. 1arge5scale manufacturing employment and production have given way to an urban economy dominated by service5* knowledge5* and consumption5based industries +.arvey #>L>,. The heightened competition for investments forces cities! governing elites to search proactively for new opportunities of economic growth* leading to processes of disembedding +Castells #>>J,* the emergence of new !geographies of centrality" +Sassen #>>#,* and a shift from a !managerial" to an !entrepreneurial" governance approach +.arvey #>L>I =angschat #>>:,. /eanwhile* new logistics and distribution gateways and terminals are emerging at the edges of large metropolitan areas +.esse :;;L,. +entral cities are gaining ground as key locales for capitalist consumption and culture$ Urban cores are +re5,gentrified as attractive tourist spaces +7udd and Hainstein #>>>I .offman et al. :;;?I .annigan #>>>, and as prime living and working spaces for the !creative class" +Hlorida :;;:,. ,n updated version of urban -growth machine politics. emerges +/olotch #>MJI 1ogan and /olotch #>LMI Savitch and 3antor :;;:, which* in 2urope* is strongly related to the 2U 1isbon %genda and corresponding national politics. he specifics of these processes need to be understood through solid macro5 and micro5level analyses that feature in5depth comparative case studies of particular places and actors within particular cities. here is not one single dominant theory on contemporary urban restructuring* of course. )ather* there are several strands of literature vying for prominence* each contributing certain key insights to the comple& subject matter and presenting sometimes5conflicting views on the same cities.: $evertheless* there is wide agreement among urban scholars that postindustrial* post5Hordist* neoliberal restructuring represents a double5edged sword for cities. /igh)speed communication and transportation infrastructures enable corporations to avoid the high land costs and negative agglomeration externalities associated with high)profile central city locations and relocate elsewhere. .owever* for many key* high5profile economic activities* !place still matters" +=reier* /ollenkopf* and Swanstrom :;;@,. Sassen +#>>#, first showed how advanced producer and financial services remain clustered in urban cores* and how certain centralizing tendencies in fact intensify in !global cities" that represent the most strategic command and control centers of the global economy.?

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9in$ !igh/ays :;;;< !igh/ay infrastructure enables the /orst social effects of capitalism Shane !amilton+ assistant professor of history at the University of 6eorgia* ,--. +Shane* T rucking Country8 Hood 0olitics and the ransformation of )ural 1ife in 0ostwar %merica*T rucking Country8 Hood 0olitics and the ransformation of )ural 1ife in 0ostwar %merica* /use, 4y showing how trucking reconfigured the technological* political* and cultural relationships between rural producers and urban consumers from the #>?;s to the #>M;s* my dissertation reveals the rural roots of a radical transformation of %merican capitalism in the midtwentieth century. !igh/ay transportation pro'ided the infrastructure for a transition from the $ew =ealSera political economy<based on centralized political authority* a highly regulated economy* and collective social values<to a postS$ew =eal capitalist culture mar$ed by widespread antistatism* minimal mar$et regulation+ and fierce indi'idualism. Hrom the #>?;s to the late #>M;s* consumer demand for low5 priced food* coupled with farmersU demands for high commodity prices* prompted the federal government to encourage agribusinesses to use long5haul trucks* piloted by fiercely independent Ttruck drivenU men*T to privatize the politics of food. (estern meatpackers and other agribusinesses were determined to shred government regulations and labor unions in the name of Tfree enterprise*T low wages* and irresistibly low consumer prices for goods such as well5marbled steaks* jugs of milk* and frozen orange juice. The post1orld 1ar "" high/ay0based food economy began unra'eling the social fabric of rural America for the sa$e of lo/ consumer prices<long before (al5/art became infamous for said strategy. ) Truc$s* I contend+ /ere political technologies+ used to define the contours of public policy regarding foods and farmersI at the same time* truc$s as technologies shaped the economic and social structures underlying those political debates. In doing so* long0haul truc$ing in the rural countryside set the pace for the low5price* low5wage* Tfree5 marketT economic ideologies of late twentieth5century American capitalism.

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9in$ !igh/ays :;;;< "n'estment in high/ays directly reinforces the inequalities of capitalism homas Sanche5 et al+ associate professor of Urban %ffairs and 0lanning at Oirginia ech* ,--A + homas (. Sanchez* )ich Stolz* 7acinta S. /* !/GOI$6 G 2NUI W8 %ddressing Inequitable 2ffects of ransportation 0olicies on /inorities", ransportation costs are particularly burdensome for low5income households* which devote greater proportions of their incomes to transportation5related e&penses than do higher5income households. In #>>L* those in the lowest income quintile* making X##*>@? or less* spent ?J percent of their household budget on transportation* compared with those in the highest income quintile* making XJ;*K?K or more* who spent only #@ percent. Transportation expenditures continue to rise" reducing the amount low)income households have to spend on housing" food" health care" insurance" education" and other needs. he costs of car ownership can make it difficult to afford to purchase a home* and cars quickly depreciate compared with real property. 4etween #>>: and :;;;* households with incomes of less than X:;*;;; saw the amount of their income spent on transportation increase by ?J.K percent or more +households with incomes between XK*;;; and X>*>>> spent KM percent more on transportation than they did in #>>:,. In comparison* households with incomes of XM;*;;; and above only spent #J.L percent more on transportation e&penses than they did in #>>:. here are significant inequities between bus service* which tends to serve more low5income riders* and rail service* which tends to serve higher5income riders. hese inequities pale in comparison to the differences between governmental financial and political support for highway systems and for public transit systems. /any transportation planners and policymakers* concerned primarily with the needs of suburban commuters* have focused on constructing highways and commuter rail lines that do little to serve the needs of minority and low)income communities that depend on public transportation . 2&amination of state transportation spending priorities reveals another inequity. % body of research suggests that states are spending more resources on transportation needs in nonmetropolitan areas than in metropolitan areas. /ore research e&amining geographically coded data on spending between cities and other areas would provide a better understanding of how transportation spending patterns impact minority and low5income communities. Transportation policies that favor highway development over public transit have several indirect negative effects. Hor one* such policies encourage housing development increasingly farther away from central cities* which has played an important role in fostering residential segregation and income ine ualities. %lso* the practice of locating major highways in minority and low5income communities has reduced housing in those areas. Gther transportation investments* such as e&tending a rail line into a community* have made it more difficult for minorities and low)income individuals living there to afford housing because of ensuing property value increases. Individuals displaced by rising property values commonly have few alternative housing options and may end up living farther away from their jobs and social networks<a problem that is compounded by limited transportation options. Transportation policies favoring highways over transit have also helped to create -spatial mismatch.<the disconnect that occurs when new entry5level and low5 skill jobs are located on the fringes of urban areas that are inaccessible to central5city residents who need those jobs.

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9in$ !igh/ays :;;;< The go'ernment gi'es preference to high/ays+ de'aluing the poor minorities /ho can4t afford cars to use high/ays Bullard+ 0h.=. in Sociology from Iowa State University* ,--B +)obert =. 4ullard* .ighway )obbery8 ransportation )acism V $ew )outes to 2quity, Gver the past MK years* automobile production and highway construction have multiplied" while urban mass transit systems have been dismantled or allowed to fall into disrepair. he %merican automobile culture was spurred by massive government investments in roads +? million miles, and interstate highways +@K*;;; miles,. %utomobiles account for :L percent of our nationUs energy consumption. ransportation consumes JM percent of the petroleum used in the United States.T %nd over MK percent of transportation energy is used by highway vehicles. Hrom #>>L to #>>>* US gasoline consumption rose by :.K percent and vehicle miles traveled increased by #.@ percent. 2ore cars on the road have meant more pollution" traffic congestion" wasted energy" urban sprawl" residential segregation" and social disruption. Indeed* not all %mericans have received the same benefits from the massive road and highway spending over the past several decades. 6enerally* the benefits of highways are widely dispersed among the many travelers who drive them* while the burdens of those roads are more locali%ed. /aving a seven5lane freeway next door* for instance* is not a benefit to someone who does not even own a car$ 3eople of color are twice as likely to use nonautornotive modes of travel5public transit" walking" and biking5to get to work* as compared to their white counterparts. In urban areas* %frican %mericans and 1atinos comprise K@ percent of transit users +J: percent of bus riders* ?K percent of subway riders* and :> percent of commuter riders,.U /any %mericans have cars and the majority of %merican workers opt for private automobiles* which provide speed and convenience. /ost drivers forego carpooling* with three5fourths of all commuting cars carrying only one person. 6enerally* people who commute using public transit spend twice as much time traveling as those who travel by car. Consider that the average commute takes about :; minutes by car* ?L minutes by bus* and @K minutes by train. Hor millions of inner5city residents* public transportation is the only means of getting around. Hor them* there is no question that energy5efficient public transportation is needed for easy access to child5care services* shopping* job centers* and health care services.

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Capitalism Bad "mpact Collapse "ne'itable :;;;<

:;;;< Capitalism /ill ine'itably collapse/e are /itnessing the deterioration of the system as it approaches its structural limits. The crisis opens an opportunity for truly radical politics 7ohn 4ellamy *oster* professor of sociology at the University of Gregon in 2ugene* ,--C +!$aked Imperialism" /onthly review Oolume KM* $umber @* :;;K, The 6nited States is see$ing to e ercise so'ereign authority o'er the planet during a time of /idening global crisis2 economic stagnation+ increasing polari5ation bet/een the global rich and the global poor+ /ea$ening 6.S. economic hegemony+ gro/ing nuclear threats+ and deepening ecological decline. The result is a heightening of international instability. Dther potential forces are emerging in the /orld+ such as the 2uropean Community and China that could eventually challenge U.S. power* regionally and even globally. Third /orld re'olutions* far from ceasing* are beginning to gain momentum again* symbolized by Oenezuela's 4olivarian )evolution under .ugo ChEvez. U.S. attempts to tighten its imperial grip on the /iddle 2ast and its oil have had to cope with a fierce* seemingly unstoppable* Iraqi resistance* generating conditions of imperial overstretch. 1ith the 6nited States brandishing its nuclear arsenal and refusing to support international agreements on the control of such /eapons+ nuclear proliferation is continuing. $ew nations* such as $orth 3orea* are entering or can be e&pected soon to enter the !nuclear club." Terrorist blo/bac$ from imperialist /ars in the third /orld is no/ a /ell0recogni5ed reality+ generating rising fear of further terrorist attac$s in $ew Work* 1ondon* and elsewhere. Such 'ast and o'erlapping historical contradictions+ rooted in the combined and une'en de'elopment of the global capitalist economy along /ith the 6.S. dri'e for planetary domination+ foreshado/ /hat is potentially the most dangerous period in the history of imperialism . The course on /hich 6.S and /orld capitalism is no/ headed points to global barbarismEor /orse. Fet it is important to remember that nothing in the de'elopment of human history is ine'itable. There still remains an alternati'e pathEthe global struggle for a humane+ egalitarian+ democratic+ and sustainable society. The classic name for such a society is Gsocialism.H Such a rene/ed struggle for a /orld of substanti'e human equality must begin by addressing the system4s /ea$est lin$ and at the same time the /orld4s most pressing needsEby organi5ing a global resistance mo'ement against the ne/ na$ed imperialism.

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Capitalism K

Capitalism Bad "mpact Collapse "ne'itable :;;;<

:;;;< &rolonging the collapse of the system causes nuclear /ar+ racism+ e treme po'erty+ patriarchy+ and en'ironmental destruction that /ill end in our e tinction. Charles Bro/n+ 0rofessor of 2conomics and )esearch Scientist at the University of /ichigan* ,--C +/ay #?th* http8--archives.econ.utah.edu-archives-pen5l-:;;Kw#K-msg;;;J:.htm, he capitalist class owns the factories* the banks* and transportation5the means of production and distribution. (orkers sell their ability to work in order to acquire the necessities of life . Capitalists bu' t*e "or-ers: labor, but onl' pa' t*em ba/- a portion o& t*e "ealt* t*e' /reate. 3e/ause t*e /apitalists o"n t*e means o& produ/tion, t*e' are able to -eep t*e surplus "ealt* /reated b' "or-ers above and be'ond t*e /ost o& pa'ing "or-er:s "ages and ot*er /osts o& produ/tion. %*is surplus is /alled ;pro&it; and /onsists o& unpaid labor t*at t*e /apitalists appropriate and use to a/*ieve ever6greater pro&its. These profits are turned into capital /hich capitalists use to further e ploit the producers of all /ealth0the /or$ing class. Capitalists are compelled by competition to see$ to ma imi5e profits. The capitalist class as a /hole can do that only by e tracting a greater surplus from the unpaid labor of /or$ers by increasing e ploitation. 6nder capitalism+ economic de'elopment happens only if it is profitable to the indi'idual capitalists+ not for any social need or good. The profit dri'e is inherent in capitalism+ and underlies or e acerbates all ma7or social ills of our times. 4it* t*e rapid advan/e o& te/*nolog' and produ/tivit', ne" &orms o& /apitalist o"ners*ip *ave developed to ma<imi=e pro&it. The /or$ing people of our country confront serious+ chronic problems because of capitalism. These chronic problems become part of the ob7ecti'e conditions that confront each ne/ generation of /or$ing people. The threat of nuclear /ar+ /hich can destroy all humanity+ gro/s /ith the spread of nuclear /eapons+ space0based /eaponry+ and a military doctrine that 7ustifies their use in preempti'e /ars and /ars /ithout end . 5ver sin/e t*e end o& 4orld 4ar .., t*e >.S. *as been /onstantl' involved in aggressive militar' a/tions big and small. %*ese "ars *ave /ost millions o& lives and /asualties, *uge material losses, as "ell as trillions o& >.S. ta<pa'er dollars. Threats to the en'ironment continue to spiral+ threatening all life on our planet. #illions of /or$ers are unemployed or insecure in their 7obs+ e'en during economic ups/ings and periods of Ireco'eryI from recessions . Most "or-ers e<perien/e long 'ears o& stagnant real "ages, "*ile *ealt* and edu/ation /osts soar. Man' "or-ers are &or/ed to "or- se/ond and t*ird 7obs to ma-e ends meet. Most "or-ers no" average &our di&&erent o//upations during t*eir li&etime, being involuntaril' moved &rom 7ob to 7ob and /areer to /areer. ?&ten, retirement6age "or-ers are &or/ed to /ontinue "or-ing 7ust to provide *ealt* /are &or t*emselves. 4it* /apitalist globali=ation, 7obs move as /apitalists e<port &a/tories and even entire industries to ot*er /ountries. #illions of people continuously li'e belo/ the po'erty le'el3 many suffer homelessness and hunger. &ublic and pri'ate programs to alle'iate po'erty and hunger do not reach e'eryone+ and are inadequate e'en for those they do reach. (acism remains the most potent /eapon to di'ide /or$ing people. "nstitutionali5ed racism pro'ides billions in e tra profits for the capitalists e'ery year due to the unequal pay racially oppressed /or$ers recei'e for /or$

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+apitalism 4ad 5mpact 6 7ar


:;;;<

:;;;< Capitalist globali5ation /ill cause endless /ar 3anishka Cho/dhury+ 0rofessor of %merican Culture at St. homas University* ,--. +!Interrogating P$ewness'"* Culture Critique* p. #:M5L* 0roject /US2, In a sense* globali5ation is no/ used as a co'er for endless /ar. Countries are designated as IrogueI regimes to the e tent that they fail to assimilate into global capitalism. Globali5ation+ then+ has been presented as the natural economic order and one connected ine tricably to the forces of democracy and ci'ili5ation. Globali5ation as described by its ad'ocates thus suggests a natural+ neutral process+ one in /hich a larger+ benign global family loo$s out for each member?s interests+ and /here the po/erful nations teach+ at a cost+ those /ho are economically Ibac$/ardI the /ays of the /orld. his is a process in which the T hird (orldT elite are* of course* willing participants. Consider* for instance* the te&t of the /ay J* :;;?* full5page advertisement in the New York Times celebrating the new $igeria8 TIn $igeria* a new generation is looking to attract increased foreign investment. . . . $ew legislation has made foreign involvement easier. . . . Several state5owned enterprises are being prepared for privatization. . . . Horeign investors with unique and innovative projects are granted Upioneer status.U . . . (e have very generous ta&5waivers<five years for pioneer status companies. . . . (e are doing everything possible to cooperate with the United StatesT +C##,. Gne doesnUt have to look very hard at this advertisement to understand that the forces of multinational capital ha'e produced this te t many times o'er. %fter all* such Tpromotions*T paid for in more ways than one by hird (orld citizens* are created in the (est* for the (estern consumer* and by (estern advertising firms. =espite such glossy claims* we are clearly not considering a harmonious* mutually beneficial process of global cooperation hereI rather* we are witnessing the legitimized and systematic looting and subjugation of a sovereign nation* assisted by its national bourgeoisieI in short+ /e are obser'ing another step in the process of endless /ar. 9et us then begin our analysis of globali5ation by reattaching the designation IcapitalistI to globali5ation+ so /e can focus on the un'arnished economic logic of this 'iolent process of endless /ar. Globali5ation+ of course+ is not merely an economic process but one that has multiple cultural articulations. Although ad'ocates celebrate the gro/th of cultural e change+ the greater accessibility to a range of cultural products+ and the potential democrati5ation of authoritarian societies through so0called liberatory cultural imports+ these cultural transactions are characteri5ed by and depend upon e isting economic inequalities bet/een metropolitan centers and the peripheries.

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Capitalism Bad "mpact Terrorism :;;;<

QYYYR Capitalist0dri'en hegemony fosters terrorism 7ohn 4ellamy *oster+ 0rofessor* University of Gregon* ,--) +!Imperialism and 2mpire*" http8--werple.net.au-Zandy-blackwood-bellamy5foster.htm, Socialism or 4arbarism* however* would appear to suggest an altogether different interpretation* one that sees U.S. imperialism as central to the terror crisis. In this view* the terrorists attacking the (orld rade Center and the 0entagon* were not attacking global sovereignty or civilization +it wasn't the United $ations in $ew Work that was attacked, < much less the values of freedom and democracy as claimed by the U.S. state < but were deliberately targeting the symbols of U.S. financial and military power* and thus of U.S. global power. As un7ustifiable as these terrorist acts /ere in e'ery sense+ they nonetheless belong to the larger history of 6.S. imperialism and the attempt of the 6.S. to establish global hegemony < particularly to the history of its interventions in the /iddle 2ast. Hurther* the United States responded not through a process of global constitutionalism* nor in the form of a mere police action* but imperialistically by unilaterally declaring war on international terrorism and setting loose its war machine on the aliban government in %fghanistan. In %fghanistan* the U.S. military is seeking to destroy terrorist forces that it once played a role in creating. Har from adhering to its own constitutional principles in the international domain the U.S. has long supported terrorist groups whenever it served its own imperialist designs* and has itself carried out state terrorism* killing civilian populations. Its new /ar on terrorism* (ashington has declared* may require 6.S. military inter'ention in numerous countries beyond %fghanistan < with such nations as Iraq* Syria+ Sudan+ 1ibya* "ndonesia+ #alaysia and the &hilippines already singled out as possible locales for further inter'entions. %ll of this* coupled with a worldwide economic downturn and increased repression in the leading capitalist states* seems to suggest that capital4s Gdestructi'e uncontrollabilityH is coming more and more to the fore. "mperialism * in the process of blocking autocentric development < i.e.* in perpetuating the development of underdevelopment < in the periphery* has bred terrorism+ /hich has blo/n bac$ on the leading imperialist state itself+ creating a spiral of destruction /ithout apparent end. Since global government is impossible under capitalism* but necessary in the more globalized reality of today* the system+ /FszEros insists* is thro/n increasingly upon the !e&treme violent rule of the whole world by one hegemonic imperialist country on a permanent basis 2 an...absurd and unsustainable /ay of running the /orld order.H +p. M?,.

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Capitalism K

Capitalism Bad "mpact Economy :;;;<

:;;;< The spread of capitalism ma$es en'ironmental and economic collapse ine'itable 1ise+ 0rof of =evelopment Studies A Universidad %utBnoma de Cacatecas* /e&ico* ,-)+)aDl =elgado (ise* .umberto /Erquez Covarrubias* )ubFn 0uentes* )eframing the debate on migration* development and human rights8 fundamental elements* Gctober* :;#;* www.migracionydesarrollo.org, he internationalization of capital. The expansion strategy of the global economy in) volves a profound economic restructuring based on the establishment of subcontracting chains dominated by large multinational corporations" which have a global reach. his form of e&pansion seeks to economically reinsert peripheral countries that are rich in natural resources and ensure an abundant and cheap workforce. he new e&port platforms* in fact* operate as enclaves* that is production* commercial and services zones dominated by multinational corporations and often e&empted from national ta&ation and regulation of working and environmental conditions. hese types of plants cur5 rental employ between KK million +)obinson* :;;L, and JJ million Southern workers +Singa 4oyenge* :;;J, and the strategy is widely implemented by large manufacturing* financial* agricultural* commercial* and service5sector multinationals +)obinson* :;;L,. Hinancialization. 8inancial capital generates speculative strategies that foster the chan) neling of investment funds" sovereign funds" pension funds and social savings toward new financial instruments that offer short)term high profit margins but can entail re) current crises and massive fraud. These speculative strategies obstruct and affect the functioning of the so)called real economy +Hoster and /agdof* :;;>I 4ello* :;;J,. 2nvironmental degradation. 4iodiversity" natural resources" and communal and national wealth are privati%ed for the benefit of large corporations that favor profits while ignoring social and environmental costs. This leads to increased environmental degradation" pollution" famine" and disease" as well as climate changes +global warming and increasingly frequent e&treme climatic events, that threaten the symbiotic relationship between humans and the environment +Holadori and 0ierri* :;;K,.

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Capitalism K

Capitalism Bad "mpact Energy Crisis :;;;<

:;;;< Capitalism is the root cause of energy crisis 0aul S/ee5y+ economist and former instructor at .arvard* )88J + he 6uilt of Capitalism* /onthly )eview* vol. @>* no. :* 7une #>>M* http8--monthlyreview.org-:;#;-##-;#-the5guilt5of5capitalism, (hy* then* are we not already living in the period of transition from a proven deadly to a proven safe form of energy production[ he short answer is capitalism<and this is in two complementary senses. Hirst* in capitalist society po/er is in the hands of capitalists and their acolytes. They cannot be assumed to be ignorant of the energy situation and the dangers it portends for the future. Fet they ha'e ne'er used that po/er to ta$e remedial action . Second* /hen faced /ith the energy crises of the )8J-s and the /idespread popular reaction+ they did their best to confuse the real issues and limited themsel'es to ma$ing soothing promises /hich they promptly forgotEand ob'iously ne'er intended to honorE/hen things calmed do/n. +%gain 4erman and G'Connor provide a wealth of confirming evidence., By the late )8=-s /hat had seemed to be a sno/balling popular mo'ement for an energy ne/ deal /as effecti'ely scotched and by no/ is hardly more than a fading memory.

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Capitalism K

Capitalism Bad "mpact En'ironment :;;;<

:;;;< Capitalism is the root cause of en'ironmental destruction 0aul S/ee5y+ economist and former instructor at .arvard* ,--B +0aul Capitalism and the 2nvironment. /onthly )eview* Ool. KJ* Gctober :;;@, It is this obsession with capital accumulation that distinguishes capitalism from the simple system for satisfying human needs it is portrayed as in mainstream economic theory. %nd a system driven by capital accumulation is one that never stands still* one that is forever changing* adopting new and discarding old methods of production and distribution* opening up new territories* subjecting to its purposes societies too weak to protect themselves. Caught up in this process of restless innovation and e&pansion* the system rides roughshod over even its own beneficiaries if they get in its way or fall by the roadside. As far as the natural en'ironment is concerned+ capitalism percei'es it not as something to be cherished and en7oyed but as a means to the paramount ends of profit0ma$ing and still more capital accumulation. Such is the inner nature* the essential dri'e of the economic system that has generated the present en'ironmental crisis . $aturally it does not operate without opposition. 2fforts have always been made to curb its e&cesses* not only by its victims but also in e&treme cases by its more farsighted leaders. /ar&* in Capital* wrote feelingly about nineteenth5century movements for factory legislation and the ten5 hours bill* describing the latter as a great victory for the political economy of the working class. %nd during the present century conservation movements have emerged in all the leading capitalist countries and have succeeded in imposing certain limits on the more destructive depredations of uncontrolled capital. It is hardly an e&aggeration to say that without constraints of this kind arising within the system* capitalism by now would have destroyed both its environment and itself. $ot surprisingly* such constraints* while sometimes interfering with the operations of individual capitalists* never go so far as to threaten the system as a whole. 1ong before that point is reached* the capitalist class* including the state which it controls* mobilizes its defenses to repulse environmental5protection measures perceived as dangerously e&treme. hus despite the development of a growing environmental consciousness and the movements to which it has given rise in the last century* the environmental crisis continues to deepen. here is nothing in the record or on the horizon that could lead us to believe the situation will significantly change in the foreseeable future. If this conclusion is accepted55and it is hard to see how anyone who has studied the history of our time can refuse* at the very least* to take it seriously55it follows that /hat has to be done to resol'e the en'ironmental crisis+ hence also to insure that humanity has a future+ is to replace capitalism /ith a social order based on an economy de'oted not to ma imi5ing pri'ate profit and accumulating e'er more capital but rather to meeting real human needs and restoring the en'ironment to a sustainably healthy condition .

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Capitalism K

Capitalism Bad "mpact En'ironment :;;;<

:;;;< Capitalism ma$es en'ironmental destruction ine'itable no en'ironmental problem can be sol'ed from /ithin the system Oictor 1allis+ 0rofessor of 1iberal %rts at 4erkeley* ,-)+Oictor* !4eyond !green capitalism"* Hebruary http8--monthlyreview.org-:;#;-;:-;#-beyond5green5 capitalism, % disdain for the natural environment has characteri%ed capitalism from the beginning. %s /ar& noted* capital abuses the soil as much as it exploits the worker.# The makings of ecological breakdown are thus inherent in capitalism. $o serious observer now denies the severity of the environmental crisis* but it is still not widely recognized as a capitalist crisis* that is* as a crisis arising from and perpetuated by the rule of capital, and hence incapable of resolution within the capitalist framework. It is useful to remind ourselves that* although /ar& situated capitalism!s crisis tendencies initially in the business cycle +specifically* in its downward phase,* he recognized at the same time that those tendencies could manifest themselves under other forms<the first of these being the drive to global e&pansion.: Such manifestations are not inherently cyclicalI they are permanent trends. hey can be sporadically offset* but for as long as capitalism prevails* they cannot be reversed. hey encompass8 +#, increased concentration of economic powerI +:, increased polarization between rich and poor* both within and across national boundariesI +?, a permanent readiness for military engagement in support of these drives9 and +@, of special concern to us here* the uninterrupted debasement or depletion of vital natural resources$

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Capitalism K

Alternati'e 00 (e7ection :;;;<

:;;;< Capitalism has reached a legitimacy crisis that ma$es it 'ulnerable to re7ection 7ohn Sanbonmatsu+ %ssociate 0rofessor of 0hilosophy at (orcester 0olytechnic Institute* ,--8 +/ay-7une ;>* ikkun Ool. :@* Issue ?pg :#5M:, %1%S* .2 =IS%002%)%$C2 GH OI4)%$ social movements from the field of history could not come at a more tragic time8 for the first time in seventy years" after decades of un uestioned supremacy over every aspect of human and natural life" capitalism is beginning to suffer its own :legitimacy crisis$T he 6erman philosopher 6eorg .egel famously wrote that the Gwl of /inerva would only take wing at dusk. hat is* only at the end of history would )eason and divine Spirit at last come to be reconciled* in human self5consciousness* human self5knowledge. oday* however* as the /ar&ist 7ames GUConnor has ironically remarked* the Gwl of /inerva folds its wings at day5break < closing up shop* as it were* just when things at last start to get interesting. %ntonio 6ramsci* the great Italian theorist* observed that severe economic disruptions can :lead in the long run to a widespread skepticism: toward the existing order as a whole$ 7hen that happens" even the most seemingly entrenched political and social arrangements can disappear overnight. 5n 100'" when foreign traders suddenly pulled the plug on the :,sian miracle": devaluing currencies such as the Thai bhat and 5ndonesian rupiah" mass protests and riots spread through the region overnight$ 7ithin a year" the democracy movement had toppled the authoritarian government of 3resident ;uharto in 5ndonesia* a nation of over :;; million. , year after that" the #ast Timorese at last overcame decades of repression by the ;uharto regime by declaring their national independence. he traumatic economic dislocations of the #>:;s and #>?;s* by contrast* prepared the ground for even more intensive and e&tensive social upheavals. (hen 6ramsci spoke of popular TskepticismT toward an older regime* he knew of what he spoke* having himself been thrown in jail by the fascist leader* 4enito /ussolini. If fascism and world war were the products of the last depression* what will the ne&t one bring[ %s the world economy deteriorates* as hundreds of millions of people lose their jobs* and as the state scales back on social welfare and public services* we may see a widening crisis of confidence in the economic and social order as such. hat worry seems to have been on the mind of 6eorge (. 4ush last autumn* when he felt compelled to defend the capitalist system by name.

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Ans/ers To2 Transition 1ars :;;;<

:;;;< Transition /ars from hegemony are ine'itable only in a /orld of capitalism its contradictions /ill force America to go to /ar /ith the rest of the planet Samir Amin+ director of the hird (orld Horum in =akar* Senegal* ,--+Samir* ! he political economy of the twentieth century*" Monthly Review. $ew Work8 7un :;;;. Ool. K:* Iss. :I p. #, This 'ision of a unipolar /orld is being increasingly opposed by that of a multipolar globali5ation+ the only strategy that /ould allo/ the different regions of the /orld to achie'e acceptable social de'elopment+ and would thereby foster social democratization and the reduction of the motives for conflict. he hegemonic strategy of the United States and its $% G allies is today the main enemy of social progress* democracy* and peace. The t/enty0first century /ill not be America?s century. "t /ill be one of 'ast conflicts+ and the rise of social struggles that question the ambitions of 1ashington and of capital. The crisis is e acerbating contradictions /ithin the dominant classes. These conflicts must ta$e on increasingly acute international dimensions+ and therefore pit states and groups of states against each other. Dne can already discern the first hints of a conflict bet/een the 6nited States+ Kapan+ and their faithful Australian ally on the one hand+ and China and other Asian countries on the other. %or is it difficult to en'isage the rebirth of a conflict bet/een the 6nited States and (ussia * if the latter manages to e&tricate itself from the nightmarish spiral of death and disintegration into which 4oris Weltsin and his U.S. TadvisorsT have plunged it. %nd if the 2uropean 1eft could free itself from submission to the double dictates of capital and (ashington* it would be possible to imagine that the new 2uropean strategy could be intertwined with those of )ussia* China* India* and the third world in general* in a necessary* multipolar construction effort. If this does not come about* the 2uropean project itself will fade away. he central question* therefore* is how conflicts and social struggles +it is important to differentiate between the two, will be articulated. (hich will triumph[ (ill social struggles be subordinated* framed by conflicts* and therefore mastered by the dominant powers* even made instruments to the benefit of those powers[ Gr will social struggles surmount their autonomy and force the major powers to respond to their urgent demands[ Gf course* I do not imagine that the conflicts and struggles of the twenty5first century will produce a remake of the previous century. .istory does not repeat itself according to a cyclical model. odayUs societies are confronted by new challenges at all levels. But precisely because the immanent contradictions of capitalism are sharper at the end of the century than they /ere at its beginning+ and because the means of destruction are also far greater than they /ere+ the alternati'es for the t/enty0first century are Lmore than e'er beforeM Isocialism or barbarism.I

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Capitalism K

Ans/ers To2 Transition 1ars :;;;<

:;;;< 1ars are ine'itable under capitalism Istvan #es5aros* 0rof of 0hilosophy V 0olitical heory* )88C +0rofessor at University of Susse&* 2ngland* !4eyond Capital8 oward a heory of ransition", (ith regard to its innermost determination the capital system is expansion oriented and accumulation)driven$ Such a determination constitutes both a formerly unimaginable dynamism and a fateful deficiency$ In this sense* as a system of social metabolic control capital is quite irresistible for as long as it can successfully e&tract and accumulate surplus5labor5whether in directly economic or in primarily political form5 in the course of the given society's e&panded reproduction. <nce* however* this dynamic process of expansion and accumulation gets stuck +for whatever reason, the conse uences must be quite devastating. Hor even under the Pnormality' of relatively limited cyclic disturbances and blockages the destruction that goes with the ensuing socioeconomic and political crises can be enormous" as the annals of the twentieth century reveal it* including two world wars +not to mention numerous smaller conflagrations,. It is therefore not too difficult to imagine the implications of a systemic* truly structural crisisI i.e. one that affects the global capital system not simply under one if its aspects5the financial-monetary one* for instance5 but in all its fundamental dimensions* questioning its viability altogether as a social reproductive system. =nder the conditions of capital>s structural crisis its destructive constituents come to the fore with a vengeance" activating the specter of total uncontrollability in a form that foreshadows self)destruction both for this uni ue social reproductive system itself and for humanity in general$

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Capitalism K

Ans/ers To2 &ermutation :;;;<

:;;;< (eform of capitalism fails capitalism /ill al/ays regenerate 7ames !erod+ political activist* Columbia graduate* ,--B +http8--site.www.umb.edu-faculty-salzmanYg-Strate-6etHre-@th2d-@5inde&.htm* 6etting Hree* % sketch of an association of democratic* autonomous neighborhoods and how to create it* Hourth 2dition* 7anuary :;;@, Capitalism must be explicitly refused and replaced by something else. This constitutes War* but it is not a war in the traditional sense of armies and tanks* but a war fought on a daily basis+ on the le'el of e'eryday life+ by millions of people. It is a war nevertheless because the accumulators of capital will use coercion* brutality* and murder* as they have always done in the past* to try to block any rejection of the system. hey have always had to force complianceI they will not hesitate to continue doing so. $evertheless* there are many concrete ways that individuals* groups* and neighborhoods can gut capitalism* which I will enumerate shortly. (e must always keep in mind how we became slavesI then we can see more clearly how we can cease being slaves. (e were forced into wage5slavery because the ruling class slowly* systematically* and brutally destroyed our ability to live autonomously. 4y driving us off the land* changing the property laws* destroying community rights* destroying our tools* imposing ta&es* destroying our local markets* and so forth* we were forced onto the labor market in order to survive* our only remaining option being to sell* for a wage* our ability to work. It's quite clear then how we can overthrow slavery. (e must reverse this process. (e must begin to reacquire the ability to live without working for a wage or buying the products made by wage5slaves +that is* we must get free from the labor market and the way of living based on it,* and embed ourselves instead in cooperative labor and cooperatively produced goods. %nother clarification is needed. This strategy does not call for reforming capitalism+ for changing capitalism into something else. "t calls for replacing capitalism* totally+ /ith a ne/ ci'ili5ation. This is an important distinction+ because capitalism has pro'ed imper'ious to reforms+ as a system. 1e can sometimes in some places /in certain concessions from it Lusually only temporary onesM and /in some Lusually short0li'edM impro'ements in our li'es as its 'ictims+ but /e cannot reform it piecemeal+ as a system. Thus our strategy of gutting and e'entually destroying capitalism requires at a minimum a totali5ing image+ an a/areness that /e are attac$ing an entire /ay of life and replacing it /ith another+ and not merely reforming one /ay of life into something else .

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Ans/ers To2 &ermutation :;;;<

:;;;< Single0issue campaigns li$e the affirmati'e are nothing more than mas$ing reforms that sustain the system. The only escape from capitalism is its total destruction+ anything less only ser'es to promote it 7ames !erod+ political activist* Columbia graduate* ,--. +!Strategies that have failed" http8--site.www.umb.edu-faculty-salzmanYg-Strate-6etHre-;K.htm, Single0issue campaigns. 1e cannot destroy capitalism /ith single0issue campaigns. Fet the great bul$ of the energies of radicals is spent on these campaigns . here are dozens of them8 campaigns to preserve the forests" keep rent control* stop whaling* stop animal e&periments* defend abortion rights* stop to&ic dumping* stop the killing of baby seals* stop nuclear testing* stop smoking* stop pornography* stop drug testing* stop drugs* stop the war on drugs* stop police brutality* stop union busting* stop red5lining* stop the death penalty* stop racism" stop sexism* stop child abuse* stop the re5emerging slave trade* stop the bombing of Wugoslavia* stop the logging of redwoods* stop the spread of advertising* stop the patenting of genes* stop the trapping and killing of animals for furs* stop irradiated meat* stop genetically modified foods* stop human cloning* stop the death squads in Colombia* stop the 7orld 4ank and the (orld rade Grganization* stop the e&termination of species* stop corporations from buying politicians* stop high stakes educational testing* stop the bovine growth hormone from being used on milk cows* stop micro radio from being banned* stop global warming* stop the militarization of space* stop the killing of the oceans* and on and on. 7hat we are doing is spending our lives trying to fix up a system which generates evils far faster than we can ever eradicate them. %lthough some of these campaigns use direct action +e.g.* spikes in the trees to stop the chain saws or 6reenpeace boats in front of the whaling ships to block the harpoons,* for the most part the campaigns are directed at passing legislation in +ongress to correct the problem$ Unfortunately* reforms that are won in one decade" after endless agitation" can be easily wiped off the books the following decade" after the protesters have gone home" or after a new administration comes to power. hese struggles all have value and are needed. Could anyone think that the campaigns against global warming* or to free 1eonard 0eltier* or to aid the 2ast imorese ought to be abandoned[ ;ingle issue campaigns keep us aware of what>s wrong" and sometimes even win$ 4ut in and of themselves" they cannot destroy capitalism* and thus cannot really fi& things. 5t is utopian to believe that we can reform capitalism$ 2ost of these evils can only be eradicated for good if we destroy capitalism itself and create a new civili%ation$ 7e cannot afford to aim for anything less. <ur very survival is at stake$ There is one single)issue campaign 5 can wholehearted endorse? the total and permanent eradication of capitalism$

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Capitalism K

Ans/ers To2 Capitalism is "ne'itable :;;;<

:;;;< Capitalism is not ine'itable 7oel @o'el+ 0rofessor of Social Studies at 4ard* ,--, +7oel* he 2nemy of $ature* p##K5##J, Hor e&ample* it is a commonly held opinion that capitalism is an innate and therefore inevitable outcome for the human species. If this is the case* then the necessary path of human evolution travels from the Glduvai 6orge to the $ew Work Stock 2&change* and to think of a world beyond capital is mere baying at the moon. It only takes a brief reflection to demolish the received understanding. Capital is certainly a potentiality for human nature+ but+ despite all the efforts of ideologues to argue for its natural ine'itability+ no more than this. *or if capital /ere natural+ /hy has it only occupied the last C-- years of a record that goes bac$ for hundreds of thousandsN /ore to the point* /hy did it ha'e to be imposed through 'iolence /here'er it set do/n its ruleN And most importantly* /hy does it ha'e to be continually maintained through 'iolence+ and continuously re0imposed on each generation through an enormous apparatus of indoctrinationN

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