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A Commentary of the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica

(1658)
BY

Bishop John Lightfoot

(1601-1675) "one of the finest intellects of the Westminster Assembly was a strong preterist: John Lightfoot."
Kenneth Gentry

COMPLETE AND UNCENSORED Bishop J. Lightfoot's Works; 2 o!.'s; "#$%&"st E'.

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"That the destruction of Jerusalem and the whole Jewish state is described as if the whole frame of the world were to be dissolved. Nor is it strange when !od destro"ed his habitation and cit" #laces once so dear to him with so direful and sad an overthrow$ his own #eo#le whom he accounted of as much or more than the whole world beside b" so dreadful and ama%ing #lagues. &att. '()'* +, -The sun shall be dar.ened /c. Then shall a##ear the -sign of the 0on of man - /c$ which "et are said to fall out within that generation ver. +(." "1ith the same reference it is that the times and state of things immediatel" following the destruction of Jerusalem are called -a new creation - new heavens - and -a new earth.- 1hen should that be2 3ead the whole cha#ter$ and "ou will find the Jews re4ected and cut off$ and from that time is that new creation of the evangelical world among the !entiles. 5om#are ' 5or. 5)16 and 3ev. '1)1 '$ where the old Jerusalem being cut off and destro"ed a new one succeeds$ and new heavens and a new earth are created. ' 7eter +)1+) -1e according to his #romise loo. for new heavens and a new earth.- The heaven and the earth of the Jewish church and commonwealth must be all on fire and the &osaic elements burnt u#$ but we according to the #romise made to us b" 8saiah the #ro#het when all these are consumed loo. for the new creation of the evangelical state" (9n John '1)'')
T:;<= 9> 59NT=NT0 5ercitations .pon 0t. 3atthew A Chorogr(phi)(! C*+t,r.)horogr(ph-/ th* (rt of '*s)ri0i+g or 1(ppi+g ( r*gio+ or 'istri)t. W*0st*r's Ni+th N*2 Co!!*gi(t* Di)tio+(r-3

5ercitations .pon 0t. 3ar6 ?edication : 5horogra#hical ?ecad$ searching into some #laces of the <and of 8srael$ those es#eciall" whereof mention is made in 0t. &ar.. 5ercitations .pon 0t. L.6e ?edication : >ew 5horogra#hical Notes u#on the #laces mentioned in 0t. <u.e. 5ercitations .pon 0t. John ?edication : 5horogra#hical 8n@uir" into some #laces of the <and of 8srael #articularl" those which we find mentioned in the =vangelist 0t. John.

*o His %ear "rien7s8 the 0t.7ents of Catharine9Hall8 Health. AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA


Those ver" arguments which first and chiefl" moved me to turn over the Talmudical writings moved me also to this #resent wor.) so that from the same reasons whence that reading first #roceeded from them #roceed also this fruit and benefit of it. >or first when all the boo.s of the New Testament were written b" Jews and among Jews and unto them$ and when all the discourses made there were made in li.e manner b" Jews and to Jews and among them$ 8 was alwa"s full" #ersuaded as of a thing #ast all doubting that that Testament could not but ever"where taste of and retain the Jews- st"le idiom form and rule of s#ea.ing. :nd hence in the second #lace 8 concluded as assuredl" that in the obscurer #laces of that Testament (which are ver" man") the best and most natural method of searching out the sense is to in@uire how and in what sense those #hrases and manners of s#eech were understood according to the vulgar and common dialect and o#inion of that nation$ and how the" too. them b" whom the" were s#o.en and b" whom the" were heard. >or it is no matter what we can beat out concerning those manners of s#eech on the anvil of our own conceit but what the" signified among them in their ordinar" sense and s#eech. :nd since this could be found out no other wa" than b" consulting Talmudic authors who both s#ea. in the vulgar dialect of the Jews and also handle and reveal all Jewish matters$ being induced b" these reasons 8 a##lied m"self chiefl" to the reading these boo.s. 8 .new indeed well enough that 8 must certainl" wrestle with infinite difficulties and such as were hardl" to be overcome$ "et 8 undervalued them all and armed m"self with a firm #ur#ose that if it were #ossible 8 might arrive to a fuller and more dee# .nowledge and understanding of the st"le and dialect of the New Testament. The ill re#ort of those authors whom all do so ver" much s#ea. against ma" at first discourage him that sets u#on the reading of their boo.s. The Jews themselves stin. in &arcellinus and their writings stin. as much amongst all$ and the" labour under this 8 .now not what singular misfortune that being not read the" dis#lease$ and that the" are sufficientl" re#roached b" those that have read them but undergo much more infam" b" those that have not. The almost uncon@uerable difficult" of the st"le the frightful roughness of the language and the ama%ing em#tiness and so#histr" of the matters handled do torture veB and tire him that reads them. The" do ever"where abound with trifles in that manner as though the" had no mind to be read$ with obscurities and difficulties as though the" had no mind to be understood) so that the reader hath need of #atience all along to enable him to bear both trifling in sense and roughness in eB#ression. 8 indeed #ro#ounded three things to m"self while 8 turned them over that 8 might as much as 8 could either underCvalue those veBations of reading or soften them or recreate m"self with them and that 8 might rea# and en4o" fruit from them if 8 could and as much as 8 could. 8. 8 resolved with m"self to observe those things which seemed to "ield some light to the hol" 0cri#tures but es#eciall" either to the #hrases or sentences or histor" of the New Testament. 88. To set down such things in m" noteCboo.s which carried some mention of certain #laces in the land of 8srael or afforded some light into the chorogra#h" of that land. 888. To note those things which referred to the histor" of the Jews whether ecclesiastical or scholastic or civil$ or which referred to the 5hristian histor" or the histor" of the rest of the world. :nd now after having viewed and observed the nature art matter and marrow of these authors with as much intention as we could 8 cannot #aint out in little a true and livel" character of them better than in these #aradoBes and riddles) There are no authors do more affright and veB the reader$ and "et there are none who do more entice and delight him. 8n no writers is greater or e@ual trifling$ and "et in none is greater or so great benefit. The doctrine of the gos#el hath no more bitter enemies than the"$ and "et the teBt of the gos#el hath no more #lain inter#reters. To sa" all in a word to the Jews their countr"men the" recommend nothing but to"s and destruction and #oison$ but 5hristians b" their s.ill and industr" ma" render them most usefull" serviceable to their studies and most eminentl" tending to the inter#retation of the New Testament. 1e here offer some s#ecimen of this our reading and our choice for the reader-s sa.e if so it ma" find acce#tance with the reader. 1e .now how eB#osed to sus#icion it is to #roduce new things$ how eB#osed to hatred the Talmudic writings are$ how eB#osed to both and to shar# censure also to #roduce them in hol" things. Therefore this our more unusual manner of eB#laining 0cri#ture cannot u#on that ver" account but loo. for a more unusual censure and become sub4ect to a severer eBamination. ;ut when the lot is cast it is too late at this time to desire to avoid the se@uel of it$ and too much in vain in this

#lace to attem#t a defence. 8f the wor. and boo. itself does not carr" something with it which ma" #lead its cause and obtain the reader-s #ardon and favour$ our oration or begging =#istle will little avail to do it. The #resent wor. therefore is to be eB#osed and delivered over to its fate and fortune whatsoever it be. 0ome there are we ho#e who will give it a milder and more gentle rece#tion$ for this ver" thing dealing favourabl" and .indl" with us that we have been intent u#on our studies$ that we have been intent u#on the gos#el$ and that we have endeavoured after truth) the" will show us favour that we followed after it and if we have not attained it the" will #it" us. ;ut as for the wrin.led forehead and the stern brow we are #re#ared to bear them with all #atience being armed and satisfied with this inward #atronage that "we have endeavoured to #rofit." ;ut this wor. whatever it be and whatever fortune it is li.e to meet with we would dedicate to "ou m" ver" dear 5atharineC Dall men both as a debt and as a desire. >or b" this most close bond and tie wherewith we are united to "ou is due all that we stud" all that we can do$ if so be that all is an" thing at all. :nd when we desire to #rofit all (if we could) which becomes both a student and a 5hristian to do$ b" that bond and "our own merits "ou are the ver" centre and rest of those desires and wishes. 1e are sufficientl" conscious to ourselves how little or nothing we can do either for the #ublic benefit or for "ours$ "et we would ma.e a #ublic #rofession before all the world of our desire and stud"$ and before "ou of our inward and cordial affection. <et this #ledge therefore of our love and endearment be laid u# b" "ou$ and while we endeavour to give others an account of our hours let this give "ou an assurance of our affections. :nd ma" it last in 5atharineCDall even to future ages as a testimon" of service a monument of love and a memorial both of me and "ouE >rom m" 0tud" The 5alends of June 1658.

Chapter &
&:& *he boo6 of the generation of Jes.s Christ8 the son of %a:i78 the son of Abraham.

FThe book of the generation of Jesus Christ.G Ten stocks came out of Babylon) 1. Priests. '. Levites. +. Israelites. (. Common persons as to the #riesthood) such whose fathers indeed were s#rung from #riests but their mothers unfit to be admitted to the #riests- marriageCbed. 5. Proselytes. 6. Liberti or servants set free. 6. Nothi) such as were born in wedloc.$ but that which was unlawful. 8. Nethinims. *. Bastards) such as came of a certain mother but of an uncertain father. 1,. 0uch as were gathered up out of the streets whose fathers and mothers were uncertain. : defiled generation indeedE and therefore brought u# out of ;ab"lon in this common sin. according to the o#inion of the Debrews that the whole Jewish seed still remaining there might not be #olluted b" it. For !ra "ent not up out of Babylon# until he had rendered it pure as flour$ The" are the words of the ;ab"lonian !emara which the !loss eB#lains thus$ "De left not an" there that were illegitimate in an" res#ect but the #riests and <evites onl" and 8sraelites of a #ure and undefiled stoc.. Therefore he brought u# with him these ten .inds of #edigrees that these might not be mingled with those when there remained now no more a 0anhedrim there which might ta.e care of that matter. Therefore he brought them to Jerusalem where care might be ta.en b" the 0anhedrim fiBed there that the legitimate might not marr" with the illegitimate." <et us thin. of these things a little while we are u#on our entrance into the !os#elChistor") 8. Dow great a cloud of obscurit" could not but arise to the #eo#le concerning the original of 5hrist even from the ver" return out of ;ab"lon when the" either certainl" saw or certainl" believed that the" saw a #urer s#ring of Jewish blood there than in the land of 8srael itselfE 88. Dow great a care ought there to be in the families of #ure blood to #reserve themselves untouched and clean from this im#ure sin.$ and to la" u# among themselves genealogical scrolls from generation to generation as faithful witnesses and lasting monuments of their legitimate stoc. and free bloodE

Dear a com#laint and a stor" in this case) "3. Jochanan said ;" the Tem#le it is in our hand to discover who are not of #ure blood in the land of 8srael) but what shall 8 do when the chief men of this generation lie hid2" (that is when the" are not of #ure blood and "et we must not declare so much o#enl" concerning them). "De was of the same o#inion with 3. 8saac who said % family (of the #olluted blood) that lies hid# let it lie hid$ :bai also saith 1e have learned this also b" tradition That there was a certain famil" called the famil" of ;ethC%eri#ha be"ond Jordan and a son of Hion removed it awa"." (The !loss is 0ome eminent man b" a #ublic #roclamation declared it im#ure.) ";ut he caused another which was such" Fthat is im#ureG "to come near. and there was another which the wise men would not manifest." 888. 1hen it es#eciall" la" u#on the 0anhedrim settled at Jerusalem to #reserve #ure families as much as in them la" #ure still$ and when the" #rescribed canons of #reserving the legitimation of the #eo#le (which "ou ma" see in those things that follow at the #lace alleged) there was some necessit" to la" u# #ublic records of #edigrees with them) whence it might be .nown what famil" was #ure and what defiled. Dence that of 0imon ;en :%%ai deserves our notice) "8 saw (saith he) a genealogical scroll in Jerusalem in which it was thus written$ -N. a bastard of a strange wife.-" 9bserve that even a bastard was written in their #ublic boo.s of genealog" that he might be .nown to be a bastard and that the #urer families might ta.e heed of the defilement of his seed. <et that also be noted) "The" found a boo. of genealog" at Jerusalem in which it was thus written$ -Dillel was s#rung from ?avid. ;en Jatsa#h from :sa#h. ;en Tsitsith Dacceseth from :bner. ;en 5obisin from :chab -" /c. :nd the records of the genealogies smell of those things which are mentioned in the teBt of the &isna concerning -woodC carr"ing-) "The #riests- and #eo#le-s times of woodCcarr"ing were nine) on the first da" of the month Nisan for the sons of =rach the sons of Judah) the twentieth da" of Tammu% for the sons of ?avid the son of Judah) the fifth da" of :b for the sons of 7arosh the son of Judah) the seventh of the same month for the sons of Jonadab the son of 3echab) the tenth of the same for the sons of 0enaah the son of ;en4amin " /c. 8t is therefore eas" to guess whence &atthew too. the last fourteen generations of this genealog" and <u.e the first fort" names of his$ namel" from the genealogical scrolls at that time well enough .nown and laid u# in the #ublic re#ositories and in the #rivate also. :nd it was necessar" indeed in so noble and sublime a sub4ect and a thing that would be so much in@uired into b" the Jewish #eo#le as the lineage of the &essiah would be that the evangelists should deliver a truth not onl" that could not be gainsaid but also that might be #roved and established from certain and undoubted rolls of ancestors. F&f Jesus Christ$G That the name of Jesus is so often added to the name of Christ in the New Testament is not onl" that thereb" 5hrist might be #ointed out for the 'aviour which the name Jesus signifies$ but also that Jesus might be #ointed out for true Christ) against the unbelief of the Jews who though the" ac.nowledged a certain (essiah or Christ "et the" stiffl" denied that Jesus of Na%areth was he. This observation ta.es #lace in numberless #laces of the New Testament$ :cts ')+6 8)+5$ 1 5orinthians 16)''$ 1 John ')'' ()15 /c. FThe 'on of )avid.G That is "the true &essias." >or b" no more ordinar" and more #ro#er name did the Jewish nation #oint out the &essiah than b" The 'on of )avid$ 0ee &atthew 1')'+ '1)* '')('$ <u.e 18)+8$ and ever"where in the Talmudic writings but es#eciall" in ;ab. 0anhedrim) where it is also discussed 1hat .ind of times those should be when the 'on of )avid should come. The things which are devised b" the Jews concerning &essiah ;en Jose#h (which the Targum u#on 5anticles ()5 calls -&essiah ;en =#hraim-) are therefore devised to com#l" with their giddiness and loss of 4udgment in their o#inion of the &essiah. >or since the" des#ised the true &essiah who came in the time foreCallotted b" the #ro#hets and crucified him$ the" still eB#ect 8 .now not what chimerical one concerning whom the" have no certain o#inion) whether he shall be one or two$ whether he shall arise from among the living or from the dead$ whether he shall come in the clouds of heaven or sitting u#on an ass /c.) the" eB#ect a 'on of )avid$ but the" .now not whom the" .now not when.

;. Abraham begat Isaac< an7 Isaac begat Jacob< an7 Jacob begat J.7as an7 his brethren<

FJudas$G 8n Debrew Jehudah. 1hich word not onl" the !ree.s for want of the letter "h" in the middle of a word but the Jews themselves do contract into Judah) which occurs infinite times in the Jerusalem Talmud. The same #erson who is called *$ Jose Bi *$ Jehudah in the neBt line is called *$ Jose Bi *$ Judah...
(. An7 0almon begat 1oo= of !achab< an7 1oo= begat #be7 of !.th< an7 #be7 begat Jesse<

FBoo! of *achab$G 0o far the Jewish writers agree with &atthew that the" confess 3achab was married to some #rince of 8srael but mista.ing concerning the #erson) whether the" do this out of ignorance or wilfull" let themselves loo. to that. 5oncerning this matter the ;ab"lonian !emara hath these words) "=ight #ro#hets and those #riests s#rung from 3achab and the" are these Neriah ;aruch 0eraiah &aaseiah Jeremiah Dil.iah Danameel and 0hallum. 3. Judah saith Duldah also was of the #osterit" of 3achab." :nd a little after "There is a tradition that she being made a #rosel"tess was married to Joshua") which Iimchi also #roduceth in Joshua 6. Dere the !loss casts in a scru#le) "8t sounds somewhat harshl" (saith it) that Joshua married one that was made a #rosel"te when it was not lawful to contract marriage with the 5anaanites though the" became #rosel"tes. Therefore we must sa" that she was not of the seven nations of the 5anaanites but of some other nation and so4ourned there. ;ut others sa" that that #rohibition too. not #lace before the entrance into the #romised land " /c.
'. An7 Asa begat Josaphat< an7 Josaphat begat Joram< an7 Joram begat #=ias<

F%nd Joram begat &!ias$G The names of :ha%ias Joash and :ma%ias are struc. out. 0ee the histor" in the boo.s of the Iings and 1 5hronicles +)11 1'. 8. The #romise that "the throne of ?avid should not be em#t" " #assed over after a manner for some time into the famil" of Jehu the overthrower of Joram-s famil". >or when he had ra%ed the house of :hab and had slain :ha%iah s#rung on the mother-s side of the famil" of :hab the <ord #romiseth him that his sons should reign unto the fourth generation ' Iings 1,)+,. Therefore however the mean time the throne of ?avid was not em#t" and that Joash and :ma%ias sat during the s#ace between "et their names are not unfitl" omitted b" our evangelist both because the" were sometimes not ver" unli.e Joram in their manners$ and because their .ingdom was ver" much ecli#sed b" the .ingdom of 8srael when :ha%ias was slain b" Jehu and his cousin :ma%ias ta.en and basel" subdued b" his cousin Joash ' 5hronicles '5)'+. 88. "The seed of the wic.ed shall be cut off " 7salm +6)'8. <et the studious reader observe that in the original in this ver" #lace the letter :in which is the last letter of "icked and of seed is cut off and is not eB#ressed$ when b" the rule of acrostic verse (according to which this 7salm is com#osed) that letter ought to begin the neBt following verse. 888. "Thou shalt not ma.e to th"self an" graven image /c. >or 8 the <ord th" !od am a 4ealous !od$ visiting the ini@uit" of the fathers u#on the children unto the third and fourth generation " (=Bodus ',)5. Joram wal.ed in the idolatrous wa"s of the .ings of 8srael according to the manner of the famil" of :hab ' Iings 8)18. 1hich horrid violation of the second command !od visits u#on his #osterit" according to the threatening of that command$ and therefore the names of his sons are dashed out unto the fourth generation. 8J. The 9ld Testament also stigmati%eth that idolatr" of Joram in a wa" not unli.e this of the New$ and shows that famil" unworth" to be numbered among ?avid-s #rogen" ' 5hronicles '')') %ha!ias# the son of t"o and forty years) that is not of his age (for he was not above twoCandCtwent" ' Iings 8)'6) but of the duration of the famil" of 9mri of which stoc. :ha%ias was on the mother-s side$ as will

sufficientl" a##ear to him that com#utes the "ears. : fatal thing surel"E that the "ears of a .ing of Judah should be rec.oned b" the account of the house of 9mri. J. <et a genealogical st"le not much different be observed 1 5hronicles ()1$ where 0hobal born in the fifth or siBth generation from Judah is rec.oned as if he were an immediate son of Judah. 5om#are cha#ter ')5,. 8n the li.e manner =%ra 6 in the genealog" of =%ra five or siB generations are erased.
&&. An7 Josias begat Jechonias an7 his brethren8 abo.t the time they were carrie7 away to 1abylon:

F%nd Josias begat Jechonias$G The sons of Josias were these) the firstCborn Jochanan$ the second Joachim$ the third Hede.iah$ the fourth 0hallum 1 5hronicles +)15. 1ho this 0hallum was the Jerusalem Talmudists do dis#ute) "3. Jochanan saith Jochanan and Jehoacha% were the same. :nd when it is written Jochanan the first+born it means this$ that he was the firstCborn to the .ingdom) that is he first reigned. :nd 3. Jochanan saith 0hallum and Hede.ias are the same. :nd when it is written Hede.ias the third 0hallum the fourth$ he was the third in birth but he reigned fourth." The same things are #roduced in the tract 0otah. ;ut 3. Iimchi much more correctl") "0hallum (saith he) is Jechonias who had two names and was rec.oned for the son of Josias when he was his grandchild" (or the son of his son)$ ">or the sons of sons are re#uted for sons." 5om#are Jeremiah '')11 with '($ and the thing itself s#ea.s it. :nd that which the !emarists now @uoted sa" Hede.iah was also called 'hallum# because in his days ,'halmah#, ,an end "as put to, the kingdom of the family of )avid ) this also agrees ver" fitl" to Jechonias Jeremiah '')'8C+,.
&;. An7 after they were bro.ght to 1abylon8 Jechonias begat 0alathiel< an7 0alathiel begat >orobabel<

FJechonias begat 'alathiel$G That is "a son of the .ingdom " or successor in that dignit" of the house of ?avid whatsoever it was which was altogether withered in the rest of the sons of Josiah but did somewhat flourish again in him ' Iings '5)'6. :nd hence it is that of all the #osterit" of Josiah Jechonias onl" is named b" 0t. &atthew. Jechonias in truth was "ithout children Jeremiah '')+,$ and 0alathiel #ro#erl" s#ea.ing was the son of Neri <u.e +)'6) but "et Jechonias is said to beget him$ not that he was trul" his father but that the other was his successor$ not indeed in his .ingl" dignit" for that was now #erished but in that which now was the chief dignit" among the Jews. 0o 1 5hronicles +)16 Hede.ias is called the son either of Jehoia.im whose brother indeed he was or of Jechonias whose uncle he was$ because he succeeded him in the .ingl" dignit". The <ord had declared and that not without an oath that Jechonias should be "ithout children. The Talmudists do so inter#ret "3. Judah saith :ll the" of whom it is said These shall be "ithout children$ the" shall have no children. :nd those of whom it is said They shall die "ithout children$ the" bur" their children." F<ev ',)','1.G 0o Iimchi also u#on the #lace$ "The word (saith he) means this$ That his sons shall die in his life if he shall now have sons) but if he shall not now have sons he never shall. ;ut our 3abbins of blessed memor" sa" That he re#ented in #rison. :nd the" sa" moreover 9hE how much doth re#entance avail which evacuates a #enal edictE for it is said -1rite "e this man childless-) but he re#enting this edict turned to his good " /c. "3. Jochanan saith Dis carr"ing awa" eB#iated. >or when it is said -1rite this man childless - after the carr"ing awa" it is said -The sons of 5oniah :ssir his son 0healtiel his son.-" These things are in ;ab"l. 0anhedrim where these words are added ":ssir his son because his mother conceived him in #rison."

;ut the words in the original (1 5hron +)16) are these... No" the sons of Jechonias bound -or imprisoned. "ere 'healtiel his son. 1hich version both the accents and the order of the words confirm...
&?. An7 Jacob begat Joseph the h.sban7 of 3ary8 of whom was born Jes.s8 who is calle7 Christ.

F%nd Jacob begat Joseph the husband of (ary$G The mother,s family is not to be called a family . Dence the reason ma" ver" easil" be given wh" &atthew brings down the generation to Jose#h &ar"-s husband$ but <u.e to =li &ar"-s father. These two frame the genealog" two wa"s according to the double notion of the #romise of 5hrist. >or he is #romised as the -seed of the woman - and as the -0on of ?avid-$ that as a man this as a .ing. 8t was therefore needful in setting down his genealog" that satisfaction should be given concerning both. Therefore <u.e declareth him the #romised seed of the woman deducing his mother-s stoc. from whence man was born from :dam$ &atthew eBhibits his ro"al original deriving his #edigree along through the ro"al famil" of ?avid to Jose#h his (re#uted) father.
&@. 0o all the generations from Abraham to %a:i7 are fo.rteen generations< an7 from %a:i7 .ntil the carrying away into 1abylon are fo.rteen generations< an7 from the carrying away into 1abylon .nto Christ are fo.rteen generations.

FFourteen generations$G :lthough all things do not s@uare eBactl" in this threefold number of fourteen generations "et there is no reason wh" this should be charged as a fault u#on &atthew when in the Jewish schools themselves it obtained for a custom "ea almost for an aBiom to reduce things and numbers to the ver" same when the" were near ali.e. The thing will be #lain b" an eBam#le or two when a hundred almost might be #roduced. >ive calamitous things are ascribed to the same da" that is to the ninth da" of the month :b. ">or that da" (sa" the") it was decreed That the #eo#le should not go into the #romised land) the same da" the first Tem#le was laid waste and the second also) the cit" ;itter was destro"ed and the cit" Jerusalem #loughed u#." Not that the" believed all these things fell out #recisel" the same da" of the month$ but as the ;ab"lonian !emara notes u#on it That they might reduce a fortunate thing to a holy day# and an unfortunate to an unlucky day$ The Jerusalem !emara in the same tract eBamines the reason wh" the dail" #ra"ers consist of the number of eighteen and among other things hath these words$ "The dail" #ra"ers are eighteen according to the number of the eighteen 7salms from the beginning of the ;oo. of 7salms to that 7salm whose beginning is -The <ord hear thee in the da" of trouble -" Fwhich 7salm indeed is the twentieth 7salmG. ";ut if an" ob4ect that nineteen 7salms reach thither "ou ma" answer The 7salm which begins -1h" did the heathen rage - is not of them " a distinct 7salm. ;ehold with what libert" the" fit numbers to their own case. 8n@uir" is made whence the number of the thirt"Cnine more #rinci#al servile wor.s to be avoided on the sabbathCda" ma" be #roved. :mong other we meet with these words$ "3. 5haninah of Hi##or saith in the name of 3. :bhu %leph denotes one Lamed thirt" /e five )abar one )ebarim two. Dence are the fort" wor.s save one concerning which it is written in the law. The 3abbins of 5aesarea sa" Not an" thing is wanting out of his #lace) %leph one Lamed thirt" Cheth eight) our profound doctors do not distinguish bet"een /e and Cheth") that the" ma" fit number to their case... "3. Joshua ;en <evi saith 8n all m" whole life 8 have not loo.ed into the F mysticalG boo. of :gada but once$ and then 8 loo.ed into it and found it thus written : hundred and sevent"Cfive sections of the law$ where it is written /e spake# he said# he commanded the" are for the number of the "ears of our father :braham." :nd a little after$ ": hundred and fort" and seven 7salms which are written in the ;oo. of the 7salms Fnote this numberG are for the number of the "ears of our father Jacob. 1hence this is hinted that all the #raises wherewith the 8sraelites #raise !od are according to the "ears of Jacob. Those

hundred and twent" and three times wherein the 8sraelites answer Dallelu4ah are according to the number of the "ears of :aron " /c. The" do so ver" much delight in such .ind of concents that the" oftentimes screw u# the strings be"ond the due measure and stretch them till the" crac.. 0o that if a Jew car#s at thee 9 divine &atthew for the unevenness of th" fourteens out of their own schools and writings thou hast that not onl" whereb" thou ma"est defend th"self but retort u#on them. &'. +ow the birth of Jes.s Christ was on this wise: When as his mother 3ary was espo.se7 to Joseph8 before they came together8 she was fo.n7 with chil7 of the Holy Ghost. F0hen as his mother "as espousedG No woman of 8srael was married unless she had been first es#oused. ";efore the giving of the law (saith &aimonides) if the man and the woman had agreed about marriage he brought her into his house and #rivatel" married her. ;ut after the giving of the law the 8sraelites were commanded that if an" were minded to ta.e a woman for his wife he should receive her first before witnesses$ and thenceforth let her be to him a wife as it is written If any one take a "ife. This taking is one of the affirmative #rece#ts of the law and is called espousing." 9f the manner and form of es#ousing "ou ma" read till "ou are wear" in that tractate and in the Talmudic tract Iiddushin. FBefore they came together$G "8n man" #laces the man es#ouseth the woman$ but doth not bring her home to him but after some s#ace of time." 0o the !loss u#on &aimonides. ?istinction is made b" the Jewish canons and that 4ustl" and o#enl" between private society or discourse between the es#ouser and the es#oused and the bringing of the es#oused into the husband-s house. 9f either of the two ma" those words be understood before they came together or rather of them both. De had not onl" not brought her home to him but he had no manner of societ" with her alone be"ond the canonical limits of discourse that were allowed to unmarried #ersons$ and "et she was found with child. F'he "as found "ith child$G Namel" after the s#ace of three months from her conce#tion when she was now returned home from her cousin =li%abeth. 0ee <u.e 1)56 and com#are !enesis +8)'(. The masters of the traditions assign this s#ace to discover a thing of that nature. ": woman (sa" the") who is either #ut awa" from her husband or become a widow neither marrieth nor is es#oused but after ninet" da"s) namel" that it ma" be .nown whether she be big with child or no$ and that distinction ma" be made between the offs#ring of the first husband and of the second. 8n li.e manner a husband and wife being made #rosel"tes are #arted from one another for ninet" da"s that 4udgment ma" be made between children begotten in holiness " (that is within the true religion$ see 1 5or 6)1() ":nd children begotten out of holiness."
&). *hen Joseph her h.sban78 being a A.st man8 an7 not willing to ma6e her a p.blic e5ample8 was min7e7 to p.t her away pri:ily.

FBut Joseph# being a 1ust man /c.G There is no need to rac. the word 1ust to fetch out thence the sense of gentleness or mercy which man" do$ for construing the clauses of the verse se#aratel" the sense will a##ear clear and soft enough Joseph# being a 1ust man could not would not endure an adulteress) but yet not "illing to make her a public e2ample being a merciful man and loving his wife "as minded to put her a"ay privily. FTo make her a public e2ample$G This doth not im#l" death but rather #ublic disgrace to make her public. >or it ma" not without reason be in@uired whether she would have been brought to ca#ital #unishment if it had been true that she had conceived b" adulter". >or although there was a law

#romulged of #unishing adulter" with death <eviticus 1,)1, ?euteronom" '')'' and in this case she that was es#oused would be dealt withal after the same manner as it was with her who was become a wife$ "et so far was that law modified that 8 sa" not wea.ened b" the law of giving a bill of divorce ?euteronom" '()1 /c. that the husband might not onl" #ardon his adulterous wife and not com#el her to a##ear before the 0anhedrim but scarcel" could if he would #ut her to death. >or wh" otherwise was the bill of divorce indulged2 Jose#h therefore endeavours to do nothing here but what he might with the full consent both of the law and nation. The adulteress might be #ut awa"$ she that was es#oused could not be #ut awa" without a bill of divorce$ concerning which thus the Jewish laws) ": woman is es#oused three wa"s$ b" mone" or b" a writing or b" being lain with. :nd being thus es#oused though she were not "et married nor conducted into the man-s house "et she is his wife. :nd if an" shall lie with her beside him he is to be #unished with death b" the 0anhedrim. :nd if he himself will #ut her awa" he must have a bill of divorce." FPut her a"ay privily$G <et the Talmudic tract -!ittin- be loo.ed u#on where the" are treating of the manner of delivering a bill of divorce to a wife to be #ut awa") among other things it might be given #rivatel" if the husband so #leased either into the woman-s hand or bosom two witnesses onl" #resent.
;B. 1ehol78 a :irgin shall be with chil78 an7 shall bring forth a son8 an7 they shall call his name mman.el8 which being interprete7 is8 Go7 with .s.

FBehold# a virgin shall be "ith child$G That the word virgin in the #ro#het denotes an untouched virgin sufficientl" a##ears from the sense of the #lace 8saiah 6)1(. Iing :ha% there was afraid lest the enemies that were now u#on him might destro" Jerusalem and utterl" consume the house of ?avid. The <ord meets this fear b" a signal and most remar.able #romise namel" -that sooner should a #ure virgin bring forth a child than the famil" of ?avid #erish.- :nd the #romise "ields a double comfort) namel" of 5hrist hereafter to be born of a virgin$ and of their securit" from the imminent danger of the cit" and house of ?avid. 0o that although that #ro#hec" of a virgin,s bringing forth a son should not be fulfilled till man" hundreds of "ears after "et at that #resent time when the #ro#hec" was made :ha% had a certain and notable sign that the house of ?avid should be safe and secure from the danger that hung over it. :s much as if the #ro#het had said ";e no so troubled 9 :ha%$ does it not seem an im#ossible thing to thee and that never will ha##en that a pure virgin should become a mother2 ;ut 8 tell thee a pure virgin shall bring forth a son before the house of ?avid #erish." Dear this 9 unbelieving JewE and shew us now some remainders of the house of ?avid) or confess this #ro#hec" fulfilled in the 3irgin,s bringing forth) or den" that a sign was given when a sign is given. 8n what language &atthew wrote his !os#el. F0hich is# being interpreted$G 8. :ll confess that the 0"riac language was the motherCtongue to the Jewish nation dwelling in Judea$ and that the Debrew was not at all understood b" the common #eo#le ma" es#eciall" a##ear from two things) 1. That in the s"nagogues when the law and the #ro#hets were read in the original Debrew an inter#reter was alwa"s #resent to the reader who rendered into the motherCtongue that which was read that it might be understood b" the common #eo#le. Dence those rules of the office of an inter#reter and of some #laces which were not to be rendered into the motherCtongue. '. That Jonathan the son of K%%iel a scholar of Dillel about the time of 5hrist-s birth rendered all the #ro#hets (that is as the Jews number them Joshua Judges 0amuel the ;oo.s of the Iings 8saiah Jeremiah =%e.iel and the twelve lesser #ro#hets) into the 5haldee language$ that is into a language

much more .nown to the #eo#le than the Debrew and more acce#table than the motherCtongue. >or if it be as.ed wh" he translated them at all and wh" he translated not rather into the motherCtongue which was .nown to all2 and if it be ob4ected concerning 0t. &atthew and 0t. 7aul that writing to the Jews one his !os#el the other his =#istle (to the Debrews) the" must have written in the 0"riac tongue (if so be the" wrote not in Debrew) that the" might be understood b" all)CCwe answer >irst 8t was not without reason that the #ara#hrast Jonathan translated out of the Debrew original into the 5haldee tongue because this tongue was much more .nown and familiar to all the #eo#le than the Debrew. The hol" teBt had need of an inter#reter into a more .nown tongue because it was now in a tongue not .nown at all to the vulgar. >or none .new the Debrew but such as learned it b" stud". Dowever therefore all the Jews inhabiting the land of 5anaan did not so readil" understand the 5haldee language as the 0"riac which was their motherClanguage "et the" much more readil" understood that than the Debrew which to the unlearned was not .nown at all. Dence it was not without necessit" that the #ro#hets were turned into the 5haldee language b" Jonathan and the law not much after b" 9n.elos that the" might a little be understood b" the common #eo#le b" whom the Debrew original was not understood at all. 1e read also that the ;oo. of Job had its Targum in the time of !amaliel the =lder$ that is 7aul-s master. 0econdl" it is no im#ertinent @uestion 1h" Jonathan and 9n.elos did not rather translate into the 0"riac language which was the motherClanguage to all the #eo#le when both the" themselves were in Judea while the" were em#lo"ed about this wor. and laboured in it for the use of the Jews that dwelt there2 To which we give this double answer$ 1. That b" turning it into the 5haldee language the" did a thing that might be of use to both them that dwelt in Judea and in ;ab"lon also. '. The 0"riac language was not so grateful unto the Jews who used it for their motherCtongue as the 5haldee was$ as being a language more neat and #olite and the motherCtongue to the brethren in ;ab"lon and which the" that came u# out of ;ab"lon carried thence with them into Judea. Lou ma" wonder reader when "ou hear that canon which #ermits a single man "to sa" his #ra"ers in an" language when he as.s those things that are needful for him eBce#t onl" the 0"riac) 0hile he asketh necessaries for himself# let him use any language but the 'yriac." ;ut "ou will laugh when "ou hear the reason) "Therefore b" all means because the angels do not understand the 0"riac language." 1hether the" distinguish the 0"riac language here from the #ure 5haldee is not of great moment solicitousl" to in@uire) we shall onl" #roduce these things of the !losser u#on ;eracoth which ma.e to our #ur#ose)CC"There are some (saith he) who sa" that that #ra"er which begins -sermon - is therefore to be made in the 0"riac language because it is a noble #ra"er and that deserves the highest #raise$ and therefore it is framed in the Targumistical language that the angels ma" not understand it and env" it to us " /c. :nd a little after$ "8t was the custom to recite that #ra"er after sermon) and the common #eo#le were there #resent who understood not the Debrew language at all$ and therefore the" a##ointed it to be framed in the Targumistical language that it might be understood b" all$ for this is their tongue." &ar. the Debrew was altogether un.nown to the common #eo#le) no wonder therefore if the evangelists and a#ostles wrote not in Debrew when there were none who understood things so written but learned men onl". That also must not be #assed over which at first sight seems to hint that the 0"riac language was not understood even b" learned men. "0amuel the <ittle at the #oint of death said 'imeon and Ismael to the s"ord4 and all the other people to the spoil5 and there shall be very great calamities$6 %nd because he spoke these things in the 'yriac language# they understood not "hat he had said . This stor" "ou have re#eated in the ;ab"lonian !emara where the words of the d"ing man are thus related$ <et the !losser u#on the #lace be the inter#reter) "'imeon and Ismael to the s"ord Fthat is 3abban 0imeon the #rince and 3. 8smael ;en =lisha the highC#riest were slain with the swordG and his fello"s to slaughter Fthat is 3. :.ibah and 3. 5hananiah ;en Teradion were slain b" other deaths$ namel" 3. :.ibah b" iron

teeth and 3. 5hananiah b" burning alive before idolsG$ and the other people for a prey5 and very many calamities shall fall upon the "orld." Now where it is said that "The" understood not what he said because he s#a.e in the 0"rian tongue " we also do not easil" understand. 1hatE for the Jerusalem doctors not to understand the 5haldee languageE >or 0amuel the <ittle died before the destruction of the cit"$ and he s#a.e of the death of 3abban 0imeon who #erished in the siege of the cit"$ and he s#a.e these things when some of the learnedest 3abbins were b") and "et that the" understood not these words which even a smatterer in the oriental tongues would ver" easil" understandE Therefore #erha#s "ou ma" beat out the sense of the matter from the words of the author of Juchasin who saith /e prophesied in the 'yriac language ;ut now when #ro#hecies were s#o.en onl" in the Debrew language however the" understood the sense of the words "et the" re#uted it not for a #ro#hec" because it was not uttered in the language that was #ro#er for #ro#hetical #redictions. ;ut we tarr" not here. That which we would have is this that &atthew wrote not in Debrew (which is #roved sufficientl" b" what is s#o.en before) if so be we su##ose him to have written in a language vulgarl" .nown and understood$ which certainl" we ought to su##ose) not that he or the other writers of the New Testament wrote in the 0"riac language unless we su##ose them to have written in the ungrateful language of an ungrateful nation which certainl" we ought not to su##ose. >or when the Jewish #eo#le were now to be cast off and to be doomed to eternal cursing it was ver" im#ro#er certainl" to eBtol their language whether it were the 0"riac motherCtongue or the 5haldee its cousin language unto that degree of honour$ that it should be the original language of the New Testament. 8m#ro#er certainl" it was to write the !os#el in their tongue who above all the inhabitants of the world most des#ised and o##osed it. 88. 0ince therefore the !entiles were to be called to the faith and to embrace the !os#el b" the #reaching of it the New Testament was written ver" congruousl" in the !entile language and in that which among the !entile languages was the most noble$ vi%. the !ree.. <et us see what the Jews sa" of this language envious enough against all languages besides their own. "3abban 0imeon ;en !amaliel saith =ven concerning the hol" boo.s the wise men #ermitted not that the" should be written in an" other language than !ree.. 3. :bhu saith that 3. Jochanan said The tradition is according to 3abban 0imeon$ that 3. Jochanan said moreover 1hence is that of 3abban 0imeon #roved2 >rom thence that the 0cri#ture saith -The <ord shall #ersuade Ja#het and he shall dwell in the tents of 0em-) the words of Ja#het shall be in the tents of 0em") and a little after 7od shall persuade Japhet$ i.e. The grace of Japhet shall be in the tents of 'em ." 1here the !loss s#ea.s thus$ "-The grace of Ja#het- is the !ree. language$ the fairest of those tongues which belonged to the sons of Ja#het." "3abban 0imeon ;en !amaliel saith =ven concerning the sacred boo.s the" #ermitted not that the" should be written in an" other language than !ree.. The" searched seriousl" and found that the la" could not be translated according to "hat "as needful for it# but in 7reek ." Lou have this latter clause cut off in &assecheth 0o#herim where this stor" also is added) "The five elders wrote the law in !ree. for 7tolem" the .ing) and that da" was bitter to 8srael as the da" wherein the golden calf was made because the law could not be translated according to what was needful for it." This stor" of the -five inter#reters- of the law is worth" of consideration which "ou find seldom mentioned or scarce an"where else. The tradition neBt following after this in the #lace cited recites the stor" of the 0event". <oo. at it. 1hen therefore the common use of the Debrew language had #erished and when the mother 0"riac or 5haldee tongue of a cursed nation could not be blessed our ver" enemies being 4udges no other language could be found which might be fit to write the (new) divine law besides the !ree. tongue. That this language was scattered and in use among all the eastern nations almost and was in a manner the mother tongue and that it was #lanted ever" where b" the con@uests of :leBander and the

em#ire of the !ree.s we need not man" words to #rove$ since it is ever" where to be seen in the historians. The Jews do well near ac.nowledge it for their motherCtongue even in Judea. "3. Jochanan of ;eth !ubrin said There are four noble languages which the world useth$ the motherC tongue for singing$ the 3oman for war$ the 0"riac for mourning$ and the Debrew for elocution) and there are some who sa" the :ss"rian for writing." 1hat is that which he calls the motherCtongue2 8t is ver" easil" answered the !ree. from those encomiums added to it mentioned before) and that ma" more confidentl" be affirmed from the words of &idras Tillin res#ecting this sa"ing of 3. Jochanan and mentioning the !ree. language b" name. "3. Jochanan said There are three languages$ the 3oman for war$ the !ree. for s#eech$ the :ss"rian for #ra"er." To this also belongs that that occurs once and again in ;ab. &egillah In the 7reek mother tongue. Lou have an instance of the thing$ "3. <evi coming to 5aesarea heard some reciting the phylacteries in the /ellenistical language ." This is worth" to be mar.ed. :t 5aesarea flourished the famous schools of the 3abbins. The *abbins of Caesarea are mentioned in both Talmuds most fre@uentl" and with great #raise but es#eciall" in that of Jerusalem. ;ut "et among these the !ree. is used as the motherCtongue and that in reciting the #h"lacteries which "ou ma" well thin. above all other things in Judea were to be said in Debrew. 8n that ver" 5aesarea Jerome mentions the Debrew !os#el of 0t. &atthew to be laid u# in the librar" of 7am#hilus in these words) "&atthew who was also called <evi from a #ublican made an a#ostle first of all in Judea com#osed the !os#el of 5hrist in Debrew letters and words for their sa.es who were of the circumcision and believed. 1hich !os#el who he was that afterward translated it into !ree. it is not sufficientl" .now. &oreover that ver" Debrew !os#el is reserved to this da" in the librar" at 5aesarea which 7am#hilus the mart"r with much care collected. 8 also had leave given me b" the Na%arenes who use this boo. in ;erea a cit" of 0"ria to write it out." 8t is not at all to be doubted that this !os#el was found in Debrew$ but that which deceived the good man was not the ver" handwriting of &atthew nor indeed did &atthew write the !os#el in that language) but it was turned b" somebod" out of the original !ree. into Debrew that so if #ossible the learned Jews might read it. >or since the" had little .indness for foreign boo.s that is heathen boo.s or such as were written in a language different from their own which might be illustrated from various canons concerning this matter$ some #erson converted to the gos#el eBcited with a good %eal seems to have translated this !os#el of 0t. &atthew out of the !ree. original into the Debrew language that learned men among the Jews who as "et believed not might #erha#s read it being now #ublished in their language) which was re4ected b" them while it remained in a foreign s#eech. Thus 8 su##ose this gos#el was written in !ree. b" 0t. &atthew for the sa.e of those that believed in Judea and turned into Debrew b" somebod" else for the sa.e of those that did not believe. The same is to be resolved concerning the original language of the =#istle to the Debrews. That =#istle was written to the Jews inhabiting Judea to whom the 0"riac was the motherCtongue$ but "et it was writ in !ree. for the reasons above named. >or the same reasons also the same a#ostle writ in !ree. to the 3omans although in that church there were 3omans to whom it might seem more agreeable to have written in <atin$ and there were Jews to whom it might seem more #roe#r to have written in 0"riac. 5ha#ter '
A calc.lation of the times when Christ was born. &. +ow when Jes.s was born in 1eth9lehem of J.7aea in the 7ays of Hero7 the 6ing8 behol78 there came wise men from the east to Jer.salem.

FNo" "hen Jesus "as born$G 1e thus la" down a scheme of the times when 5hrist was born) 8. De was born in the "ear of the world +*'8.

>or from the creation of the world to the deluge are commonl" rec.oned 1656 "ears. >rom the deluge to :braham-s #romise are ('6 "ears. This being su##osed that :braham was born the 1+,th "ear of Terah) which must be su##osed. >rom the #romise given to the going out of =g"#t (+, "ears =Bodus 1')(,$ !alatians +)16. >rom the going out of =g"#t to the la"ing the foundations of the Tem#le are (8, "ears 1 Iings 6)1. The Tem#le was building 6 "ears 1 Iings 6)+8. 5asting u# therefore all these together vi%. 1656 M ('6 M (+, M (8, M 6 N The sum of "ears amounts to +,,,. :nd it is clear the building of the Tem#le was finished and com#leted in the "ear of the world +,,,. The Tem#le was finished in the eleventh "ear of 0olomon 1 Iings 6)+8) and thence to the revolting of the ten tribes in the first "ear of 3ehoboam were +, "ears. Therefore that revolt was in the "ear of the world +,+,. >rom the revolt of the ten tribes to the destruction of Jerusalem under Hede.iah were three hundred and ninet" "ears) which a##ears sufficientl" from the chronical com#utation of the #arallel times of the .ings of Judah and 8srael) and which is im#lied b" =%e.iel ()(C6) "Thou shalt slee# u#on th" left side and shalt #ut the ini@uities of the house of 8srael u#on it /c. according to the number of the da"s three hundred and ninet" da"s. :nd when thou shalt have accom#lished them thou shalt slee# u#on th" right side the second time and shalt ta.e u#on thee the ini@uit" of the house of Judah fort" da"s." 5oncerning the com#utation of these "ears it is doubted whether those fort" "ears are to be numbered together within the three hundred and ninet" "ears or b" themselves as following after those three hundred and ninet" "ears. 1e not without cause embrace the former o#inion and su##ose those fort" "ears to be included within the sum of three hundred and ninet"$ but mentioned b" themselves #articularl" for a #articular reason. >or b" the s#ace of fort" "ears before the destruction of the cit" b" the 5haldeans did Jeremiah #ro#hes" dail" namel" from the third "ear of Josias to the sac.ing of the cit") whom the #eo#le not hear.ening to the" are mar.ed for that #eculiar ini@uit" with this note. Therefore these three hundred and ninet" "ears being added to the "ear of the world +,+, when the ten tribes fell off from the house of ?avid the age of the world when Jerusalem #erished arose to the "ear +(',. :t that time there remained fift" "ears of the ;ab"lonian ca#tivit" to be com#leted. >or those remar.able sevent" "ears too. their beginning from the third "ear of Jehoia.im ?aniel 1)1 whose fourth "ear begins the ;ab"lonian monarch" Jeremiah '5)1. :nd in the nineteenth "ear of Nebuchadne%%ar the Tem#le was destro"ed ' Iings '5)8 when now the twentieth "ear of the ca#tivit" #assed$ and other fift" remained) which fift" being added to the "ear of the world +(', a "ear fatal to the Tem#le the "ears of the world amount in the first "ear of 5"rus unto +(6,. >rom the first of 5"rus to the death of 5hrist are sevent" wee.s of "ears or four hundred and ninet" "ears ?aniel *)'(. :dd these to the three thousand four hundred and sevent" and "ou observe 5hrist crucified in the "ear of the world +*6,. 1hen therefore "ou have subtracted thirt"Ctwo "ears and a half wherein 5hrist lived u#on the earth "ou will find him born in the "ear of the world +*'8. 88. De was born in the oneCandCthirtieth "ear of :ugustus 5aesar the com#utation of his monarch" beginning from the victor" at :ctium. 9f which matter thus ?ion 5assius writes) "This their seaCfight was on the second of 0e#tember) and this 8 s#ea. u#on no other account (for 8 am not wont to do it) but

because then 5aesar first obtained the whole #ower) so that the com#utation of the "ears of his monarch" must be #recisel" rec.oned from that ver" da"." 1e confirm this our com#utation b" drawing down a chronological table from this "ear of :ugustus to the fifteenth "ear of Tiberius when 5hrist having now com#leted the nineCandCtwentieth "ear of his age and entering 4ust u#on his thirtieth was ba#ti%ed. Now this table adding the consuls of ever" "ear we thus frame)

A.M.

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8n the earl" s#ring of this "ear came John ba#ti%ing. 8n the month Tisri 5hrist is ba#ti%ed when he had now accom#lished the nineCandCtwentieth "ear of his age and had now newl" entered u#on his thirtieth. The thirtieth of 5hrist is to be rec.oned with the siBteenth of Tiberius. 9f :ugustus now entering u#on his oneCandCthirtieth "ear wherein 5hrist was born ?ion 5assius hath moreover these words) "Daving now com#leted thrice ten "ears being com#elled indeed to it he continued his government and entered u#on a fourth ten of "ears) being now more eas" and slothful b" reason of age." 8n this ver" "ear was the taBation under 5"renius of which <u.e s#ea.s cha#ter '. 0o that if it be as.ed when the fifth monarch" of the 3omans arose after the dissolution of those four mentioned b" ?aniel an eas" answer ma" be fetched from 0t. <u.e who relates that in that ver" "ear wherein 5hrist was born :ugustus laid a taB u#on the whole world. 888. 5hrist was born in the thirt"Cfifth "ear of the reign of Derod) which we gather from the observation of these things) 1. Derod reigned from that time he was first declared .ing b" the 3omans sevenCandC thirt" "ears. '. ;etween the death of Derod and the death of :ugustus there was this s#ace of time) 1. The ten "ears current of the reign of :rchelaus. '. 5o#onius succeeds him banished to Jienna in the #residentshi# of Judea. +. &arcus :mbibuchus F:mbiviusG succeeds 5o#onius. (. :nnius 3ufus succeeds :mbibuchus F:mbiviusG during whose #residentshi# :ugustus dies. 0ince therefore onl" fourteen "ears #assed from the nativit" of 5hrist to the death of :ugustus out of which sum when "ou shall have rec.oned the ten "ears current of :rchelaus and the times of the three #residents we must rec.on that 5hrist was not born but in the last "ears of Derod. Thus we con4ecture)

8n his thirt"Cfifth 5hrist was born. 8n his thirt"Cseventh now newl" begun the wise men came) #resentl" after this was the sla"ing of the infants$ and after a few months the death of Derod. 8J. 5hrist was born about the twent"Cseventh "ear of the #residentshi# of Dillel in the 0anhedrim. The rise of the famil" of Dillel too. its beginning at the decease of the :smonean famil" (Derod indeed succeeded in the .ingl" government)$ a famil" s#rung from ;ab"lon and as was believed of the stoc. of ?avid. >or "a boo. of genealog" was found at Jerusalem" (which we mentioned before) "in which it was written that Dillel was s#rung from the stoc. of ?avid b" his wife :bital." Now Dillel went u# out of ;ab"lon to Jerusalem to in@uire of the wise men concerning some things when now after the death of 0hemaia and :btalion the two sons of ;etira held the chief seats. :nd when he who had resorted thither to learn something had taught them some things of the 7assover rites which the" had forgot the" #ut him into the chair. Lou have the full stor" of it in the Jerusalem Talmud. 1e mention it cha#ter '6)1. Now Dillel went u# to Jerusalem and too. the chair a hundred "ears before the destruction of the cit") "Dillel and his son 0imeon and his son !amaliel and his son 0imeon bare the government for a hundred "ears before the la"ing waste of the Tem#le." 9f those hundred "ears if "ou ta.e awa" twoC andCthirt" and a half of the life of 5hrist and fort" "ears (as it is commonl" de#uted) coming between the death of 5hrist and the destruction of the cit" there remain the twent"Cseven "ears of Dillel before the birth of our 0aviour. Dillel held the government fort" "ears) so that his death ha##ened about the twelfth or thirteenth "ear of 5hrist. his son also held it after him and his grandsons in a long succession even to 3. Judah the Dol". The s#lendour and #om# of this famil" of Dillel had so obscured the rest of the families of ?avid-s stoc. that #erha#s the" believed or eB#ected the less that the &essias should s#ring from an" of them. Lea one in the ;ab"lonian !emara was almost #ersuaded that "3abbi Judah the Dol" of the Dillelian famil" was the &essias. 3abh said If (essiah be among the living# our /oly *abbi is such ) if among the dead ?aniel was he." J. 5hrist was born in the month of Tisri$ somewhat answering to our 0e#tember. This we conclude omitting other things b" com#uting bac.wards from his death. >or if he died in his twoCandCthirtieth "ear and a half at the feast of the 7assover in the month Nisan "ou must necessaril" la" the time of his birth in the month Tisri. ;ut that he died at that age not to ma.e an" dela" b" mentioning more things a##ears hence that he was ba#ti%ed now beginning his thirtieth "ear and that he lived after his ba#tism three "ears and a half$ as the s#ace of his #ublic ministr" is determined b" the angel !abriel ?aniel *$ "8n the half of a wee." (that is three "ears and a half) "he shall ma.e the sacrifice to cease " /c. ;ut of this hereafter. This month was ennobled in former times 1. >or the creation of the world. 1eigh well =Bodus '+)15$ Joel ')'+. '. >or the nativit" of the first fathers$ which the Jews assert not without reason. +. >or the re#airing the tables of the law. >or &oses after the third fast of fort" da"s comes down from the mountain a messenger of good things the tenth da" of this month which was from hence a##ointed for the feast of =B#iation to following ages. (. >or the dedication of the Tem#le 1 Iings 8)'. :nd 5. >or three solemn feasts namel" that of the ;eginning of the Lear that of =B#iation and that of Tabernacles. >rom this month also was the beginning of the Jubilee. J8. 8t is #robable 5hrist was born at the feast of Tabernacles. 1. 0o it ariseth eBactl" to threeCandCthirt" "ears and a half when he died at the feast of the 7assover.

'. De fulfilled the t"#ical e@uit" of the 7assover and 7entecost when at the 7assover he offered himself for a #assover at 7entecost he bestowed the Dol" !host from heaven as at that time the law had been given from heaven. :t that time the firstCfruits of the 0#irit were given b" him (3om 8)'+) when the firstCfruits of corn had been wont to be given <eviticus '+)16. 8t had been a wonder if he had honoured the third solemnit" namel" the feast of Tabernacles with no antit"#e. +. The institution of the feast of Tabernacles agrees eBcellentl" with the time of 5hrist-s birth. >or when &oses went down from the mount on the tenth da" of the month Tisri declaring that !od was a##eased that the #eo#le was #ardoned and that the building of the hol" tabernacle was forthwith to be gone in hand with (hitherto hindered b" and because of the golden calf) seeing that !od now would dwell among them and forsa.e them no more$ the 8sraelites immediatel" #itch their tents .nowing the" were not to de#art from that #lace before the divine tabernacle was finished and the" set u#on this wor. with all their strength. 1hence the tenth da" of that month wherein &oses came down and brought this good news with him was a##ointed for the feast of =B#iation$ and the fifteenth da" and seven da"s after for the feast of Tabernacles in memor" of their dwelling in tents in the wilderness when !od dwelt in the midst of them) which things with how a#tl" t"#ical an as#ect the" res#ect the incarnation when !od dwelt among men in human flesh is #lain enough. (. 1eigh Hechariah 1()16 16) ":nd it shall come to #ass that ever" one that is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go u# from "ear to "ear to worshi# the Iing the <ord of hosts and to .ee# the feast of Tabernacles. :nd it shall be that whoso will not come u# of all the families of the earth unto Jerusalem to worshi# the Iing the <ord of hosts even u#on them shall be no more rain." FIn Beth+lehem.G 8t will not be im#ro#er here to #roduce the !emarists themselves o#enl" confessing that the &essias was born now a good while ago before their times. >or so the" write) ":fter this the children of 8srael shall be converted and shall in@uire after the <ord their !od and ?avid their .ing Dosea +)5. 9ur 3abbins sa" That is .ing &essias) if he be among the living his name is ?avid$ or if dead ?avid is his name. 3. 3anchum said Thus 8 #rove it) -De showeth merc" to ?avid his &essiah(7sa 18)5,). 3. Joshua ;en <evi saith Dis name is % branch (Hech +)8). 3. Judan ;ar :ibu saith Dis name is (enahem Fthat is the comforterG. :nd that which ha##ened to a certain Jew as he was #loughing agreeth with this business)CC: certain :rabian travelling and hearing the oB bellow said to the Jew at #lough -9 Jew loose th" oBen and loose th" #loughs) for beholdE the Tem#le is laid waste.The oB bellowed the second time$ the :rabian said to him & Je"# Je"# yoke thy o2en and fit thy ploughs# for behold8 9ing (essiah is born . ;ut saith the Jew -1hat is his name2- -&enahem - saith he. -:nd what is the name of his father2- -De%e.iah - saith the :rabian. To whom the Jew -;ut whence is he2- The other answered ->rom the #alace of the .ing of ;ethClehem Judah.- :wa" he went and sold his oBen and his #loughs and became a seller of infants- swaddlingCclothes going about from town to town. 1hen he came to that cit" FBeth+lehemG all the women bought of him but the mother of &enahem bought nothing. De heard the voice of the women sa"ing -9 thou mother of &enahem thou mother of &enahem carr" th" son the things that are here sold.- ;ut she re#lied -&a" the enemies of 8srael be strangled because on the da" that he was born the Tem#le was laid wasteE- To whom he said -;ut we ho#ed that as it was laid waste at his feet so at his feet it would be built again.- 0he saith -8 have no mone".- To whom he re#lied -;ut wh" should this be #re4udicial to him2 5arr" him what "ou bu" here$ and if "ou have no mone" toCda" after some da"s 8 will come bac. and receive it.- :fter some da"s he returns to that cit" and saith to her -Dow does the little infant2- :nd she said ->rom the time "ou saw me last s#irits and tem#ests came and snatched him awa" out of m" hands.- 3. ;on saith 1hat need have we to learn from an :rabian2 8s it not #lainl" written -:nd <ebanon shall fall before the #owerful one2- (8sa 1,)+(). :nd what follows after2 -: branch shall come out of the root of Jesse-" (8sa 11)1). The ;ab"lonian doctors "ield us a confession not ver" unli.e the former) "3. 5haninah saith :fter four hundred "ears are #ast from the destruction of the Tem#le if an" one shall sa" to "ou -Ta.e to th"self for one #enn" a field worth a thousand #ence - do not ta.e it." :nd again$ ":fter four thousand two

hundred thirt"CandCone "ears from the creation of the world if an" shall sa" to "ou -Ta.e for a #enn" a field worth a thousand #ence - ta.e it not." The !loss is ">or that is the time of redem#tion$ and "ou shall be brought bac. to the hol" mountain to the inheritance of "our fathers) wh" therefore should "ou miss#end "our #enn"2" Lou ma" fetch the reason of this calculation if "ou are at leisure out of the tract 0anhedrim) "The tradition of the school of =lias The world is to last siB thousand "ears " /c. :nd a little after$ "=lias said to 3abh Judah -The world shall last not less than eight"Cfive 4ubilees$ and in the last 4ubilee shall the 0on of ?avid come.- De saith to him -1hether in the beginning of it or in the end2- De answered him -8 .now not.- -1hether is this whole time to be finished first or not2- De answered him -8 .now not.- ;ut 3abh :sher asserts that he answered thus -Kntil then eB#ect him not but from thence eB#ect him.-" Dear "our own countr"men 9 Jew how man" centuries of "ears are #ast b" and gone from the eight"C fifth 4ubilee of the world that is the "ear ('5, and "et the &essias of "our eB#ectation is not "et come. ?aniel-s wee.s had so clearl" defined the time of the true &essias-s coming that the minds of the whole nation were raised into the eB#ectation of him. Dence it was doubted of the ;a#tist whether he were not the &essias <u.e +)15. Dence it was that the Jews are gathered together from all countries unto Jerusalem F:cts 'G eB#ecting and coming to see because at that time the term of revealing the &essias that had been #refiBed b" ?aniel was come. Dence it was that there was so great a number of false 5hrists &atthew '()5 /c. ta.ing the occasion of their im#ostures hence that now the time of that great eB#ectation was at hand and fulfilled) and in one word "The" thought the .ingdom of !od should #resentl" a##ear"$ <u.e 1*)11. ;ut when those times of eB#ectation were #ast nor did such a &essias a##ear as the" eB#ected (for when the" saw the true &essias the" would not see him) the" first bro.e out into various and those wild con4ectures of the time$ and at length all those con4ectures coming to nothing all ended in this curse (the 4ust cause of their eternal blindness) (ay their soul be confounded "ho compute the times E F0ise men from the east.G &agi that is wi%ards or such as #ractised ill arts) for in this sense alone this word occurs in hol" writ. From the east$ This more generall" denotes as much as -9ut of the land of the heathen - in the same sense as -the @ueen of the south- is ta.en &atthew 1')('$ that is -a heathen @ueen.- 5onsider this #assage in the Talmud ">rom 3e.am to the east and 3e.am is as the east) from :scalon to the south and :scalon is as the south) from :con to the north and :con is as the north." These words 3. Nissim @uotes from 3. Judah and illustrates it with this !loss ">rom 3e.am to the furthest bounds of the land eastward is heathen land$ and 3e.am itself is rec.oned for the east of the world and not for the land of 8srael. 0o also from :scalon onwards to the south is the heathen countr" and :scalon itself is rec.oned for the south") that is for heathen land. Those countries where the sons of :braham b" his wife Ieturah were dis#ersed are more #articularl" called the -eastern- countries !enesis '5)6 Judges 6)+ and elsewhere often. :nd hence came these firstCfruits of the !entiles) whence it is not unli.el" that Jethro also came the first #rosel"te to the law. :nd that which is s#o.en b" the !emara concerning the :rabian the first #ointerCout of the &essias born is #erha#s some shadow of this stor" of the magicians- coming out of :rabia and who first #ublicl" declared him to be born.
;. 0aying8 Where is he that is born King of the JewsC for we ha:e seen his star in the east8 an7 are come to worship him.

FFor "e have seen his star in the east$G 1e being in the east have seen his star)CCthat heavenl" light which in that ver" night wherein the 0aviour was born shone round about the she#herds of ;ethClehem

#erha#s was seen b" these magicians being then a great distance off resembling a star hanging over Judea$ whence the" might the more easil" guess that the ha##" sign belonged to the Jews.
D. An7 when he ha7 gathere7 all the chief priests an7 scribes of the people together8 he 7eman7e7 of them where Christ sho.l7 be born.

F%nd "hen he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together$ G That is he assembled the 0anhedrim. Derod is said b" ver" man" authors to have slain the 0anhedrim but this is neither to be understood of the whole 0anhedrim nor if it were to be understood of the whole would it denote the total subversion of the 0anhedrim. The ;ab"lonian !emarists do thus relate the stor") "Derod was a servant of the :smonean famil". De cast his e"es u#on a "oung maid F of that familyG. 9n a certain da" he heard the Bath 9ol Fa voice from heavenG sa"ing 1hatsoever servant shall now rebel shall #ros#er. De arose u# against his masters and slew them all." :nd a little after$ "Derod said 1ho is there that inter#rets these words -Thou shalt set a .ing over thee out of the midst of th" brethren2- (?eut 16)15). The 3abbins Finter#reted the wordsG. De rose u# and slew all the 3abbins leaving onl" ;ava ;en ;uta with whom he consulted." Derod was to overcome two difficulties that he might with the #eace and favour of the Jews become their .ing. >or although he had been raised unto the .ingdom b" the 3omans nevertheless that he might establish his throne the #eo#le remaining @uiet and acce#ting him first it seemed necessar" to him that the :smonean famil" should be removed out of the wa" which formerl" governing the #eo#le the" had some affection and love for and which still remaining he sus#ected he could scarce be secure. 0econdl" that law of setting no .ing over them but of their brethren debarred him since he himself was of the stoc. of =dom. Therefore he too. awa" all those 3abbins who adhering stiffl" to this law o##osed what the" could his coming to the .ingdom. ";ut all the 3abbins indeed he slew not (saith the !loss u#on the #lace alleged)$ for the sons of ;etira were left alive who held the chair when Dillel came out of ;ab"lon." Therefore he slew not all the elders of the 0anhedrim but those onl" who ta.ing occasion from that law o##osed his access to the .ingdom. 9ut of that slaughter the two sons of ;etira esca#ed who held the first #laces in the 0anhedrim after the death of 0hemaiah and :btalion. 0hammai also esca#ed who according as Jose#hus relates foretold this slaughter. Dillel esca#ed li.ewise if he were then #resent$ and &enahem who certainl" was there and who thenceforth sat second in the chair. ;ava ;en ;uta esca#ed also as the !emara relates who afterward #ersuaded Derod that he should re#air the Tem#le to eB#iate this blood" im#iet". :nd others esca#ed. FThe chief priests$G 1hen the 0anhedrim consisted of #riests <evites and 8sraelites (as &aimonides teacheth) under the word chief priests are com#rehended the two former$ namel" whosoever of the clerg" were members of the 0anhedrim$ and under the scribes of the people are com#rehended all those of the 0anhedrim who were not of the clerg". :mong the #riests were divers differences) 8. 9f the #riests some were called as if "ou would sa" the plebeian priests$ namel" such who indeed were not of the common #eo#le but wanted school education and were not rec.oned among the learned nor among such as were devoted to religion. >or seeing the whole seed of :aron was sacerdotal and #riests were not so much made as born no wonder if some ignorant and #oor were found among them. Dence is that distinction The poor Israelites and the poor priests are gatherers$ % 3otary priest# and a Plebeian priest$ :nd caution is given That the oblation be not given to a Plebeian priest. :nd the reason of it is added ";ecause whosoever giveth an oblation to a 7lebeian #riest doth all one as if he should give it to a lion$ of which it ma" be doubted whether he will treat it under his feet and eat it or not. 0o it ma" be doubted of a 7lebeian #riest whether he will eat it in cleanness or in uncleanness." Dowever ignorant and illiterate these were "et the" had their courses at the altar

according to their lot being instructed at that time b" certain rules for the #erforming their office a##ointed them b" lot. Lou would stand ama%ed to read those things which are su##osed concerning the ignorance and rudeness even of the highC#riest himself. 88. There were others who were called Idiot or private# priests$ who although the" both were learned and #erformed the #ublic office at the altar "et were called #rivate because the" were #riests of a lower and not of a worthier order. 888. The worthier degree of #riests was fourfold besides the degree of the highC#riest and of the sagan his substitute. >or 1. There were the heads of the phemeries or courses$ in number twent"Cfour. '. There were the heads of the families in ever" course. 9f both see the Jerusalem Talmud. +. The presidents over the various offices in the Temple . 9f them see 0he.alim. (. :n" #riests or <evites indeed (although not of these orders) that were chosen into the chief 0anhedrim. Chief priests therefore here and elsewhere where the discourse is of the 0anhedrim were the" who being of the #riestl" or <evitical stoc. were chosen into that chief senate. FThe scribes of the people$G : scribe denotes more generall" an" man learned and is o##osed to the word rude or clo"nish. "Two who ate together are bound to give than.s each b" themselves "hen both of them are scribes5 But if one be a scribe# and the other ignorant For a clo"nG let the scribe give thanks# and thence satisfaction is made for the duty of the ignorant or unlearned #erson." 0o we read of The scribes of the 'amaritans$ that is the learned among the 0amaritans) for among them there were no traditionarians. &ore #articularl" scribes denote such who being learned and of scholastic education addicted themselves es#eciall" to handling the #en and to writing. 0uch were the #ublic notaries in the 0anhedrim registrars in the s"nagogues amanuenses who em#lo"ed themselves in transcribing the law #h"lacteries short sentences to be fiBed u#on the doorC#osts bills of contracts or divorce /c. :nd in this sense a scribe and a Talmudic doctor are sometimes o##osed$ although he was not Tanna a Talmudic doctor who was not 'ophra a scribe in the sense above mentioned. 8n the ;ab"lonian Talmud it is dis#uted (a #assage not unworth" our reading) what disagreement in calculation ma" be borne with between an e2pounder out of the chair or the #ul#its and a "riter of contracts or bills of divorce or a register /c. in rec.oning u# the "ear of the Tem#le of the !ree. em#ire /c. 5oncerning which matter this among other things is concluded on that a scribe computes more briefly# a doctor more largely. 8t will not re#ent one to read the #lace$ nor that whole tract called The tract of the scribes$ which dictates to the scribes of that sort of which we are now s#ea.ing concerning writing out the law the #h"lacteries /c. ;ut above all others the fathers of the traditions are called scribes (who were indeed the elders of the 0anhedrim)) which is clear enough in these and suchCli.e eB#ressions) The "ords of the scribes are more lovely than the "ords of the la"$ that is traditions are better than the written law) This is of the "ords of the scribes) that is -this is from the traditionar" decrees.These therefore whom &atthew calls the scribes of the people were those elders of the 0anhedrim who were not s#rung from the sacerdotal or <evitical stoc. but of other tribes) the elders of the 0anhedrim s#rung of the blood of the #riests were the scribes of the clergy the rest were the scribes of the people. 1e ma" therefore guess and that no im#robable con4ecture that in this assembl" called together b" Derod these were #resent among others)CC1. Dillel the #resident. '. 0hammai viceC#resident. +. The sons of ;etira Judah and Joshua. (. ;ava ;en ;uta. 5. Jonathan the son of K%%iel the 5haldee #ara#hrast. 6. 0imeon the son of Dillel.

?. An7 tho. 1eth9lehem8 in the lan7 of J.7a8 art not the least among the princes of J.7a: for o.t of thee shall come a Go:ernor8 that shall r.le my people Israel. F%rt not the least$G These words do not at all disagree with the words of the #ro#het whence the" are ta.en &icah 5)' which 8 thus render ";ut thou ;ethClehem =#hrata it is a small thing that thou art" For art rec.onedG "among the thousands of 8srael"$ for thou art to be crowned with higher dignit"$ "for from thee shall go forth a ruler " /c. :nd in effect to this sense unless 8 mista.e does the 5haldee #ara#hrast #lainl" render it whom 8 sus#ect to be #resent at this ver" council "Thou art within a little to become chief." 0ee the same sense of the word in the Targum u#on 7salm 6+)' Dosea 1)( /c.
). When they ha7 hear7 the 6ing8 they 7eparte7< an78 lo8 the star8 which they saw in the east8 went before them8 till it came an7 stoo7 o:er where the yo.ng chil7 was.

FThe star# "hich they sa" in the east# "ent before them$ G 8t is #robable the star had shone in the ver" birthnight) and thenceCforward to this ver" time it had disa##eared. The wise men had no need of the star to be their guide when the" were going to Jerusalem a cit" well .nown$ but going forward thence to ;ethClehem and that as it seems b" night it was their guide.
&D. When he arose8 he too6 the yo.ng chil7 an7 his mother by night8 an7 7eparte7 into gypt.

F)eparted into gypt$G =g"#t was now re#lenished with Jews above measure and that #artl" b" reason of them that travelled thither under Jochanan the son of Iareah Jeremiah (+$ #artl" with them that floc.ed thither more latewardl" to the tem#le of 9nias of which Jose#hus writes and both Talmuds) "1hen 0imeon the Just said -8 shall die this "ear - the" said to him -1hom therefore shall we #ut in th" #lace2- De answered -Behold8 my son &nias is before you.- The" made 9nias therefore highC#riest. ;ut his brother 0imeon envied him. 9nias therefore fled first into the 3o"al &ountain and then into =g"#t and built there an altar re#eating that of the #ro#het -8n that da" there shall be an altar to the <ord in the midst of =g"#t.-" "De that hath not seen the cathedral church of :leBandria hath never seen the glor" of 8srael. 8t was after the manner of a courtCwal. double cloistered. There were sometimes there so man" as doubl" eBceeded the number of those that went out of =g"#t. There were sevent" golden chairs set with gems according to the number of the sevent" elders. : wooden #ul#it also #laced in the middle in which the bisho# of the s"nagogue stood. :nd when the law was read after ever" benediction a sign being given b" a #rivate #erson waving a hand.erchief the" all answered -:men.- ;ut the" sat not confusedl" and miBedl" together$ but ever" artificer with the #rofessors of the same art) so that if a stranger came he might mingle himself with the wor.men of the same trade /c. These did wic.ed Tra4an destro" " /c. The ;ab"lonian !emara re#eats almost the same things alleging these last matters after this manner) "The" sat not confusedl" but the artificers b" themselves the silversmiths b" themselves the bra%iers b" themselves the weavers b" themselves /c.$ so that if a #oor stranger came in he might .now his own fellowCwor.men and beta.e himself to them and thence receive sustenance for himself and famil"." 0o #rovision was made for the #overt" of Jose#h and &ar" while the" so4ourned in =g"#t (at :leBandria #robabl") #artl" b" selling the #resents of the wise men for food and #rovision b" the wa"$ and #artl" b" a su##l" of victuals from their countr"Cfol.s in =g"#t when the" had need. There are some footste#s in the Talmudists of this 4ourne" of our 0aviour into =g"#t but so corru#ted with venomous malice and blas#hem" (as all their writings are) that the" seem onl" to have confessed the truth that the" might have matter the more liberall" to re#roach him$ for so the" s#ea.) "1hen Jannai the .ing slew the 3abbins 3. Josua ;en 7erachiah and Jesus went awa" unto :leBandria in =g"#t. 0imeon ;en 0hetah sent thither s#ea.ing thus ->rom me Jerusalem the hol" cit" to thee 9

:leBandria in =g"#t m" sister health. &" husband dwells with thee while 8 in the mean time sit alone. Therefore he rose u# and went.-" :nd a little after$ "De brought forth four hundred trum#ets and anathemati%ed" FJesusG. :nd a little before that$ "=lisaeus turned awa" !eha%i with both his hands and 3. Josua ;en 7erachiah thrust awa" Jesus with both his hands." "?id not ;en 0atda bring enchantments out of =g"#t in the cutting which was in his flesh2" Knder the name of Ben 'atda the" wound our Jesus with their re#roaches although the !losser u#on the #lace form the authorit" of 3. Tam denies it) for thus he$ 3. Tam saith This was not Jesus of Na%areth because the" sa" here Ben 'atda was in the da"s of 7a#hus the son of Judah who was in the da"s of 3. :.iba) but Jesus was in the da"s of 3. Josua the son of 7erachiah /c.
&?. *hen Hero78 when he saw that he was moc6e7 of the wise men8 was e5cee7ing wroth8 an7 sent forth8 an7 slew all the chil7ren that were in 1ethlehem8 an7 in all the coasts thereof8 from two years ol7 an7 .n7er8 accor7ing to the time which he ha7 7iligently inE.ire7 of the wise men.

FFrom t"o years old# and under$G 8t was now two "ears ago or thereabouts since the star had shone and 5hrist was born. The reason of the tarr"ing of Jose#h and &ar" in ;ethClehem was this$ that the" believed that the &essias who according to the #ro#het was born there should have been brought u# nowhere but there also$ nor dared the" to carr" him elsewhere before the" had leave to do so b" an angel from heaven. The Jewish nation are ver" #urblind how and whence the &essias shall arise$ and "Nemo novit no man .nows whence the 0on of man is " John 6)'6$ that is from what original. 8t was doubted "hether he should come from the living or from the dead. 9nl" it was confessed b" all without controvers" that he should first ma.e some show of himself from ;ethClehem which the #riests and scribes of the #eo#le assert verse (. Dence "ou have 5hrist now in his second "ear at ;ethClehem whither Jose#h and &ar" had again beta.en themselves with him when the" had now #resented him in the Tem#le according to the law being fort" da"s old <u.e ')''. :nd the" had ta.en care for his education in this #lace and not elsewhere until he himself going forth from hence might show himself o#enl" the &essias if the" had not been sent awa" somewhere else b" #ermission from heaven.
;B. An7 he came an7 7welt in a city calle7 +a=areth: that it might be f.lfille7 which was spo6en by the prophets8 He shall be calle7 a +a=arene.

F/e shall be called a Na!arene$G Those things which are brought from 8saiah 11)1 concerning Net!er# the Branch$ and those things also #roduced concerning 0amson the Na%arite a most noble t"#e of 5hrist have their weight b" no means to be des#ised. 1e add that &atthew ma" be understood concerning the outward humble and mean condition of our 0aviour. :nd that b" the word Na!arene he hints his separation and estrangement from other men as a des#icable #erson and unworth" of the societ" of men. 8. <et it be observed that the evangelist does not cite some one of the #ro#hets but all) "s#o.en b" the #ro#hets." ;ut now all the #ro#hets in a manner do #reach the vile and ab4ect condition of 5hrist$ none that his original should be out of Na%areth. 88. ?avid in his #erson s#ea.s thus$ I "as a stranger to my brethren 7salm 6*)*. 888. 8f "ou derive the word Na!arene which not a few do from Na!ir a Na!irean that word denotes not onl" a separation dedicated to !od such as that of the Na!arenes was$ but it signifies also the separation of a man from others as being unworth" of their societ"$ !enesis (*)'6 "The" shall be on the head of Jose#h and on the crown of the head of him that was separate from his brethren."

Therefore let us digest the sense of the evangelist b" this #ara#hrase) Jose#h was to de#art with 5hrist to ;ethClehem the cit" of ?avid or to Jerusalem the ro"al cit" had not the fear of :rchelaus hindered him. Therefore b" the signification of an angel he is sent awa" into !alilee a ver" contem#tible countr" and into the cit" Na%areth a #lace of no account) whence from this ver" #lace and the name of it "ou ma" observe that fulfilled to a tittle which is so often declared b" the #ro#hets that the &essias should be Na!or a stranger or separate from men as if he were a ver" vile #erson and not worth" of their com#an". 5ha#ter +

&. In those 7ays came John the 1aptist8 preaching in the wil7erness of J.7aea8

FJohn The Baptist preaching in the "ilderness of Judea$ G That John was born in Debron one ma" not unfitl" con4ecture b" com#aring <u.e 1)+* with Joshua '1)11$ and that he was born about the feast of the 7assover namel" half a "ear before the nativit" of our 0aviour <u.e 1)+6. 0o the conce#tions and births of the ;a#tist and our 0aviour ennobled the four famous tekuphas FrevolutionsG of the "ear) one being conceived at the summer solstice the other at the winter$ one born at the vernal e@uinoB the other at the autumnal. "John lived in the deserts until he made himself .nown unto 8srael " <u.e 1)8,. That is if the #o#e-s school ma" be inter#reter he led the life of a hermit. ;ut 8. ;e ashamed 9 #a#ist to be so ignorant of the sense of the word "ilderness or desert$ which in the common dialect sounds all one as if it had been said "De lived in the countr" not in the cit"$ his education was more coarse and #lain in the countr" without the breeding of the universit" or court at Jerusalem." %n oblation for thanksgiving consists of five Jerusalem seahs# "hich "ere in value si2 seahs of the "ilderness$ that is siB countr" seahs. ": Jerusalem seah eBceeds a seah of the wilderness b" a siBth #art." "The trees of the "ilderness are those which are common and not a##ro#riate to one master") that is trees in groves and common meadows. 0o ' 5orinthians 11)'6) "in #erils in the cit" and in #erils in the country$" 88. The wildernesses of the land of 5anaan were not without towns and cities$ nor was he #resentl" to be called an remite who dwelt in the wilderness. The hillCcountr" of Judea John-s native soil is called b" the Talmudists The royal mountain or hill$ and b" the 7salmist The desert hill+country 7salm 65)6$ and "et "in the ro"al mountain were a m"riad of cities." 888. ?avid #assed much of his "outh in the wilderness 1 0amuel 16)'8) but "et who will call him an eremite2 8n the li.e sense 8 conceive John living in the deserts not onl" s#ending his time in leisure and contem#lation but em#lo"ing himself in some wor. or studies. >or when 8 read that the "outh of our 0aviour was ta.en u# in the car#enter-s trade 8 scarcel" believe his forerunner em#lo"ed his "outh in no calling at all. ;eginning now the thirtieth "ear of his age when according to the custom of the #riests he ought to have come to the chief 0anhedrim to undergo their eBamination and to be entered into the #riesthood b" them "the word of !od coming unto him " <u.e +)' as it had done before to the #ro#hets he is diverted to another ministr".

;. An7 saying8 !epent ye: for the 6ing7om of hea:en is at han7.

F*epent ye$G : doctrine most fit for the gos#el and most suitable to the time and the word or the #hrase as agreeable to the doctrine. 8. : nation leavened with the error of the 7harisees concerning 4ustification b" the wor.s of the law was necessaril" to be called off to the contrar" doctrine of re#entance. No receiving of the gos#el was otherwise to be eB#ected. 88. Dowever the schools of the 7harisees had ill" defined re#entance which we observe #resentl" "et the" asserted that re#entance itself was necessar" to the rece#tion of the &essias. 5oncerning this matter the ;ab"lonian !emarists do dis#ute) whom Iimchi also u#on 8saiah 5()1* cites and determines the @uestion) ">rom the words of our 3abbins (saith he) it is #lain there arose a doubt among them concerning this matter namel" whether 8srael were to be redeemed with re#entance or without re#entance. :nd it s#rang from this occasion that some teBts of 0cri#ture seemed to go against them) such as those$ -De saw and there was no man and he wondered that there was none to intercede$ therefore his own arm brought salvation.- :nd also -Not for "our sa.e 9 8srael do 8 this.- :nd again -8 will remember for them m" old covenant - /c. :nd these #laces on the other hand ma.e for re#entance) -Thou shalt return to the <ord th" !od and shalt hear.en to his voice.- :nd again$ -:nd thence thou shalt see. the <ord th" !od and shalt find him if thou see.est him with all th" heart - /c. ;ut these ma" be reconciled after this manner$ namel" that man" of 8srael shall re#ent when the" shall see the signs of redem#tion. :nd hence is that which is said -:nd he saw that there was no man because the" will not re#ent until the" see the beginning of redem#tion." "8f 8srael shall re#ent but one da" forthwith the 3edeemer cometh" (Taanith). Therefore it is ver" fitl" argued b" the ;a#tist and b" our 0aviour after him &atthew ()16 from the a##roach of the .ingdom of heaven to re#entance since the" themselves to whom this is #reached do ac.nowledge that thus the .ingdom of heaven or the manifestation of the &essias is to be brought in. >or however the !emarists who dis#ute of this were of a later age "et for the most #art the" do but s#ea. the sense of their fathers. 888. The word repentance as it does ver" well eB#ress the sense of true re#entance so among the Jews it was necessar" that it should be so eB#ressed among whom re#entance for the most #art was thought to consist in the confession of the mouth onl". "1hosoever out of error or #resum#tion shall transgress the #rece#ts of the law whether the" be those that command or those that forbid when he re#ents and returns from his sins he is bound to ma.e confession. 1hosoever brings an offering for a sin committed either out of ignorance or #resum#tion his sin is not eB#iated b" the offering until he ma.es an oral confession. 9r whosoever is guilt" of death or of scourging b" the 0anhedrim his sin is not ta.en awa" b" his death or b" his scourging if he do not re#ent and ma.e confession. :nd because the sca#eCgoat is the eB#iation for all 8srael therefore the high #riest ma.es confession over him for all 8srael." 8t is worth" observing that when John urgeth those that came to his ba#tism to re#ent it is said that the" were ba#ti%ed "confessing their sins") which was a sign of re#entance highl" re@uisite among the Jews and necessar" for those that were then brought in to the #rofession of the !os#el$ that hereb" the" might o#enl" #rofess that the" renounced the doctrine of 4ustification b" the wor.s of the law. 8t is worth" of observing also that John said not "3e#ent and believe the gos#el " which our 0aviour did &atthew ()16 (and "et John #reached the gos#el &ar. 1)1 '$ John 1)6)$ for his office chiefl" was to ma.e 5hrist .nown who when he should come was to be the great #reacher of the gos#el.

Therefore the ;a#tist doth ver" #ro#erl" urge re#entance u#on those that loo.ed for the &essias$ and the teBt of the !os#el used a ver" #ro#er word to eB#ress true and livel" re#entance. FFor the kingdom of heaven is at hand$ G 8. The kingdom of heaven in &atthew is the kingdom of 7od for the most #art in the other evangelists. 5om#are these #laces)

BTh* poor i+ spirit & th*irs is the king dom of heav en&B M(tt h*2 7/4. BTh* 1-st *ri*s of the king dom of heav en&B M(tt h*2 "4/" ". BThe king dom of God is (t h(+'& B M(rk "/"7. BTh* !*(st i+ the king dom of God& B

L,k* 6/2$. BLitt! * )hi!' r*+& of s,)h is the king dom of God& B M(rk ";/" %.

:nd so we have it elsewhere ver" often >or /eaven is ver" usuall" in the Jewish dialect ta.en for 7od ?aniel ()'+$ &atthew '1)'5$ <u.e 15)'1$ John +)'6. :nd in these and suchCli.e s#eeches scattered in the Talmudists) )eath by the hand of heaven5 The name of heaven is profaned5 The "orship of heaven5 by the help of heaven /c. ">or the" called !od b" the name of /eaven because his habitation is in heaven" (Tishbi). The stor" of the Jews is related groaning out under their #ersecution these words & /eavens8 that is as the !loss renders it %h8 Jehovah8 88. This manner of s#eech the kingdom of heaven is ta.en from ?aniel cha#ter 6)1+ 1($ where after the descri#tion of the four earthl" and t"rannical monarchies that is the ;ab"lonian &edeC7ersian !recian and 0"roC!recian and the destruction of them at last$ the entrance and nature of the reign of 5hrist is described as it is universal over the whole world and eternal throughout all ages) "under whom the rule and dominion and authorit" of .ingdoms under the whole heaven is given to the #eo#le of the saints of the &ost Digh " verse '6) that is "1hereas before the rule had been in the hands of heathen .ings under the reign of 5hrist there should be 5hristian .ings." Knto which that of the a#ostle hath res#ect 1 5orinthians 6)'$ ".now "e not that the saints shall 4udge the world2" Trul" 8 admire that the fulfilling of that vision and #ro#hec" in ?aniel should be lengthened out still into 8 .now not what long and late eB#ectation not to receive its com#letion before 3ome and antichrist shall fall$ since the boo.s of the !os#el afford us a commentar" clearer than the sun that that kingdom of heaven too. its beginning immediatel" u#on the #reaching of the !os#el. 1hen both the ;a#tist and 5hrist #ublished the a##roach of the kingdom of heaven from their ver" first #reaching$ certainl" for an" to thin. that the fulfilling of those things in ?aniel did not then begin for m" #art 8 thin. it is to gro#e in the dar. either through wilfulness or ignorance. 888. The kingdom of heaven im#lies 1. The eBhibition and manifestation of the &essias &atthew 1')'8$ ";ut if 8 b" the finger of !od cast out devils the .ingdom of !od is come u#on "ou") that is -Dence is the manifestation of the &essias.- 0ee John +)+ 1')1+ /c. '. The resurrection of 5hrist$ death hell 0atan being con@uered) whence is a most evident manifestation that he is that -eternal Iing - /c.) see &atthew '6)'*$ 3omans 1)(. +. Dis vengeance u#on the Jewish nation his most im#lacable enemies) this is another and most eminent manifestation of him) see &atthew 16)'8 1*)'8. (. Dis dominion b" the sce#tre of the gos#el among the !entiles &atthew '1)(+. 8n this #lace which is before us it #oints out the eBhibition and revelation of the &essias.

8J. The #hrase the kingdom of heaven ver" fre@uentl" occurs in the Jewish writers. 1e will #roduce some #laces$ let the reader gather the sense of them) "3. Joshua ;en Iorcha saith 8n reciting the #h"lacteries wh" is /ear# & Israel F?eut 6)( /c.G recited before that #assage %nd it shall come to pass# if you shall hearken F?eut 11)1+G /c. To wit that a man first ta.e u#on himself the kingdom of heaven and then the "o.e of the #rece#t." 0o the Jerusalem &isna hath it$ but the ;ab"lonian thus) "That a man first ta.e u#on himself the "o.e of the kingdom of heaven and then the "o.e of the #rece#t." "3abh said to 3abbi 5hai4ah 0e never sa" *abbi FJudahG taking upon himself the kingdom of heaven . ;ar 7ahti answered :t that time when he #ut his hands to his face he too. u#on himself the kingdom of heaven." 1here the !loss s#ea.s thus) "1e saw not that he too. u#on himself the kingdom of heaven$ for until the time came of reciting the #h"lacteries he instructed his scholars$ and when that time was come 8 saw him not inter#osing an" s#ace." "?oth an" ease nature2 <et him wash his hands #ut on his #h"lacteries re#eat them and #ra" and this is the kingdom of heaven fulfilled$6 6If thou shalt have e2plained 'haddai# and divided the letters of the kingdom of heaven thou shalt ma.e the shadow of death to be cool to thee"$ that is "8f in the re#eating of that #assage of the #h"lacteries F?eut 6)(G -Dear 9 8srael the <ord our !od is one <ord /c. "ou shall #ronounce the letters distinctl" and deliberatel" so that "ou shall have sounded out the names of !od rightl" -thou shalt ma.e cool the shades of death.-" >or the same !loss had said The repeating of that passage -Dear 9 8srael - /c. is the taking of the kingdom of heaven upon thee . ;ut the re#eating of that #lace -:nd it shall be if thou shalt hear.en - /c. F?eut 1*)1+G is the taking of the yoke of the precept upon thee. "3abban !amaliel recited his #h"lacterical #ra"ers on the ver" night of his nu#tials. :nd when his scholars said unto him -Dast thou not taught us 9 our master that a bridegroom is freed from the reciting of his #h"lacteries the first night2- he answered -8 will not hear.en to "ou nor will 8 la" aside the kingdom of heaven from me no not for an hour.-" "1hat is the "o.e of the kingdom of heaven2 8n li.e manner as the" la" the "o.e u#on an oB that he ma" be serviceable$ and if he bear not the "o.e he becomes un#rofitable) so it becomes a man first to ta.e the "o.e u#on himself and to serve in all things with it) but if he casts it off he is un#rofitable) as it is said -0erve the <ord in fear.- 1hat means -in fear2- the same that is written -The fear of the <ord is the beginning of wisdom.- :nd this is the kingdom of heaven." "The scholars of Jochanan ;en Haccai as.ed 1h" a servant was to be bored through the ear rather than through some other #art of the bod"2 De answered 1hen he heard with the ear those words from mount 0inai -Thou shalt have no other <ord before m" face - he bro.e the "o.e of the kingdom of heaven from him and too. u#on himself the "o.e of flesh and blood." 8f b" the kingdom of heaven in these and other suchCli.e #laces which it would be too much to hea# together the" mean the inward love and fear of !od which indeed the" seem to do$ so far the" agree with our gos#el sense which asserts the inward and s#iritual .ingdom of 5hrist es#eciall". :nd if the words of our 0aviour ";ehold the .ingdom of !od is within "ou " <u.e 16)'1 be suited to this sense of the nation concerning the kingdom of heaven there is nothing sounds hard or rough in them) for it is as much as if he had said "?o "ou thin. the kingdom of heaven shall come with some remar.able observation or "ith much sho"2 Lour ver" schools teach that the .ingdom of !od is within a man." ;ut however the" most ordinaril" a##lied this manner of s#eech hither "et the" used it also for the eBhibition and revelation of the &essiah in the li.e manner as the evangelical histor" doth. Dence are these eB#ressions and the li.e to them in sacred writers) "The 7harisees as.ed Jesus when the

.ingdom of !od should come." "The" thought that the .ingdom of !od should #resentl" be manifested." "Jose#hus of :rimathea waited for the .ingdom of !od." :nd these words in the 5haldee #ara#hrast "0a" "e to the cities of Judah The .ingdom of "our !od is revealed " 8saiah (,)*) "The" shall see the .ingdom of their &essiah " 8saiah 5+)11. The ;a#tist therefore b" his #reaching stirs u# the minds of his hearers to meet the coming of the &essiah now #resentl" to be manifested with that re#entance and #re#aration as is meet.
D. An7 the same John ha7 his raiment of camelFs hair8 an7 a leathern gir7le abo.t his loins< an7 his meat was loc.sts an7 wil7 honey.

F/is food "as locusts$G /e that by vo" tieth himself from flesh# is forbidden the flesh of fish and of locusts. 0ee the ;ab"lonian Talmud (5holin) concerning locusts fit for food.
(. *hen went o.t to him Jer.salem8 an7 all J.7aea8 an7 all the region ro.n7 abo.t Jor7an.

FThe region round about Jordan.G The word the region round about is used b" the Jerusalem !emara) ">rom ;ethChoron to the sea is one region round about " or one circum1acent region. 7erha#s both in the Talmudist and in the evangelist is one and the same thing with a coast or a country along a coast in 7lin") "The countr" (saith he) along the coast is 0amaria") that is the seaCcoast and the countr" further l"ing along b" that coast) which ma" be said also concerning the region round about Jordan. 0trabo concerning the #lain bordering on Jordan hath these words$ "8t is a #lace of a hundred furlongs all well watered and full of dwellings." : few things concerning ;a#tism.
?. An7 were bapti=e7 of him in Jor7an8 confessing their sins.

F%nd "ere bapti!ed$G 8t is no unfit or un#rofitable @uestion whence it came to #ass that there was so great a confluB of men to the ;a#tist and so read" a rece#tion of his ba#tism2 8. The first reason is ;ecause the manifestation of the &essias was then eB#ected the wee.s of ?aniel being now s#ent to the last four "ears. <et us consult a little his teBt)CC ?aniel *)'(. "0event" wee.s Fof yearsG are decreed concerning th" #eo#le " /c. That is four hundred and ninet" "ears from the first of 5"rus to the death of 5hrist. These "ears are divided into three #arts and the" ver" une@ual. 1. 8nto seven wee.s or fort"Cnine "ears from the giving of 5"rus- #atent for the rebuilding Jerusalem to the finishing the rebuilding of it b" Nehemiah. '. 8nto siBt"Ctwo wee.s or four hundred thirt"Cfour "ears CCnamel" from the finishing the building of the cit" to the beginning of the last wee. of the sevent". 8n which s#ace of time the times of the 7ersian em#ire (which remained after Nehemiah if indeed there was an" time now remaining) and the times of the !recian em#ire and of the 0"roC!recian were all run out and those times also wherein the 3omans ruled over the Jews. +. The hol" teBt divides the last wee. or the last seven "ears into two e@ual #arts verse '6$ which 8 thus render$ ":nd he shall strengthen or confirm the covenant with man" in that one wee.) and the half of that wee. shall ma.e the sacrifice and oblation to cease) or in the half of that wee. he shall ma.e to cease " /c. Not in the middle of that wee. but in the latter half that is the latter three "ears and a half of the seven.

>irst seven wee.s having been rec.oned u# before and then siBt"Ctwo wee.s verse '5 CCnow there remained one onl" of the sevent"$ and in reference to that in the middle of it the &essias shall begin his ministr"$ which being finished in three "ears and a half (the latter halved #art of that wee.) "he shall ma.e the sacrifice and oblation to cease " /c. The nation could not but .now could not but ta.e great notice of the times so eBactl" set out b" the angel !abriel. 0ince therefore the coming of the &essias was the great wish and desire of all CCand since the time of his a##earing was so clearl" decreed b" the angel that nothing could be more CCand when the latter half of the last seven "ears chiefl" to be observed was now within a ver" little come)CCit is no wonder if the #eo#le hearing from this venerable #reacher that the .ingdom of heaven was now come should be stirred u# be"ond measure to meet him and should floc. to him. >or as we observed before "The" thought that the .ingdom of !od would immediatel" be manifested " <u.e 1*)11. 88. :nother reason of it was this CCthe institution of ba#tism for an evangelical sacrament was first in the hand of the ;a#tist who "the word of the <ord coming to him " (<u.e +)') went forth bac.ed with the same authorit" as the chiefest #ro#hets had in times #ast. ;ut "et the first use of ba#tism was not eBhibited at that time. >or ba#tism ver" man" centuries of "ears bac.wards had been both .nown and received in most fre@uent use among the Jews CCand for the ver" same end as it now obtains among 5hristians CCnamel" that b" it #rosel"tes might be admitted into the church$ and hence it was called Baptism for proselytism) and was distinct from Baptism For "ashingG from uncleanness. 0ee the ;ab"lonian Talmud in Jevamoth. 8. 8 ascribe the first use of it for this end to the #atriarch Jacob when he chose into his famil" and church the "oung women of 0"chem and other heathens who then lived with him. "Jacob said to his famil" and to all who were with him 7ut awa" from "ou the strange gods and be "e clean and change "our garments " /c. !enesis +5)'. 1hat that words means and be ye clean :ben =%ra does ver" well inter#ret to be the "ashing of the body or baptism$ which reason itself also #ersuades us to believe. 88. :ll the nation of 8srael do assert as it were with one mouth that all the nation of 8srael were brought into the covenant among other things b" ba#tism. "8srael (saith &aimonides the great inter#reter of the Jewish law) was admitted into the covenant b" three things CCnamel" b" circumcision ba#tism and sacrifice. 5ircumcision was in =g"#t$ as it is said -None uncircumcised shall eat of the #assover.;a#tism was in the wilderness before the giving of the law$ as it is said -Thou shalt sanctif" them toCda" and toCmorrow and let them wash their garments.-" 888. The" assert that that infinite number of #rosel"tes in the da" of ?avid and 0olomon were admitted b" ba#tism) "The 0anhedrims received not #rosel"tes in the da"s of ?avid and 0olomon) not in the da"s of ?avid lest the" should beta.e themselves to #rosel"tism out of a fear of the .ingdom of 8srael) not in the da"s of 0olomon lest the" might do the same b" reason of the glor" of the .ingdom. :nd "et abundance of #rosel"tes were made in the da"s of ?avid and 0olomon before #rivate men$ and the great 0anhedrim was full of care about this business) for the" would not cast them out of the church because the" were ba#ti%ed " /c. 8J. "1hensoever an" heathen will beta.e himself and be 4oined to the covenant of 8srael and #lace himself under the wings of the divine &a4est" and ta.e the "o.e of the law u#on him voluntar" circumcision ba#tism and oblation are re@uired) but if it be a woman ba#tism and oblation." That was a common aBiom No man is a proselyte until he be circumcised and bapti!ed . 8t is dis#uted b" the ;ab"lonian !emara ": #rosel"te that is circumcised and not ba#ti%ed what of him2 3. =lie%er saith ;ehold he is a #rosel"te) for so we find concerning our fathers that the" were circumcised but not ba#ti%ed. 9ne is ba#ti%ed but not circumcised$ what of him2 3. Joshua saith ;ehold he is a #rosel"te) for so we find concerning the maidservants who were ba#ti%ed but not circumcised. ;ut the wise men

sa" 8s he ba#ti%ed and not circumcised2 9r 8s he circumcised and not ba#ti%ed2 De is not a #rosel"te until he be circumcised and ba#ti%ed." ;ut ba#tism was sufficient for women so far forth as this held good " &ne bapti!eth a heathen "oman in the name of a "oman# "e can assert that for a deed rightly done ." 1here the !loss is this$ "To be ba#ti%ed in the name of a woman was to be ba#ti%ed "ith the "ashing of a "oman polluted and not with the ba#tism to #rosel"tism. ;ut we ma" nevertheless assert her who is so ba#ti%ed for a com#lete #rosel"tess$ because that ba#tism of washing for uncleanness serves for #rosel"tism to her$ for a heathen woman is not ba#ti%ed For washedG for uncleanness." J. The" ba#ti%ed also "oung children (for the most #art with their #arents). They bapti!e a little proselyte according to the 1udgment of the 'anhedrim ) that is as the !loss renders it "8f he be de#rived of his father and his mother brings him to be made a #rosel"te the" ba#ti%e him Fbecause none becomes a #rosel"te without circumcision and ba#tismG according to the 4udgment For rightG of the 0anhedrim$ that is that three men be #resent at the ba#tism who are now instead of a father to him." :nd the !emara a little after$ If "ith a proselyte his sons and his daughters are made proselytes also# that "hich is done by their father redounds to their good$ *$ Joseph saith# 0hen they gro" into years# they may retract. 1here the !loss writes thus$ "This is to be understood of little children who are made #rosel"tes together with their father." ": heathen woman if she is made a #rosel"tess when she is now big with child CCthe child needs not ba#tism) for the baptism of his mother serves him for baptism ." 9therwise he were to be ba#ti%ed. "If an Israelite take a 7entile child# or find a 7entile infant and ba#ti%eth him in the name of a #rosel"te CCbehold he is a #rosel"te." 1e cannot also #ass over that which indeed is worth" to be remembered) ":n" one-s servant is to be circumcised though he be unwilling$ but an" one-s son is not to be circumcised if he be unwilling. 3. Jochanan in@uired ;ehold a little son$ do "ou circumcise him b" force2 Lea although he be as the son of Krcan. 3. De%e.iah saith ;ehold a man finds an infant cast out and he ba#ti%eth him in the name of a servant) in the name of a freeman do "ou also circumcise him in the name of a freeman." 1e have therefore alleged these things the more largel" not onl" that "ou ma" receive satisfaction concerning the #eo#le floc.ed in so universal a concourse to John-s ba#tism (because ba#tism was no strange thing to the Jews)$ but that some other things ma" be observed hence which afford some light to certain #laces of 0cri#ture and will hel# to clear some .nott" @uestions about ba#tism. >irst Lou see ba#tism inse#arabl" 4oined to the circumcision of #rosel"tes. There was indeed some little distance of time$ for "the" were not ba#ti%ed till the #ain of circumcision was healed because water might be in4urious to the wound." ;ut certainl" ba#tism ever followed. 1e ac.nowledge indeed that circumcision was #lainl" of divine institution$ but b" whom ba#tism that was inse#arable from it was instituted is doubtful. :nd "et it is worth" of observation our 0aviour re4ected circumcision and retained the a##endiB to it) and when all the !entiles were now to be introduced into the true religion he #referred this -#rosel"tical introductor"- (#ardon the eB#ression) unto the sacrament of entrance into the gos#el. 9ne might observe the same almost in the eucharist. The lamb in the 7assover was of divine institution and so indeed was the bread. ;ut whence was the wine2 ;ut "et re4ecting the lamb 5hrist instituted the sacrament in the bread and wine. 0econdl" 9bserving from these things which have been s#o.en how ver" .nown and fre@uent the use of ba#tism was among the Jews the reason a##ears ver" eas" wh" the 0anhedrim b" their

messengers in@uired not of John concerning the reason of ba#tism but concerning the authorit" of the ba#ti%er$ not what ba#tism meant but whence he had a license so to ba#ti%e John 1)'5. Thirdl" Dence also the reason a##ears wh" the New Testament doth not #rescribe b" some more accurate rule who the #ersons are to be ba#ti%ed. The :naba#tists ob4ect -8t is not commanded to ba#ti%e infants CCtherefore the" are not to be ba#ti%ed.- To whom 8 answer -8t is not forbidden to ba#ti%e infants CCtherefore the" are to be ba#ti%ed.- :nd the reason is #lain. >or when 7aedoba#tism in the Jewish church was so .nown usual and fre@uent in the admission of #rosel"tes that nothing almost was more .nown usual and fre@uent CC 1. There was no need to strengthen it with an" #rece#t when ba#tism was now #assed into an evangelical sacrament. >or 5hrist too. ba#tism into his hands and into evangelical use as he found it$ this onl" added that he might #romote it to a worthier end and a larger use. The whole nation .new well enough that little children used to be ba#ti%ed) there was no need of a #rece#t for that which had ever b" common use #revailed. 8f a ro"al #roclamation should now issue forth in these words "<et ever" one resort on the <ord-s da" to the #ublic assembl" in the church"$ certainl" he would be mad who in times to come should argue hence that #ra"ers sermons singing of #salms were not to be celebrated on the <ord-s da" in the #ublic assemblies because there is no mention of them in the #roclamation. >or the #roclamation #rovided for the celebration of the <ord-s da" in the #ublic assemblies in general) but there was no need to ma.e mention of the #articular .inds of the divine worshi# to be celebrated there when the" were alwa"s and ever" where well .nown and in dail" use before the #ublishing of the #roclamation and when it was #ublished. The case is the ver" same in ba#tism. 5hrist instituted it for an evangelical sacrament whereb" all should be admitted into the #ossession of the gos#el as heretofore it was used for admission into #rosel"tism to the Jewish religion. The #articulars belonging to it CCas the manner of ba#ti%ing the age the seB to be ba#ti%ed /c.CChad no need of a rule and definition$ because these were b" the common use of them sufficientl" .nown even to mechanics and the most ignorant men. '. 9n the other hand therefore there was need of a #lain and o#en #rohibition that infants and little children should not be ba#ti%ed if our 0aviour would not have had them ba#ti%ed. >or since it was most common in all ages foregoing that little children should be ba#ti%ed if 5hrist had been minded to have that custom abolished he would have o#enl" forbidden it. Therefore his silence and the silence of the 0cri#ture in this matter confirms 7aedoba#tism and continueth it unto all ages. >ourthl" 8t is clear enough b" what hath been alread" said in what sense that is to be ta.en in the New Testament which we sometimes meet with CCnamel" that the master of the famil" was ba#ti%ed with his whole famil" :cts 16)15 ++ /c. Nor is it of an" strength which the :ntiC#aedoba#tists contend for that it cannot be #roved there were infants in those families$ for the in@uir" is not so #ro#er whether there were infants in those families as it is concluded trul" and deservedl" CCif there were the" had all been to be ba#ti%ed. Nor do 8 believe this #eo#le that floc.ed to John-s ba#tism were so forgetful of the manner and custom of the nation that the" brought not their little children also with them to be ba#ti%ed. 0ome things are now to be s#o.en of the manner and form which John used. >irst 8n some things he seems to have followed the manner whereb" #rosel"tes were ba#ti%ed$ in other things not to have followed them. 5oncerning it the Talmudic 5anons have these sa"ings)CC 8. They do not bapti!e a proselyte by night. Nor indeed "were the unclean to be washed but in the da"C time." &aimonides adds "The" ba#ti%ed not a #rosel"te on the sabbath nor on a hol"Cda" nor b" night." 88. % proselyte hath need of three) that is it is re@uired that three men who are scholars of the wise men be #resent at the ba#tism of a #rosel"te$ who ma" ta.e care that the business be rightl"

#erformed and ma" briefl" instruct the catechumen Fthe #erson to be ba#ti%edG and ma" 4udge of the matter itself. >or the admission of a #rosel"te was rec.oned no light matter$ Proselytes are dangerous to Israel# like the itch was an aBiom. >or the" either tenacious of their former customs or ignorant of the law of 8srael have corru#ted others with their eBam#le$ or being mingled with 8srael were the cause that the divine glor" did rest the less u#on them$ because it resteth not on an" but u#on families of a nobler #edigree. These reasons the !lossers give. 1hen therefore the admission of #rosel"tes was of so great moment the" were not to be admitted but b" the 4udicial consistor" of three. 888. They bapti!e a proselyte in such a confluence of "aters as "as fit for the "ashing of a menstruous "oman. 9f such a confluence of waters the law"ers have these words) ": man that hath the gonorrhea is cleansed nowhere but in a fountain) but a menstruous woman as also all other unclean #ersons were washed in some confluence of waters$ in which so much water ought to be as ma" serve to wash the whole bod" at one di##ing. 9ur wise men have esteemed this #ro#ortion to be a cubit s@uare and three cubits de#th) and this measure contains fort" seahs of water." 1hen it is said that "he that hath the gonorrhea is to wash in a s#ring For a streamG$ but a menstruous woman and all other unclean #ersons in some confluence of waters "CCit forbids not a menstruous woman and other unclean #ersons to wash in streams where the" might) but it #ermits where the" might not to wash in some confluence of water$ which was not lawful for a man that had the gonorrhea to do. The same is to be understood concerning the ba#tism of a #rosel"te who was allowed to wash himself in streams) and was allowed also where there were no streams to wash in a confluence of waters. 8J. 1hen a #rosel"te was to be circumcised the" first as.ed him concerning the sincerit" of his conversion to Judaism) whether he offered not himself to #rosel"tism for the obtaining riches for fear or for love to some 8sraelite woman /c. :nd when the" saw that he came out of love of the law the" instructed him concerning the various articles of the law of one !od of the evil of idolatr" of the reward of obedience of the world to come of the #rivileges of 8srael /c. :ll which if he #rofessed that he embraced them he is forthwith circumcised. ":s soon as he grows whole of the wound of circumcision the" bring him to ba#tism$ and being #laced in the water the" again instruct him in some weightier and in some lighter commands of the law. 1hich being heard he plunges himself# and comes up# and behold# he is as an Israelite in all things . The women #lace a woman in the waters u# to the nec.$ and two disci#les of the wise men standing without instruct her about some lighter #rece#ts of the law and some weightier while she in the meantime stands in the waters. %nd then she plungeth herself$ and the" turning awa" their faces go out while she comes u# out of the water." 8n the ba#ti%ing of a #rosel"te this is not to be #assed over but let it be observed namel" that others bapti!ed him and that he bapti!ed himself or di##ed or #lunged himself in the waters. Now what that #lunging was "ou ma" understand from those things which &aimonides s#ea.s in &i.vaoth in the #lace before cited. " very person bapti!ed6 For dipped whether he were washed from #ollution or ba#ti%ed into #rosel"tismG "must di# his whole bod" now stri##ed and made na.ed at one di##ing. :nd wheresoever in the law washing of the bod" or garments is mentioned it means nothing else than the washing of the whole bod". >or if an" wash himself all over eBce#t the ver" to# of his little finger he is still in his uncleanness. :nd if an" hath much hair he must wash all the hair of his head for that also was rec.oned for the bod". ;ut if an" should enter into the water with their clothes on "et their washing holds good$ because the water would #ass through their clothes and their garments would not hinder it." :nd now a little to com#are the ba#tism of John with that #rosel"tical ba#tism and ours with both these things are to be considered)CC

8. 8f "ou com#are the washing of #olluted #ersons #rescribed b" the law with the ba#tism of #rosel"tes CCboth that and this im#l" uncleanness however something different that im#lies legal uncleanness CCthis heathen CCbut both #olluting. ;ut a #rosel"te was ba#ti%ed not onl" into the washingC off of that !entile #ollution nor onl" thereb" to be trans#lanted into the religion of the Jews$ but that b" the most accurate rite of translation that could #ossibl" be he might so #ass into an 8sraelite that being married to an 8sraelite woman he might #roduce a free and legitimate seed and an undefiled offs#ring. Dence servants that were ta.en into a famil" were ba#ti%ed CCand servants also that were to be made free) not so much because the" were defiled with heathen uncleanness as that b" that rite becoming Israelites in all respects the" might be more fit to match with 8sraelites and their children be accounted as 8sraelites. :nd hence the sons of #rosel"tes in following generations were circumcised indeed but not ba#ti%ed. The" were circumcised that the" might ta.e u#on themselves the obligation of the law$ but the" needed not ba#tism because the" were alread" 8sraelites. >rom these things it is #lain that there was some difference as to the end between the &osaical washings of unclean #ersons and the ba#tism of #rosel"tes$ and some between the ba#tism of #rosel"tes and John-s ba#tism) not as though the" concurred not in some #arallel end$ but because other ends were added over and above to this or that or some ends were withdrawn. 88. The ba#tism of #rosel"tes was the bringing over of !entiles into the Jewish religion$ the ba#tism of John was the bringing over of Jews into another religion. :nd hence it is the more to be wondered at that the #eo#le so readil" floc.ed to him when he introduced a ba#tism so different from the .nown #rosel"tical ba#tism. The reason of which is to be fetched from hence CCthat at the coming of the &essias the" thought not without cause that the state of things was #lainl" to be changed$ and that from the oracles of the #ro#hets who with one mouth described the times of the &essias for a new world. Dence was that received o#inion That 7od# at that time# "ould rene" the "orld for a thousand years...:nd that also that the" used the "orld to come b" a form of s#eech ver" common among them for the times of the &essias$ which we observe more largel" elsewhere. 888. The ba#tism of #rosel"tes was an obligation to #erform the law$ that of John was an obligation to re#entance. >or although #rosel"tical ba#tism admitted of some ends CCand circumcision of others CC"et a traditional and erroneous doctrine at that time had 4oined this to both that the #rosel"tes covenanted in both and obliged himself to #erform the law$ to which that of the a#ostle relates !alatians 5)+ "8 testif" again to ever" man that is circumcised that he is a debtor to do the whole law." ;ut the ba#tism of John was a -ba#tism of re#entance-$ &ar. 1)() which being underta.en the" who were ba#ti%ed #rofessed to renounce their own legal righteousness$ and on the contrar" ac.nowledged themselves to be obliged to re#entance and faith in the &essias to come. Dow much the 7harisaical doctrine of 4ustification differed from the evangelical so much the obligation underta.en in the ba#tism of #rosel"tes differed from the obligation underta.en in the ba#tism of John) which obligation also holds amongst 5hristians to the end of the world. 8J. That the ba#tism of John was b" #lunging the bod" (after the same manner as the washing of unclean #ersons and the ba#tism of #rosel"tes was) seems to a##ear from those things which are related of him$ namel" that he "ba#ti%ed in Jordan"$ that he ba#ti%ed "in :enon because there was much water there"$ and that 5hrist being ba#ti%ed "came u# out of the water") to which that seems to be #arallel :cts 8)+8 "7hili# and the eunuch went down into the water " /c. 0ome com#lain that this rite is not retained in the 5hristian church as though it something derogated from the truth of ba#tism$ or as though it were to be called an innovation when the s#rin.ling of water is used instead of #lunging. This is no #lace to dis#ute of these things. <et us return these three things onl" for a #resent answer)CC 1. That the notion of washing in John-s ba#tism differs from ours in that he ba#ti%ed none who were not brought over from one religion and that an irreligious one too CCinto another and that a true one. ;ut there is no #lace for this among us who are born 5hristians) the condition therefore being varied the rite is not onl" lawfull" but deservedl" varied also. 9ur ba#tism argues defilement indeed and

uncleanness$ and demonstrates this doctrinall" CCthat we being #olluted have need of washing) but this is to be understood of our natural and sinful stain to be washed awa" b" the blood of 5hrist and the grace of !od) with which stain indeed the" were defiled who were ba#ti%ed b" John. ;ut to denote this washing b" a sacramental sign the s#rin.ling of water is as sufficient as the di##ing into water CCwhen in truth this argues washing and #urification as well as that. ;ut those who were ba#ti%ed b" John were blemished with another stain and that an outward one and after a manner visible$ that is a #olluted religion CCnamel" Judaism or heathenism$ from which if according to the custom of the nation the" #assed b" a dee#er and severer washing CCthe" neither underwent it without reason$ nor with an" reason ma" it be laid u#on us whose condition is different from theirs. '. 0ince di##ing was a rite used onl" in the Jewish nation and #ro#er to it it were something hard if all nations should be sub4ected under it$ but es#eciall" when it is neither necessaril" to be esteemed of the essence of ba#tism and is moreover so harsh and dangerous that in regard of these things it scarcel" gave #lace to circumcision. 1e read that some leavened with Judaism to the highest degree "et wished that di##ing in #urification might be ta.en awa" because it was accom#anied with so much severit". "8n the da"s of 3. Joshua ;en <evi some endeavoured to abolish this di##ing for the sa.e of the women of !alilee$ because b" reason of the cold the" became barren. 3. Joshua ;en <evi said unto them ?o "e go about to ta.e awa" that which hedges in 8srael from transgression2" 0urel" it is hard to la" this "o.e u#on the nec. of all nations which seemed too rough to the Jews themselves and not to be borne b" them men too much given to such .ind of severer rites. :nd if it be demanded of them who went about to ta.e awa" that di##ing 1ould "ou have no #urification at all b" water2 it is #robable that the" would have allowed of the s#rin.ling of water which is less harsh and not less agreeable to the thing itself. +. The following ages with good reason and b" divine #rescri#t administered a ba#tism differing in a greater matter from the ba#tism of John$ and therefore it was less to differ in a less matter. The a##lication of water was necessaril" of the essence of ba#tism$ but the a##lication of it in this or that manner s#ea.s but a circumstance) the adding also of the word was of the nature of a sacrament$ but the changing of the word into this or that form would "ou not call this a circumstance also2 :nd "et we read the form of ba#tism so changed that "ou ma" observe it to have been threefold in the histor" of the New Testament. 0econdl" 8n reference to the form of John-s ba#tism Fwhich thing we have #ro#ounded to consider in the second #laceG it is not at all to be doubted but he ba#ti%ed "in the name of the &essias now read" to come") and it ma" be gathered from his words and from his stor". :s "et he .new not that Jesus of Na%areth was the &essias$ which he confesseth himself John 1)+1) "et he .new well enough that the &essias was coming$ therefore he ba#ti%ed those that came to him in his name instructing them in the doctrine of the gos#el concerning faith in the &essias and re#entance$ that the" might be the readier to receive the &essias when he should manifest himself. 5onsider well &alachi +)1 <u.e 1)16 John 1)6 +1 /c. The a#ostles ba#ti%ing the Jews ba#ti%ed them "in the name of Jesus"$ because Jesus of Na%areth had now been revealed for the &essias$ and that the" did when it had been before commanded them b" 5hrist ";a#ti%e all nations in the name of the >ather and of the 0on and of the Dol" !host." 0o "ou must understand that which is s#o.en John +)'+ ()' concerning the disci#les of 5hrist ba#ti%ing$ namel" that the" ba#ti%ed in -the name of Jesus - that thence it might be .nown that Jesus of Na%areth was the &essias in the name of whom suddenl" to come John had ba#ti%ed. That of 0t. 7eter is #lain :cts ')+8$ ";e ba#ti%ed ever" one of "ou in the name of Jesus 5hrist") and that :cts 8)16 "The" were ba#ti%ed in the name of Jesus." ;ut the a#ostles ba#ti%ed the !entiles according to the #rece#t of our <ord "8n the name of the >ather and of the 0on and of the Dol" !host " &atthew '8)1*. >or since it was ver" much controverted among the Jews about the true &essias and that unbelieving nation denied stiffl" and without ceasing that Jesus of Na%areth was he (under which virulent s#irit the" labour even to this da") it was not without cause "ea nor without necessit" that the" ba#ti%ed in the name of Jesus$ that b" that seal might be

confirmed this most #rinci#al truth in the gos#el and that those that were ba#ti%ed might #rofess it$ that Jesus of Na%areth was the true &essias. ;ut among the !entiles the controvers" was not concerning the true &essias but concerning the true !od) among them therefore it was needful that ba#tism should be conferred in the name of the true !od ">ather 0on and Dol" 0#irit." 1e su##ose therefore that men women and children came to John-s ba#tism according to the manner of the nation in the rece#tion of #rosel"tes$ namel" that the" standing in Jordan were taught b" John that the" were ba#ti%ed into the name of the &essias that was now immediatel" to come$ and into the #rofession of the doctrine of the gos#el concerning faith and re#entance$ that the" #lunged themselves into the river and so came out. :nd that which is said of them that the" were ba#ti%ed b" him "confessing their sins " is to be understood according to the tenour of the ;a#tist-s #reaching$ not that the" did this man b" man or b" some auricular confession made to John or b" o#enl" declaring some #articular sins$ but when the doctrine of John eBhorted them to re#entance and to faith in the &essias the" renounced and disowned the doctrine and o#inion of 4ustification b" their wor.s wherewith the" had been beforetime leavened and ac.nowledged and confessed themselves sinners. FIn Jordan.G John could not ba#ti%e in an" #art of Jordan so it were within the bounds of Judea (which the evangelists assert) which had not been dried u# and had afforded a #assage to the 8sraelites when the" came out of =g"#t and were now entering into the #romised land. 0ome few remar.s concerning the 7harisees and 0adducees.
@. 1.t when he saw many of the $harisees an7 0a77.cees come to his baptism8 he sai7 .nto them8 # generation of :ipers8 who hath warne7 yo. to flee from the wrath to comeC

F%nd seeing many of the Pharisees and 'adducees$ G To attem#t a histor" of the Pharisees and 'adducees after so man" ver" learned men who have treated of their original manners and institutions would be neBt to madness) we will briefl" touch at a few things and those #erha#s less obvious. 1. That the Pharisees do not derive their name (as some would have it) from the word which signifies to e2pound is sufficientl" evinced b" this that there were "omen+Pharisees as well as men. "3. Joshua saith : religious man foolish a wic.ed man craft" a "oman+Pharisee and the dashing of the Pharisees Fagainst the stonesG destro" the world." Those things are worth" observing which are s#o.e b" the ;ab"lonian !emarists on that clause % "oman+Pharisee. 6The *abbins teach$ % praying -proca2. maid# a gadding "ido"# and a boy "hose months are not fulfilled# these corrupt the "orld . ;ut 3. Jochanan saith 1e learn the shunning of sin from a maid and the receiving of a reward from a widow. -The shunning of sin from a maid-$ for 3. Jochanan heard a certain maid #rostrate on her face thus #ra"ing$ =ternal <ord thou hast created 7aradise thou hast created hell also thou hast created the righteous and thou hast created the wic.ed) let it be th" good #leasure that 8 be not a scandal to men. -The receiving of a reward from a widow-$ for there was a certain widow who when there were s"nagogues nearer ever"where she alwa"s resorted to the school of 3. Jochanan to #ra") to whom 3. Jochanan said 9 m" daughter are there not s"nagogues at hand round about "ou2 ;ut she answered 0ill there not be a re"ard for my steps For for m" 4ourne" hitherG2 for Fthe traditionG saith These destro" the world as Joanna the daughter of 3etib." ...F9Gne !loss Fsa"sG a maid given to prayer or a maid of many prayers. ;" another it is rendered a maid given to fasting5 losing her virginity by fasting$ % gadding "ido" the" call her "who alwa"s goes about from #lace to #lace to visit her neighbours"$ the" are the words of the !loss. ":nd these corru#t the world because the" are no other but bawds and sorceresses and "et the" #retend sanctit"."

"Joanna the daughter of 3etib Fthe !loss also being witnessG was a certain sorceress widow who when the time of an" child-s birth drew near shut u# the womb of the childCbearing woman with magic arts that she could not be delivered. :nd when the #oor woman had endured long and great torments she would sa" -8 will go and #ra" for "ou$ #erha#s m" #ra"ers will be heard-) when she was gone she would dissolve the enchantments and #resentl" the infant would be born. 9n a certain da" as a hired man wrought in her house she being gone to a woman-s labour he heard the charms tin.ling in a #an$ and ta.ing off the cover the charms #resentl" came out and strait the infant is born$ and hence it was .nown that she was a witch." 8 have therefore cited these #assages not onl" that it ma" be shown that there were "omen+Pharisees and so that the name is not ta.e from interpreting or e2pounding but that it ma" be observed also what .ind of women for the most #art embrace 7harisaism$ namel" widows and maids under the veil of sanctit" and devotion hiding and #ractising all manner of wic.edness. :nd so much we gain of the histor" of the Pharisees while we are tracing the et"molog" of the word. 88. That the Pharisees therefore were so called from the word signif"ing separation is more commonl" asserted and more trul"$ and the thing itself as well as the word s#ea.s it. 0o that b" a word more .nown to us "ou might rightl" call the Pharisees# 'eparatists$ but in what sense has need of more narrow in@uir". The differences of the Jewish #eo#le are to be dis#osed here into diverse ran.s) and first we will begin with the women. 1. 8t were an infinite tas. to search #articularl" how their canons indulged (shall 8 sa"2) or prescribed the woman a freedom from ver" man" rites in which a great #art of the Jewish religion was #laced. Dow numberless are the times that that occurs in the Talmudic #andect " 0omen# servants# and children# are not bound to these things. 1omen servants and children are not bound to recite their #h"lacteries nor to wear them. The Passovers of "omen are at their o"n "ill." :nd not to dwell u#on things that are obvious let this one serve instead of man") ": certain matron as.ed 3. =lea%ar 1h" when :aron sinned in ma.ing the golden calf the #eo#le are #unished with a threefold death2 De answered <et not a woman be learned be"ond her distaff. Dircanus his son said unto him ;ecause no answer is given her in one word out of the law she will withdraw from us three hundred tenth cori "earl". To whom he re#lied <et them rather go and be burnt than the words of the law be delivered to women." >rom hence it a##ears that the women that embraced 7harisaism did it of their own free will and vow not b" command) which the menC7harisees also did. '. 7ass we from the women to the men$ and first to the lowest degrees of men in the distinction relating to religion$ namel" to them whom the" ordinaril" called illiterate and the people of the earth or the plebeians. 9f them thus the !emara in 0otah newl" cited) "9ne reads the 0cri#tures and recites the &isna and "et he waits not u#on the scholars of the wise men$ what of him2 3. =lea%ar said This is one of the people of the earth. 3. 0amuel ;ar Nachmani saith Behold# this is an illiterate man . 3. Jannai saith -;ehold this is a 5uthean.- 3. :chabar saith -;ehold this is a magician.-" :nd a little after "1ho is the people of the earth2 3. &eith saith -De that recites not his #h"lacteries morning and evening with his #ra"ers.- ;ut the wise men sa" -De whosoever he be that la"s not u# his #h"lacteries.;en :%%ai saith -De who hath not a fringe on his garment.- 3. Jochanan ;en Jose#h saith -De that instructs not his sons in the doctrine of the law.- 9thers sa" -De who although he read the 0cri#tures and re#eats the traditions "et attends not on the scholars of the wise men this is the people of the earth For the plebeiansG. ?oes he read the 0cri#tures and not re#eat the tradition2 ;ehold this man is illiterate.-" The !loss u#on the #lace s#ea.s thus "The people of the earth are the" of whom there is sus#icion of tenths and cleanness") that is lest the" tithe not rightl" nor ta.e care aright concerning cleansings. :nd the illiterate #erson is "more vile than# or inferior to# the people of the earth ." 5om#are that John 6)(* "this #eo#le that .noweth not the law is cursed."

The colleagues or associates and scholars of the "ise men were o##osed to these vulgar #ersons. Knder the title of scholars of the "ise men are com#rehended all that were learned and studious) under the title of religious as well learned as unlearned. There were some of the learned whom the" commonl" called colleagues of the *abbins$ who as "et were candidates and not #referred to the #ublic office of teaching or 4udging. The thing ma" be illustrated b" one eBam#le) " )o the colleagues enter in to appoint the ne" moon2 3. Doshaia said 1hen 8 was a colleague 3. 0amuel ;en 3. 8saac led me in to the a##ointment of the new moon but 8 .new not whether 8 were of the number or no." :nd a little later$ "?o the colleagues For fello"sG go in to intercalate the "ear2 <et us learn this from the eBam#le of 3abban !amaliel who said <et the seven seniors meet me in the chamber. ;ut eight entered -1ho came in hither - saith he -without leave2- -8 - answered 0amuel the <ittle." 8n this sense the word a colleague differs nothing from a scholar of a "ise man in that both signif" a student and a learned man. ;ut the word a colleague hath a wider sense denoting all such who have more #rofessedl" devoted themselves to religion and have #rofessed a more devout life and rule than the common #eo#le whether the" were learned or unlearned whether of the sect of the Pharisees or of the 'adducees or some other. Dence "ou have mention of a religious 'amaritan and of a religious baker. :nd the #hrase seems to be drawn from 7salm 11*)6+$ "8 am a companion of all those that fear thee") They take upon them the habit of religion. 0ee the ;ab"lonian Talmud in :vodah Harah in the !loss. That distinction also is worth" of consideration of The greater and the less religious. Let the word seems sometimes to be a##ro#riated to the Pharisees as being men who above all others #ut on a s#lendidl" cloa.ed religion which a##ears enough from the histor" of the !os#el. 0o #erha#s is that to be understood The religious 7alileans purify) that is as the !loss eB#lains it "The" cleanse their wine and their oil for a drin.Coffering if #erha#s the Tem#le ma" be built in their da"s." 1hich nevertheless the :ruch citing thus eB#lains them The religious eat their common food in cleanness. ;" which ver" thing the !loss defines Pharisees4 To the Pharisees4 that is# to them that eat their common food in cleanness. ;ehold how the word religious and Pharisees are convertible terms$ and how this was the #ro#er notion whereb" a Pharisee was defined "That he ate his common food in cleanness") that is that he washed his hands when he ate. 888. 1e must not thin. that 7harisaism arose altogether and at once but it was long aCconceiving and of not fiBed form when it was brought forth. The same ma" in a manner be said of this which is of the traditions) both these and that were the issue of man" "ears. The traditionarians do refer the first conce#tion of the Traditions to the times of =%ra. ;ut how man" centuries of "ears #assed before the birth of this whole monster was full ri#e2 8n li.e manner the first seeds of 7harisaism were cast long before its birth$ and being now brought forth was a long time growing before it came to maturit"$ if so be an" can define what its maturit" was. 1e observe #resentl" that the foundations of 0adduceeism were laid in the da"s of =%ra before there were an" 0adducees) in his da"s also 8 sus#ect the foundations of 7harisaism were laid long before there were an" Pharisees. >or since the Pharisees were mar.ed with that title because the" separated themselves from other men as more #rofane$ and since in the da"s of =%ra and Nehemiah it was the great care and that a hol" care too to separate the seed of 8srael from the heathen inhabitants of the land to wit the 0amaritans the :shdodites the &oabites /c. not much after$ some men arrogating too much for themselves too. occasion hence of separating themselves from the men of the 8sraelitic seed as too #rofane and ver" unfit (alasE) for their communion. 1hich ver" thing we eB#erience in our #resent 0e#aratists. >or when the 0cri#ture commands 5hristians that the" communicate not "with unbelievers with those who are without " /c. that is with heathens$ some do hence ma.e a #retence of withdrawing themselves from the assemblies of 5hristians) b" what right b" what foundation let themselves loo. to it. 1e shall not trace the time wherein the name of Pharisee first arose$ this is done b" learneder men) and therefore let it be enough to have observed that onl". :fter once this #retence of religion was received

"that it was a #ious matter to se#arate a man-s self from the common #eo#le " su#erstition increased ever" da" which served for a sta" and #atronage to this sect and se#aration. >or when the" had es#oused a religion so su#ercilious that the" commonl" said "0tand off 8 am holier than thou" (which was also foretold b" the #ro#het with an eBecration 8saiah 65)5) and that the" #lace the highest sanctimon" in this to withdraw themselves from the common #eo#le as #rofane$ it was certainl" necessar" to circumscribe and to #ut themselves under a more austere rule and disci#line that the" might retain the name and fame of religious #erson in other things besides that se#aration that argued so much #ride and arroganc". Dence the troubles about tithings and washings arose and increased age after age) hence s#rang the fre@uent fasting and #ra"ers the cares of the #h"lacteries fringes and other matters without number) so that (a thing fatal to 'eparatists) this sect at last was crumbled into sects and a Pharisee was in a manner the same to a Pharisee that the people of the earth was to a Pharisee. ;oth Talmuds rec.on seven sects of Pharisees and so does the :ruch) which it will not be ir.some to describe with their #encil that the reader ma" see to what a degree of madness this sect was come as well as to what a degree of h"#ocris". The Pharisees are seven5 1. % 'hechemite Pharisee$ This -Pharisee. does as 'hechem 1here the !loss is "1ho is circumcised but not for the honour of !od." /e carrieth his precepts upon his shoulders) that is as the :ruch eB#lains it "wood to ma.e a booth Fin the feast of TabernaclesG or something of that nature." '. % Pharisee struck or dashing$ 0ho dasheth his feet. The !loss is "De who wal.eth in humilit" the heel of one foot touching the great toe of the other) nor did he lift u# his feet from the earth so that his toes were dashed against the stones." The :ruch writes "1ho withdrew himself a great wa" off that he might not #ress u#on men in the wa"s and dashed his feet against the stones." 'trike me (or surround me) and yet I "ill perform the command . +. % Pharisee that lets out his blood. "De stri.es out his blood against the walls." The !loss is$ "De shows himself such a one as if his e"es were hoodwin.ed that he might not loo. u#on a woman$ and hereu#on dashed his head against the walls and let out his blood." The :ruch writes "De so #ressed u# himself against the walls that he might not touch those that #assed b" that b" the dashing he fetched blood of himself."CC"De #erformed one #rece#t and one dut" and struc. out blood at each." (. % Pharisee of the mortar$ The :ruch thus describes him$ "De went in a loose coat resembling a mortar with the mouth turned downwards. 0o he with his loose garment was straiter above and broader below." 8n the Jerusalem Talmud he is called "who saith 8 withdraw whatsoever is mine and fulfil the command." 5. "The Pharisee which saith <et me .now "hat my duty is# and I "ill do it." "8 have done m" dut" that the command ma" be #erformed according to it." The :ruch thus$ ":s though he should sa" There is no man can show me wherein 8 have transgressed." 6. % Pharisee of fear) such was Job. 6. % Pharisee of love5 %mong all these# none is "orthy to be loved but the Pharisee of love5 as %braham . 1hether 7harisaism ran out into an" of these sects in the da"s of the ;a#tist we dis#ute not. <et it be granted that the best and the most modest of that order came to his ba#tism) the best of the Pharisees certainl" were the worst of men. :nd it is so much the more to be wondered at that these men should receive his ba#tism after that manner as the" did$ when it was highl" contrar" to the rule of the Pharisees to converse among the common #eo#le of whom there was so great a concourse to John$ and highl" contrar" to the doctrine of the Pharisees so much as to dream of an" righteousness besides that which was of the wor.s of the law which the doctrine of John diametricall" contradicted.

The original of the 'adducees learned men as well Jews as 5hristians do for the most #art refer to one :adoc a scholar of :ntigonus 0ocheus$ which :ntigonus too. the chief seat in the 0anhedrim after the death of 0imeon the Just. 9f him thus s#ea.s the tract :voth) ":ntigonus of 0ocho received traditions of 0imeon the Just. De said ;e not as servants who wait u#on their master for the sa.e of the reward$ but be "e li.e servants who wait u#on their master not for the sa.e of the reward) but let the fear of the <ord rule "ou." "This wise man (saith 3ambam u#on the #lace) had two scholars Hadoc and ;aithus$ who when the" heard this from their master said among themselves when the" were gone awa". 9ur master in his eB#osition teacheth us that there is neither reward nor #unishment nor an" eB#ectation at all Ffor the futureG) for the" understood not what he meant) therefore the" mutuall" strengthened one another and de#arted from the rule and forsoo. the law) and some com#an" adhered to both. The wise men therefore called them 'adducees and ;aithusees." :nd a little after$ ";ut in these countries namel" in =g"#t the" call them 9araites but 'adducees and ;aithusees are their names among the wise men." 0ee also the :voth of 3. Nathan. Let that raiseth a scru#le here) ":t the conclusion of all #ra"ers in the Tem#le the" said for ever. ;ut when the heretics bra.e in and said There was no age but one it was a##ointed to be said for ever and ever or from age to age." K#on these words thus the !loss$ "8n the first Tem#le the" said onl" -;lessed be the <ord !od of 8srael for ever.- ;ut when the heretics bra.e in and said there was no age but this =%ra and his consistor" a##ointed that it should be said for ever and ever or from age to age to im#l" there is a double world Fthis and one to comeG to root out of the heart the o#inion of those that den" the resurrection of the dead." Ta.e notice reader that "there were some who denied the resurrection of the dead in the da"s of =%ra " when as "et Hadoc the father of the 'adducees was not born. :fter =%ra and his great s"nagogue (which endured man" a "ear after =%ra was dead) sat 0imeon the Just #erforming the office of the highC#riest for the s#ace of fort" "ears) and :ntigonus 0ocheus the master of Hadoc succeeded him in the chair of the 0anhedrim. 0o that although the 0adducees with good reason do bear an ill re#ort for den"ing the resurrection and that was their #rinci#al heres"$ "et that heres" was when as "et there were no heretics called b" the name of 'adducees. To which #erha#s those words do agree (which sufficientl" taste of such a heres") "Le have said 8t is in vain to serve !od " /c. &alachi +)1(. 8t is not therefore to be denied that the 'adducee+heretics were so named from Hadoc$ but that the heres" of the 'adducees concerning the resurrection was older than that name one ma" su##ose not without reason$ nor that that cursed doctrine first arose from the words of :ntigonus ill" understood b" Hadoc and ;aithus but was of an ancienter original when as "et the #ro#hets Hecharias &alachi and =%ra himself were alive if that =%ra were not the same with &alachi as the Jews su##ose. Therefore 8 do rather thin. that heres" s#rang from the misunderstanding of the words of =%e.iel cha#ter +6$ which some understanding according to the letter and together with it seeing no resurrection dreamt that there would be none afterward. :nd this doctrine increased and eBalted itself into a sect$ when at length Hadoc and ;aithus asserted that it was so determined out of the chair b" their master :ntigonus the #resident of the 0anhedrim. 1hen 8 fetch the rise of the 'adducees not much after the death of 0imeon the Just that does not unseasonabl" come into m" mind which is mentioned b" the Talmudists that the state of things became worse after his death. ":ll the da"s of 0imeon the Just the sca#eCgoat had scarce come to the middle of the #reci#ice of the mountain Fwhence he was cast downG but he was bro.en into #ieces) but when 0imeon the Just was dead he fled awa" FaliveG into the desert and was eaten b" 0aracens. 1hile 0imeon the Just lived the lot of !od Fin the da" of eB#iationG went forth alwa"s to the right hand) 0imeon the Just being dead it went forth sometimes to the right hand and sometimes to the left. :ll the da"s of 0imeon the Just the little scarlet tongue loo.ed alwa"s white$ but when 0imeon the Just was dead it sometimes loo.ed white and sometimes red. :ll the da"s of 0imeon the Just the west light alwa"s

burnt$ but when he was dead it sometimes burnt and sometimes went out. :ll the da"s of 0imeon the Just the fire u#on the altar burnt clear and bright$ and after two #ieces of wood laid on in the morning the" laid on nothing else the whole da") but when he was dead the force of the fire languished in that manner that the" were com#elled to su##l" it all the da". :ll the da"s of 0imeon the Just a blessing was sent u#on the two loaves and the showCbread so that a #ortion came to ever" #riest to the @uantit" of an olive at least$ and there were some others to whom something remained after the" had eaten their fill) but when 0imeon the Just was dead that blessing was withdrawn and so little remained to each that those that were modest withdrew their hands and those that were greed" still stretched them out." F7eneration of vipers$G 8. 'erpents# cha#ter '+)++. Not so much "the seed of :braham " which "e boast of as "the seed of the ser#ent " "9 the %ntichrist# the &pposer ' Thessalonians ')(. : nation and offs#ring diametricall" o##osite and an enem" to that seed of the woman and which was to bruise his heel." 88. Dence not without ground it is concluded that that nation was re4ected and given over to a re#robate sense even before the coming of 5hrist. The" were not onl" a generation but an offspring of vi#ers ser#ents s#rung from ser#ents. Nor is it wonder that the" were re4ected b" !od when the" had long since re4ected !od and !od-s word b" their traditions. 0ee that &atthew 1+)1+C15 1 7eter ')1, "Le were not a #eo#le." There was indeed a certain remnant among them to be gathered b" 5hrist) and when that was gathered the rest of the nation as delivered over to everlasting #erdition. This is that remnant of the a#ostle 3omans 11)5 which then was when he writ those things$ which then as to be gathered before the destruction of that nation. FTo fly from the "rath to come$ G These words res#ect the ver" last words of the 9ld Testament "lest 8 smite the earth with a curse " &alachi ($ and denote the most miserable destruction of the nation and now almost read" to fall u#on them. The receiving of John-s ba#tism signed and fenced those that received it from the ruin that was 4ust coming. To this belongs that of 0t. 7eter =#istle 1 cha#ter +)', '1) in that manner as Noah and his sons were b" water delivered from the flood "so also ba#tism now the antit"#e of that t"#e saveth us" from the deluge of divine indignation which in a short time is to overflow the Jewish nation. Thin. here if those that came to ba#tism brought not their little ones with them to ba#tism) when b" the #lain words of the ;a#tist those that are ba#ti%ed are said to "fl" from the wrath to come2" that is -the wrath of !od that was not long hence to destro" the nation b" a most sad overthrow.
). An7 thin6 not to say within yo.rsel:es8 We ha:e Abraham to our father: for I say .nto yo.8 that Go7 is able of these stones to raise .p chil7ren .nto Abraham.

FThink not to say$G : Jerusalem #hrase to be met with ever"where in the Talmud) To think a "ord or to be of that opinion.
&G. An7 now also the a5 is lai7 .nto the root of the trees: therefore e:ery tree which bringeth not forth goo7 fr.it is hewn 7own8 an7 cast into the fire.

FThe a2e is laid to the root$G These words seem to be ta.en from 8saiah 5)++ +(. The destruction of the nation was to #roceed from the 3omans who had now a great while held them under the "o.e. That aBe now laid to the root of the tree shall certainl" cut it down if from this last dressing b" the gos#el it bears not fruit. 8n the Talmud those words of 8saiah are a##lied to the destruction of the cit"$ and thence it is argued that the &essias should be born not much after the time of that destruction because #resentl" after the threatening of that ruin follows ": ;ranch shall arise out of the stoc. of Jesse " 8saiah 11)1.

&&. I in7ee7 bapti=e yo. with water .nto repentance: b.t he that cometh after me is mightier than I8 whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall bapti=e yo. with the Holy Ghost8 an7 with fire:

F0hose shoes I am not "orthy to bear.G 8n <u.e it is to unloose the latchet of his shoes) which comes to the same thing) both sound to the same im#ort as if he had said -1hose servant 8 am not worth" to be.": 5anaanite servant is li.e a farm in res#ect of bu"ing) for he is bought with mone" or with a writing or by some service done as a #ledge or #awn. :nd what is such a #awning in the bu"ing of servants2 Namel" that he looseth the shoe of him Fwho bu"sG or binds on his shoe or carries to the bath such things as be necessar" for him " /c. These things &aimonides #roduceth out of the Talmud where these words are "Dow is a servant bought by service2 De looseneth the bu"er-s shoe$ he carrieth such things after him as are necessar" for the bath$ he unclothes him$ washes anoints rubs dresses him$ #uts on his shoes and lifts him u# from the earth " /c. 0ee also the Tosa#hta. This b" the wa" is to be noted which the !loss intimates that all servants of what heathen nation soever bought b" the Jews were called -5anaanite servants - because it is said of 5anaan "5anaan a servant of servants." FThus it becomes us to fulfil all righteousness$G That is -that we fulfil ever" thing that is 4ust.- Now in the ba#tism of 5hrist there were these two 4ust things es#eciall")CC8. That this great #riest being initiated into his ministerial office should answer the t"#e of the admission of the <evitical #riests who were initiated b" washing and anointing$ so was he b" ba#tism and the Dol" !host. 88. 1hen b" the institution of 5hrist those that entered into the #rofession of the gos#el were to be introduced b" ba#tism it was 4ust "ea necessar" that 5hrist being to enter into the same #rofession and to #reach it too should be admitted b" ba#tism.
&?. An7 Jes.s8 when he was bapti=e78 went .p straightway o.t of the water: an78 lo8 the hea:ens were opene7 .nto him8 an7 he saw the 0pirit of Go7 7escen7ing li6e a 7o:e8 an7 lighting .pon him:

F%nd Jesus being bapti!ed$G 8. That 5hrist conversed u#on earth twoCandCthirt" "ears and a half (as man" "ears as ?avid lived at Jerusalem$ com#are ' 0amuel 5)5) is #roved hence)CC1. That he was ba#ti%ed when he had now com#leted his twent"Cninth "ear and had newl" begun his thirtieth. That the words of <u.e im#l" /e began to be about thirty years old. 1hich words although the" are a##lied b" some 5hristians to 8 .now not what large latitude CC"et in the Jewish schools and among that nation the" would not admit certainl" of another sense than we #roduce. >or there this aBiom holds The first day of the year is reckoned for that year. :nd @uestionless <u.e s#ea.s with the vulgar. >or let it be su##osed that the evangelist uttered these words in some Jewish school "N. was ba#ti%ed beginning to be about thirty years old") how could it be understood b" them of the thirtieth com#lete (much less of the thirt"Cfirst or thirt"Csecond as some wrest it)2 when the words beginning to be about do so harmoniousl" agree with the said aBiom as scarcel" an" thing can do more clearl". '. That from his ba#tism to his cross he lived three "ears and a half. This is intimated b" the angel !abriel ?aniel *)'6$ "8n the half of a wee." (that is in three "ears and a half) "he shall ma.e the sacrifice and oblation to cease"$ and it is confirmed from the com#utation in the evangelists but es#eciall" in John who clearl" mentioneth four 7assovers (cha# ')1+ 5)1 6)( and 1+)1) after his fort" da"s- fast and not a little time s#ent in !alilee. 88. Therefore we su##ose 5hrist was ba#ti%ed about the feast of Tabernacles in the month Tisri at which time we su##ose him born$ and that John was born about the feast of the 7assover and at that time began to ba#ti%e. >or when 5hrist lived twoCandCthirt" "ears and a half and died at the feast of the 7assover "ou must necessaril" reduce his birth to the month Tisri and about the time of the feast of Tabernacles) and when John the ;a#tist was elder than he b" half a "ear "ou must necessaril" su##ose him born about the feast of the 7assover. ;ut of these things we have said something alread".

&@. An7 lo a :oice from hea:en8 saying8 *his is my belo:e7 0on8 in whom I am well please7.

F%nd behold# a voice from heaven$G 5hrist was honoured with a threefold testimon" #ronounced b" a voice from heaven according to his threefold office. 0ee what we sa" at cha#ter 16)'. Lou find not a voice sent from heaven between the giving of the law and the ba#tism of 5hrist. 1hat things the Jews relate of Bath 9ol the" must #ardon me if 8 esteem them #artl" for Jewish fables CC #artl" for devilish witchcrafts. The" hold it for a tradition) ":fter the death of the last #ro#hets Daggai Hechariah &alachi the /oly 'pirit departed from Israel Fwhich was most trueG but they used thenceforth the Bath 9ol." "The Bath 9ol was this) 0hen a voice (or thunder) came out of heaven# another voice came out from it." ;ut wh" 8 #ra" was #ro#hec" withdrawn if heavenl" oracles were to be continued2 1h" also was Krim and Thummim ta.en awa"2 9r rather wh" was it not restored after the ;ab"lonian ca#tivit"2 >or ">ive things (sa" the") were wanting under the second Tem#le which were under the first$ namel" the fire from heaven the ar. Krim and Thummim the oil of anointing and the Dol" 0#irit." 8t would certainl" be a wonder if !od ta.ing awa" from his #eo#le his ordinar" oracles should bestow u#on them a nobler oracle or as noble$ and that when the nation had degenerated and were sun. into all .ind of im#iet" su#erstition heres". 1hen the last #ro#hets Daggai and the rest were dead the 0adducean heres" concerning the resurrection cre#t in and the 7harisaical heres" also wea.ening all 0cri#ture and ma.ing it of none effect b" vain traditions. :nd shall 8 believe that !od should so indulge his #eo#le when the" were guilt" of so grievous a#ostas" as to vouchsafe to tal. familiarl" with them from heaven and to afford them oracles so sublime so fre@uent as the #ro#hets themselves had not the li.e2 8f 8 ma" s#ea. #lainl" what 8 thin. 8 should reduce those numberless stories of the Bath 9ol which occur ever"where under these two heads$ namel" that ver" man" are mere fables invented for this #ur#ose that hence the worth of this or that 3abbin or stor" ma" be illustrated) the rest are mere magical and diabolical delusions. 1hen 8 read these and suchCli.e #assages that the Bath 9ol in Jericho gave witness to Dillel that he was worth" to have the Dol" !host abide u#on him$ that the Bath 9ol in Jabneh "ielded the same testimon" to 0amuel the <ittle$ that the Bath 9ol again in Jabneh determined the controversies between the schools of 0hammai and Dillel for those of Dillel$ and innumerable other stories of that .ind 8 cannot but either sus#ect these to be tales or that these voices were framed b" art magic for the honour of the 3abbins. 8t is remar.able what is related in the Jerusalem Talmud$ *$ lie!er saith# They follo" the hearing of Bath 9ol. :nd a little after$ "3. Jochanan and 3. 0imeon ;en <achish desired to see the face of 0amuel Fthe Babylonian )octorG$ <et us follow sa" the" the hearing of Bath 9ol. Travelling therefore near a school the" heard a bo"-s voice reading Fin 1 0amuel '5)1G %nd 'amuel died. The" observed this and so it came to #ass for 0amuel of ;ab"lon was dead." "3. Jonah and 3. Josah went to visit 3. :cha l"ing sic.) <et us follow sa" the" the hearing of Bath 9ol. The" heard the voice of a certain woman s#ea.ing to her neighbour -The light is #ut out.- To whom she said -<et it not be #ut out nor let the light of 8srael be @uenched.-" ;eholdE reader a #eo#le ver" well contented to be deceived with a new .ind of Bath 9ol. 5om#are these things with 3irgil,s lots of which the 3oman historians s#ea. fre@uentl". Not to be more tedious therefore in this matter let two things onl" be observed) 1. That the nation under the second Tem#le was given to magical arts be"ond measure. :nd '. That it was given to an easiness of believing all manner of delusions be"ond measure. :nd one ma" safel" sus#ect that those voices which the" thought to be from heaven and noted with the name of Bath 9ol were either formed b" the devil in the air to deceive the #eo#le or b" magicians b" devilish art to #romote their own affairs. Dence the a#ostle

7eter saith with good reason that "the word of #ro#hec" was surer than a voice from heaven"$ ' 7eter 1)1*. The ver" same which 8 4udge of the Bath 9ol is m" o#inion also of the fre@uent a##earances of =lias with which the leaves of the Talmud do ever" where abound$ namel" that in ver" man" #laces the stories are false and in the rest the a##aritions of him were diabolical. 0ee the notes u#on the tenth verse of the seventeenth cha#ter.

5ha#ter (
&. *hen was Jes.s le7 .p of the 0pirit into the wil7erness to be tempte7 of the 7e:il.

F/e "as led up by the 'pirit into the "ilderness to be tempted /c.G The war #roclaimed of old in =den between the ser#ent and the seed of the ser#ent and the seed of the woman !enesis +)15 now ta.es #lace$ when that #romised seed of the woman comes forth into the field (being initiated b" ba#tism and anointed b" the Dol" !host unto the #ublic office of his ministr") to fight with that old ser#ent and at last to bruise his head. :nd since the devil was alwa"s a most im#udent s#irit now he ta.es u#on him a more hardened boldness than ever even of waging war with him whom he .new to be the 0on of !od because from that ancient #roclamation of this war he .new well enough that he should bruise his heel. The first scene or field of the combat was the -desert of Judea - which <u.e intimates when he saith that "Jesus returned from Jordan and that he was led b" the 0#irit into the wilderness"$ that is from the same coast or region of Jordan in which he had been ba#ti%ed. The time of his tem#tations was from the middle of the month Tisri to the end of fort" da"s$ that is from the beginning of our month of 9ctober to the middle of November or thereabouts) so that he conflicted with cold as well as want and 0atan. The manner of his tem#tations was twofold. >irst invisibl" as the devil is wont to tem#t sinners$ and this for fort" da"s) while the tem#ter endeavoured with all his industr" to throw in his suggestions if #ossible into the mind of 5hrist as he does to mortal men. 1hich when he could not com#ass because he found -nothing in him- in which such a tem#tation might fiB itself John 1()+, he attem#ted another wa" namel" b" a##earing to him in a visible sha#e and conversing with him and that in the form of an angel of light. <et the evangelists be com#ared. &ar. saith "he was tem#ted fort" da"s") so also doth <u.e) but &atthew that "the tem#ter came to him after fort" da"s"$ that is in a visible form. The matter of his tem#tations was ver" li.e the tem#tations of =ve. 0he fell b" the "lust of the flesh the lust of the e"e and the #ride of life") which are the heads of all sins 1 John ')16. ;" "the lust of the e"es") for "she saw the fruit that it was #leasant to the sight." ;" "the lust of the flesh") she lusted for it because "it was desirable to be eaten." ;" "the #ride of life"$ not contented with the state of #erfection wherein she was created she affected a higher$ and she "too. of the fruit and did eat " that she might become wiser b" it. The same tem#ter set u#on our 0aviour with the same stratagems. 8. :s =ve was deceived b" mista.ing his #erson su##osing a good angel discoursed with her when it was a bad so the devil in li.e manner #uts on the good angel here clothed with light and feigned glor".

88. De endeavours to ensnare 5hrist b" "the lust of the flesh"$ "5ommand that these stones be made bread") b" "the lust of the e"e"$ ":ll these things will 8 give thee and the glor" of them") b" "the #ride of life"$ "-Throw th"self down - and fl" in the air and be held u# b" angels."
(. *hen the 7e:il ta6eth him .p into the holy city8 an7 setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple.

F;pon the pinnacle of the Temple$G 1hether he #laced him u#on the Tem#le itself or u#on some building within the hol" circuit it is in vain to see. because it cannot be found. 8f it were u#on the Tem#le itself 8 should reflect u#on the to# of the porch of the Temple) if u#on some other building 8 should reflect u#on the royal gallery. The #riests were wont sometimes to go u# to the to# of the Tem#le stairs being made for this #ur#ose and described in the Talmudic boo. entitled &iddoth$ and the" are said to have ascended hither "1hen fire was first #ut to the Tem#le and to have thrown u# the .e"s of the chambers of the Tem#le towards heaven with these words$ -9 thou eternal <ord because we are not worth" to .ee# these .e"s to thee the" are delivered.- :nd there came as it were the form of a hand out of heaven and too. them from them) and the" lea#ed down and fell into the fire." :bove all other #arts of the Tem#le the porch of the Temple "ea the whole space before it ma" not unfitl" be called the "ing of the Temple because li.e "ings it eBtended itself in breadth on each side far be"ond the breadth of the Tem#le) which we ta.e notice of elsewhere. 8f therefore the devil had #laced 5hrist in the ver" #reci#ice of this #art of the Tem#le he ma" well be said to have #laced him u#on the "ing of the Temple both because this #art was li.e a wing to the Tem#le itself and that that #reci#ice was the "ing of this #art. ;ut if "ou su##ose him #laced upon the royal gallery loo. u#on it thus #ainted out b" Jose#hus) "9n the south #art Fof the court of the !entilesG was the king,s gallery that deserves to be mentioned among the most magnificent things under the sun) for u#on a huge de#th of a valle" scarcel" to be fathomed b" the e"e of him that stands above Derod erected a galler" of a vast height$ from the to# of which if an" loo.ed down he "ould gro" di!!y# his eyes not being able to reach to so vast a depth ."
'. Again8 the 7e:il ta6eth him .p into an e5cee7ing high mo.ntain8 an7 showeth him all the 6ing7oms of the worl78 an7 the glory of them<

F'ho"ed him all the kingdoms of the "orld /c.G That is 3ome with her em#ire and state. >or 1. That em#ire is called all the "orld (which word <u.e useth in this stor") both in sacred and #rofane writers. '. :t this time all cities were of little account in com#arison of 3ome nor did an" #art of the earth bear an" vogue without that em#ire. +. 3ome was -the seat of 0atan - 3evelation 1+)'$ and he granted to the beast of that cit" both it and the dominion. (. This therefore seems to be that whereb" he attem#ts to ensnare our 0aviour in this ob4ect namel" that he #romiseth to give him the #om# and #ower of 5aesar and to deliver into his hand the highest em#ire of the world that is the 3oman. This antichrist afterward obtained.
&B. An7 lea:ing +a=areth8 he came an7 7welt in Caperna.m8 which is .pon the sea coast8 in the bor7ers of >ab.lon an7 +ephthalim:

F%nd# leaving Na!areth# he came and d"elt at Capernaum$ G 1h" he left Na%areth after he had #assed siB or sevenCandCtwent" "ears there the reason a##ears <u.e ()'8 /c. 1e do not read that he returned thither again$ and so unha##" Na%areth thou #erishest b" thine own foll" and #erverseness. 1hether his father Jose#h had an" inheritance at 5a#ernaum which he #ossessed as his heir or rather dwelt there in some hired house we dis#ute not. This is certainl" called his cit" &atthew *)1 /c.$ and here as a citi%en he #aid the halfCshe.el &atthew 16)'(. 1here it is worth" mar.ing what is said b" the Jews) /o" long does a man d"ell in some city before he be as one of the citi!ens< T"elve months . The same is recited again elsewhere. The Jerusalem !emara thus eB#lains it$ "8f he tarr" in the cit" thirt"

da"s he becomes as one of the citi%ens in res#ect of the almsCchest$ if siB months he becomes a citi%en in res#ect of clothing$ if twelve months in res#ect of tributes and taBes." The ;ab"lonian adds "if nine months in res#ect of burial." That is if an" abide in a cit" thirt" da"s the" re@uire of him alms for the #oor$ if siB months he is bound with the other citi%ens to clothe the #oor$ if nine months to bur" the dead #oor$ if twelve months he is bound to undergo all other taBes with the rest of the citi%ens.
&(. *he lan7 of >ab.lon8 an7 the lan7 of +ephthalim8 by the way of the sea8 beyon7 Jor7an8 Galilee of the Gentiles<

FThe land of :abulon# and the land of Nephthali$ G 8t is needful that the words of 8saiah be considered whence these words are ta.en. De had been discoursing in the eighth cha#ter towards the end concerning the straits and miseries that com#assed the transgressors of the law and the testimon". "To the law and to the testimon" " /c. verse ',. ";ut if a man transgress against it Fthat is the la" and the testimonyG it will redound to his hardshi# and he shall suffer hunger " /c. verse '1. ":nd he shall loo. to the earth and behold trouble and dar.ness dimness of anguish and he shall be driven to dar.ness " verse ''. :nd then it follows cha#ter *)1 ">or the dimness shall not be li.e to that wherein it was ill with him at what time the former FafflicterG lightl" touched the land of Habulon and the land of Ne#hthali and the latter grievousl" afflicted " /c. "That #eo#le who sat in dar.ness saw a great light " /c. That which the #ro#het means here is this) 1. That the contemners of =manuel and his testimon" that is the gos#el should undergo far greater calamities than those #laces had undergone either under their first con@ueror ;enChadad or under the second the .ing of :ss"ria. >or those #laces saw light at last restored to them when the &essias #reached the gos#el there) but the contemners of the gos#el are driven into eternal dar.ness. '. De foretells the morning of libert" and of evangelical light to arise there where the first dar.ness and the calamities of their ca#tivit" had arisen. 0t. &atthew citing these words that he might show the #ro#hec" to be fulfilled of that light that should arise there omits those words which s#ea. of their former miser" that is the first clause of the verse$ and #roduceth those words onl" and that ver" fitl" too which ma.e to his #ur#ose and which aim directl" thither b" the #ro#het-s intention. The #ro#het Dosea affords us an instance of curtailing a sentence after that manner cha#ter 1)11 ')1$ when he #roclaims 8srael and Judah miserable he calls them -<oC:mmi - and -<oC 3uchamah-$ when ha##" -:mmi - and -3uchamah.FBeyond Jordan$G Not by Jordan but beyond Jordan. >or the latter afflicter the .ing of :ss"ria had carried awa" that countr" also into banishment and bonds 1 5hronicles 5)'6. Dere is an elli#sis of the con4unction and.
&'. An7 Jes.s8 wal6ing by the sea of Galilee8 saw two brethren8 0imon calle7 $eter8 an7 An7rew his brother8 casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers.

FCasting a net into the sea$G Fishing in the sea of Tiberias in Talmudic s#eech. There the fathers of the traditions dream that Joshua the son of Nun gave ten laws to the 8sraelites concerning having some things in common as lawful and to be allowed of) &ur *abbins have a tradition that Joshua ordained ten conditions5 That cattle gra!e in common in "oody places$ %nd that a man gather "ood in common in his neighbour,s field /c. :mong others %nd that any# in common# spread his nets for fishing in the sea of Tiberias. ;ut "et under this caution That none set up a "all# "hich may be any stop to ships . The !loss is "8t is the manner of fishermen to fasten sta.es in the water and to ma.e fences of canes or reeds in which the fish ma" be ta.en) but this is not #ermitted because it is an im#ediment to the shi#s." Dowever therefore the sea of Tiberias belonged to the tribe of Ne#hthali "et it was free for an" 8sraelite to fish in it so it were under the condition mentioned.
&). An7 he saith .nto them8 "ollow me8 an7 I will ma6e yo. fishers of men.

FFishers of men$G This #hrase is something agreeable with that of &aimonides u#on the Talmud % fisher of the la".

;&. An7 going on from thence8 he saw other two brethren8 James the son of >ebe7ee8 an7 John his brother8 in a ship with >ebe7ee their father8 men7ing their nets< an7 he calle7 them.

FJames the son of :ebedee.G 1e meet with a certain 3abbin of this ver" same name *$ Jacob the son of :abdi.
;B. An7 Jes.s went abo.t all Galilee8 teaching in their synagog.es8 an7 preaching the gospel of the 6ing7om8 an7 healing all manner of sic6ness an7 all manner of 7isease among the people.

FTeaching in their synagogues$G 0ince we meet with ver" fre@uent mention of s"nagogues ever" where in the boo.s of the !os#el it ma" be needful to .now something more clearl" what the customs and institutions of the s"nagogues were for the better understanding ver" man" things which have some reference thereunto in the New Testament$ let us here des#atch the histor" of them as briefl" as we ma" now when the mention of s"nagogues first occurs. 9f the 0"nagogues. 8. : s"nagogue was not formed an"where but where there were ten learned men #rofessedl" students of the law. 1. <et that of the Talmud be observed. 60hat is a great city< That in "hich "ere ten men of leisure$ If there be less than this number# behold# it is a village$6 '. 9bserve that of &aimonides$ "1heresoever there be ten of 8srael there a house must needs be built to which the" ma" resort to #ra"ers in the time of #ra"er and this house is called a s"nagogue." Not that an" ten of 8srael made a s"nagogue$ but wheresoever were ten learned men and studious of the law these were called Batlanin# men of leisure$ "who were not to be esteemed for la%" and idle #ersons but such who " not being encumbered with worldl" things ""ere at leisure only to take care of the affairs of the synagogues and to give themselves to the stud" of the law." The reason of the number of ten though lean and em#t" enough is given in the Talmud) and it is this$ % congregation consists of ten) which the" #rove hence because it is said 6/o" long shall I bear "ith this evil congregation /c. (Num 1()'6). Ta.e awa" Joshua and 5aleb and there remain onl" ten"$ namel" of the s#ies of the land. 88. 9f these ten men) 1. Three bear the magistrac" and were called The bench of three) whose office it was to decide the differences arising between the members of the s"nagogue and to ta.e care about other matters of the s"nagogue. These 4udged concerning mone"Cmatters thefts losses restitutions ravishing a virgin of a man enticing a virgin of the admission of #rosel"tes laying on of hands and divers other things of which see the tract 0anhedrim. These were #ro#erl" and with good reason called rulers of the synagogue because on them laid the chief care of things and the chief #ower. '. ;esides these there was -the #ublic minister of the s"nagogue - who #ra"ed #ublicl" and too. care about the reading of the law and sometimes #reached if there were not some other to discharge this office. This #erson was called the angel of the church and the Cha!an or bishop of the congregation. The :ruch gives the reason of the name) "The Cha!an (saith he) is the angel of the church (or the public minister) and the Targum renders...Fit asG one that oversees$ for it is incumbent on him to oversee how the reader reads and whom he ma" call out to read in the law." The #ublic minister of the s"nagogue himself read not the law #ublicl"$ but ever" sabbath he called out seven of the s"nagogue (on other da"s fewer) whom he 4udged fit to read. De stood b" him that read with great care observing that he read nothing either falsel" or im#ro#erl"$ and calling him bac. and correcting him if he had failed in an" thing...5ertainl" the signification of the word bishop and angel of the church had been determined with less noise if recourse had been made to the #ro#er fountains and men had not vainl" dis#uted about the signification of words ta.en 8 .now not whence. The service and worshi# of the

Tem#le being abolished as being ceremonial !od trans#lanted the worshi# and #ublic adoration of !od used in the s"nagogues which was moral into the 5hristian church$ to wit the #ublic ministr" #ublic #ra"ers reading !od-s word and #reaching /c. Dence the names of the ministers of the !os#el were the ver" same the angel of the church and the bishop$ which belonged to the ministers in the s"nagogues. +. There were also three deacons or almoners on whom was the care of the #oor$ and these were called Parnasin or Pastors. :nd these seven #erha#s were re#uted the seven good men of the city$ of whom there is fre@uent remembrance in the Talmudists. 9f these Parnasin we shall onl" #roduce these things. There were two who demanded alms of the townsmen$ and the" were called the t"o collectors of alms$ To "hom "as added a third to distribute it . "3. 5helbo in the name of 3. ;a ;ar Habda saith The" do not ma.e fewer than three Parnasin. >or 8 see the 4udgments about man" matters to be managed b" three) therefore much more these which concern life. 3. Josi in the name of 3. Jochanan saith The" do not ma.e two brethren Parnasin. 3. Josi went to 5e#har intending there to set Parnasin over them but the" received him not. De went awa" after he had said these words before them ;en ;ebai was onl" set over the threaded Flinen of the lam#sG and "et he was rec.oned worth" to be numbered with the eminent men of that age. Le who are set over the lives of men how much more are "e soE 3. 5haggai when he a##ointed the Parnasin argued to them out of the law all dominion that is given is given from the law. ;" me .ings reign. 3. 5haiia ;ar ;a set rulers over them that is he appointed Parnasin. 3. <a%ar was a Parnas." This #erha#s holds out a light to those words of the a#ostle 1 Timoth" +)1+ "The" that have #erformed the office of a deacon well have obtained to themselves a good degree") that is being faithful in their care and #rovision for the #oor as to their cor#oral life the" ma" well be #robationers for the care of souls. >or when those Parnasin as also all the ten were learned and studious the" might with good reason be #referred from the care of bodies to that of souls. The a#ostles- deacons are to be rec.oned also of the same learned and studious ran.. :nd now let us turn our e"es a little from the s"nagogues to 5hristian churches in the histor" of the New Testament. 1hen the 3omans #ermitted the Jewish s"nagogues to use their own laws and #ro#er government wh" 8 #ra" should there not be the same toleration allowed to the a#ostolical churches2 The 3oman censure had as "et made no difference between the Judai%ing s"nagogues of the Jews and the 5hristian s"nagogues or churches of Jews$ nor did it #ermit them to live after their own laws and forbid these. 8 am not therefore afraid to assert that the churches of that first age were wanting to themselves if the" too. not u# the same libert" of government as the 3omans allowed the Jewish s"nagogues to use. :nd 8 do not thin. that was said b" the a#ostle 1 5orinthians 6)' + /c. without this foundation. Therefore this #ower of their own government being allowed them if so be the" were minded to en4o" what the" might how easil" ma" those words of the a#ostle be understood which have so rac.ed learned men (shall 8 sa"2) or which have been so rac.ed b" them 1 Timoth" 5)16) "<et the elders that rule well " /c. (. 1e ma" rec.on the eighth man of these ten to be the interpreter in the s"nagogue$ who being s.illed in the tongues and standing b" him that read in the law rendered in the motherCtongue verse b" verse those things that were read out of the Debrew teBt. The dut" of this inter#reter and the rules of his dut" "ou ma" read at large in the Talmud. The use of such an inter#reter the" thin. was drawn down to them from the times of =%ra and not without good reason. "%nd they read in the book of the la"5 that "as the te2t$ 2plaining5 that "as the Targum$ %nd added the meaning) the" are the accents) and they understood the te2t5 that "as the (asoreth." 0ee Nehemiah 8)8$ see also ;uBtorf-s Tiberias cha#ter 8. 5. 1e do not readil" .nown whom to name for the ninth and tenth of this last three. <et us su##ose them to be the master of the divinity+school and his interpreter) of whom we shall have a fuller occasion of

in@uir". :nd thus much concerning the head of the s"nagogue that learned ?ecemvirate which was also the re#resentative bod" of the s"nagogue. 888. The da"s wherein the" met together in the s"nagogue were the sabbath and the second da" and the fifth of ever" wee.. 9f the sabbath there is no @uestion. The" refer the a##ointment of the second and fifth da"s to =%ra. "=%ra (sa" the") decreed ten decrees. De a##ointed the #ublic reading of the law in the second and fifth da"s of the wee.. :lso on the sabbath at the time of the sacrifice. De a##ointed washing to those that had the gonorrhea. De a##ointed the session of the 4udges in cities on the second and fifth da"s of the wee. " /c. Dence #erha#s it will a##ear in what sense that is to be understood :cts 1+)('. "The !entiles besought that these words might be #reached to them the ne2t sabbath or the sabbath bet"een"$ that is on the da"s of that intervening wee. wherein the" met together in the s"nagogue. 8J. 0"nagogues were ancientl" builded in fields. "To the evening recital of the #h"lacteries are to be added two #ra"ers going before and two following after." 1here the !loss thus$ "The 3abbins instituted that #ra"er that the" might retain their colleagues in the s"nagogue. :nd this certainl" res#ected their s"nagogues at that time$ because the" were situated in the fields where the" might be in danger." :nd so 3abbenu :sher u#on the same tract$ ":ncientl" their s"nagogues were in fields) therefore the" were afraid to tarr" there until the evening #ra"ers were ended. 8t was therefore a##ointed that the" should recite some verses in which a short sum of all the eighteen #ra"ers had been com#acted"... ;ut the following times brought bac. their s"nagogues for the most #art into the cities$ and #rovision was made b" shar# canons that a s"nagogue should be built in the highest #lace of the cit" and that no house should be built higher than it. J. The li.e #rovision was made that ever" one at the stated times of #ra"er should fre@uent the s"nagogue. "!od does not refuse the #ra"ers although sinners are mingled there. Therefore it is necessar" that a man associate himself with the congregation and that he #ra" not alone when an o##ortunit" is given of #ra"ing with the congregation. <et ever" one therefore come morning and evening to the s"nagogue." :nd "8t is forbidden to #ass b" the s"nagogue in the time of #ra"er unless a man carr" some burden u#on his bac.) or unless there be more s"nagogues in the same cit"$ for then it ma" be 4udged that he goes to another$ or unless there be two doors in the s"nagogue$ for it ma" be 4udged that he #assed b" one to go in at another. ;ut if he carr" his #h"lacteries u#on his head then it is allowed him to #ass b" because the" bear him witness that he is not unmindful of the law." These things are ta.en out of the ;ab"lonian Talmud) where these are also added) "The hol" blessed one saith 1hosoever em#lo"eth himself in the stud" of the law and in the returning of merc" and whosoever #ra"s with the s"nagogue 8 account concerning him as if he redeemed me and m" sons from the nations of the world. :nd whosoever #ra"s not with the s"nagogue is called an -ill neighbour as it is said -Thus saith the <ord of all m" evil neighbours -" /c. Jeremiah 1')1(. J8. 1hen the" were met together in the s"nagogue on the sabbathCda" (for this being observed there is no need to s#ea. an" thing of the other da"s) the service being begun the minister of the church calls out seven whomsoever he #leases to call out to read the law in their order. >irst a #riest then a <evite if the" were #resent$ and after these five 8sraelites. Dence it is 9 "oung student in Debrew learning that in some editions of the Debrew ;ible "ou see mar.ed in the margin of the 7entateuch 1. The priest. '. The Levite. +. The third. (. The fourth. 5. The fifth. 6. The si2th. 6. The seventh)CCdenoting b" these words the order of the readers and measuring out hereb" the #ortion read b" each one. Thus 8 su##ose 5hrist was called out b" the angel of the church of Na%areth <u.e ()16 and reading according to the custom as a member of that s"nagogue. There is no need to mention that #ra"ers were made #ublicl" b" the angel of the church for the whole congregation and that the congregation answered %men to ever" #ra"er) and it would be too much #articularl" to enumerate what those #ra"ers were and to recite them. 8t is .nown enough to all that

#ra"ers and reading of the law and the #ro#hets was the chief business in the s"nagogue and that both were under the care of the angel of the synagogue. 8. There seemed to have been catechi%ing of bo"s in the s"nagogue. 5onsider what that means " 0hat is the privilege of "omen< This# that their sons read in the synagogue$ That their husbands recite in the school of the doctors." 1here the !loss thus "The bo"s that were scholars were wont to be instructed For to learnG before their master in the s"nagogue." 88. The Targumist or Interpreter who stood b" him that read in the law and rendered what was read out of the Debrew original into the motherCtongue CCsometimes used a libert" of enlarging himself in #ara#hrase. =Bam#les of this we meet with in the Talmud and also in the 5haldee #ara#hrast himself. 888. 9bserve that of the !losser 0omen and the common people "ere "ont to meet together to hear the e2position or the sermon. ;ut of what #lace is this better to be understood than of the s"nagogue2 That es#eciall" being well weighed which immediatel" followeth %nd they had need of e2pounders For #reachersG to affect their hearts) which is not much unli.e that which is said :cts 1+)1+ If ye have any "ord of e2hortation for the people# say on. 8J. 0ervice being done in the s"nagogue the" went to dinner. :nd after dinner to the school or the church or a lecture of divinity$ call it b" what name "ou will. 8t is called also not seldom b" the Talmudists The synagogue. 8n this sense it ma" be is upper synagogue to be ta.en mentioned in the Talmud$ if it be not to be ta.en of the 0anhedrim. 8n this #lace a doctor read to his auditors some traditional matter and eB#ounded it. In the Beth (idrash they taught traditions# and their e2position . There are three things to be ta.en notice of concerning the rites used in this #lace. 1. De that read to the auditors s#a.e not out with an audible voice but muttered it with a small whis#er in somebod"-s ear$ and he #ronounced it aloud to all the #eo#le. 0o that here the doctor had his inter#reter in this sense as well as the reader of the law his in the s"nagogue. "3abh went to the #lace of 3. 0hilla and there "as no interpreter to stand by 3. 0hilla$ 3abh therefore stood b" him." 1here the !loss hath these words "/e had no speaker that is he had no interpreter #resent who stood before the doctor when he was reading the lecture. %nd the doctor "hispered him in the ear in /ebre" and he rendered it in the motherCtongue to the #eo#le." Dither that of our 0aviour hath res#ect &atthew 1,)'6$ "1hat "e hear in the ear that #reach "e u#on the houseCto#s." 5onsult the same #lace. '. 8t was customar" in this #lace and in these eBercises to #ro#ound @uestions. 8n that remar.able stor" of removing 3abban !amaliel of Jafne from his #residentshi# which we meet with in divers #laces of both Talmuds) when the" met together in the ;eth &idrash " The =uestioner stood forth and asked The evening #ra"er is it observed b" wa" of dut" or of free will2" :nd after a few lines the mention of an inter#reter occurs) "The whole multitude murmured against it and said to Dots#ith the inter#reter -Dold "our #eace-$ and he held his #eace " /c. +. 1hile the inter#reter #reached from the mouth of the doctor the #eo#le sat u#on the earth. "<et not a 4udge go u#on the heads of the hol" #eo#le." The !loss is "1hile the inter#reter #reached the synagogue For the "hole congregationG sat on the ground) and whosoever wal.ed through the middle of them to ta.e his #lace seemed as if he wal.ed u#on their heads." 9ne ma" safel" be of o#inion that the word synagogue was used sometimes in the New Testament in this sense$ and that 5hrist sometimes #reached in these divinit"Cschools as well as in the s"nagogues. ;ut b" what right was 5hrist #ermitted b" the rulers of the s"nagogue to #reach being the son of a car#enter and of no learned education2 1as it allowed an" illiterate #erson or mechanic to #reach in the s"nagogues if he had the confidence himself to it2 ;" no means. >or it was #ermitted to none to

teach there but those that were learned. ;ut there were two things es#eciall" that gave 5hrist admission to #reach in ever" s"nagogue$ namel" the fame of his miracles and that he gave out himself the head of a religious sect. >or however the religion of 5hrist and his disci#les was both scorned and hated b" the scribes and 7harisees "et the" accounted them among the religious in the same sense as the" did the 0adducees$ that is distinguished from the common people or the seculars who too. little care of religion. 1hen therefore 5hrist was rec.oned among the religious and grew so famous b" the rumour of his miracles and the shining ra"s of his doctrine no wonder if he raised among the #eo#le an earnest desire of hearing him and obtained among the governors of the s"nagogues a libert" of #reaching. 5ha#ter 5

B9(. 1lesse7 are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the 6ing7om of hea:en. 1lesse7 are they that mo.rn: for they shall be comforte7. 1lesse7 are the mee6: for they shall inherit the earth.

FBlessed# blessed /c.G 8t is commanded ?euteronom" '6 that u#on the entrance of the #eo#le into the #romised land blessings and curses should be denounced from the mounts !eri%im and =bal) the curses being #articularl" rec.oned u# but the blessings not so. 1hich seems not to be without a m"ster" since the law brought the curse with it$ but 5hrist who should bring the blessing was "et to come a great while hence. Now he is #resent #ronouncing the blessings and that on a mountain. The Jewish writers do thus relate that matter) "0iB tribes went u# to the to# of mount !eri%im and siB to the to# of mount =bal. ;ut the #riests and the <evites stood below with the ar. of the covenant. The #riests com#assed the ar.$ the <evites com#assed the #riests$ and the whole #eo#le of 8srael stood on one side and on that other) as it is said -:ll 8srael and the elders - /c. (Josh 8)++). Turning their faces to mouth !eri%im the" began with the blessing -;lessed is the man that shall ma.e no idol or molten image - /c. :nd both the one and the other answered :men. Turning their faces to mount =bal the" #ronounced the curse -5ursed is the man who shall ma.e an idol or molten image-) and both the one and the other answered :men. :nd so of the rest. :nd at last turning their faces to !eri%im the" began with the blessing -;lessed is the man who shall continue in all the words of the law-$ and the answer on both sides is :men. Turning their faces to =bal the" #ronounce the curse -5ursed is ever" one that shall not continue in all the words of the law-) and the answer from both sides is :men " /c. 8n li.e manner 5hrist here having begun with blessings ";lessed blessed " thundereth out curses "1oe woe " <u.e 6)'(C'6. That which man" do comment concerning the octonar" number of beatitudes hath too much curiosit" and little benefit. 8t hath that which is li.e it among the Jews) for thus the" write$ "There is a tradition from the school of 3. =saiah ;en Iorcha that twent" blessings are #ronounced in the ;oo. of the 7salms and in li.e manner twent" woes in the ;oo. of 8saiah. -;ut 8 sa" - saith 3abbi -that there are twoCandC twent" blessings according to the number of the twoCandCtwent" letters.-" ":braham was blessed with seven blessings." "These siB are blessed ever" one with siB blessings ?avid ?aniel and his three com#anions and .ing &essias."
'. 1lesse7 are the p.re in heart: for they shall see Go7.

FBlessed are the pure in heart.G Dear.en 9 7harisee all whose #raise lies in outward cleanness. Dow foolish is this boasting of a JewE "5ome and see saith 3. 0imeon ;en =lea%ar how far the #urit" of

8srael eBtends itself) when it is not onl" a##ointed that a clean man eat not with an unclean woman$ but Fthat an unclean man eat not with an unclean manG that a 7harisee that hath the gonorrhea eat not with a common #erson that hath the gonorrhea." ). 1lesse7 are the peacema6ers: for they shall be calle7 the chil7ren of Go7. FBlessed are the peacemakers.G (aking peace bet"een neighbours is numbered among those things which bring forth good fruit in this life and benefit in the life to come.
&@. *hin6 not that I am come to 7estroy the law8 or the prophets: I am not come to 7estroy8 b.t to f.lfil.

FThink not that I am come to destroy the la" /c.G 8. 8t was the o#inion of the nation concerning the &essias that he would bring in a new law but not at all to the #re4udice or damage of &oses and the #ro#hets) but that he would advance the &osaic law to the ver" highest #itch and would fulfil those things that were foretold b" the #ro#hets and that according to the letter even to the greatest #om#. 88. The scribes and 7harisees therefore snatch an occasion of cavilling against 5hrist$ and readil" ob4ected that he was not the true &essias because he abolished the doctrines of the traditions which the" obtruded u#on the #eo#le for &oses and the #ro#hets. 888. De meets with this #re4udice here and so onwards b" man" arguments as namel" 1. That he abolished not the law when he abolished traditions$ for therefore he came that he might fulfil the law. '. That he asserts that "not one iota shall #erish from the law." +. That he brought in an observation of the law much more #ure and eBcellent than the 7harisaical observation of it was) which he confirms even to the end of the cha#ter eB#laining the law according to its genuine and s#iritual sense.
&'. "or :erily I say .nto yo.8 *ill hea:en an7 earth pass8 one Aot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law8 till all be f.lfille7.

F3erily# I say unto you.G 8. 0uch an asseveration was usual to the nation though the s"llables were something changed ": certain matron said to 3. Judah ;ar :llai Th" face is li.e to a swineherd or a usurer. To whom he answered In truth# both are forbidden me ." The !loss there "In truth is a manner of s#eech used in swearing." 88. ;ut our 0aviour useth this #hrase b" the highest divine right. 1. ;ecause he is ":men the faithful witness " 3evelation +)1( ' 5orinthians 1)',) see also 8saiah 65)16$ and Iimchi there. '. ;ecause he #ublished the gos#el the highest truth John 18)+6 /c. +. ;" this asseveration he doth well o##ose his divine oracles against the insolent madness of the traditional doctors who did often vent their blas#hemous and frivolous tales under this seal They speak in truth) and "wheresoever this is said (sa" the") it is a tradition of (oses from 'inai." F&ne 1ot.G The Jerusalem !emarists s#ea. almost to the same sense) "The ;oo. of ?euteronom" came and #rostrated itself before !od and said -9 <ord of the universe thou hast written in me th" law but now a testament defective in some #art is defective in all. ;ehold 0olomon endeavours to root the letter Jod out of me- Fto wit in this teBt /e shall not multiply "ives ?euteronom" 16)16G. The hol" blessed !od answered -0olomon and a thousand such as he shall #erish but the least word shall not #erish out of thee.- 3. Donna said in the name of 3. :cha The letter Jod which !od too. out of the name of 0arai our mother was given half to 0ara and half to :braham. : tradition of 3. Doshaia) The letter Jod came and #rostrated itself before !od and said -9 eternal <ord thou hast rooted me out of the name of that hol" woman.- The blessed !od answered -Ditherto thou hast been in the name of a woman and that in the end Fvi%. in 0araiG$ but henceforward thou shalt be in the name of a man and that in the beginning.Dence is that which is written -:nd &oses called the name of Doshea Jehoshua.-" The ;ab"lonians also do relate this translation of the letter Jod out of the name of 0arai to the name of Joshua after this

manner) "The letter Jod saith !od which 8 too. out of the name of 0arai stood and cried to me for ver" man" "ears Dow long will it be ere Joshua arise2 to whose name 8 have added it"... There is a certain little cit" mentioned b" name )erokreth which b" reason of the smallness of it was called Jod in the !loss. :nd there was a rabbin named 3abh Jod. 9f the letter Jod see &idrash Tillin u#on the hundred and fourteenth 7salm. F&ne tittle.G 8t seems to denote the little heads or dashes of letters whereb" the difference is made between letters of a form almost ali.e. The matter ma" be illustrated b" these eBam#les If it "ere )aleth# and a man should have formed it into *esh Fon the sabbathG or should have formed *esh into )aleth# he is guilty. "8t is written F<ev '')+'G >e shall not profane my holy name ) whosoever shall change 5heth into De destro"s the world...8t is written F7sa 15,)6G Let every spirit praise the Lord) whosoever changeth De into 5heth destro"s the world. 8t is written FJer 5)1'G They lied against the Lord) whosoever changeth ;eth into 5a#h destro"s the world. 8t is written F1 0am ')'G There is none holy as the Lord) whosoever changeth 5a#h into ;eth destro"s the world. 8t is written F?eut 6)(G The Lord our 7od is one Lord) he that changeth ?aleth into 3esh destro"s the world." ;ut that our 0aviour b" 1ot and tittle did not onl" understand the bare letters or the little mar.s that distinguished them a##ears sufficientl" from verse 1* where he renders it one of "these least commands") in which sense is that also in the Jerusalem !emara of 0olomon-s rooting out Jod that is evacuating that #rece#t /e shall not multiply "ives. :nd "et it a##ears enough hence that our 0aviour also so far asserts the uncorru#t immortalit" and #urit" of the hol" teBt that no #article of the sacred sense should #erish from the beginning of the law to the end of it. To him that diligentl" considers these words of our 0aviour their o#inion offers itself who su##ose that the whole al#habet of the law or rather the original character of it is #erished$ namel" the 0amaritan in which the" thin. the law was first given and written$ and that that Debrew wherein we now read the ;ible was substituted in its stead. 1e shall not eB#atiate in the @uestion$ but let me with the reader-s good leave #roduce and consider some #assages of the Talmud whence if 8 be not mista.en 5hristians seem first to have ta.en u# this o#inion. The Jerusalem Talmud treats of this matter in these words) "3. Jochanan de ;eth !ubrin saith There are four noble tongues which the world useth) the motherCtongue for singing$ the 3oman for war$ the 0"riac for mourning$ the Debrew for elocution) and there are some which add the :ss"rian for writing. The :ss"rian hath writing Fthat is letters or charactersG but a language it hath not. The Debrew hath a language but writing it hath not. The" chose to themselves the Debrew language in the :ss"rian character. ;ut wh" is it called the %ssyrian< Because it is blessed (or direct) in its "riting. 3. <evi saith ;ecause it came u# into their hands out of :ss"ria." ": tradition. 3. Josi saith =%ra was fit b" whose hands the law might have been given but that the age of &oses #revented. ;ut although the law was not given b" his hand "et writing Fthat is the forms of the lettersG and the language were given b" his hand. -:nd the writing of the e#istle was writ in 0"riac and rendered in 0"riac - =%ra ()6. -:nd the" could not read the writing - ?aniel 5)8. >rom whence is shown that the writing Fthat is the form of the characters and lettersG was given that ver" same da". 3. Nathan saith) The law was given in brea.ing Fthat is in letters more rude and more dis4oinedG) and the matter is as 3. Josi saith. 3abbi FJudah DaccodeshG saith The law was given in the :ss"rian language$ and when the" sinned it was turned into brea.ing. :nd when the" were worth" in the da"s of =%ra it was turned for them again into the :ss"rian. 8 show toCda" that 8 will render to "ou (ishneh# the doubled or as if he should sa" the seconded (Hech *)1'). :nd he shall write for himself the (ishneh (the doubled) of this law in a boo. (?eut 16)18) namel" in a writing that was to be changed. 3. 0imeon ;en =lea%ar saith in

the name of 3. =lea%ar ;en 7arta and he in the name of 3. <a%ar the Dammodean The law was given in :ss"rian writing..." 0o the Jerusalem Talmudists. ?iscourse is had of the same business in the ;ab"lonian Talmud and almost in the same words these being added over) The law was given to 8srael in Debrew writing and in the hol" language. :nd it was given to them again in the da"s of =%ra in :ss"rian writing and the 0"riac language. The 8sraelites chose to themselves the :ss"rian writing and the hol" language$ and left the /ebre" "riting and the 'yriac language to ignorant persons$ But "ho are those idiots (or ignorant persons)2 3. 5hasda saith The 'amaritans. :nd what is the Debrew writing2 3. 5hasda saith...according to the !loss "!reat letters such as those are which are writ in charms and u#on door#osts." That we ma" a little a##rehend the meaning of the 3abbins let it be observed 8. That b" -the motherCtongue- (the Debrew 0"riac 3oman being named #articularl") no other certainl" can be understood than the !ree. we have shown at the threeCandCtwentieth verse of the first cha#ter... &an" nations were united into one language that is the old 0"riac CCnamel" the 5haldeans the &eso#otamians the :ss"rians the 0"rians. 9f these some were the sons of 0em and some of Dam. Though all had the same language it is no wonder if all had not the same letters. The :ss"rians and 8sraelites refer their original to 0em$ these had the :ss"rian writing) the sons of Dam that inhabited be"ond =u#hrates had another$ #erha#s that which is now called b" us the 0amaritan which it ma" be the sons of Dam the 5anaanites used. 888. That the law was given b" &oses in :ss"rian letters is the o#inion (as "ou see) of some Talmudists$ and that indeed the sounder b" much. >or to thin. that the divine law was writ in characters #ro#er to the cursed seed of Dam is agreeable neither to the dignit" of the law nor indeed to reason itself. The" that assert the motherCwriting was :ss"rian do indeed confess that the characters of the law were changed$ but this was done b" reason of the sin of the #eo#le and through negligence. >or when under the first Tem#le the 8sraelites degenerated into 5anaanitish manners #erha#s the" used the letters of the 5anaanites which were the same with those of the inhabitants be"ond =u#hrates. These words of theirs #ut the matter out of doubt) "The law was given to 8srael in the :ss"rian writing in the da"s of &oses) but when the" sinned under the first Tem#le and contemned the law it was changed into brea.ing to them." Therefore according to these men-s o#inion the :ss"rian writing was the original of the law and endured and obtained unto the degenerate age under the first Tem#le. Then the" thin. it was changed into the writing used be"ond =u#hrates or the 0amaritan$ or if "ou will the 5anaanitish (if so be these were not one and the same)$ but b" =%ra it was at last restored into the original :ss"rian. Trul" 8 wonder that learned men should attribute so much to this tradition (for whence else the" have received their o#inion 8 do not understand) that the" should thin. that the #rimitive writing of the law was in 0amaritan) seeing that which the !emarists assert concerning the changing of the characters rests u#on so brittle and tottering a foundation that it is much more #robable that there was no change at all (but that the law was first writ in :ss"rian b" &oses and in the :ss"rian also b" =%ra) because the change cannot be built and established u#on stronger arguments. : second @uestion might follow concerning Ieri and Iethib) and a sus#icion might also arise that the test of the law was not #reserved #erfect to one 1ot and one tittle when so man" various readings do so fre@uentl" occur. 5oncerning this business we will offer these few things onl" that so we ma" return to our tas.)CC 8. These things are delivered b" tradition$ "They found three books in the court# the book (eoni# the book :aatuti# and the book /i. 8n one the" found written -The eternal !od is th" refuge-) but in the two

other the" found it written (?eut ++)'6)$ They approved For confirmedG those two but re4ected that one"... 8 do much sus#ect that these three boo.s laid u# in the court answered to the threefold congregation of the Jews namel" in Judea ;ab"lon and =g"#t whence these co#ies might be #articularl" ta.en. >or however that nation was scattered abroad almost throughout the whole world "et b" number and com#anies scarcel" to be numbered it more #lentifull" increased in these three countries than an" where else) in Judea b" those that returned from ;ab"lon$ in ;ab"lon b" those that returned not$ and in =g"#t b" the tem#le of 9nias. The two co#ies that agreed 8 4udge to be out of Judea and ;ab"lon$ that that differed to be out of =g"#t) and this last 8 sus#ect b" this that the word :aatuti smells of the 0event" inter#reters whom the Jews of =g"#t might be 4udged for the ver" sa.e of the #lace to favour more than an" elsewhere. >or it is asserted b" the Jewish writers that Haatuti was one of those changes which the 0e#tuagint brought into the sacred teBt. 88. 8t is therefore ver" #robable that the Ieri and Iethib were com#acted from the com#aring of the two co#ies of the greatest authorit" that is the Jewish and the ;ab"lonian) which when the" differed from one another in so man" #laces in certain little dashes of writing but little or nothing at all as to the sense b" ver" sound counsel the" #rovided that both should be reserved so that both co#ies might have their worth #reserved and the sacred teBt its #urit" and fulness whilst not one 1ot nor one title of it #erished.
;&. 2e ha:e hear7 that it was sai7 by them of ol7 time8 *ho. shalt not 6ill< an7 whosoe:er shall 6ill shall be in 7anger of the A.7gment:

F>e have heard.G That is "e have received it b" tradition. If they have heard Fthat is learned by traditionG they speak to them$ They learned by hearing that is b" tradition$ a sa"ing ver" fre@uent in &aimonides. FThat it "as said by them of old time .G That is "it is an old tradition." >or the #articular #assages of the law which are here cited b" our 0aviour are not #roduced as the bare words of &oses but was clothed in the !losses of the 0cribes$ which most #lainl" a##ears above the rest verse (+ and sufficientl" in this first allegation where those words "1hosoever shall .ill shall be guilt" of the 4udgment " do hold out the false #aint of tradition and as we observe in the following verses such as misre#resents the law and ma.es it of none effect. 8f it be as.ed wh" 5hrist ma.es mention of "those of old time2" it ma" be answered that the memor" of the ancienter >athers of the Traditions was venerable among the #eo#le. 3everend was the name of the first good men and the first "ise men. Therefore 5hrist chose to confute their doctrines and !losses that he might more clearl" #rove the vanit" of traditions when he re#roved their most famous men. ;ut the sense which we have #roduced is #lain and without an" difficult"$ as if he should sa" "8t is an old tradition which hath obtained for man" ages."
;;. 1.t I say .nto yo.8 *hat whosoe:er is angry with his brother witho.t a ca.se shall be in 7anger of the A.7gment: an7 whosoe:er shall say to his brother8 !aca8 shall be in 7anger of the co.ncil: b.t whosoe:er shall say8 *ho. fool8 shall be in 7anger of hell fire.

FBut I say unto you.G But I say the words of one that refutes or determines a @uestion ver" fre@uentl" to be met with in the Debrew writers. To this "ou ma" la" that of 8saiah cha#ter ')+ ":nd he will teach us of his wa"s " /c. 1here Iimchi writes thus This teacher is king (essias. :nd that of Hechariah cha#ter 11)8$ where this great 0he#herd destro"s "three evil she#herds " namel" the 7harisee and the 0adducee and the =ssene. FThat "hosoever is angry "ith his brother "ithout a cause /c.G >irst let us treat of the words and then of the sentences.

F0ith his brother)G The Jewish schools do thus distinguish between a brother and a neighbour$ that a brother signifies an 8sraelite b" nation and blood) a neighbour an 8sraelite in religion and worshi# that is a #rosel"te. The author of :ruch in the word % son of the covenant writes thus$ "The sons of the covenant these are 8srael. :nd when the 0cri#ture saith -8f an" one-s oB gore the oB of his neighbour - it eBcludes all the heathen in that it saith -of his neighbour.-" &aimonides writes thus) "8t is all one to .ill an 8sraelite and a 5anaanite servant) for both the #unishment is death$ but an 8sraelite who shall .ill a stranger+inhabitant shall not be #unished with death because it is said -1hosoever shall #roudl" rise u# against his neighbour to .ill him- =Bodus '1)1() and it is needless to sa" he shall not be #unished with death for .illing a heathen." 1here this is to be noted that heathens and strangerCinChabitants who were not admitted to #erfect and com#lete #rosel"tism were not @ualified with the title of neighbour nor with an" #rivileges. ;ut under the !os#el where there is no distinction of nations or tribes brother is ta.en in the same latitude as among the Jews both brother and neighbour were$ that is for all #rofessing the gos#el) and is contradistinguished to the heathen 1 5orinthians 5)11 "8f an" one who is called a brother") and &atthew 18)15 "8f th" brother sin against thee " /c. verse 16 "8f he hear not the church let him be a heathen." ;ut neighbour is eBtended to all even such as are strangers to our religion) <u.e 1,)'* +, /c. F/e shall be guilty)G F1Gords signif"ing guilt or debt FareG to be met with a thousand times in the Talmudists. 8saiah '()'+$ "The" shall be gathered together as ca#tives are gathered into #rison." 1here 3. 0olomon s#ea.s thus 7uilty of hell unto hell) which agrees with the last clause of this verse. F&f the council)G &f the 'anhedrim) that is of the 4udgment or tribunal of the magistrate. >or that 1udgment in the clause before is to be referred to the 1udgment of 7od will a##ear b" what follows. F*aca.G : word used b" one that des#iseth another in the highest scorn) ver" usual in the Debrew writers and ver" common in the mouth of the nation. "9ne returned to re#entance) his wife said to him *aca if it be a##ointed "ou to re#ent the ver" girdle wherewith "ou gird "ourself shall not be "our own." ": heathen said to an 8sraelite Jer" suitable food is made read" for "ou at m" house. 1hat is it2 saith the other. To whom he re#lied 0wine-s flesh. *aca (saith the Jew) 8 must not eat of clean beasts with "ou." ": .ing-s daughter was married to a certain dirt" fellow. De commands her to stand b" him as a mean servant and to be his butler. To whom she said *aca 8 am a .ing-s daughter." "9ne of the scholars of 3. Jochanan made s#ort with the teaching of his master) but returning at last to a sober mind Teach thou 9 master saith he for thou art worth" to teach) for 8 have found and seen that which thou hast taught. To whom he re#lied *aca thou hadst not believed unless thou hadst seen." ": certain ca#tain saluted a religious man #ra"ing in the wa" but he saluted him not again) he waited till he had done his #ra"er and saith to him *aca it is written in "our law " /c. FInto hell+fire.G The Jews do ver" usuall" eB#ress hell or the place of the damned b" the word 7ehinnom which might be shown in infinite eBam#les$ the manner of s#eech being ta.en from the valley of /innom a #lace infamous for foul idolatr" committed there$ for the howlings of infants roasted to &oloch$ filth carried out thither$ and for a fire that alwa"s was burning and so most fit to re#resent the horror of hell.

"There are three doors of !ehenna$ one in the wilderness as it is written -The" went down and all that belonged to them alive into hell- (Num 16)++). :nother in the sea as it is written -9ut of the bell" of hell have 8 called$ thou hast heard m" voice- (Jonah ')'). The third in Jerusalem as it is written -Thus saith the <ord whose fire is in 0ion and his furnace in Jerusalem - 8saiah +1)*. The tradition of the school of 3. 8smael$ -1hose fire is in 0ion - this is the gate of !ehenna." The 5haldee #ara#hrast u#on 8saiah cha#ter ++)1( 7ehenna# eternal fire /c. The 7ehenna of eternal fire. 1e come now to the sentences and sense of the verse. : threefold #unishment is ad4udged to a threefold wic.edness. Judgment to him that is angr"..."ithout cause$ Judgment also and that b" the 0anhedrim to him that calls *aca$ Judgment of hell to him that calleth Fool. That which is here #roduced of the threefold 0anhedrim among the Jews #leases me not because #assing over other reasons mention of the 0anhedrim is made onl" in the middle clause. Dow the 4udgment in the first clause is to be distinguished from the 4udgment of the 0anhedrim in the second will ver" easil" a##ear from this !loss and commentar" of the Talmudists "9f not .illing") "he is a mansla"er whosoever shall stri.e his neighbour with a stone or iron or thrust him into the water or fire whence he cannot come out so that he die he is guilt". ;ut if he shall thrust another into the water or fire whence he might come out if he die he is guiltless. : man sets a dog or ser#ent on another he is guiltless." 0ee also the ;ab"lonian !emara there$ "1hosoever shall sla" his neighbour with his own hand stri.ing him with his sword or with a stone so that he .ills him$ or shall strangle or burn him so that he die in an" manner whatsoever .illing him in his own #erson$ behold such a one is to be #ut to death b" the 0anhedrim. ;ut he that hires another b" a reward to .ill his neighbour or who sends his servants and the" .ill him$ or he that thrusts him violentl" u#on a lion or u#on some other beast and the beast .ill him$ or he that .ills himself every one of these is a shedder of blood and the ini@uit" of manslaughter is in his hand and he is liable to death by the hand of 7od$ but he is not to be #unished with death b" the 0anhedrim." ;ehold a double mansla"erE ;ehold a double 4udgmentE Now let the words of our 0aviour be a##lied to this !loss of the ancients u#on the law of murder) "?o "e hear " saith he "1hat is said b" the ancients 1hosoever shall .ill after what manner soever a man shall .ill him whether b" the hand of one that he hath hired or b" his servants or b" setting a beast on him$ he is guilt" of the 4udgment of !od though not of the 4udgment of the 0anhedrim) and whosoever shall .ill his neighbour b" himself none other inter#osing this man is liable to the 4udgment of the 0anhedrim) but 8 sa" unto "ou That whosoever is rashl" angr" with his brother this man is liable to the 4udgment of !od$ and whosoever shall sa" to his brother *aca he is liable to the 0anhedrim." These words of our 0aviour #erha#s we shall more trul" understand b" com#aring some more #hrases and doctrines ver" usual in the Jewish schools. 0uch as these %bsolved from the 1udgment of men# but guilty in the 1udgment of /eaven that is of 7od$ )eath by the 'anhedrim# and death by the hand of /eaven. :nd in a word cutting off s#ea.s vengeance b" the hand of !od. The" are ver" much deceived who understand...cutting off of which there is ver" fre@uent mention in the Dol" ;ible concerning the cutting+ off from the #ublic assembl" by ecclesiastical censure when as it means nothing else than cutting off by divine vengeance. There is nothing more usual and common among the Debrew canonists than to ad4udge ver" man" transgressions to cutting off in that worn #hrase...6If he shall do this out of presumption# he is guilty of cutting off $ but if he shall do it out of ignorance he is bound for a sacrifice for sin." 1hen the" ad4udge a thing or a guilt" #erson to cutting off the" deliver and leaven him to the 4udgment of !od$ nevertheless a censure and #unishment from the 0anhedrim sometimes is added

and sometimes not. 1hich might be illustrated b" infinite eBam#les but we are afraid of being tedious. <et these two be enough on both sides. 8. 9f mere delivering over to the 4udgment of !od without an" #unishment inflicted b" the 0anhedrim those words s#ea. which were latel" cited "De is absolved from the 4udgment of men but liable to the 4udgment of Deaven." 88. 9f the 4udgment of !od and of the 0anhedrim 4oined together these words in the same #lace s#ea.) "8f he that is made guilt" b" the 0anhedrim be bound to ma.e restitution Deaven For !odG doth not #ardon him until he #a" it." ;ut he that bears a #unishment laid on him b" the 0anhedrim is absolved from cutting off. ":ll #ersons guilt" of cutting off when the" are beaten are absolved from their cutting off) as it is said -:nd th" brother become vile in th" sight.- 1hen he shall be beaten behold he is th" brother." Liable or guilty even to the hell+fire. De had said guilt" of 1udgment and of the council before$ but now he saith unto hell and that in a higher em#hasis$ as if he should have said "1hosoever shall sa" to his brother Fool shall be guilt" of 4udgment even unto the 1udgment of hell." ;ut what was there more grievous in the word fool than in the word *aca2 <et .ing 0olomon be the inter#reter who ever"where b" a fool understands a "icked and reprobate #erson$ foolishness being o##osed to s#iritual wisdom. *aca denotes indeed morosity and lightness of manners and life) but fool 4udgeth bitterl" of the s#iritual and eternal state and decreeth a man to certain destruction. <et the 4udgings and censures of the scribes and 7harisees concerning the common #eo#le serve us instead of a leBicon. The" did not onl" suffer themselves to be st"led "ise men but also arrogated it to themselves as their merit and due. ;ut what do the" sa" of the common #eo#le2 "This #eo#le that .noweth not the law is cursed " John 6)(*. Lou have a form of s#ea.ing not much unli.e this which is now under our hands) /e that calls his neighbour 'ervant# let him be in e2communication . The !loss is "The" therefore eBcommunicate him because he vilified an 8sraelite) him therefore the" vilif" in li.e manner." "8f he call him bastard let him be #unished with fort" stri#es. 8f "icked man let it descend with him into his life") that is according to the !loss "into miser" and #enur"." :fter this manner therefore our 0aviour suits a different #unishment to different sins b" a most 4ust #arit" and a ver" e@ual com#ensation) to un4ust anger the 4ust anger and 4udgment of !od$ to #ublic re#roach a #ublic trial$ and hellCfire to the censure that ad4udgeth another thither.
;B. *herefore if tho. bring thy gift to the altar8 an7 there rememberest that thy brother hath o.ght against thee<

FThat thy brother hath ought against thee /c.G ...that which the Jews restrained onl" to #ecuniar" damages 5hrist eBtends to all offences against our brother. "De that offers an oblation not restoring that which he had un4ustl" ta.en awa" does not do that which is his dut"." :nd again$ "De that steals an" thing from his neighbour "ea though it be but a farthing and swears falsel" is bound to restitution meeting the wronged #art" half wa"." 0ee also ;aal Turim u#on <eviticus 6. ":n oblation is not offered for a sin unless that which is Fwrongfull"G ta.en awa" be first restored either to the owner or the #riest." 8n li.e manner "De that swears falsel" either of the Pruta Fsmall moneyG or what the Pruta is worth is bound to in@uire after the owner even as far as the islands in the sea and to ma.e restitution."

9bserve how #rovision is here made for #ecuniar" damages onl" and bare restitution which might be done without a charitable mind and a brotherl" heart. ;ut 5hrist urgeth charit" reconciliation of mind and a #ure desire of reunion with our offended brother$ and that not onl" in mone" matters but in an" other and for whatever cause wherein our neighbour com#lains that he is grieved.
;D. Lea:e there thy gift before the altar8 an7 go thy way< first be reconcile7 to thy brother8 an7 then come an7 offer thy gift.

FLeave there thy gift before the altar.G This business was altogether unusual in gifts offered at the altar in such a cause. 1e read indeed of the drin.Coffering dela"ed after the sacrifice was offered) ">or the wise men sa" That a man is not held in his sin when the drin.Coffering is #ut off b" some dela"$ because one ma" offer his sacrifice toCda" but his drin.Coffering twent" da"s hence." 1e read also that the oblation of a sacrifice #resented even at the altar in some cases hath not onl" been dela"ed but the sacrifice itself hath been re4ected$ that is if in that instant discover" was made in sacrificing the best either of a blemish or of somewhat else whereb" it became an illegal sacrifice$ or if some uncleanness or other cause a##eared in the offerer whereb" he was rendered unfit for the #resent to offer a gift. 9f which things causing the oblation of the sacrifice alread" #resented at the altar to be deferred the Debrew law"ers s#ea. much. ;ut among those things we do not meet at all with this whereof our 0aviour is here s#ea.ing) so that he seems to en4oin some new matter CCand not new alone but seemingl" im#ossible. >or the offended brother might #erha#s be absent in the furthest #arts of the land of 8srael so that he could not be s#o.e with and his #ardon as.ed in ver" man" da"s after) and what shall become of the beast in the mean time which is left at the altar2 8t is a wonder indeed that our 0aviour treating of the worshi# at the altar should #rescribe such a dut" which was both unusual (in such a case) and neBt to im#ossible. ;ut it is answered)CC 8. 8t was a custom and a law among the Jews that the sacrifices of #articular men should not #resentl" as soon as the" were due be brought to the altar but that the" should be reserved to the feast neBt following whatsoever that were whether the 7assover or 7entecost or Tabernacles to be then offered. "Teeming women women that have the gonorrhea and men that have the gonorrhea reserve their #igeons until the" go u# to the feast."CC"The oblations which were devoted before the feast shall be offered at the feast) for its is said These things shall "e do in their solemnities " /c. ;ut now all the 8sraelites were #resent at the feasts$ and an" brother against whom one had sinned was not then far off from the altar. Knto which time and custom of the nation it is e@ual to thin. 5hrist alluded. 88. De does silentl" chastise the curiosit" used in deferring of a sacrifice brought about lesser matters when this that was greater was unregarded. :nd he teacheth that !od is worshi##ed in vain without true charit" to our brother. The same also in effect do the !emarists confess.
;(. Agree with thine a7:ersary E.ic6ly8 whiles tho. art in the way with him< lest at any time the a7:ersary 7eli:er thee to the A.7ge8 an7 the A.7ge 7eli:er thee to the officer8 an7 tho. be cast into prison.

F0hilst thou art in the "ay "ith him.G That is "while thou goest with him to the magistrate " <u.e 1')58$ where there is a clear distinction between the magistrate and the 1udge) so that b" magistrate or ruler one ma" understand the 4udges in the lower 0anhedrims$ b" 1udge the 4udges in the highest. That allusion is here made to contentions about mone" matters sufficientl" a##ears from the following words verse '6$ "Thou shalt b" no means come out of #rison till thou hast #aid the uttermost farthing." Now it was the business of the bench that consisted of three men to 4udge of such matters. The words therefore of the verse have this sense) -?oes "our neighbour accuse "ou of some damage or of mone" that is due to him2 and are "e now going in the wa" to the bench of three to commence the suit2 com#ound with "our adversar" lest he com#el "ou to some higher tribunal where "our danger will be greater.- ">or if the lender sa" to the debtor -<et us go that 4udgment ma" be had of our case from the chief 0anhedrim - the" force the debtor to go u# thence with him. 8n li.e manner if an" accuse

another of something ta.en awa" from him or of some damage done him and he that is the accuser will have the higher 0anhedrim to 4udge of the suit$ the" force the debtor to go u# thence with him. :nd so it is done with all other things of that nature." ;efore 5hrist had argued from piety that men should see. to be reconciled$ now he argues from prudence and an honest care of a man-s self. F%nd the 1udge deliver thee to the officer.G : word answering to an e2ecutioner# a "hipper among the 3abbins. Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates ?euteronom" 16)18. ..."vergers and scourgeCbearers Fe2ecutionersG who stand before the 4udges. These go through the lanes and streets and inns and ta.e care about weights and measures$ and scourge those that do amiss. ;ut all their business is b" the order of the 4udges. 1homsoever the" see doing evil the" bring before the 4udges " /c. :nd 0hosoever goes out into the street# let him reckon concerning himself# as if he "ere already delivered over to the officer$ that is as the !loss hath it "5ontentions and contentious men will there be met with !entiles and 8sraelites) so that let him rec.on concerning himself as though he were alread" delivered over to the officer read" to lead him awa" before the 4udges." The !loss u#on ;ab"l. Joma writes thus$ "is the eBecutioner of the 0anhedrim whose office is to whi#."
;?. ,erily I say .nto thee8 *ho. shalt by no means come o.t thence8 till tho. hast pai7 the .ttermost farthing.

FFarthing.G :ccording to the Jerusalem Talmud it is 9ordiontes$ according to the ;ab"lonian 9ontrik. >or thus the" write) "Two assars ma.e a pondion. Two semisses ma.e an assar. Two farthings a semissis. Two prutahs a farthing. : pondion is in value two assars. :n assar is two semisses. : semissis is two farthings. : kontric or a farthing is two prutahs." That which is here said b" the Jerusalem Talmud T"o prutahs make a farthing is the ver" same thing that is said &ar. 1')(' T"o mites# "hich make a farthing. : prutah was the ver" least #iece among coins. 0o &aimonides That "hich is not "orth a prutah# is not to be reckoned among riches . Dence are those numberless #assages in the Talmudic 7andects relating to the #rutah) "De that steals less than a prutah is not bound to #a" fiveCfold." "No land is bought for a #rice less than a prutah " that is given as an earnest. Lou have the value of these coins in the same &aimonides) "0elaa (saith he) is in value fourC#ence) a #enn" siB meahs. Now a meah in the da"s of &oses our master was called a gerah$ it contains two #ondions$ a #ondion two assars$ and a #rutah is the eighth #art of an assar. The weight of a meah which is also called a gerah is siBteen barle"corns. :nd the weight of an assar is four barle"corns. :nd the weight of a #rutah is half a barle"corn." <u.e hath the last mite cha#ter 1')5*$ that is the last prutah which "as the eighth part of the Italian assarius. Therefore a farthing was so called not that it was the fourth #art of a penny but the fourth #art of an assar$ which how ver" small a #art of a #enn" it was we ma" observe b" those things that are said b" both !emaras in the #lace before cited. "0iB silver meahs ma.e a penny. : meah is worth two pondions. : pondion is worth two assars."

<et this be noted b" the wa"$ a meah which as &aimonides before testifies was ancientl" called a gerah was also commonl" called !u! in the Talmudists. >or as it is said here si2 meahs of silver make a penny so in 3ambam a penny contains si2 !u!im . The prutah as it was the least #iece of mone" among the Jews so it seems to have been a coin merel" Jewish not 3oman. >or although the Jews being sub4ects to the 3omans used 3oman mone" and thence as our 0aviour argues confessed their sub4ection to the 3omans$ "et the" were #ermitted to use their own mone" which a##ears b" the common use of the she.els and halfCshe.els among them) with good reason therefore one ma" hold the farthing was the least 3oman coin and the prutah the least Jewish. 1hilst our 0aviour mentions both he is not inconstant to his own s#eech but s#ea.s more to the ca#acit" of all.
;@. 2e ha:e hear7 that it was sai7 by them of ol7 time8 *ho. shalt not commit a7.ltery:

F>e have heard# that it hath been said by them of old time# Thou shalt not commit adultery .G De citeth not the command or teBt of &oses as barel" delivered b" &oses but as deformed b" those of old time with such a gloss as almost evacuated all the force of the command$ for the" inter#reted it of the act of adulter" onl" and that with a married woman. 0o the enumeration of the siB hundred and thirteen #rece#ts of the law and that =Bodus ',)1( -Thou shalt not commit adulter" - hath these words "This is the thirt"Cfifth #rece#t of the law namel" That no man lie with another man-s wife."
;'. 1.t I say .nto yo.8 *hat whosoe:er loo6eth on a woman to l.st after her hath committe7 a7.ltery with her alrea7y in his heart.

F0hosoever looketh upon a "oman to lust after her /c.G "De that loo.eth u#on a woman-s heel is as if he loo.ed u#on her bell") and he that loo.s u#on her bell" is as if he la" with her." :nd "et It "as *abban 7amaliel,s custom to look upon "omen . :nd in the other Talmud$ "De that loo.s u#on the little finger of a woman is as if he loo.ed u#on her #riv" #arts." :nd "et "3abh !idal and 3. Jochanan were wont to sit at the #lace of di##ing where the women were washed$ and when the" were admonished b" some of the danger of lasciviousness 3. Jochanan answered -8 am of the seed of Jose#h over whom an evil affection could not rule.-"
BG. An7 if thy right han7 offen7 thee8 c.t it off8 an7 cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members sho.l7 perish8 an7 not that thy whole bo7y sho.l7 be cast into hell.

FIf thy right hand offend thee# cut it off .G 0ee here ;ab"l. Niddah fol. 1+ @uite through. :mong other things 3. Tar#hon saith "1hosoever brings his hand to his modest #arts let his hand be cut off unto his navel." :nd a little after$ "8t is better that his bell" should be cleft in two than that he should descend into the well of corru#tion." The discourse is of moving the hand to the #riv" member that b" the handling it it might be .nown whether the #art" had the gonorrhea or no) and "et the" ad4udge never so little handling it to cutting off the hand. 3ead the #lace if "ou have leisure.
B&. It hath been sai78 Whosoe:er shall p.t away his wife8 let him gi:e her a writing of 7i:orcement:

F0hosoever putteth a"ay his "ife# let him giver her a bill of divorcement G Notice is to be ta.en how our 0aviour #asseth into these words namel" b" using the #article but. "But it hath been said." This #article hath this em#hasis in this #lace that it whis#ers a silent ob4ection which is answered in the following verse. 5hrist had said "1hosoever loo.s u#on a woman to lust after her hath committed adulter" alread"") but the Jewish law"ers said "8f an" one sees a woman which he is delighted withal above his wife let him dismiss his wife and marr" her." :mong the cha#ters of Talmudical doctrine we meet with none concerning which it is treated more largel" and more to a #unctilio than of divorces) and "et there the chief care is not so much of a 4ust cause of it as of the manner and form of doing it. To him that turns over the boo. 7ittin (as also indeed

the whole 'eder Nashim that #art of the Talmud that treats of women) the diligence of the &asters about this matter will a##ear such that the" seem to have dwelt not without some com#lacenc" u#on this article above all others. !od indeed granted to that nation a law concerning divorces ?euteronom" '()1 #ermitted onl" "for the hardness of their hearts " &atthew 1*)8) in which #ermission nevertheless the" boast as though it were indulged them b" mere #rivilege. 1hen !od had established that fatal law of #unishing adulter" b" death (?eut '') for the terror of the #eo#le and for their avoiding of that sin$ the same merciful !od foreseeing also how hard (occasion being ta.en from this law) the issue of this might be to the women b" reason of the roughness of the men$ lusting #erha#s after other women and loathing their own wives$ he more graciousl" #rovided against such .ind of wifeC.illing b" a law mitigating the former and allowed the #utting awa" a wife in the same case concerning which that fatal law was given$ namel" in the case of adulter". 0o that that law of divorce in the eBhibition of it im#lied their hearts to be hard$ and in the use of it the" shewed them to be carnal. :nd "et hear them thus boasting of that law) "The <ord of 8srael saith That he hateth putting a"ay &alachi ')16. Through the whole cha#ter saith 3. 5hananiah in the name of 3. 7hineas he is called the <ord of /osts) but here of Israel that it might a##ear that !od subscribed not his name to divorces but onl" among the 8sraelites. :s if he should sa" -To the 8sraelites 8 have granted the #utting wa" of wives$ to the !entiles 8 have not granted it.- 3. 5hai4ah 3abbah saith ?ivorces are not granted to the nations of the world." 0ome of them inter#reted this law of &oses (as b" right the" ought to inter#ret it) of the case of adulter" onl". "The school of 0hamaai said : wife is not to be divorced unless for filthiness Fthat is adulter"G onl" because it is said Because he hath found filthy nakedness in her " that is adulter". "3abh 7a#a said 8f he find not adulter" in her what then2 3abba answered 1hen the merciful !od revealed concerning him that corru#ted a maid that it was not lawful for him to #ut her awa" in his whole life (?eut '')'*) "ou are thence taught concerning the matter #ro#ounded that it is not lawful to #ut her awa" if he shall not find filthiness in his wife." 1ith the li.e honest" have some commented u#on those words cited out of the #ro#het For he hateth putting a"ay. "3. Jochanan saith The #utting awa" of a wife is odious." 1hich others also have granted indeed of the first wife but not of those that a man too. to himself over and above. >or this is a##roved among them for a canon "<et no man #ut awa" his first wife unless for adulter"." :nd "3. =lie%er saith >or the divorcing of the first wife even the altar itself sheds tears." 1hich !loss the" fetch from thence where it is said "<et no man deal treacherousl" towards the wife of his "outh"$ &alachi ')15. The Jews used #ol"gam" and the divorcing of their wives with one and the same license) and this that the" might have change and all for the sa.e of lust. "8t is lawful (sa" the") to have man" wives together even as man" as "ou will) but our wise men have decreed That no man have above four wives." ;ut the" restrained this not so much out of some #rinci#les of chastit" as that lest a man being burdened with man" wives might not be able to afford them food and clothing and due benevolence) for thus the" comment concerning this bridle of #ol"gam". >or what causes the" #ut awa" their wives there is no need to in@uire$ for this the" did for an" cause of their own free will. 8. "8t is commanded to divorce a wife that is not of good behavior and who is not modest as becomes a daughter of 8srael." 0o the" s#ea. in &aimonides and !ittin in the #lace above s#ecified) where this also is added in the !emarists) "3. &eir saith :s men have their #leasures concerning their meat and their drin. so also concerning their wives. This man ta.es out a fl" found in his cu# and "et will not drin.) after such a manner did 7a#us ;en Judah carr" himself) who as often as he went forth bolted the doors and shut in his wife. :nother ta.es out a fl" found in his cu# and drin.s u# his cu#$ that he doth who sees his wife tal.ing freel" with her neighbours and .insfol. and "et allows of it. :nd there is

another who if he find a fl" in his bas.et eats it) and this is the #art of an evil man who sees his wife going out without a veil u#on her head and with a bare nec. and sees her washing in the baths where men are wont to wash and "et cares not for it$ whereas b" the law he is bound to #ut her awa"." 88. "8f an" man hate his wife let him #ut her awa"") eBce#ting onl" that wife that he first married. 8n li.e manner 3. Judah thus inter#rets that of the #ro#het If he hate her# let him put her a"ay. 1hich sense some versions dangerousl" enough have followed. 3. 0olomon eB#resses the sense of that #lace thus) "8t is commanded to #ut awa" one-s wife if she obtain not favour in the e"es of her husband." 888. "The school of Dillel saith 8f the wife coo. her husband-s food ill" b" overCsalting or overCroasting it she is to be #ut awa"." 8J. Lea "8f b" an" stro.e from the hand of !od she become dumb or sottish " /c. J. ;ut not to relate all the things for which the" #ronounce a wife to be divorced (among which the" #roduce some things that modest" allows not to be re#eated) let it be enough to mention that of 3. :.ibah instead of all) "3. :.ibah said 8f an" man sees a woman handsomer than his own wife he ma" #ut her awa"$ because it is said -8f she find not favour in his e"es.-" FBill of divorce.G :nd % bill of divorce &atthew 1*)6$ and in the 0e#tuagint ?euteronom" '()1. 9f which ;e%a thus$ "This bill ma" seem to be called a bill of divorce Fas much as departing a"ayG not in res#ect of the wife #ut awa" as of the husband de#arting awa" form his wife." 0omething hard and diametricall" contrar" to the canonical doctrine of the Jews) for thus the" write "8t is written in the bill ;ehold thou art #ut awa"$ ;ehold thou art thrust awa" /c. ;ut if he writes 8 am not th" husband or 8 am not th" s#ouse /c.$ it is not a 4ust bill) for it is said De shall #ut her awa" not De shall #ut himself awa"." This bill is called b" the Jews a bill of cutting off and a bill of e2pulsion and an instrument and an instrument of dismission and letters of forsaking /c. 8. : wife might not be #ut awa" unless a bill of divorce were given. "Therefore it is called (saith ;aal Turim) % bill of cutting off because there is nothing else that cuts her off from the husband. >or although a wife were obtained three wa"s" Fof which see the TalmudG ""et there was no other wa" of dismissing her besides a bill of divorce." 88. ": wife was not #ut awa" unless the husband were freel" willing$ for if he were unwilling it was not a divorce) but whether the wife were willing or unwilling she was to be divorced if her husband would." 888. "% bill of divorce was written in twelve lines neither more nor less." 3. &ordecai gives the reason of this number in these words$ "<et him that writes a bill of divorce com#rise it in twelve lines according to the value of the number of the letters in the word 7et. ;ut 3abh 0aadias inter#rets that the bill of divorce should be written with the same number of lines wherein the boo.s of the law are se#arated. >or four lines come between the ;oo. of !enesis and the ;oo. of =Bodus$ four between the ;oo. of =Bodus and the ;oo. of <eviticus$ four between the ;oo. of <eviticus and the ;oo. of Numbers. ;ut the four between the ;oo. of Numbers and ?euteronom" are not rec.oned because that boo. is onl" a re#etition of the law " /c. 8J. Lou have the co#" of a bill of divorce in :l#hesius u#on 7ittin in this form) : ;ill of ?ivorce "9n the da" of the wee. N. of the month of N. of the "ear of the world-s creation N. according to the com#utation b" which we are wont to rec.on in the #rovince N.$ 8 N. the son of N. and b" what name

soever 8 am called of the cit" N. with the greatest consent of m" mind and without an" com#ulsion urging me have #ut awa" dismissed and eB#elled thee$ thee 8 sa" N. the daughter of N. b" what name soever thou art called of the cit" N. who heretofore wert m" wife. ;ut now 8 have dismissed thee CCthee 8 sa" N. the daughter of N. b" what name soever thou art called of the cit" N. 0o that thou art free and in thine own #ower to marr" whosoever shall #lease thee$ and let no man hinder thee from this da" forward even for ever. Thou art free therefore for an" man. :nd let this be to thee a bill of re4ection from me letters of divorce and a schedule of eB#ulsion according to the law of &oses and 8srael. 3=K;=N the son of Jacob witness. =<8=H=3 the son of !ilead witness." 0ee also this form varied in some few words in &aimonides (!erushin). J. This bill being confirmed with the husband-s seal and the subscri#tion of witnesses was to be delivered into the hand of the wife either b" the husband himself or b" some other de#uted b" him for this office) or the wife might de#ut somebod" to receive it in her stead. J8. 8t was not to be delivered to the wife but in the #resence of two who might read the bill both before it was given into the hand of the wife and after) and when it was given the husband if #resent said thus ";ehold this is a bill of divorce to "ou." J88. The wife thus dismissed might if she #leased bring this bill to the 0anhedrim where it was enrolled among the records if she desired it in memor" of the thing. The dismissed #erson li.ewise might marr" whom she would) if the husband had not #ut some sto# in the bill b" some clause forbidding it.
B;. 1.t I say .nto yo.8 *hat whosoe:er shall p.t away his wife8 sa:ing for the ca.se of fornication8 ca.seth her to commit a7.ltery: an7 whosoe:er shall marry her that is 7i:orce7 committeth a7.ltery.

F0hosoever shall put a"ay his "ife /c.G 8. 9ur 0aviour does not abrogate &oses- #ermission of divorces but tolerates it "et .ee#ing it within the &osaic bounds that is in the case of adulter" condemning that libert" in the Jewish canons which allowed it for an" cause. 88. ?ivorce was not commanded in the case of adulter" but #ermitted. 8sraelites were com#elled sometimes even b" whi##ing to #ut awa" their wives as a##ears in &aimonides (!erushin). ;ut our 0aviour even in the case of adulter" does not im#ose a com#ulsion to divorce but indulgeth a license to do it. 888. "De that #uts awa" his wife without the cause of fornication ma.es her commit adulter"") that is if she commits adulter") or although she commit not adulter" in act "et he is guilt" of all the lustful motions of her that is #ut awa"$ for he that lustfull" desires is said "to commit adulter" " verse '8.
BB. Again8 ye ha:e hear7 that it hath been sai7 by them of ol7 time8 *ho. shalt not forswear thyself8 b.t shalt perform .nto the Lor7 thine oaths:

FIt hath been said by them of old time# Thou shalt not fors"ear thyself /c.G The law forbids #er4ur" <eviticus 1*)1' /c. To which the >athers of the Traditions reduced the whole sin of swearing little caring for a rash oath. 8n this cha#ter of oaths the" doubl" sinned) 8. That the" were nothing at all solicitous about an oath so that what was sworn were not false. The" do but little trouble themselves what how how often how rashl" "ou swear so that what "ou swear be true.

8n the Talmudic tract 'hevuoth and in li.e manner in &aimonides oaths are distributed into these four ran.s) >irst % promissory oath) when a man swore that he would do or not do this or that /c. :nd this was one of the t"ofold oaths# "hich "ere also fourfold$ that is a negative or affirmative oath$ and again a negative or affirmative oath concerning something #ast or a negative or affirmative oath concerning something to come) namel" when an" one swears that he hath done this or that or not done it$ or that he will do this or that or that he will not do it. "1hosoever therefore swears an" of these four wa"s and the thing is not as he swears (for eBam#le that he hath not cast a stone into the sea when he hath cast it$ that he hath cast it when he hath not$ that he will not eat and "et eats$ that he will eat and "et eateth not ) behold this is a false oath or #er4ur"." "1hosoever swears that he will not eat and "et eats some things which are not sufficientl" fit to be eaten this man is not guilt"." 0econdl" % vain or a rash oath. This also is fourfold but not in the same manner as the former) 1. 1hen the" asserted that with an oath which was contrar" to most .nown truth$ as "8f he should swear a man were a woman a stoneC#illar to be a #illar of gold " /c.$ or when an" swore that was or was not which was altogether im#ossible$ as "that he saw a camel fl"ing in the air." '. 1hen one asserted that b" an oath concerning which there was no reason that an" should doubt. >or eBam#le that "Deaven is heaven a stone is a stone " /c. +. 1hen a man swore that he would do that which was altogether im#ossible$ namel" "that he would not slee# for three da"s and three nights$ that he would taste nothing for a full wee. " /c. (. 1hen an" swore that he would abstain from that which was commanded$ as "that he would not wear #h"lacteries " /c. These ver" eBam#les are brought in the #laces alleged. Thirdl" %n oath concerning something left in trust ) namel" when an" swore concerning something left in trust with him that it was stolen or bro.e or lost and not embe%%led b" him /c. >ourthl" % testimonial oath before a 4udge or magistrate. 8n three of these .inds of swearing care is ta.en onl" concerning the truth of the thing sworn not of the vanit" of swearing. The" seemed indeed to ma.e some #rovision against a vain and rash oath) namel" 1. That he be beaten who so swears and become cursed) which &aimonides hints in the twelfth cha#ter of the tract alleged) with whom the Jerusalem !emarists do agree$ "De that swears two is two let him be beaten for his vain oath." '. The" also added terror to it from fearful eBam#les such as that is in the ver" same #lace. "There "ere t"enty+four assemblies in the south and the" were all destro"ed for a vain oath." :nd in the same tract a woman buried her son for an oath /c. Let the" concluded vain oaths in so narrow a circle that a man might swear a hundred thousand times and "et not come within the limits of the caution concerning vain swearing. 88. 8t was customar" and usual among them to swear b" the creatures$ "8f an" swear b" heaven b" earth b" the sun /c. although the mind of the swearer be under these words to swear b" Dim who created them "et this is not an oath. 9r if an" swear b" some of the #ro#hets or b" some of the boo.s of the 0cri#ture although the sense of the swearer be to swear b" Dim that sent that #ro#het or that gave that boo. nevertheless this is not an oath." "8f an" ad4ure another b" heaven or earth he is not guilt"." The" swore b" Deaven. By /eaven so it is.

The" swore b" the Tem#le. "1hen turtles and "oung #igeons were sometimes sold at Jerusalem for a #enn" of gold 3abban 0imeon ;en !amaliel said By this habitation Fthat is by this TempleG 8 will not rest this night unless the" be sold for a #enn" of silver." "3. Hechariah ;en Ietsab said By this Temple the hand of the woman de#arted not out of m" hand." "3. Jochanan said By the Temple it is in our hand " /c. ";ava ;en ;uta swore b" the Tem#le in the end of the tract 5herithuth and 3abban 0imeon ;en !amaliel in the beginning$ %nd so "as the custom in Israel." Note this "so was the custom." The" swore b" the cit" Jerusalem. "3. Judah saith De that saith -;" Jerusalem - saith nothing unless with an intent #ur#ose he shall vow towards Jerusalem." 1here also after two lines coming between those forms of swearing and vowing are added " Jerusalem# for Jerusalem# by Jerusalem$ The Temple# for the Temple# by the Temple . The altar for the altar b" the altar. The lamb for the lamb b" the lamb. The chambers of the Tem#le for the chambers of the Tem#le b" the chambers of the Tem#le. The wood for the wood b" the wood. The sacrifices on fire for the sacrifices on fire b" the sacrifices on fire. The dishes for the dishes b" the dishes. ;" all these things that 8 will do this to "ou." The" swore b" their own heads. "9ne is bound to swear to his neighbour and he saith 3o" (or s"ear) to me by the life of thy head " /c. BD. 1.t I say .nto yo.8 0wear not at all< neither by hea:en< for it is Go7Fs throne: F'"ear not at all.G 8n the tract )emai are some rules #rescribed to a religious man) among others That he be not too much in s"earing and laughing . 1here the !loss of 3. 0olomon is this$ "means this ;e not much in oaths although one should swear concerning things that are true) for in much swearing it is im#ossible not to #rofane." 9ur 0aviour with good reason binds his followers with a straiter bond #ermitting no #lace at all for a voluntar" and arbitrar" oath. The sense of these words goes in the middle wa" between the Jew who allowed some #lace for an arbitrar" oath$ and the :naba#tist who allows none for a necessar" one.
B?. +either shalt tho. swear by thy hea78 beca.se tho. canst not ma6e one hair white or blac6.

FThou canst not make one hair "hite or black.G That is Thou canst not #ut on gra" hairs or la" them aside.
B@. 1.t let yo.r comm.nication be8 2ea8 yea< +ay8 nay: for whatsoe:er is more than these cometh of e:il.

FLet your communication be# >ea# yea4 nay# nay .G 8n Debrew 7iving and receiving Fthat is businessG among the disciples of the "ise men# Let it be in truth and faith# by saying# >es# yes4 No# no ) or according to the ver" words concerning >es# yes4 concerning No# no. "8f it be said to a lunatic 0hall we write a bill of divorce for "our wife2 and he nod with his head the" tr" thrice$ and if he answer to No# no4 and to >es# yes$ the" write it and give it to his wife."
B'. 2e ha:e hear7 that it hath been sai78 An eye for an eye8 an7 a tooth for a tooth.

F>e have heard that it hath been said# %n eye for an eye /c.G This law he also cites as clothed in the !loss of the scribes and now received in the Jewish schools. ;ut the" resolved the law not into a 4ust retaliation but into a #ecuniar" com#ensation. "?oes an" cut off the hand or foot of his neighbour2 The" value this according to the eBam#le of selling a servant$ com#uting at what #rice he would be sold before he was maimed and for how much less now

he is maimed. :nd how much of the #rice is diminished so much is to be #aid to the maimed #erson as it is said -:n e"e for an e"e - /c. 1e have received b" tradition that this is to be understood of #ecuniar" satisfaction. ;ut whereas it is said in the law -8f a man cause a blemish in his neighbour the same shall be done to him- F<ev '()1*G$ it means not that he should be maimed as he hath maimed another$ but when he deserveth maiming he deserveth to #a" the damage to the #erson maimed." The" seemed out of ver" great charit" to soften that severe law to themselves when nevertheless in the mean time little care was ta.en of livel" charit" and of the forgiving an offence CCan o#en door being still left them to eBaction and revenge which will a##ear in what follows.
B). 1.t I say .nto yo.8 *hat ye resist not e:il: b.t whosoe:er shall smite thee on thy right chee68 t.rn to him the other also.

F0hosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek.G That the doctrine of 5hrist ma" here more clearl" shine out let the Jewish doctrine be set against it$ to which he o##oseth his. "?oes an" one give his neighbour a boB on the ear2 let him give him a shilling. 3. Judah in the name of 3. Josi of !alilee saith <et him give him a #ound." ")oes he give him a blo" upon the cheek< Let him give him t"o hundred !u!es ) if with the other hand let him give four hundred." 5om#are with this #assage verse +*) -8f an" shall stri.e thee on the right chee. turn to him the other also.")oes he t"itch him by the ear$ or does he #ull off his hair$ or does he s#it so that his s#ittle falls u#on him$ or does he ta.e awa" his coat" Fnote this also and com#are verse (, with it -De that will ta.e awa" th" coat - /c.G$ "or does he uncover a woman-s head in #ublic2 <et him give four hundred %u%ees." The" fetch the reason of so severe a mulct chiefl" from the shame done him that is thus in4ured and from the disgrace of the thing itself$ and moreover from the dignit" of an 8sraelite) which is declared at large b" the !emarists u#on the words cited and b" &aimonides. "Those mulcts Fsa" the"G are established and inflicted according to the dignity of the #erson in4ured. ;ut 3. :.ibah said -=ven the #oorest 8sraelites are to be esteemed as though the" were #ersons of @ualit" divested of their estates because the" are the sons of :braham 8saac and Jacob.-" Dence the entrance to our 0aviour-s doctrine lies eas") 1. De cites the law of retaliation that b" la"ing one against the other 5hristian charit" and forgiveness might shine the clearer. '. De mentions these #articulars which seemed to be the most unworth" and not to be borne b" the high @ualit" of a Jew that he might the more #reach u# evangelical humilit" and #atience and selfCdenial. ;ut wh" was the law of retaliation given if at last it is melted down into this2 9n the same reason as the law of death was given concerning adulter" namel" for terror and to demonstrate what the sin was. ;oth were to be softened b" charit"$ this b" forgiveness that b" a bill of divorce) or if the husband so #leased b" forgiveness also.
DG. An7 if any man will s.e thee at the law8 an7 ta6e away thy coat8 let him ha:e thy cloa6 also.

F%nd if any "ill sue thee at the la"# and take a"ay thy coat /c.G 5oat that is Talith. 0o in the words of the Talmud alleged he takes his coat 9f this garment thus the 3auch$ Talith is a cloak) and wh" is it called Talith< Because it is above all the garments $ that is because it is the outermost garment. 8n this u##er garment were woven in those fringes that were to #ut them in mind of the law of which there is mention Numbers 15)+8. Dence is that /e that takes care of his skirts deserves a good coat . Dereu#on the disgrace was increased together with the wrong when that was ta.en awa" concerning which the" did not a little boast na" and in which the" #laced no small religion) &atthew '+)5 an upper

and an in"ard garment... "8f an" give a #oor man a #enn" to bu" an inward garment let him not bu" a coat nor an u##er garment." /e lends him an inner garment and a coat .
D&. An7 whosoe:er shall compel thee to go a mile8 go with him twain.

F%nd "hosoever shall compel thee to go a mile /c.G To him that had some cor#oreal wrong done him were these five mulcts to be #aid according to the reason and @ualit" of the wrong) : mulct for maiming if so be the #art" were maimed) a mulct for pain caused b" the blow or wound given) a mulct for the cure of the wound or blow$ a mulct for the reproach brought u#on him) and a mulct for ceasing when being wounded or beaten he .e#t his bed and could not follow his business. To the first the first words of our 0aviour That ye resist not evil seem to relate) ?o not so resist or rise u# against an in4urious #erson as to re@uire the law of retaliation against him. The second and fourth the words following seem to res#ect vi%. -0hosoever smiteth thee so that it cause #ain and shame-) and those words also -/im that "ill take a"ay thy coat.- To the last do these words under our hand refer and to the second certainl" if "some intolerable .ind of service be #ro#ounded " which the famous ;e%a asserts. The word ver" usual among the Talmudists whereb" the" denote accom#an"ing him that goes elsewhere out of honour and res#ect reaches not the sense of the word compel but is too soft and low for it. 8t is rec.oned for a dut" to accom#an" a dead cor#se to the grave and a 3abbin de#arting somewhere. Dence is that stor" "!ermani the servant of 3. Judah Nasi willing to conduct 3. 8lla going awa" met a mad dog " /c. The footste#s of this civilit" we meet with among the 5hristians Titus +)1+$ John =#. + verse 6$ the" were mar.s of res#ect love and reverence) but that which was re@uired b" the Jewish masters out of arrogance and a su#ercilious authorit" was to be done to a 3abbin as a 3abbin. ;ut to compel to go a mile sounds harsher and s#ea.s not so much an im#ulse of dut" as a com#ulsion of violence) and the Talmudists retain that ver" word %ngaria and do show b" eBam#les not a few what it means. "8t is re#orted of 3. =lia%ar ;en Darsum that his father be@ueathed him a thousand cities on the dr" land and a thousand shi#s on the sea) but "et he ever" da" carr"ing along with him a bottle of meal on his shoulder travelled from cit" to cit" and from countr" to countr" to learn the law. 9n a certain da" his servants met him and angariate# compel him. De saith to them -8 beseech "ou dismiss me that 8 ma" go and learn the law.- The" sa" to him -;" the life of 3. =lia%ar ;en Darsum we will not dismiss "ou -" /c. 1here the !loss is " %ngariah is the service of the governor of the city $ and he was here to serve himself Ffor he was the lord of the cit"G. ;ut the" .new him not but thought him to belong to one of those his cities) for its was incumbent on them to attend on their master." :gain$ "3. =lie%er saith -1h" was :braham our father #unished and wh" were his sons afflicted in =g"#t two hundred and ten "ears2- Because he ,angariavit - -com#elled- the disci#les of the wise men to go with him) as it is said he armed his catechumens or his trained or instructed " !enesis 1()1(. The same almost is said of Iing :sa) "3abba as.ed 1h" was :sa #unished F "ith the goutG2 Because he compelled the disciples of the "ise men to go along with him) as it is said -:nd :sa gathered together all Judah none eBce#ted -" /c. 1 Iings 15)''. 1e meet with mention also of angariating cattle$ ":n ass is hired for a hill" 4ourne"$ but he that hireth him travels in the valle") although both be of the li.e distance that is ten miles if an ass dies he who hired him is guilt" /c. ;ut if the ass "ere angariated the hirer saith to the owner Behold# take your beast to yourself " /c. The !ooss is "If he "ere angariated that is if the" ta.e him for some wor. of the .ing " /c.

Lou see then whither the eBhortation of our 0aviour tends) 1. To #atience under an o#en in4ur" and for which there is no #retence verse +*. '. Knder an in4ur" for which some right and e@uit" in law is #retended verse (,. +. Knder an in4ur" com#ulsion or violence #atroni%ed b" the authorit" of a .ing or of those that are above us.
DB. 2e ha:e hear7 that it hath been sai78 *ho. shalt lo:e thy neighbo.r8 an7 hate thine enemy.

FThou shalt hate thine enemy.G Dere those #oisonous canons might be #roduced whereb" the" are trained u# in eternal hatred against the !entiles and against 8sraelites themselves who do not in ever" res#ect wal. with them in the same traditions and rites. <et this one eBam#le be instead of ver" man" which are to be met with ever"where) "The heretical 8sraelites that is the" of 8srael that worshi# idols or who transgress to #rovo.e !od) also =#icurean 8sraelites that is 8sraelites who den" the law and the #ro#hets are b" #rece#t to be slain if an" can sla" them and that o#enl"$ but if not o#enl" "ou ma" com#ass their death secretl" and b" subtilt"." :nd a little after (9E the eBtreme charit" of the Jews towards the !entiles)$ ";ut as to the !entiles with whom we have no war and li.ewise to the she#herds of smaller cattle and others of that sort the" do not so #lot their death$ but it is forbidden them to deliver them from death if the" are in danger of it." >or instance$ ": Jew sees one of them fallen into the sea$ let him b" no means lift him out thence) for it is written -Thou shalt not rise u# against the blood of th" neighbour-) but this is not th" neighbour." :nd further$ ":n 8sraelite who alone sees another 8sraelite transgressing and admonisheth him if he re#ents not is bound to hate him."
D?. "or if ye lo:e them which lo:e yo.8 what rewar7 ha:e yeC 7o not e:en the p.blicans the sameC

F)o not even the publicans the same 2G Dow odious the #ublicans were to the Jewish nation es#eciall" those that were s#rung of that nation and how the" rec.oned them the ver" worst of all man.ind a##ears man" wa"s in the evangelists$ and the ver" same is their character in their own writers. "8t is not lawful to use the riches of such men of whom it is #resumed that the" were thieves$ and of whom it is #resumed that all their wealth was gotten b" ra#ine$ and that all their business was the business of eBtortioners such as #ublicans and robbers are$ nor is their mone" to be mingled with thine because it is #resumed to have been gotten b" ra#ine." :mong those who were neither fit to 4udge nor to give a testimon" in 4udgment are numbered the collectors of ta2es# and the publicans. 7ublicans are 4oined with cutCthroats and robbers. "They s"ear to cut+throats# to robbers and to publicans Finvading their goodsG This is an offering /c. De is .nown b" his com#anion." The" were mar.ed with such re#roach and that not without good reason$ #artl" b" reason of their ra#ine #artl" that to the burden laid u#on the nation the" themselves added another burden. "1hen are #ublicans to be rec.oned for thieves2 when he is a !entile$ or when of himself he ta.es that office u#on him$ or when being de#uted b" the .ing he doth not eBact the set sum but eBacts according to his own will." Therefore the father of 3. Heira is to be re#uted for a rare #erson who being a #ublican for thirteen "ears did not ma.e the burdens of the taBes heavier but rather eased them. "1hen the .ing laid a taB to be eBacted of the Jews of each according to his estate these #ublicans being de#uted to #ro#ortion the thing became res#ecters of #ersons burdening some and indulging others and so became #lunderers." ;" how much the more grievous the heathen "o.e was to the Jewish #eo#le boasting themselves a free nation so much the more hateful to them was this .ind of men$ who though s#rung of Jewish blood "et rendered their "o.e much more heav" b" these ra#ines.

5ha#ter 6 Oscri#5om t"#eN"5ommentar"" #assageN"&atthew 6" #arsedN"P&attP6P,P,P," osis3efN";ible)&att.6" QR


&. *a6e hee7 that ye 7o not yo.r alms before men8 to be seen of them: otherwise ye ha:e no rewar7 of yo.r "ather which is in hea:en.

FTake heed# that ye do not your alms /c.G 8t is @uestioned whether &atthew writ alms or righteousness. 8 answer$ 8. That our 0aviour certainl" said righteousness...8 ma.e no doubt at all$ but that that word could not be otherwise understood b" the common #eo#le than of alms there is as little doubt to be made. >or although the word righteousness according to the idiom of the 9ld Testament signifies nothing else than righteousness$ "et now when our 0aviour s#o.e those words it signified nothing so much as alms. 88. 5hrist used also the same word righteousness in the three verses neBt following and &atthew used the word alms) but b" what right 8 beseech "ou should he call it righteousness in the first verse and alms in the following CCwhen 5hrist ever" where used one and the same word2 &atthew might not change in !ree. where our 0aviour had not changed in 0"riac. Therefore we must sa" that the <ord Jesus used the word righteousness in these four first verses) but that s#ea.ing in the dialect of common #eo#le he was understood b" the common #eo#le to s#ea. of alms. Now the" called alms b" the name of righteousness in that the >athers of the Traditions taught and the common #eo#le believed that alms conferred ver" much to 1ustification. Dear the Jewish chair in this matter) ">or one farthing given to a #oor man in alms a man is made #arta.er of the beatifical vision." 1here it renders these words F7sa 16)15G -8 shall behold th" face in righteousness - after this manner$ -8 shall behold th" face because of alms.9ne saith "This mone" goes for alms that m" sons ma" live and that 8 ma" obtain the world to come." ": man-s table now eB#iates b" alms as heretofore the altar did b" sacrifice." "8f "ou afford alms out of "our #urse !od will .ee# "ou from all damage and harm." "&onoba%es the .ing bestowed his goods liberall" u#on the #oor and had these words s#o.e to him b" his .insmen and friends -Lour ancestors increased both their own riches and those that were left them b" their fathers$ but "ou waste both "our own and those of "our ancestors.- To whom he answered -&" fathers laid u# their wealth on earth$ 8 la" u# mine in heaven$ as it is written Truth shall flourish out of the earth# but righteousness shall look do"n from heaven . &" fathers laid u# treasure that bears no fruit$ but 8 la" u# such as bear fruit$ as it is said It shall be "ell "ith the 1ust# for they shall be at the fruit of their "orks. &" fathers treasured u# where #ower was in their hands$ but 8 where it is not$ as it is said Justice and 1udgment is the habitation of his throne . &" fathers hea#ed u# for others$ 8 for m"self$ as it is said %nd this shall be to thee for righteousness. The" scra#ed together for this world$ 8 for the world to come$ as it is said *ighteousness shall deliver from death.-" These things are also recited in the ;ab"lonian Talmud. Lou see #lainl" in what sense he understands righteousness namel" in the sense of alms) and that sense not so much framed in his own imagination as in that of the whole nation and which the ro"al catechumen had imbibed from the 7harisees his teachers.

;ehold the 4ustif"ing and saving virtue of alms from the ver" wor. done according to the doctrine of the 7harisaical chair. :nd hence the o#inion of this efficac" of alms so far #revailed with the deceived #eo#le that the" #ointed out alms b" no other name (confined within one single word) than righteousness. 7erha#s those words of our 0aviour are s#o.en in derision of this doctrine$ "Lea give those things which "e have in alms and behold all things shall be clean to "ou " <u.e 11)(1. 1ith good reason indeed eBhorting them to give alms but "et withal stri.ing at the covetousness of the 7harisees and confuting their vain o#inion of being clean b" the washing of their hands from their own o#inion of the efficac" of alms. :s if he had said "Le assert that alms 4ustifies and saves$ and therefore "e call it b" the name of righteousness) wh" therefore do "e affect cleanness b" the washing of hands and not rather b" the #erformance of charit"2" 0ee the #raises of alms somewhat too high for it in the Talmud. "3. Jannai saw one giving mone" o#enl" to a #oor man$ to whom he said 8t is better "ou had not given at all than so to have given." F&ther"ise ye have no re"ard.G De therefore seems the rather to s#ea. of a reward because the" eB#ected a reward for their almsCdoing without all doubt$ and that as we said for the mere wor. done. "3. <a%ar was the almoner of the s"nagogue. 9ne da" going into his house he said -1hat news2- The" answered -0ome came hither and ate and dran. and made #ra"ers for thee.- -Then - saith he -there is no good reward.- :nother time going into his house he said -1hat news2- 8t was answered -0ome others came and ate and dran. and railed u#on "ou.- -Now - saith he -there will be a good reward.-"
;. *herefore when tho. 7oest thinealms8 7o not so.n7 a tr.mpet before thee8 as the hypocrites 7o in the synagog.es an7 in the streets8 that they may ha:e glory of men. ,erily I say .nto yo.8 *hey ha:e their rewar7.

F)o not sound a trumpet before thee# as the hypocrites do in the synagogues# and in the streets$ G 8t is a 4ust scru#le whether this sounding a trum#et be to be understood according to the letter or in a borrowed sense. 8 have not found although 8 have sought for it much and seriousl" even the least mention of a trum#et in almsgiving. 8 would most willingl" be taught this from the more learned. Lou ma" divide the ordinar" alms of the Jews into three #arts) 8. The alms,+dish. The" gave alms to the #ublic dish or bas.et) Tamchui (according to the definition of the author of :ruch and that out of ;ava ;athra in the #lace latel" cited) was a certain vessel in which bread and food was gathered for the poor of the "orld. Lou ma" not im#ro#erl" call it the alms+basket$ he calls it a dish. ;" the poor of the "orld are to be understood an" beggars begging from door to door$ "ea even heathen beggars. Dence the Jerusalem Talmud in the #lace above @uoted The alms+dish "as for every man. :nd the :ruch moreover This alms "as gathered daily by three men# and distributed by three. 8t was gathered of the townsmen b" collectors within their doors$ which a##ears b" that caution$ The collection of alms may not separate themselves one from another# unless that one may go by himself to the gate# and another to the shop . That is as the !loss eB#lains it the" might not gather this alms se#aratel" and b" themselves$ that no sus#icion might arise that the" #rivil" converted what was given to their own use and benefit. This onl" was allowed them$ when the" went to the gate one might beta.e himself to the gate and another to a sho# near it to as. of the dwellers in both #laces) "et with this #roviso that withal both were within sight of one another. 0o that at each door it might be seen that this alms was received b" the collectors. :nd here was no #robabilit" at all of a trum#et when this alms was of the lowest degree being to be bestowed u#on vagabond strangers and the" ver" often heathen. 88. The poor,s+chest. The" gave alms also in the #ublic #oor-sCboB) which was to be distributed to the #oor onl" of that cit". The alms,+dish is for the poor of the "orld# but the alms,+chest for the poor only of that city. This was collected of the townsmen b" two Parnasin of whom before to whom also a third was

added for the distributing it. The ;ab"lonian !emarists give a reason of the number not unworth" to be mar.ed) ": tradition of the 3abbins. The alms,+chest is gathered b" two and distributed b" three. 8t is gathered b" two because they do not constitute a superior office in the synagogue less than of t"o# and it is distributed by three# as pecuniary 1udgments are transacted by three ." This alms was collected in the s"nagogue on the sabbath (com#are 1 5orinthians 16)') and it was distributed to the #oor on the sabbathCeve. Dence is that 6The alms,+chest is from the sabbath+eve to the sabbath+eve$ the alms-Cdish ever" da"." 1hether therefore the trum#et sounded in the s"nagogue when alms were done it again remains obscure since the Jewish canonists do not o#enl" mention it while "et the" treat of these alms ver" largel". 8ndeed ever" s"nagogue had its trum#et. >or 1. The" sounded with the trum#et in ever" cit" in which was a 4udiciar" bench at the coming in of the new "ear. ;ut this was not used but after the destruction of the Tem#le. '. The" sounded with the trum#et when an" was eBcommunicated. Dence among the utensils of a 4udge is numbered a trum#et. >or the instruments of 1udges as a##ears there were a rod# a "hip# a trumpet# and a sandal$ 6% trumpet (saith the !loss) for e2communication and anathemati!ing ) and a sandal for the ta.ing off of the shoe of the husband-s brother." :nd in the same #lace mention is made of the eBcommunicating of Jesus four hundred trum#ets being brought for that business. +. The trum#et sounded siB times at the coming in of ever" sabbath) that from thence b" that sign given all #eo#le should cease from servile wor.s. 9f this matter discourse is had in the ;ab"lonian Talmud in the tract of the 0abbath. Thus there was a trum#et in ever" s"nagogue$ but whether it were used while alms were done 8 still in@uire. That comes into m" mind 6The collectors of alms do not proclaim on a feast+day# as they proclaim on a common day) but collect it #rivatel" and #ut it u# in their bosom." ;ut whether this #roclamation did #ublish what was giving b" ever" one or did admonish of not giving an" thing but what might rightl" be given$ let the more learned 4udge b" loo.ing u#on the #lace. 888. The" gave alms also out of the field and that was es#eciall" fourfold) 1. The corner of the field not rea#ed. '. 0heaves left in the field either b" forgetfulness or voluntaril". +. The gleaning of the vintage$ of which see <eviticus 1*)* 1, ?euteronom" '()1*. :nd (. The poor,s tenth$ of which the Talmudists largel" in the tracts 7eah ?emai and &aaseroth. To the gathering of these the #oor were called " By three manifestations in the day$ namel" in the morning# and at noon# and at (inchah " or -the evening.That is the owner of the field o#enl" shewed himself three times in the da" for this end that then the #oor should come and gather) in the morning for the sa.e of nurses$ because in the mean time while their "oung children sle#t the" might the more freel" go forth for this #ur#ose) at noon for the sa.e of children who also at that time were #re#ared to gather) at (inchah for the sa.e of old men. 0o the Jerusalem !emarists and the !lossers u#on the ;ab"lonian Talmud. There were the ordinar" alms of the Jewish #eo#le) in the doing which seeing as "et 8 cannot find so much as the least sound of a trum#et in their writers 8 guess that either our 0aviour here s#o.e meta#horicall"$ or if there were an" trum#et used that it was used in #eculiar and eBtraordinar" alms. The Jews did ver" highl" a##rove of alms done secretl"$ hence the treasury of the silent was of famed memor" in the Tem#le$ whither "some ver" religious men brought their alms in silence and #rivac" when the #oor children of good men were maintained." :nd hence is that #roverb /e that doth alms in secret is greater than our master (oses himself . :nd "et the" laboured under such an itch to ma.e their alms #ublic lest the" should not be seen b" men that the" did them not without a trum#et$ or which

was as good as a trum#et with a #roud desire of ma.ing them .nown) that the" might the more be #ointed at with the finger and that it might be said of them -These are the men.B. 1.t when tho. 7oest alms8 let not thy left han7 6now what thy right han7 7oeth: FLet not thy left hand kno" "hat thy right hand doth$ G De seems to s#ea. according to the custom used in some other things$ for in some actions which #ertained to religion the" admitted not the left hand to meet with the right. "The cu# of wine which was used to sanctif" the coming in of the sabbath was to be ta.en with the right hand without the assistance of the left." "<et not man receive into a vessel the blood of the sacrifice bring it to the altar or s#rin.le it with his left hand." :nd in the same tract it is related of 0hammai that he would feed himself onl" with one hand.
(. An7 when tho. prayest8 tho. shalt not be as the hypocrites are: for they lo:e to pray stan7ing in the synagog.es an7 in the corners of the streets8 that they may be seen of men. ,erily I say .nto yo.8 *hey ha:e their rewar7.

FThey love to pray standing in the synagogues# and in the corner of the streets$ G 1. The" #ra"ed standing <u.e 18)11 1+ &ar. 11)'5. "8t is written -:nd :braham rose earl" in the morning at the #lace where he had stood before the <ord.- But to stand "as nothing else than to pray) as it is said %nd Phineas stood and 1udged." "9ne entereth into the s"nagogue and found them standing in prayer." "<et scholar of the wise men loo. downwards "hen he stands praying." :nd to name no more the same &aimonides asserts these things are re@uired in #ra"er$ that he that #ra"eth stand$ that he turn his face towards Jerusalem$ that he cover his head$ and that he fiB his e"es downwards. 88. The" loved to pray in the synagogues. "De goes to the s"nagogue to #ra"." "1h" do the" recite their #h"lacteries in the s"nagogue when the" are not bound to do it2 3. Josi saith The" do not recite them in the s"nagogue for that end that so the whole office of the #h"lacteries ma" be #erformed but to #ersevere in #ra"er. >or this recitation was to be said over again when the" came home." 3abbenu :sher hath these words) "1hen an" returns home in the evening from the field let him not sa" -8 will go into m" house-$ but first let him beta.e himself to the s"nagogue) and if he can read let him read something$ if he can recite the traditions let him recite them. :nd then let him sa" over the #h"lacteries and #ra"." ;ut that we be not too tedious even from this ver" o#inion the" were wont to beta.e themselves to the s"nagogues because the" were #ersuaded that the #ra"ers of the s"nagogue were certainl" heard. 888. The" #ra"ed in the streets. 0o &aimonides$ "The" #ra"ed in the streets on the feasts and #ublic fasts." "1hat are the rites of the fasts2 The" brought out the ar. into the streets of the cit" and s#rin.led ashes u#on the ar. and u#on the head of the #resident of the 0anhedrim and the viceC#resident$ and ever" one #ut ashes u#on his own head. 9ne of the elders ma.es this eBhortation$ -8t is not said 9 brethren of the Ninevites that !od saw their sac.cloth or their fastings$ but that he saw their wor.s /c. The" stand #ra"ing and the" set some fit elder before the ar. and he #ra"s fourCandCtwent" #ra"ers before them." ;ut doth our 0aviour condemn all #ra"ers in the s"nagogue2 ;" no means. >or he himself #ra"ed in and with the s"nagogue. Nor did he barel" re#rove those #ublic #ra"ers in the streets made b" the whole multitude in those great solemnities but #ra"ers ever"where both in the s"nagogues and the streets that were made #rivatel" but "et #ublicl" also and in the sight of all that thereb" he that #ra"ed might get some name and re#utation from those that saw him.

8. 1hile #ublic #ra"ers were uttered in the s"nagogue it was customar" also for those that hunted after vainglor" to mutter #rivate #ra"ers and such as were different from those of the s"nagogue whereb" the e"es of all might be the more fiBed u#on him that #ra"ed. "Dath not a man #ra"ed his morning #ra"ers2 1hen he goes into the s"nagogue does he find them #ra"ing the additionar" #ra"er2 8f he is sure he shall begin and end so that he ma" answer -:men- after the angel of the church let him sa" his #ra"ers." 88. The" #ra"ed also b" themselves in the streets. "3. Jochanan said 8 saw 3. Jannai standing and #ra"ing in the streets of Tsi##or and going four cubits and then #ra"ing the additionar" #ra"er." Two things es#eciall" shew their h"#ocris" here) 1. That so much #rovision is made concerning reciting the #h"lacteries and the #ra"ers added (that it might be done within the 4ust time) that wheresoever a man had been when the set time was come he #resentl" beta.es himself to #ra"ers) ": wor.man or he that is u#on the to# of a tree he that rides on an ass must immediatel" come down and sa" his #ra"ers " /c. These are the ver" instances that the canonists give which with more of them "ou ma" find in the tract ;eracoth. Dence therefore those vainglorious h"#ocrites got an occasion of boasting themselves. >or the hour of the #h"lacterical #ra"ers being come their care and endeavour was to be ta.en in the streets) whereb" the canonical hour com#elling them to their #ra"ers in that #lace the" might be the more seen b" all #ersons and that the ordinar" #eo#le might admire and a##laud both their %eal and religion. To which h"#ocritical #ride the" often added this also that the" used ver" long #auses both before the" began their #ra"ers and after the" had done them) so that ver" usuall" for three hours together the" were seen in a #ra"ing habit and #osture. 0ee the ;ab"lonian Talmud. 0o that the 5anonists #la"ed the madmen with some reason when the" allowed the s#ace from the rising of the morning to the third hour of the da" for the #h"lacterical #ra"ers$ because those threeChour #ra"ing men scarcel" des#atched them within less s#ace #ausing one hour before the" began #ra"er and as much after the" were ended. '. The" addicted themselves to e4aculations #ra"ers and blessings u#on the sight almost of an" thing meeting them either in the streets or in the wa". "1hen one saw a #lace wherein some miracle was done for 8srael$ a #lace from whence idolatr" was rooted out$ or a #lace where an idol now was a short #ra"er was to be used. 1hen an" saw a blac.amoor a dwarf a croo.ed a maimed #erson /c. the" were to bless. <et him that sees a fair tree or a beautiful face bless thus ;lessed be De who created the beaut" of the creature " /c.
@. 1.t when ye pray8 .se not :ain repetitions8 as the heathen do: for they thin6 that they shall be hear7 for their m.ch spea6ing.

F390:3L a cha#let of roses or beads used as an aid to memor" in the re#eating of #ra"ers as the 7aternosters and :ve &arias. There are various #atterns in use$ one is a rosar" of fift"Cfive beads fift" small ones for the :ve &arias se#arated into grou#s of ten b" five large ones to mar. 7aternosters. Dindus &ohammedans and ;uddhists all em#lo" the rosar". The name is also given to a series of #ra"ers ("3osar" of the ;lessed Jirgin") consisting of fifteen decades com#rising fifteen #aternosters and doBologies and 15, :ve &arias divided into three #arts.CCKniversal 0tandard =nc"clo#edia 390:3L. 7art of the ritual of the 3oman 5atholic 5hurch is the rosar" fifteen grou#s or series of #ra"ers each series consisting of a 7aternoster (<ord-s 7ra"er) ten :ves (salutes to the Jirgin &ar") and a !loria. The string of beads used in counting the #ra"ers is also called a rosar". 8t is s"mbolic for the large beads stand for 7aternosters (9ur >ather-s) and !lorias and the small beads for :ves (Dail &ar"-s) while the crucifiB on the #endant s"mboli%ed the :#ostles- 5reed. The grou#s of beads are "decades"$ generall" onl" five decades are said at one time. 8nstead of a large bead at the end and at the beginning of each decade onl" one bead is used to re#resent the !loria and the 7aternoster.

?uring the telling of the beads in each decade the worshi#er meditates on one of the fifteen m"steries of the life and death of 5hrist. 8n the !ree. 5hurch the mon.s and not the la" members of the congregation recite their #ra"ers with the rosar" which is com#osed of a hundred beads of e@ual si%e. 8n the 3ussian 5hurch the rosar" consists of 1,+ beads which are divided into grou#s b" four larger ones re#resenting the =vangelists. 3osaries are also used b" ;uddhists and &ohammedans.CCThe 1onderland of Inowledge =nc"clo#edia 1*65G F;se not vain repetitions# as the heathen do G 0ee the civil battology Fvain repetitionsG of the heathen in their su##lications) "<et the #arricide be dragged) we beseech thee. :ugustus let the #arricide be dragged. This is the thing we as. let the #arricide be dragged. Dear us 5aesar. <et the false accusers be condemned to the lion. Dear us 5aesar. <et the false accusers be condemned to the lion. Dear us 5aesar " /c. ":ntoninus the #ious the gods .ee# thee. :ntoninus the merciful the gods .ee# thee. :ntoninus the merciful the gods .ee# thee." 0ee also 5a#itolinus in the &aBimini. Those words savour of vain re#etition in #ra"er 1 Iings 18)'6$ "The #riest of ;aal called u#on the name of ;aal from morning to noon sa"ing 9 ;aal hear us." :fter the same manner almost as the heathen miBed vain repetitions in their #ra"ers did the Jews in their using divers "ords importing the same thing) not re#eating indeed the same thing in varied #hrases$ which a##ears sufficientl" to him that reads their liturgies through as well the more ancient as those of a later date. :nd certainl" the sin is e@uall" the same in using different words of the same thing as in a vain re#etition of the same words$ if so be there were the same deceit and h"#ocris" in both$ in words onl" multi#lied but the heart absent. :nd in this matter the Jew sinned little less than the heathen. >or this was an aBiom with them very one that multiplies prayer is heard. 5hrist therefore does not so much condemn the bare sa"ing over again the same #etitions either in the same words or in words of the same im#ort (for he himself s#a.e the same things thrice when he #ra"ed in the garden) as a false o#inion as if there were some #ower or %eal or #iet" in such .ind of re#etitions$ and that the" would be sooner heard and more #revail with !od. 1hile he stri.es the heathen he stri.es the Jews also who laboured under the same #hrens") but there is mention onl" of the heathen #artl" because this savoured rather of heathen blindness than of the #rofession of true religion which the Jews boasted of$ #artl" and es#eciall" that he might not condemn the #ublic #ra"ers of the Jews without cause in which the" sinned not at all b" using s"non"mous eB#ressions if it were done out of a #ious and sincere heart.
). After this manner therefore pray ye: #.r "ather which art in hea:en8 Hallowe7 be thy name.

F%fter this manner therefore pray ye5 &ur Father /c.G 0ome things which seem more difficult about this divine form of #ra"er will #erha#s #ass into a softer sense if certain things ver" usual in the Jewish church and nation be observed to which the a#ostles could not but have regard when the" clearl" ac.nowledged here the highest conformit" with them. >or that it was customar" with our 0aviour for the most #art to conform himself to the church and nation both in religious and civil matters so the" were lawful most evidentl" a##ears also in this form of #ra"er. <et these things therefore be observed) 8. That the stated #ra"ers of the Jews dail" to be said at that time when 5hrist #rescribed this form to his disci#les were eighteen in number or in a @uantit" e@ualling it. 9f this number of their #ra"ers the !emarists of both Talmuds treat at large. 1hom consult.

1hether the" were reduced to the #recise number of eighteen in the order that the" afterward a##eared in while 5hrist was u#on earth some scru#le ariseth from some things which are said b" the ;ab"lonian Talmudists in the #lace alleged) but it might be #lainl" #roved if there were need that little or indeed nothing at all wanted of the @uantit" and bul. of such a number. "The 3abbins have a tradition (sa" the") that 0imeon 7e.oli reduced into order the eighteen #ra"ers according to their course before 3abban !amaliel in Jafne. 3abban !amaliel said to the wise men -8s there an" that .nows to com#ose a #ra"er against the 0adducees2- 0amuel the <ittle stood forth and constituted one " /c. That 3abban !amaliel which is here s#o.e of was 7aul-s master. >or although 3abban !amaliel (who was commonl" st"led -Jafnensis - of Jafne) was the ne#hew of 7aul-s master. !amaliel and this thing is mentioned to be done in Jafne$ "et 7aul-s master also lived in Jafne) and that this was he of whom is the stor" before us sufficientl" a##ears hence because his business is with 0amuel the <ittle who certainl" died before the destruction of the cit". Knder !amaliel the elder therefore were those dail" #ra"ers reduced first into that order wherein the" were received b" the following ages. 1hich however it was done after the death of our 0aviour in regard of their reducing into order "et so man" there were in dail" use at that time when he conversed on earth. Now he condemned not those #ra"ers altogether nor esteemed them of no account$ "ea on the contrar" he 4oined himself to the #ublic liturg" in the s"nagogues and in the Tem#le) and when he delivereth this form to his disci#les he eBtinguisheth not other forms. 88. 1hen all could not readil" re#eat b" heart those numerous #ra"ers the" were reduced into a brief summar" in which the marrow of them all was com#rised$ and that #rovision was made for the memor" that the" should have a short e#itome of those #ra"ers whom the wea.ness of their memor" or sometime the unavoidable necessit" of business #ermitted not to re#eat a longer #ra"er or to be at leisure to do it. This summar" the" called a fountain. "3abban !amaliel saith -<et ever" one #ra" the eighteen #ra"ers ever" da".- 3. Joshua saith Let him pray the summary of those eighteen. ;ut 3. :.ibah saith If prayer be free in his mouth# let him pray the eighteen4 but if not# let him pray the summary of those eighteen." That our 0aviour com#rised the sum of all #ra"ers in this form is .nown to all 5hristians$ and it is confessed that such is the #erfection of this form that it is the e#itome of all things to be #ra"ed for as the ?ecalogue is the e#itome of all things to be #ractised. 888. 8t was ver" usual with the doctors of the Jews 1. To com#ose forms of short #ra"ers and to deliver them to their scholars (which is asserted also of John <u.e 11)1)$ whereof "ou will find some eBam#les and the" not a few in the ;ab"lonian !emara in the tract ;eracoth and elsewhere. Not that b" those forms the" banished or destro"ed the set and accustomed #ra"ers of the nation$ but the" su#eradded their own to them and suited them to #ro#er and s#ecial occasions. '. To the stated #ra"ers and others framed b" themselves it was ver" usual to add some short #ra"er over and above which one ma" not amiss call -the concluding #ra"er.- Ta.e these eBam#les of these #ra"ers) "*$ lie!er# "hen he had finished his prayers# "as "ont to say thus -<et it be th" good #leasure 9 <ord that love and brotherhood dwell in our #ortion - /c. 3. Jochanan when he had finished his #ra"ers was wont to sa" thus -<et it be th" good #leasure 9 <ord to ta.e notice of our re#roach and to loo. u#on our miseries -" /c. 8n li.e manner 1. 9ur 0aviour while he delivers this form to his disci#les does not wea.en the set forms of the church$ nor does he forbid his disci#les not to use #rivate #ra"ers) but he delivers this most eBact summar" of all #ra"ers to be added over and above to our #ra"ers$ his most #erfect to our most im#erfect. '. The a#ostles sufficientl" accustomed to the manners of the nation could not 4udge otherwise of this form. 8n inter#reting ver" man" #hrases and histories of the New Testament it is not so much worth what we thin. of them from notions of our own feigned u#on 8 .now not what grounds as in what sense

these things were understood b" the hearers and loo.ers on according to the usual custom and vulgar dialect of the nation. 0ome in@uire b" what authorit" we do sub4oin or su#eradd the <ord-s 7ra"er to ours$ and feign arguments to the contrar" out of their own brain. ;ut 8 as. whether it was #ossible that the a#ostles and disci#les who from their ver" cradles had .nown and seen such forms instituted for common use and added moreover to the set #ra"ers and others should 4udge otherwise of this form given b" our <ord$ which bore so great conformit" with those and with the most received rite and custom of the nation2 8J. That church held it for a 4ust canon and that indeed no discommendable one neither /e that prays ought al"ays# "hen he prays# to 1oin "ith the church . 1hich is not strictl" to be understood onl" of his #resence in the s"nagogue (that is elsewhere and otherwise commanded man" times over) but wheresoever in the world he be #laced "ea when he is most alone that he sa" his #ra"ers in the #lural number) for thus the !loss eB#lains it Let none pray the short prayer (that is one different from the set #ra"ers) in the singular number# but in the plural . 8n which number our 0aviour teacheth us also to #ra" in this form$ and that u#on ver" good reason when in whatsoever solitude or distance we are "et we ought to ac.nowledge ourselves 4oined with the church and to #ra" for her ha##iness as well as for our own. F&ur Father "hich art in heaven$G 8. This e#ithet of !od was ver" well .nown among the Jews and ver" usual with them) "&ur Father "hich art in heaven deal so with us as thou hast #romised b" the #ro#hets." :nd in another #lace this is thrice recited$ "1hom have we whereon to rel" besides our Father "hich is in heaven2" ";lessed are "e 9 8sraelites$ who cleanseth "ou2 Lour Father# "ho is in heaven." "Le gave not to "our Father# "ho is in heaven but to me the #riest." 88. ;ut in what sense did the Jews call !od their Father in heaven when the" were altogether ignorant of the doctrine and m"ster" of ado#tion besides that ado#tion whereb" !od had ado#ted them for a #eculiar #eo#le2 8 answer >or that ver" cause the" were taught b" !od himself so to call him =Bodus ()'' ?euteronom" +')6 /c. Nor was there an" among them who not onl" might not do this but also who ought not to do it. 1hile the heathen said to his idol -Thou art m" father - Jeremiah ')'6 the 8sraelite was bound to sa" &ur Father "hich art in heaven 8saiah 6+)16 6()8. 888. 1hen 5hrist useth this manner of s#eech so ver" well .nown to the nation does he not use it in a sense that was .nown to the nation also2 <et them answer who would have the <ord-s 7ra"er to be #ra"ed and said b" none but b" those who are indeed believers and who have #artoo. of true ado#tion. 8n what sense was our 0aviour when he s#a.e these words understood of the hearers2 The" were thoroughl" instructed from their cradles to call !od the Father in heaven) the" neither hear 5hrist changing the #hrase nor curtailing an" thing from the latitude of the .nown and used sense. Therefore let them tell me ?id not 7eter John and the rest of the a#ostles thin. that it was as lawful for all 5hristians to sa" to !od &ur Father "hich art in heaven as it was lawful for all Jews2 The" called !od Father because he had called them into the #rofession of him because he too. care of them and instructed them /c. :nd what 8 beseech "ou hinders but all 5hristians obtaining the same #rivileges ma" honour !od with the same com#ellation2 There is nothing in the words of 5hrist that hinders and there is somewhat in the ver" #hrase that #ermits it.
)8&G. After this manner therefore pray ye: #.r "ather which art in hea:en8 Hallowe7 be thy name. *hy 6ing7om come. *hy will be 7one in earth8 as it is in hea:en.

F/allo"ed be thy name$ Thy kingdom come.G This obtained for an aBiom in the Jewish schools$ That prayer# "herein there is not mention of the kingdom of 7od# is not a prayer . 1here these words are also added) ":bai saith <i.e to this is that of 3abh to be rec.oned that it is a tradition I have not transgressed thy precepts# nor have I forgotten them " (the" are the words of him that offereth the firstC

fruits ?euteronom" '6)1+). "-8 have not transgressed - that is b" not giving than.s) -:nd 8 have not forgotten them-$ that is 8 have not forgot to commemorate th" name and th" kingdom." FThy "ill be done# as in heaven /c.G "1hat is the short #ra"er2 3. =lie%er saith )o thy "ill in heaven and give @uietness of s#irit to them that fear thee beneath " or in earth.
&&. Gi:e .s this 7ay o.r 7aily brea7.

F&ur daily bread.G That is #rovide to+morro",s bread and give it us toCda" that we be not solicitous for toCmorrow... "The necessities of th" #eo#le 8srael are man" and their .nowledge small so that the" .now not how to disclose their necessities$ let it be th" good #leasure to give to ever" man "hat sufficeth for food " /c.
&B. An7 lea7 .s not into temptation8 b.t 7eli:er .s from e:il: "or thine is the 6ing7om8 an7 the power8 an7 the glory8 for e:er. Amen.

F)eliver us from evil.G "3abbi FJudahG was wont thus to #ra") -<et it be th" good #leasure to deliver us from im#udent men and im#udence$ from an evil man and from an evil chance$ from an evil affection from an evil com#anion from an evil neighbour from 0atan the destro"er from a hard 4udgment and from a hard adversar" -" /c. FFor thine is the kingdom /c.G 8. 8n the #ublic service in the Tem#le the commemoration of the kingdom of 7od was the res#ond$ instead of which the #eo#le answered %men when the #riests ended their #ra"ers. ">or the tradition is# that they ans"ered not ,%men, in the house of the sanctuary . 1hat said the" then2 Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for ever ." Dence in the tract Joma (where the rubric of the da" of =B#iation is) after various #ra"ers recited which on that da" the high #riest ma.es is added ":nd the #eo#le answered ;lessed be the name of the glor" of his .ingdom for ever and ever." 0ee the #laces of that tract noted in the margin. There a short #ra"er of the high #riest is mentioned in which he thus concludes$ ";e "e clean before Jehovah"$ and these words are added ";ut the #riests and #eo#le standing in the court when the" heard the name Jehovah #ronounced out in its s"llable adoring and falling #rostrate u#on their face the" said Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for ever and ever." 0ee also the tract Taanith where a reason is given of this doBolog" in the !loss there. 88. This also the" #ronounced softl" and in a gentle whis#er while the" were reciting the #h"lacteries. 8t is said of the men of Jericho that they folded up the 'chemah. 8t is dis#uted what this means$ ":nd 3. Judah saith That the" made some small #ause after the reciting of this #eriod -Dear 9 8srael the <ord our !od is one <ord-) but the" said not -;lessed be the name of the glor" of his .ingdom for ever and ever.- ;ut b" what reason do we sa" so2 3. 0imeon ;en <evi eB#lains the m"ster" who saith 9ur father Jacob called his sons and said -!ather "ourselves together and 8 will declare unto "ou.- 8t was in his mind to reveal to them the end of da"s and the Dol" 0#irit de#arted from him) he said therefore -7erha#s there is something #rofane in m" bed (which !od forbidE) as it was to :braham from whom #roceeded 8shmael$ and to 8saac from whom #roceeded =sau.- Dis sons said unto him -Dear 8srael the <ord our !od is one <ord-$ as in th" heart there is but one$ so in our hearts there is but one. :t that time our father Jacob began and said Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for ever and ever. The 3abbins said 1hat shall we do2 0hall we sa" this doBolog"2 9ur master &oses said it not. 0hall we not sa" it2 9ur father Jacob said it. Therefore it was a##ointed to sa" it softl" " /c. Lou see how ver" #ublic the use of this doBolog" was and how ver" #rivate too. ;eing a res#onse it was #ronounced in the Tem#le b" all with a loud voice$ being an e4aculation it was s#o.en in the #h"lacterical #ra"ers b" ever" single man in a ver" low voice. :nd "ou see how great an agreement it hath with the conclusion of the <ord-s #ra"er ">or thine is the .ingdom " /c.

888. :s the" answered %men not at all in the #ublic #ra"ers in the Tem#le so the" seldom 4oined it to the end of their #rivate #ra"ers. 8n the s"nagogue indeed the #eo#le answered %men to the #ra"ers made b" the minister) and also at home when the master of the famil" blessed or #ra"ed$ but seldom or indeed never an" one #ra"ing #rivatel" 4oined this to the end of his #ra"ers. :nd now to a##l" those things which have been said to the matter under our hands consider the following things) 1. That this #ra"er was twice delivered b" our 0aviour) first in this sermon in the mount when he was not as.ed$ and afterward when he was as.ed almost half a "ear after <u.e 11. '. That this conclusion is added in 0t. &atthew ">or thine is the .ingdom " /c.$ but in 0t. <u.e it is not. 8n 0t. &atthew is added moreover the word %men$ but in 0t. <u.e it is wanting. K#on the whole matter therefore we infer 8. That 5hrist in eBhibiting this form of #ra"er followed a ver" usual rite and custom of the nation. 88. That the disci#les also receiving this form delivered to them could not but receive it according to the manner and sense of the nation used in such cases) since he introduced no eBce#tion at all from that general rule and custom. 888. That he scarcel" could signif" his mind that this #ra"er should be universall" and constantl" used b" an" mar.s or signs more clear than those which he made use of. >or >irst De commanded all without an" eBce#tion or distinction ":fter this manner #ra" "e"$ and "1hen "e #ra" sa" 9ur >ather " /c. 0econdl" :s according to the ordinar" custom of the nation forms of #ra"er delivered b" the masters to the scholars were to be used and were used b" them all indifferentl" and without distinction of #ersons$ so also he neither suggested an" thing concerning this his #ra"er either besides the common custom or contrar" to it. Thirdl" The form itself carries along with it certain characters both of its #ublic and #rivate and constant use. 8t ma" certainl" with good reason be as.ed 1h" since 5hrist had delivered this #ra"er in such #lain words in his sermon u#on the mount this command moreover being added ":fter this manner #ra" "e " it was desired again that he would teach them to #ra"2 1hatE had the" forgotten that #ra"er that was given them there2 1ere the" ignorant that it was given them for a form of #ra"er and so to be used2 ;ut his seems rather the cause wh" the" desired a second time a form of #ra"er namel" because the" might rec.on that first for a public form of #ra"er$ since this might easil" be evinced both b" the addition of the conclusion so li.e the #ublic res#onse in the Tem#le and es#eciall" b" the addition of %men used onl" in #ublic assemblies) therefore the" beseech him again that he would teach them to #ra" #rivatel"$ and he re#eats the same form but omits the conclusion and %men which savoured of #ublic use. Therefore "ou have in the conclusion a sign of the public use b" the agreement of it to the res#onse in the Tem#le$ and of the private b" the agreement of it to the e4aculation in the #h"lacterical #ra"ers. : sign of the #ublic use was in the addition of %men$ a sign of the #rivate use was in the absence of it) a sign of both in the conformit" of the whole to the custom of the nation. 5hrist taught his disci#les to #ra" as John had taught his <u.e 11)1) John taught his as the masters among the Jews had theirs b" "ielding them a form to be used b" all theirs dail" verbatim and in terms.
&?. 3oreo:er when ye fast8 be not8 as the hypocrites8 of a sa7 co.ntenance: for they 7isfig.re their faces8 that they may appear .nto men to fast. ,erily I say .nto yo.8 *hey ha:e their rewar7.

FThey disfigure their faces$G That is the" disguised their faces with ashes$ as he heretofore u#on another cause 1 Iings ',)+8) "8n the #ublic fasts ever" one too. ashes and #ut u#on his head. The" sa" of 3. Joshua ;en :naniah that all the da"s of his life his face "as black by reason of is fastings. 1h" is his name called :shur2 (1 5hron ()5). Because his face "as black by fastings." Dere let that of 0eneca come in$ "This is against nature to hate eas" cleanliness and to affect nastiness."
&@. 1.t tho.8 when tho. fastest8 anoint thine hea78 an7 wash thy face<

FBut thou# "hen thou fastest# anoint thine head /c.G >or those that fasted neither anointed themselves nor washed. "9n the da" of =B#iation it was forbidden to eat to drin. to wash to anoint themselves to #ut on their sandals to lie with their wives. ;ut the .ing and the bride ma" wash their faces and a midwife ma" #ut on her sandals." 0ee the ;ab"lonian !emara here. 0ee also the ;ab"lonian Talmud in the tract Taanith concerning other fasts and the fasts of #rivate men. The" were wont to anoint their bodies and heads u#on a threefold reason) 8. For finer dress. ":nointing is #ermitted to be used on the sabbath whether it be for ornament or not for ornament. 9n the da" of =B#iation both are forbidden. 9n the ninth da" of the month :b and in the #ublic fasts anointing for dress is forbid$ anointing not for dress is allowed." 88. The" anointed themselves often not for e2cess or bravery or delight but for the healing of some disease or for the health of the bod". /e that is troubled "ith the head+ache# or on "hom scabs arise# let him anoint himself "ith oil. ": tradition of the 3abbins. 8t is forbidden Fin fastsG to wash a #art of the bod" as well as the whole bod". ;ut if it be defiled with dirt or dung let him wash according to the custom and let him not be troubled. 8t is also forbidden to anoint a #art of the bod" as well as the whole bod") but if a man be sic. or if a scab arise on his head let him anoint himself according to the custom." Dence when the a#ostles are said "to anoint the sic. with oil and to heal them " &ar. 6)1+ the" used an ordinar" medicine and obtained an eBtraordinar" and infallible effect. Dence that of 0t. James cha#ter 5)1() "<et the sic. man call for the elders of the church and let them #ra" over him anointing him with oil in the name of the <ord") that is to that ordinar" medicine namel" anointing for recover" of health let the #ra"ers of the ministers of the church be used. 888. The" used sometimes a su#erstitious anointing of the head and nothing differing from magical anointing) /e that mutters# let him put oil upon his head# and mutter . this muttering is to be understood concerning the manner of sa"ing a charm u#on the wound or some #lace of the bod" that feels #ain$ muttering over the "ound$ of which mention is made in the tract 'anhedrim. &ention also is made in the tract 'chabbath now alleged that some used this enchanting muttering in the name of Jesus) "9ne being sic. a certain #erson came to him and muttered u#on him in the name of Jesus of 7andira and he was healed." :nd a little after$ "3. =lie%er ;en ?amah was bitten b" a ser#ent. James of 5a#harsam came to heal him in the name of Jesus) but 3. 8smael #ermitted him not " /c. 0ee :cts 1*)1+. 8f the words of James before alleged be com#ared with this cursed custom the" ma" well sound to this sense$ -8t is customar" for the unbelieving Jews to use anointing of the sic. 4oined with a magical and enchanting muttering$ but how infinitel" better is it to 4oin the #ious #ra"ers of the elders of the church to the anointing of the sic.E-

;G9;D. 1.t lay .p for yo.rsel:es treas.res in hea:en8 where neither moth nor r.st 7oth corr.pt8 an7 where thie:es 7o not brea6 thro.gh nor steal: "or where yo.r treas.re is8 there will yo.r heart be also. *he light of the bo7y is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single8 thy whole bo7y shall be f.ll of light. 1.t if thine eye be e:il8 thy whole bo7y shall be f.ll of 7ar6ness. If therefore the light that is in thee be 7ar6ness8 how great is that 7ar6nessH +o man can ser:e two masters: for either he will hate the one8 an7 lo:e the other< or else he will hol7 to the one8 an7 7espise the other. 2e cannot ser:e Go7 an7 mammon. FIf thine eye be single$ If thine eye be evil .G That the business here is about a covetous or a not covetous mind ma" be gathered 8. >rom the conteBt on either hand) for verse ', '1 the discourse is concerning treasures either earthl" or heavenl" and verse '( concerning serving either !od or &ammon. 88. >rom a ver" usual manner of s#eech of the nation. >or a good eye to the Jews is the same with a bountiful mind$ and an evil eye is the same with a covetous mind. "This is the measure of the Truma" (or of the oblation "ielded to the #riests) % good eye yieldeth one out of forty$ that is the fortieth #art. "The school of 0hammai saith 9ne out of thirt". : middling e"e one out of fift". %nd an evil eye# one out of si2ty$ /e that gives a gift# let him give "ith a good eye ) and he that dedicates an" thing let him dedicate it with a good e"e." 0ee &atthew ',)15. Dence covetousness is called the lust of the eyes 1 John ')16. Therefore our 0aviour shows here with how great dar.ness the mind is clouded and dimmed b" covetousness and too much care of worldl" things.
;?. 1ehol7 the fowls of the air: for they sow not8 neither 7o they reap8 nor gather into barns< yet yo.r hea:enly "ather fee7eth them. Are yo. not m.ch better than theyC

FThe fo"ls of the air# they so" not /c.G "Dave "ou ever seen beasts or fowls that had a wor.sho#2 :nd "et the" are fed without trouble of mind " /c. 0ee also &idras Tillin.
BG. Wherefore8 if Go7 so clothe the grass of the fiel78 which to7ay is8 an7 tomorrow is cast into the o:en8 shall he not m.ch more clothe yo.8 # ye of little faithC

F& ye of little faith.G 'mall of faith a #hrase ver" fre@uent in the Talmudists. /e that prayed "ith a loud voice# is to be numbered among those that are little of faith . The 8sraelites in the wilderness were of little faith. 3. :buhabh in the #reface to (enorath hammaor$ "3. =lie%er saith -1hosoever hath but a small morsel in his bas.et and saith 1hat have 8 to eat toCmorrow behold he is to be rec.oned among those of little faith.-"
BD. *a6e therefore no tho.ght for the morrow: for the morrow shall ta6e tho.ght for the things of itself. 0.fficient .nto the 7ay is the e:il thereof.

F'ufficient to the day is the evil thereof.G There is enough of trouble in the very moment . 5ha#ters 6 8 * Oscri#5om t"#eN"5ommentar"" #assageN"&atthew 6 8 *" #arsedN"P&attP6P,P,P,$P&attP8P,P,P,$P&attP*P,P ,P," osis3efN";ible)&att.6 ;ible)&att.8 ;ible)&att.*" QR
;. "or with what A.7gment ye A.7ge8 ye shall be A.7ge7: an7 with what meas.re ye mete8 it shall be meas.re7 to yo. again.

F0ith "hat measure ye mete.G This is a ver" common #roverb among the Jews) In the measure that a man measureth# others measure to him. 0ee also the tract 'otah where it is illustrated b" various eBam#les.

D. #r how wilt tho. say to thy brother8 Let me p.ll o.t the mote o.t of thine eye< an78 behol78 a beam is in thine own eyeC

FLet me pull out the mote out of thine eye /c.G :nd this also was a .nown #roverb among them) "8t is written in the da"s when the" 4udged the 4udges that is in the generation which 4udged their 4udges 1hen an" F1udgeG said to another# Cast out the mote out of thine eye4 he ans"ered# Cast you out the beam out of your o"n eye " /c. "3. Tar#hon said -8 wonder whether there be an" in this age that will receive re#roof) but if one saith to another 5ast out the mote out of thine e"e he will be read" to answer 5ast out the beam out of thine own e"e.-" 1here the !loss writes thus$ "5ast out the mote that is the small sin that is in thine hand$ he ma" answer ;ut cast "ou out the great sin that is in "ours. 0o that the" could not re#rove because all were sinners." ). #r what man is there of yo.8 whom if his son as6 brea78 will he gi:e him a stoneC F0ill he give him a stone2G Dere that of 0eneca comes into m" mind$ "Jerrucosus called a benefit roughl" given from a hard man panem lapidosum# ,stony bread.-"
&;. *herefore all things whatsoe:er ye wo.l7 that men sho.l7 7o to yo.8 7o ye e:en so to them: for this is the law an7 the prophets.

F0hatsoever ye "ould that men should do unto you /c.G : certain !entile came to 0hammai and said -&a.e me a #rosel"te that 8 ma" learn the whole law standing u#on one foot-) 0hammai beat him with the staff that was in his hand. De went to Dillel and he made him a #rosel"te and said That "hich is odious to thyself# do it not to thy neighbour) for this is the whole law.
&B. nter ye in at the strait gate: for wi7e is the gate8 an7 broa7 is the way8 that lea7eth to 7estr.ction8 an7 many there be which go in thereat:

FBroad is the "ay.G 8n these words concerning the broad and narrow wa" our 0aviour seems to allude to the rules of the Jews among their law"ers concerning the #ublic and #rivate wa"s. 1ith whom "a #rivate wa" was four cubits in breadth$ a #ublic wa" was siBteen cubits." 0ee the !loss in Peah.
&D. 1eca.se strait is the gate8 an7 narrow is the way8 which lea7eth .nto life8 an7 few there be that fin7 it.

F7ate.G Knder this #hrase are ver" man" things in religion eB#ressed in the Dol" 0cri#ture !enesis '8)16 7salm 118)1* ', &atthew 16)18 /c.$ and also in the Jewish writers. -The gate of re#entance- is mentioned b" the 5haldee #ara#hrast u#on Jeremiah ++)6$ and -the gate of #ra"ers - and -the gate of tears.- "0ince the Tem#le was laid waste the gates of #ra"er were shut but the gates of tears were not shut." 'trait gate seems to be the !ree. rendering of Pishpesh a word ver" usual among the Talmudists) "1ith a .e" he opened the little door and out of ;ethCmo.ad" (the place of the fire+hearth) "he entereth into the court." Pishpesh saith the :ruch is a little door in the midst of a great door .
&(. 1eware of false prophets8 which come to yo. in sheepFs clothing8 b.t inwar7ly they are ra:ening wol:es.

FIn sheep,s clothing.G Not so much in woolen garments as in the ver" skins of sheep) so that outwardl" the" might seem shee# but "inwardl" the" were ravening wolves." 9f the ravenousness of wolves among the Jews ta.e these two eBam#les besides others. "The elders #roclaimed a fast in their cities u#on this occasion because the wolves had devoured two little children be"ond Jordan. &ore than three hundred shee# of the sons of Judah ;en 0hamoe were torn b" wolves."

&?. 2e shall 6now them by their fr.its. %o men gather grapes of thorns8 or figs of thistlesC

FBy their fruits ye shall kno" them.G That is a #roverb not unli.e it. % gourd# a gourd# is kno"n by its branch.
;). "or he ta.ght them as one ha:ing a.thority8 an7 not as the scribes.

F%s one having authority# and not as the scribes .G 8t is said with good reason in the verse going before that "the multitude were astonished at 5hrist-s doctrine") for besides his divine truth de#th and convincing #ower the" had not before heard an" discoursing with that authority that he did. The scribes borrowed credit to their doctrine from traditions and the fathers of them) and no sermon of an" scribe had an" authorit" or value without The *abbins have a tradition or The "ise men say$ or some traditional oracle of that nature. Dillel the !reat taught trul" and as the tradition was concerning a certain thing$ ";ut although he discoursed of that matter all da" long they received not his doctrine until he said at last 0o 8 heard from 0hemaia and :btalion."
Chapter ' ;. An78 behol78 there came a leper an7 worshippe7 him8 saying8 Lor78 if tho. wilt8 tho. canst ma6e me clean.

FThou canst make me clean.G The doctrine in the law concerning le#ros" #aints out ver" well the doctrine of sin. 8. 8t teacheth that no creature is so unclean b" a touch as man. Lea it ma" with good reason be as.ed whether an" creature while it lived was unclean to the touch beside man2 That is often re#eated in the Talmudists that "he that ta.es a worm in his hand all the waters of Jordan cannot wash him from his uncleanness"$ that is while the worm is as "et in his hand$ or the worm being cast awa" not until the time a##ointed for such #urification be eB#ired. ;ut whether it is to be understood of a living or dead worm it is doubted not without cause since the law treating of this matter s#ea.eth onl" of those things that died of themselves. 0ee <eviticus 11)+1) "1hosoever shall touch them when the" be dead " /c.) and verse +' "K#on whatsoever an" of them when the" are dead shall fall " /c. ;ut whether he s#ea.s of a living worm or a dead uncleanness followed b" the touch of it for that da" onl") for "he shall be unclean (saith the law) until the evening") but the carcase of a man being touched a wee.-s uncleanness followed. 0ee Numbers 1*. 88. :mong all the uncleannesses of men le#ros" was the greatest inasmuch as other uncleannesses se#arated the unclean #erson or rendered him unclean for a da" or a wee. or a month$ but the le#ros" #erha#s for ever. 888. 1hen the le#er was #urified the le#ros" was not healed) but the #oison of the disease being eva#orated and the danger of the contagion gone the le#er was restored to the #ublic congregation. !eha%i the servant of =lisha was ad4udged to #er#etual le#ros"$ and "et he was cleansed and conversed with the .ing (' Iings 8)5)$ cleanse not healed. Thus under 4ustification and sanctification there remain still the seeds and filth of sin. 8J. De that was full of the le#ros" was #ronounced clean$ he that was otherwise was not. <eviticus 1+)1'$ "8f the le#ros" shall cover the whole bod" from head to foot thou shalt #ronounce him clean " /c. : law certainl" to be wondered atE 8s he not clean till the whole bod" be infected and covered with the le#ros"2 Nor shalt thou 9 sinner be made clean without the li.e condition. =ither ac.nowledge th"self all over le#rous or thou shalt not be cleansed.
B. An7 Jes.s p.t forth his han78 an7 to.che7 him8 saying8 I will< be tho. clean. An7 imme7iately his leprosy was cleanse7.

FJesus touched him.G 8t was indeed a wonder that when the le#ros" was a cree#ing infection the #riest when he 4udged of it was not hurt with the infection. 8t cannot be #assed over without observation that :aron being bound under the same guilt with &iriam bore not the same #unishment) for she was touched with le#ros" he not Numbers 1'. :nd also that K%%iah should be confuted concerning his encroaching u#on the #riesthood no other wa" than b" the #lague of le#ros". 8n him !od would magnif" the #riesthood that was to 4udge of the le#ros"$ and he would shew the other was no #riest b" his being touched with the le#ros". 8t can scarcel" be denied indeed that the #riests sometimes might be touched with that #lague$ but certainl" the" catched not the contagion while the" were doing their office in 4udging of it. This is a noble doctrine of our Digh 7riest the Judge and 7h"sician of our le#ros" while he remains wholl" untouched b" it. Dow much does he sur#ass that miracle of the <evitical #riesthoodE The" were not touched b" the contagion when the" touched the le#rous #erson$ he b" his touch heals him that hath the infection.
D. An7 Jes.s saith .nto him8 0ee tho. tell no man< b.t go thy way8 show thyself to the priest8 an7 offer the gift that 3oses comman7e78 for a testimony .nto them.

F7o# she" thyself to the priest /c.G 8. 9ur 0aviour would not have the eBtraordinar" manner whereb" he was healed discovered to the #riest that he might #a" the ordinar" dut" of his cleansing. :nd surel" it deserves no slight consideration that he sends him to the #riest. Dowever now the #riesthood was too degenerate both from its institution and its office "et he would reserve to it its #rivileges while he would reserve the #riesthood itself. 5orru#tion indeed defiles a divine institution but eBtinguishes it not. 88. Those things which at that time were to be done in cleansing of the le#ros" according to the 3ubric were these) "<et him bring three beasts) that is a sacrifice for sin# a sacrifice for transgression and a burntCoffering. ;ut a #oor man brought a sacrifice for sin of birds and a burntCoffering of birds. De stands b" the sacrifice for transgression and la"s both his hands u#on it and sla"s it) and two #riests receive the blood$ the one in a vessel the other in his hand. De who receives the blood in his hand goes to the le#er in the chamber of the le#ers") this was in the corner of the 5ourt of the 1omen loo.ing northCwest. "De #laceth him in the gate of Nicanor " the east gate of the 5ourt of 8srael$ "he stretcheth forth his head within the court and #uts blood u#on the lowest #art of his ear) he stretcheth out his hand also within the court and he #uts blood u#on his thumb and his foot and he #uts blood also u#on his great toe /c. :nd the other adds oil to the same members in the same #lace " /c. The reason wh" with his nec. held out he so thrust forth his head and ears into the court "ou ma" learn from the !losser) "The gate of Nicanor (saith he) was between the 5ourt of the 1omen and the 5ourt of 8srael) but now it was not lawful for an" to enter into the 5ourt of 8srael for whom there was not a #erfect eB#iation) and on the contrar" it was not lawful to carr" the blood of the sacrifice for transgression out of the court." Dence was that invention that the le#er that was to be cleansed should stand without the court$ and "et his ears his thumbs and his toes to which the blood was to be a##lied were within the court. 1e omit sa"ing more$ it is enough to have #roduced these things whence it ma" be observed what things the" were that our 0aviour sent bac. this healed #erson to do. The cure was done in !alilee and thence he is sent awa" to Jerusalem$ silence and sacrifice are en4oined him) 'ee thou tell no man /c.) and offer the gift /c. :nd wh" all these things2 >irst 5hrist ma.es trial of the obedience and gratitude of him that was cured la"ing u#on him the charge of a sacrifice and the labour of a 4ourne". 0econdl" De would have him restored to the communion of the church (from which his le#ros" had se#arated him) after the wonted and instituted manner. De #rovides that he himself give no scandal and the #erson healed ma.e no schism) and however both his words and gestures sufficientl" argue that he believed in 5hrist "et 5hrist will b" no means draw him from the communion of the church but restore him to it. Dence is that command of his to him$ "0ee thou tell no man but offer a gift for a testimon" to them") that is -?o not boast the eBtraordinar" manner of th" healing$ thin. not th"self freed

from the bond of the law in case of a le#er because of it$ thrust not th"self into the communion of the church before the rites of admission be dul" #erformed) but however "ou have no business with the #riest in reference to the #urification and cleansing go to the #riest nevertheless and offer the gift that is due for a testimon" that "ou are again restored into communion with them.- This caution of our 0aviour hath the same tendenc" with that &atthew 16)'6 "That we be not an offence to them " /c.
?. An7 saying8 Lor78 my ser:ant lieth at home sic6 of the palsy8 grie:o.sly tormente7.

FLiethG Laid forth. Thus % dead man laid forth in order to his being carried out. The #ower and dominion of the disease is so eB#ressed. The wea. #erson lieth so that he is moved onl" b" others$ he cannot move himself but is as it were neBt door to carr"ing out. 0o verse 1( of 7eter-s motherCinClaw "as laid# and sick of a fever. &?. When the e:en was come8 they bro.ght .nto him many that were possesse7 with 7e:ils: an7 he cast o.t the spirits with his wor78 an7 heale7 all that were sic6: F0hen the even "as come.G &ar. adds "hen the sun "as no" set and the sabbath was now gone. 8. The sabbath was ended b" the Jews at the su##er or the feast. 8n which the" used a candle (as the" did u#on the entrance of the sabbath) and wine and s#ices$ and the form of a blessing over a cu# of wine and then over the candle and then over the s#ices) "?oes the sabbath end when he is now in the middle of his feast2 De #uts an end to his eating$ washes his hands$ and over a cu# of wine he gives than.s for his food$ and afterward over that cu# he useth the form of #ra"er in the se#aration of the sabbath from a common da") if he be now drin.ing when the sabbath goes out he ceaseth from drin.ing and recites the form of se#aration and then returns to his drin.ing." 88. The #ro#er limits of the sabbath were from sunCset to sunCset. This is sufficientl" intimated b" 0t. &ar. when he saith that "hen the sun "as no" set the" brought the sic. to be healed) which the" held unlawful to do while the sun was "et going down and the sabbath "et #resent. The Talmudic canons give a caution of some wor.s that the" be not begun on the da" before the sabbath if the" ma" not be ended and finished "hile it is yet day) that is (as the" eB#lain it) "hile the sun is not yet set$ /e that lights a -sabbath. candle# let him light it "hile it is yet day# before sun+set . "9n the sabbathCeve it is #ermitted to wor. until sunCset." The entrance of the sabbath was at sunCset and so was the end of it. 888. :fter the setting of sun a certain s#ace was called Bin /ashmashuth) concerning which these things are dis#uted$ "1hat is Bin /ashmashuth2 3. Tanchuma saith 8t is li.e a dro# of blood #ut u#on the ver" edge of a sword which divides itself ever" where. 1hat is Bin /ashmashuth2 8t is from that time when the sun sets whilst one ma" wal. half a mile. 3. Josi saith Bin /ashmashuth is li.e a win. of the e"e " /c. Bin /ashmashuth #ro#erl" signifies bet"een the suns) and the manner of s#eech seems to be drawn thence that there are said to be two sun+sets. 5oncerning which read the !losser u#on &aimonides. 1here thus also &aimonides himself) ">rom the time that the sun sets till the three middle stars a##ear it is called bet"een the suns) and it is a doubt whether that time be #art of the da" or of the night. Dowever the" ever" where 4udge of it to render the office heavy. Therefore between that time the" do not light the sabbatical candle) and whosoever shall do an" servile wor. on the sabbathCeve and in the going out of the sabbath is bound to offer a sacrifice for sin." 0o also the Jerusalem Talmudists in the #lace last cited) "?oes one star a##ear2 5ertainl" as "et it is da". ?o two2 8t is doubted whether it be da". ?o three2 8t is night without doubt." :nd a line after$ "9n the sabbathCeve if an" wor. after one star seen he is clear) if after two he is bound to a sacrifice for a transgression$ if after three he is bound to a sacrifice for sin. <i.ewise in the going out of the sabbath if he do an" wor. after one star is seen he is bound to a sacrifice for sin$ if after two to a sacrifice for transgression) if after three he is clear."

Dence "ou ma" see at what time the" brought #ersons here to 5hrist to be healed namel" in the going out of the sabbath$ if so be the" too. care of the canonical hour of the nation which is not to be doubted of.
&@. *hat it might be f.lfille7 which was spo6en by saias the prophet8 saying8 Himself too6 o.r infirmities8 an7 bare our sic6nesses.

F/imself took our infirmities.G ?ivers names of the &essias are #roduced b" the Talmudists among others "The 3abbins sa" /is name is# ,The leper of the house of *abbi -) as it is said 5ertainl" he bare our infirmities " /c. :nd a little after "3abh saith 8f &essias be among the living 3abbenu Daccodesh is he." The !loss is "8f &essias be of them that are now alive certainl" our hol" 3abbi is he as being one that carries infirmities " /c. 3. Judah whom the" called -the Dol" - underwent ver" man" sic.nesses (of whom and of his sic.nesses "ou have the stor" in the Talmud "thirteen "ears 3abbi laboured under the #ain of the teeth " /c.)$ because of which there were some who were #leased to account him for the &essias$ because according to the #ro#hets &essias should be -a man of sorrows-) and "et the" loo. for him coming in #om#. This allegation of &atthew ma" seem somewhat unsuitable and different from the sense of the #ro#het) for 8saiah s#ea.s of the &essias carr"ing our infirmities in himself$ but &atthew s#ea.s concerning him healing them in others) 8saiah of the diseases of the soul (see 1 7eter ')'()$ &atthew of the diseases of the bod". ;ut in this sense both agree ver" well that 5hrist-s business was with our infirmities and sorrows and he was able to manage that business) his #art was to carr" and bear them and in him was strength and #ower to carr" and bear them. 8n this sense therefore is &atthew to be understood$ he healed the demoniacs and all diseased #ersons with his word that that of 8saiah might be fulfilled De it is who is able to bear and carr" our sorrows and sic.nesses. :nd so whether "ou a##l" the words to the diseases of the mind or the bod" a #lain sense b" an e@ual easiness does arise. The sense of 8saiah reacheth indeed further$ namel" That &essias himself shall be a man of sorrows /c. but not eBcluding that which we have mentioned which &atthew ver" fitl" retains as eBcellentl" well suiting with his case.
;'. An7 when he was come to the other si7e into the co.ntry of the Gergesenes8 there met him two possesse7 with 7e:ils8 coming o.t of the tombs8 e5cee7ing fierce8 so that no man might pass by that way.

FInto the country of the 7ergesenes.G 8n &ar. and <u.e it is of the 7adarenes both ver" #ro#erl") for it was the cit" !adara whence the countr" had its name) there was also !ergasa a cit" or a town within that countr"$ which whether it bare its name from the ancient 5anaanite stoc. of the !ergashites or from the word 7argushta which signifies clay or dirt we leave to the more learned to discuss. Lutetia F7arisG a word of such a nature ma" be brought for an eBam#le. FT"o possessed "ith devils coming out of the tombs /c.G "These are the signs of a madman. De goes out in the night and lodges among the se#ulchres and teareth his garments and tram#les u#on whatsoever is given him. 3. Douna saith ;ut is he onl" mad in whom all these signs are2 8 sa" Not. De that goes out in the night is condriacus# hypochondriacal. De that lodgeth a night among the tombs burns incense to devils. De that tears his garments is melancholic. :nd he that tram#les under his feet whatsoever is given him is cardiacus# troubled in mind." :nd a little after "one "hile he is mad# another "hile he is "ell) while he is mad he is to be esteemed for a madman in res#ect of all his actions) while he is well he is to be esteemed for one that is his own man in all res#ects." 0ee what we sa" at cha#ter 16)15.
BG. An7 there was a goo7 way off from them an her7 of many swine fee7ing.

F% herd of many s"ine feeding.G 1ere these !adarenes Jews or heathens2

8. 8t was a matter of infam" for a Jew to .ee# swine) "3. Jonah had a ver" red face which a certain woman seeing said thus 'eignior# 'eignior either "ou are a winebibber or a usurer or a .ee#er of hogs." 88. 8t was forbidden b" the canon) "The wise men forbade to .ee# hogs an"where and a dog unless he were chained." Dogs u#on a twofold account) 1. ;" reason of the hurt and damage that the" would bring to other men-s fields. !enerall" "the .ee#ing smaller cattle was forbid in the land of 8srael"$ among which "ou ma" ver" well rec.on hogs even in the first #lace) and the reason is given b" the !emarists "That the" brea. not into other men-s grounds." '. The feeding of hogs is more #articularl" forbidden for their uncleanness. It is forbidden to trade in any thing that is unclean . 888. Lea it was forbid under a curse) "The wise men sa" 5ursed is he that .ee#s dogs and swine$ because from them ariseth much harm." "<et no man .ee# hogs an"where. The 3abbins deliver) 1hen the :smonean famil" were in hostilit" among themselves D"rcanus was besieged within Jerusalem and :ristobulus was without. The besieged sent mone" in a boB let down b" a ro#e$ and the" which were without bought with it the dail" sacrifices which were drawn u# b" those that were within. :mong the besiegers there was one s.illed in the !ree. learning who said -:s long as the" thus #erform the service of the Tem#le the" will not be delivered into "our hands.- The neBt da" therefore the" let down their mone" and these sent them bac. a hog. 1hen the hog was drawing u# and came to the middle of the wall he fiBed his hoofs to the wall and the land of 8srael was sha.en /c. >rom that time the" said -5ursed be he who .ee#s hogs and cursed be he who teacheth his son the wisdom of the !ree.s.-" This stor" is cited in &enachoth. Therefore "ou will wonder and not without cause at that which is related in their Talmud) "The" said sometimes to 3abh Judah There is a #lague among the swine. De therefore a##ointed a fast." 1hatE is a Jew concerned for a #lague among swine2 ;ut the reason is added) ">or 3abh Judah thought that a stro.e laid u#on one .ind of cattle would invade all." Lou ma" not therefore im#ro#erl" guess that these hogs belonged not to the Jews but to the heathen dwelling among the !adarene Jews$ for such a miBture was ver" usual in the cities and countries of the land of 8srael. 1hich we observe elsewhere of the town 0usitha or Di##o but some small distance from !adara. 9r if "ou grant that the" were Jews their manners will ma.e that o#inion #robable as being #ersons whose highest law the #urse and #rofit was wont to be. 0ince brawn and swine-s flesh were of so great account with the 3omans and other heathens there is no reason to believe that a Jew was held so straitl" b" his canons as to value them before his own #rofit when there was ho#e of gain.
Chapter )

). An7 as Jes.s passe7 forth from thence8 he saw a man8 name7 3atthew8 sitting at the receipt of c.stom: an7 he saith .nto him8 "ollow me. An7 he arose8 an7 followe7 him. F/e sa" a man sitting at the receipt of custom# called (atthe" .G >ive disci#les of 5hrist are mentioned b" the Talmudists among whom &atthew seems to be named) "The 3abbins deliver There were five disci#les of Jesus (athai# Nakai# Ne!er# and Boni# and Thodah ." These the" relate were led out and .illed. 0ee the #lace. 7erha#s five are onl" mentioned b" them because five of the disci#les were chiefl" em#lo"ed among the Jews in Judea) namel" &atthew who wrote his !os#el there 7eter James John and Judas. &atthew seems to have sat in the customChouse of 5a#ernaum near the sea to gather some certain toll or rate of those that sailed over. 0ee 5ha#ter ')1+ 1(.

"De that #roduceth #a#er Fon the 0abbathG in which a #ublican-s note is writ and he that #roduceth a #ublican-s note is guilt"." The !loss is "1hen an" #a"s tribute to the lord of the river or when he eBcuses him his tribute he certifies the #ublican b" a note For some bill of free commerceG that he hath remitted him his dut") and it was customar" in it to write two letters greater than ours." 0ee also the !emara there.
&D. *hen came to him the 7isciples of John8 saying8 Why 7o we an7 the $harisees fast oft8 b.t thy 7isciples fast notC

F0e and the Pharisees fast oft.G &onsters rather than stories are related of the 7harisees- fasts)CC 8. 8t is .nown to all from <u.e 18)1' that the" were wont to fast twice ever" wee.. The rise of which custom "ou ma" fetch from this tradition) "=%ra decreed ten decrees. De a##ointed the #ublic reading of the law the second and fifth da"s of the wee.) and again on the sabbath at the (incha For evening serviceG. De instituted the session of the 4udges in cities on the second and fifth da"s of the wee. " /c. 9f this matter discourse is had elsewhere) "8f "ou as. the reason wh" the decree was made concerning the second and fifth da"s /c. we must answer saith the !loss from that which is said in &idras concerning &oses$ namel" that he went u# into the mount to receive the second tables on the fifth da" of the wee. and came down !od being now a##eased the second da". 1hen therefore that ascent and descent was a time of grace the" so determined of the second and fifth da"s. :nd therefore the" were wont to fast also on the second and fifth da"s." 88. 8t was not seldom that the" en4oined themselves fasts for this end to have luc." dreams$ or to attain the inter#retation of some dream$ or to turn awa" the ill im#ort of a dream. Dence was that eB#ression ver" usual % fast for a dream$ and it was a common #roverb % fast is as fit for a dream# as fire is for fla2. >or this cause it was allowed to fast on the sabbath which otherwise was forbidden. 0ee the ;ab"lonian Talmud in the tract 'chabbath) where also we meet with the stor" of 3. Joshua ;ar 3abh 8dai who on the sabbath was s#lendidl" received b" 3. 8shai but would not eat because he was under a fast for a dream. 888. The" fasted often to obtain their desires) "3. Josi fasted eight" fasts and 3. 0imeon ;en <achish three hundred for this end that the" might see 3. 5hai4ah 3ubbah." :nd often to avert threatening evils$ of which fasts the tract Taanith does largel" treat. <et one eBam#le be enough instead of man"$ and that is of 3. Hado. who for fort" "ears that is from the time when the gates of the Tem#le o#ened of their own accord (a sign of the destruction coming) did so mortif" himself with fastings that he was commonl" called Chalsha that is The "eak. :nd when the cit" was now destro"ed and he saw it was in vain to fast an" longer he used the #h"sicians of Titus to restore his health which through too much abstinence had been wasted.
&(. An7 Jes.s sai7 .nto them8 Can the chil7ren of the bri7echamber mo.rn8 as long as the bri7egroom is with themC b.t the 7ays will come8 when the bri7egroom shall be ta6en from them8 an7 then shall they fast.

FThe children of the bridechamber.G The sons of the bridechamber an ordinar" #hrase. There is no need to relate their mirth in the time of the nu#tials) 8 will relate that onl" and it is enough which is s#o.e b" the !losser They "ere "ont to break glass vessels in "eddings :nd that for this reason that the" might b" this action set bounds to their mirth lest the" should run out into too much eBcess. The !emara #roduceth one or two stories there) "&ar the son of 3abbena made wedding feasts for his son and invited the 3abbins) and when he saw that their mirth eBceeded its bounds he brought forth a glass cup worth four hundred %u%ees and bra.e it before them$ whereu#on the" became sad." The li.e stor" is also related of 3abh 8shai. :nd the reason of this action is given$ Because it is forbidden a man to fill his mouth "ith laughter in this "orld. ...the da"s of the bridechamber to the sons of the bridechamber that is to the friends and ac@uaintance were seven) hence there is fre@uent mention of "the seven da"s of the marriageCfeast")

but to the bride the da"s of the bridechamber were thirt". 8t is forbidden to eat drin. wash or anoint oneself on the da" of =B#iation) But it is allo"ed a king and a bride to "ash their faces ">or the bride is to be made handsome (saith the !loss u#on the #lace) that she ma" be lovel" to her husband. %nd all the thirty days of her bridechamber she is called The Bride ." 8t is worth meditation how the disci#les when 5hrist was with them suffered no #ersecution at all$ but when he was absent all manner of #ersecution overtoo. them.
&'. While he spa6e these things .nto them8 behol78 there came a certain r.ler8 an7 worshippe7 him8 saying8 3y 7a.ghter is e:en now 7ea7: b.t come an7 lay thy han7 .pon her8 an7 she shall li:e.

FBehold# a ruler.G ?istinction is made between the bishop of the congregation and the head of the congregation. >or while the discourse is there of the high #riest reading a certain #ortion of the law on the da" of =B#iation agreeable to the da" thus it is said The bishop of the synagogue takes the book of the la"# and gives it to the ruler of the synagogue . 1here the !loss thus "The synagogue was in the mount of the Tem#le near the court Fwhich is worth" to be mar.edG) The Cha!an For bishop or overseerG of the synagogue is the minister) and the ruler of the s"nagogue is he b" whose command the affairs of the s"nagogue are a##ointed$ namel" who shall read the #ro#het who shall recite the #h"lacteries who shall #ass before the ar.." 9f this order and function was Jairus in the s"nagogue of 5a#ernaum) so that the word ruler being understood in this sense admits of little obscurit" although one or a certain be not there) "he s#ea.ing these words -;ehold the ruler of that s"nagogue -" /c.
;G. An78 behol78 a woman8 which was 7isease7 with an iss.e of bloo7 twel:e years8 came behin7 him8 an7 to.che7 the hem of his garment:

F)iseased "ith an issue of blood.G :eba in Talmudic language. The Talmudic tract ma" serve for a commentar" here. These things were acted in the streets of 5a#ernaum) for there &atthew lived and there Jairus also) and in his #assage from the house of the one to the house of the other this diseased woman met him. 1eigh the stor" well and "ou will easil" 4udge what is to be thought of that stor" concerning the statues of this woman and 5hrist set u# at 7aneas or 5aesarea 7hili##i) of which =usebius s#ea.s.
;B. An7 when Jes.s came into the r.lerFs ho.se8 an7 saw the minstrels an7 the people ma6ing a noise8

F'eeing the minstrels.G ?ion 5assius concerning the funeral of :ugustus) "Tiberius and ?rusus his son ...sacrificed fran.incense themselves$ but the" used not a minstrel. ven the poorest among the Israelites Fhis wife being deadG "ill afford her not less than t"o pipes# and one "oman to make lamentation. "De that hireth an assC.ee#er or a waggoner to bring pipes# either for a bride# or for a dead person ") that is either for a wedding or a funeral. "The husband is bound to bur" his dead wife and to ma.e lamentations and mournings for her according to the custom of all countries. :nd also the ver" #oorest among the 8sraelites will afford her not less than two #i#es and one lamenting woman) but if he be rich let all things be done according to his @ualit"." "8f an idolater bring #i#es on the sabbath to the house where an"one is dead an 8sraelite shall not lament at those #i#es."

This multitude was got together on a sudden) neighbours for civilit"-s sa.e$ minstrels #erha#s for the sa.e of gain$ both the more officious in this business as we ma" guess b" how much the #arents of the deceased maid were of more eminent @ualit". 0he died when 5hrist together with Jairus was going forward to the house (&ar. 5)+5)$ and "et behold what a solemn meeting and concourse there was to lament her. There were two things which in such cases afforded an occasion to much com#an" to assemble themselves to the house of mourning) >irst some as it is ver" #robable resorted thither to eat and drin.) for at such a time some ban@ueting was used. ": tradition. The" drin. ten cu#s in the house of mourning$ two before meat five while the" are eating and three after meat." :nd a little after) "1hen 3abban 0imeon ;en !amaliel died the" added three more. ;ut when the 0anhedrim saw that hence the" became drun. the" made a decree against this." 0econdl" others came to #erform their dut" of charit" and neighbourhood) for the" accounted it the highest instance of res#ect to lament the dead to #re#are things for the burial to ta.e care of the funeral to #ut themselves under the bier and to contribute other things needful for that solemnit" with all diligence. Dence the" a##ro#riated The rendering For besto"ingG of mercies to this dut" in a #eculiar sense above all other demonstrations of charit"$ " &ne of the disci#les of the wise men died# and mercy "as not yielded him") that is no care was ta.en of his funeral. ";ut a certain #ublican died and the "hole city left off "ork to yield him mercy ." &ourning for the dead is distinguished b" the Jewish schools into %ninuth and bluth. %ninuth was on the da" of the funeral onl" or until the cor#se was carried out$ and then began bluth and lasted for thirt" da"s. 9f these mournings ta.e these few #assages) "De that hath his dead laid out before him and it is not in his #ower to bur" him useth not %ninuth Fthat .ind of mourningG. >or eBam#le) 8f an" die in #rison and the magistrate For governor of the #laceG #ermits not his burial he that is near of .in to him is not bound to that mourning which is called %ninuth " /c. :nd the reason is given a little after$ namel" because he who hath his dead laid out before him or u#on whom the care of his burial lies is forbidden to eat flesh to drin. wine to eat with others to eat in the same house (under which #rohibition thou Jairus now art) and he was free from reciting his #h"lacteries and from #ra"er and from all suchCli.e #rece#ts of the law. "But "hen the funeral is carried out of the door of the house# then presently begins the mourning called bluth ." >rom thence he is free from the foregoing #rohibitions and now is sub4ect to others. Dence 1. The bending do"n of the beds$ of which the Talmudists s#ea. ver" much) ">rom what time (sa" the") are the beds bended2 from that time the dead bod" is carried out of the gate of the court of the house$ or as 3. Josua >rom such time as the grave+stone is sto##ed u#") for so it is commonl" rendered$ but the !loss somewhere the cover or the uppermost board of the bier. 1hat this bending of the beds should mean "ou ma" observe from those things which are s#o.en in the tract ;eracoth) "1hence is the bending of the beds2 3. 5ris#a in the name of 3. Jochanan saith >rom thence because it is said %nd they sat "ith him to the earth (Job ')1+). 8t is not said -upon the earth - but -to the earth-) it denotes a thing not far from the earth. Dence it is that the" sat u#on beds bended down." '. "/e that laments all the thirty days is forbidden to do his "ork $ and so his sons and his daughters and servants and maids and cattle " /c. These things concerned him to whom the dead #erson did belong. Dis friends and neighbours did their #arts also both in mourning and in care of the funeral em#lo"ing themselves in that affair b" an officious diligence both out of dut" and friendshi#. " 0hosoever sees a dead corpse (sa" the") and does not accommodate For accompanyG him to his burial is guilt" of that which is said -De that moc.eth the #oor re#roacheth his &a.er - /c. ;ut now (sa" the") no man is so #oor as the dead man " /c.
;D. He sai7 .nto them8 Gi:e place: for the mai7 is not 7ea78 b.t sleepeth. An7 they la.ghe7 him to scorn.

FThe maid is not dead# but sleepeth.G 8t was ver" ordinar" among them to eB#ress the death of an" one b" the word which #ro#erl" signifies to sleep. 0hen N$ slept$ that is "hen he died) a #hrase to be met with hundreds of times in the Talmudists. :nd this whole com#an" would sa" The daughter of Jairus sleeps$ that is she is dead. Therefore it is worth" considering what form of s#eech 5hrist here used. The 0"riac hath 'he is not dead# but asleep.
BB. An7 when the 7e:il was cast o.t8 the 7.mb spa6e: an7 the m.ltit.7es mar:elle78 saying8 It was ne:er so seen in Israel.

FIt "as never so seen in Israel.G These words seem to refer not to that #eculiar miracle onl" that was then done but to all his miracles. 5onsider how man" were done in that one da" "ea in the afternoon. 5hrist dines at 5a#ernaum with &atthew) having dined the im#ortunit" of Jairus calls him awa") going with Jairus the woman with the issue of blood meets him and is healed) coming to Jarius- house he raiseth his dead daughter) returning to his own house (for he had a dwelling at 5a#ernaum) two blind men meet him in the streets cr" out (essias after him follow him home and the" are cured. :s the" were going out of the house a dumb demoniac enters and is healed. The multitude therefore could not but cr" out with ver" good reason "Never had an" such thing a##eared in 8srael." BD. 1.t the $harisees sai78 He casteth o.t 7e:ils thro.gh the prince of the 7e:ils. FThrough the prince of the devils /c.G 0ee the notes at cha#ter 1')'(. 5ha#ters 1, 11 Oscri#5om t"#eN"5ommentar"" #assageN"&atthew 1, 11" #arsedN"P&attP1,P,P,P,$P&attP11P,P,P," osis3efN";ible)&att.1, ;ible)&att.11" QR
&. An7 when he ha7 calle7 .nto him his twel:e 7isciples8 he ga:e them power against .nclean spirits8 to cast them o.t8 an7 to heal all manner of sic6ness an7 all manner of 7isease.

F%nd "hen he had called to him the t"elve disciples .G 5oncerning the number of twelve corres#onding to the tribes of 8srael see <u.e '')+, 3evelation '1)1' 1(. These were called the twelve apostles...under which title &oses and :aron are mar.ed b" the 5haldee #ara#hrast Jeremiah ')1) a word that does not barel" s#ea. a messenger but such a messenger as represents the person of him that sends him. >or The -apostle, of any one is as he himself from whom he is de#uted. 0ee the fortieth verse of this cha#ter. 8f "ou read over the tract of &aimonides here entitled messengers and companions #erha#s "ou will not re#ent "our labour. >or these ends were these twelve chosen as the evangelists relate) 8. That the" might be with him e"ewitnesses of his wor.s and students of his doctrine. >or the" did not #resentl" beta.e themselves to #reach from the time the" were first admitted disci#les no nor from the time the" were first chosen$ but the" sat a long while at the feet of their &aster and imbibed from his mouth that doctrine which the" were to #reach. 88. That the" might be his #ro#hets both to #reach and to do miracles. Thence it comes to #ass that the gift of miracles which of a long time had ceased is now restored to them. The -seven she#herds and eight #rinci#al men - &icah 5)5 are the disci#les of the &essias according to Iimchi. FPo"er of unclean spirits.G That is -over or upon unclean s#irits-) which therefore are called unclean spirits that b" a clearer antithesis the" might be o##osed to the /oly 'pirit# the 'pirit of purity.

&ore #articularl" the unclean spirit Hechariah 1+)'$ and unclean spirits 3evelation 16)1+ 1( are diabolical s#irits in false #ro#hets deceiving 7"thons. ;" a more #articular name "et according to the Talmudists concerning this business) "There shall not be with thee a necromancer ?euteronom" 18)11. De is a necromancer who mortifies himself with hunger and goes and lodges aCnights among the bur"ingC#laces for that end that the unclean spirit ma" dwell u#on him. 1hen 3. :.ibah read that verse he we#t. ?oes the unclean spirit saith he come u#on him that fasts for that ver" end that the unclean spirit ma" come u#on him2 &uch more would the Dol" 0#irit come u#on him that fasts for that end that the Dol" 0#irit might come u#on him. ;ut what shall 8 do when our sins have brought that on us which is said -Lour sins se#arate between "ou and "our !od2-" 1here the !loss thus$ "That the unclean spirit d"ell upon him) that is that the demon of the burialC#lace ma" love him and ma" hel# him in his enchantments." 1hen 8 consider with m"self that numberless number of demoniacs which the evangelists mention the li.e to which no histor" affords and the 9ld Testament #roduceth hardl" one or two eBam#les 8 cannot but sus#ect these two things es#eciall" for the cause of it)CC >irst That the Jewish #eo#le now arriving to the ver" to# of im#iet" now also arrived to the ver" to# of those curses which are recited <eviticus '6 and ?euteronom" '8. 0econdl" That the nation be"ond measure addicted to magical arts did even affect devils and invited them to dwell with them.
;. +ow the names of the twel:e apostles are these< *he first8 0imon8 who is calle7 $eter8 an7 An7rew his brother< James the son of >ebe7ee8 an7 John his brother<

F'imon.G 'imon is a name ver" usual among the Talmudists for 'imeon. ;" which name our a#ostle is also called :cts 15)1(. <et these words be ta.en notice of "*$ lie!er in=uired of *$ 'imon concerning a certain thing$ but he answered him not. De in@uired of 3. Joshua ;en <evi and he answered. 3. =lie%er was enraged that *$ 'imeon answered him not." FPeter.G 5hrist changed the names of three disci#les with whom he held more inward familiarit" 0imon James and John. 0imon was called b" him Peter or Petrosus that is referring to a rock because he should contribute not onl" ver" much assistance to the church that was to be built on a rock but the ver" first assistance when the .e"s being committed to him he o#ened the door of faith to 5ornelius and so first let in the gos#el among the !entiles. 9f which matter afterward. F%ndre".G this also was no strange name among the Talmudists. %ndre" Bar Chinna.
B. $hilip8 an7 1artholomew< *homas8 an7 3atthew the p.blican< James the son of Alphae.s8 an7 Lebbae.s8 whose s.rname was *ha77ae.s:

FBartholome".G 5om#are the order wherein the disci#les are called (John 1) with the order wherein the" are for the most #art rec.oned and "ou will find Bartholome" falling in at the same #lace with Nathanael) so that one ma" thin. he was the same with him) called Nathanael b" his own name and Bartholome" b" his father-s$ that is the son of Talmai) for the !ree. inter#reters render Talmai# Tolmi ' 0amuel 1+)+6. :nd Tholomaeus occurs in Jose#hus. F&f %lpheus.G The name occurs also in the Talmudists) a word that ma" admit a doubt #ronunciation$ namel" either to sound %lphai or Cleophi. Dence that %lpheus who was the father of four a#ostles is also called Cleopas <u.e '($ which sufficientl" a##ears from hence that she who is called "&ar" the

mother of James the <ess and Joses " &ar. 15)(, b" John is called "&ar" the wife of 5leo#as " John 1*)'5. FLebbeus# "hose surname "as Thaddeus.G Thaddai was a name .nown also to the Talmudists) *$ Jose the son of Thaddeus$ lie!er Ben Thaddeus. 8t is a war#ing of the name Judas that this a#ostle might be the better distinguished from Iscariot De was called Lebbeus 8 su##ose from the town Lebba a seaCcoast town of !alilee) of which 7lin" s#ea.s$ "The #romontor" 5armel and in the mountain a town of the same name heretofore called =cbatana) near b" !etta Lebba " /c.
D. 0imon the Canaanite8 an7 J.7as Iscariot8 who also betraye7 him.

F'imon the Canaanite.G 8n <u.e it is :ealot. 0ee who are called :ealots in Jose#hus. 9f whose sect if "ou should sa" this 0imon was before his conversion #erha#s "ou would do him no more wrong than "ou would do his brother &atthew when "ou should sa" that he was a publican. FIscariot.G 8t ma" be in@uired whether this name was given him while he was alive or not till after his death. 8f while he was alive one ma" not im#ro#erl" derive it from 'kort1a which is written also Iskort1a) where while the discourse is of a man vowing that he would not use this or that garment we are taught these things$..."These are garments some of leather and some of a certain .ind of clothing." The !emara as.eth "1hat is Iskort1a2 ;ar ;ar 5hannah answered % Tanner,s garment" The !loss is ": leathern a#ron that tanners #ut on over their clothes." 0o that Judas Iscariot ma" #erha#s signif" as much as Judas "ith the apron. ;ut now in such aprons the" had #urses sewn in which the" were wont to carr" their mone" as "ou ma" see in :ruch...which we shall also observe #resentl". :nd hence it ma" be Judas had that title of the purse+bearer as he was called Judas "ith the apron. 9r what if he used the art of a tanner before he was chose into disci#leshi#2 5ertainl" we read of one 0imon a tanner :cts *)(+$ and that this Judas was the son of 0imon John 1')(. ;ut if he were not branded with this title till after his death 8 should su##ose it derived from Iscara) which word what it signifies let the !emarists s#ea.) "Nine hundred and three .inds of death were created in the world as it is said and the issues of death 7salm 68)'1. The word issues arithmeticall" ariseth to that number. :mong all those .inds Iscara is the roughest death..." 1here the !loss is -Iscara, in the mother+tongue is estrangulament. ;" learned men for the most #art it is rendered angina# the =uinsy. The !emara sets out the roughness of it b" this simile "The 8scara is li.e to branches of thorns in a fleece of wool$ which if a man sha.e violentl" behind it is im#ossible but the wool will be #ulled off b" them." 8t is thus defined in the !loss -The Iscara, begins in the bo"els# and ends in the throat . 0ee the !emara there. 1hen Judas therefore #erished b" a most miserable strangling being strangled b" the devil (which we observe in its #lace) no wonder if this infamous death be branded u#on his name to be commonl" st"led Judas Iscariot or -that Judas that #erished by strangling.F0ho also betrayed him.G <et that of &aimonides be observed) "8t is forbidden to betra" an 8sraelite into the hands of the heathen either as to his #erson or as to his goods " /c. ":nd whosoever shall so betra" an 8sraelite shall have no #art in the world to come." 7eter s#a.e agreeabl" to the o#inion of the nation when he said concerning Judas "De went unto his own #lace " :cts 1)'5. :nd so doth ;aal Turim concerning ;alaam$ "-;alaam went to his #lace - Numbers '()'5$ that is (saith he) he "ent do"n to hell."
(. *hese twel:e Jes.s sent forth8 an7 comman7e7 them8 saying8 Go not into the way of the Gentiles8 an7 into any city of the 0amaritans enter ye not:

FInto any city of the 'amaritans# enter ye not .G 9ur 0aviour would have the Jews- #rivileges reserved to them until the" alienated and lost them b" their own #erverseness and sins. Nor does he grant the #reaching of the gos#el to the !entiles or 0amaritans before it was offered to the Jewish nation. The 0amaritans vaunted themselves sons of the #atriarch Jacob John ()1' (which indeed was not altogether distant from the truth)$ the" embraced also the law of &oses$ and being taught thence eB#ected the &essias as well as the Jews) nevertheless 5hrist ac.nowledges them for his shee# no more than the heathen themselves. 8. Jer" man" among them were s#rung indeed of the seed of Jacob though now become renegades and a#ostates from the Jewish faith and nation and hating them more than if the" were heathens and more than the" would do heathens. 1hich also among other things ma" #erha#s be observed in their ver" language. >or read the 0amaritan version of the 7entateuch$ and if 8 mista.e not "ou will observe that the 0amaritans when b" reason of the nearness of the #laces and the alliance of the nations the" could not but ma.e use of the language of the Jews "et used such a variation and change of the dialect as if the" scorned to s#ea. the same words that the" did and ma.e the same language not the same. 88. 8n li.e manner the" received the &osaic law but for the most #art in so different a writing of the words that the" seem #lainl" to have #ro#ounded this to themselves that retaining indeed the law of &oses the" would hold it under as much difference from the &osaic teBt of the Jews as ever the" could so that the" .e#t something to the sense. "3. =lie%er ;en 3. 0imeon said -8 said to the scribes of the 0amaritans Le have falsified "our law without an" manner of #rofit accruing to "ou thereb". >or "e have written in "our law near the oaken groves of (oreh# "hich is 'ychem -" /c....<et the 0amaritan teBt at ?euteronom" 11)+, be loo.ed u#on. 888. Dowever the" #retended to stud" the religion of &oses "et in truth there was little or no difference between them and idolaters when the" .new not what the" worshi##ed$ which our 0aviour ob4ects against them John ()'') and had not onl" revolved as a#ostates from the true religion of &oses but set themselves against it with the greatest hatred. Dence the Jewish nation held them for heathens or for a #eo#le more eBecrable than the heathens themselves. : certain 3abbin thus re#roaches their idolatr") "3. 8smael ;en 3. Josi went to Nea#olis Fthat is 0"chemG) the 0amaritans came to him to whom he s#a.e thus$ -8 see that "ou adore not this mountain but the idols which are under it) for it is written Jacob hid the strange gods under the wood which is near 0"chem.-" 8t is dis#uted whether a 5uthite ought to be rec.oned for a heathen which is asserted b" 3abbi denied b" 0imeon$ but the conclusion indeed is sufficientl" for the affirmative. 8J. The metro#olis of the 0amaritans laboured under a second a#ostas" being brought to it b" the deceit and witchcraft of 0imon &agus after the receiving of the gos#el from the mouth of our 0aviour himself. 5om#are :cts 8)* with John ()(1. >rom all these #articulars and with good reason for the thing itself and to #reserve the #rivileges of the Jews safe and that the" might not otherwise #rove an offence to that nation the 0amaritans are made #arallel to the heathen and as distant as the" from #arta.ing of the gos#el.
). $ro:i7e neither gol78 nor sil:er8 nor brass in yo.r p.rses8

FIn your purses /c.G these things which are forbidden the disci#les b" our 0aviour were the ordinar" #rovision of travellers$ to which the more religious added also the boo. of the law. "0ome <evites travelled to Hoar the cit" of #almCtrees) and when one of them fell sic. b" the wa" the" brought him to an inn. 5oming bac. the" in@uired of the hostess concerning their com#anion. -De is dead - said she -and 8 have buried him.-" :nd a little after she brought forth to them his staff# and his

purse# and the book of the la"# "hich "as in his hand . 0o the ;ab"lonian &isna) but the Jerusalem adds also shoes) and instead of that which in the &isna is his purse in the !emara is...an inner garment with #oc.ets to hold mone" and necessaries. That also is worth" mention$ Let no man enter into the mount of the Temple "ith his staff# nor "ith his shoes# nor "ith his purse# nor "ith dust on his feet. 1hich words are thus rendered b" the !emara) "<et no man enter into the mount of the Tem#le neither with his staff in his hand nor with his shoes u#on his feet nor with mone" bound u# in his linen nor "ith a purse hanging on his back." 1here the !loss thus) -Ponditho, is a hollo" girdle For a hollo" beltG in "hich they put up their money. 0ee the :ruch in %ponda and Ponda.
&G. +or scrip for your Ao.rney8 neither two coats8 neither shoes8 nor yet sta:es: for the wor6man is worthy of his meat.

FNor scrip for your 1ourney.G The 0"riac version reads No purse... : #rosel"te is brought in thus s#ea.ing$ "8f an 8sraelite a##roaching to the hol" things shall die how much more a stranger "ho comes "ith his staff and his pouchE" FNor t"o coats.G : single coat bes#a.e a meaner condition$ a double a more #lentiful. Dence is that counsel of the ;a#tist <u.e +)11 "De that hath two coats let him im#art to him that hath none." 8t is dis#uted b" the ;ab"lonian Talmudists how far it is lawful to wash garments on the common days of a festival+"eek$ and the conclusion is "8t is lawful for him that hath one coat only to wash it." FNeither shoes.G That shoes are here to be understood and not sandals a##ears from &ar. 6)*) and that there was a difference between these sufficientl" a##ears from these ver" #laces. The contrar" to which 8 read in ;e%a not without wonder) ";ut then from this #lace (saith he) as also from :cts 1')8 it a##ears that the evangelists #ut no difference between shoes and sandals as =rasmus hath rightl" observed." <et the Jewish schools be heard in this matter) "The #ulling off of the shoe Fof the husband-s brother ?euteronom" '5)*G is right) and of the sandal if it hath a heel is right$ but if not it is not right." "3. Josi saith 8 went to Nisibin and 8 saw there a certain elder and 8 said to him -:re "ou well ac@uainted with 3. Judah ;en ;etira2- :nd he answered -8 am a mone" changer in m" cit"$ and he came to m" table ver" often.- 8 said -?id "ou ever see him #utting off the shoe2 1hat did he #ut off shoe or sandal2- De answered -9 3abbi are there sandals among us2- 1hence therefore sa" 8 did 3. &eir sa" They do not put off the shoe2 3abbi ;a 3abh Judah sa" in the name of 3abh 8f =lias should come and should sa" -The" #ull off the shoe of the husband-s brother let them hear.en to him-) if he should sa" -The" #ull off the sandal - let them not hear.en to him. :nd "et for the most #art the custom is to #ull off the sandal) and custom #revails against tradition." 0ee more there and in the ;ab"lonian tract Jevamoth. 'hoes were of more delicate use$ sandals were more ordinar" and more for service. % shoe "as of softer leather# a sandal of harder /c. There were sandals also whose sole or lower #art was of wood the u##er of leather$ and these were fastened together b" nails. There were some sandals also made of rushes or of the bar. of #almCtrees /c. :nother difference also between shoes and sandals is illustrated b" a notable stor" in the tract 'chabbath in the #lace 4ust now cited) "8n a certain time of #ersecution when some were hidden in a cave the" said among themselves -De that will enter let him enter$ for he will loo. about him before he enters that the enemies see him not) but let none go out$ for #erha#s the enemies will be near whom he sees not when he goes out and so all will be discovered.9ne of them b" chance #ut on his sandals the wrong wa") for sandals were o#en both wa"s so that one

might #ut in his foot either before or behind) but he #utting on his the wrong wa" his footste#s when he went out seemed as if he went in and so their hidingC#lace was discovered to the enemies " /c. &one" therefore in the girdle and #rovision in the scri# were forbidden the disci#les b" 5hrist$ first that the" might not be careful for tem#oral things but resign themselves wholl" to the care of 5hrist$ secondl" the" ought to live of the gos#el which he hints in the last clause of this verse "The wor.man is worth" of his hire." That therefore which he had said before ">reel" "e have received freel" give " forbade them to #reach the gos#el for gain) but he forbade not to ta.e food clothing and other necessaries for the #reaching of the gos#el. T"o coats and shoes are forbidden them that the" might not at all affect #ride or worldl" #om# or to ma.e themselves fine$ but rather that their habit and guise might bes#ea. the greatest humilit".
&&. An7 into whatsoe:er city or town ye shall enter8 inE.ire who in it is worthy< an7 there abi7e till ye go thence.

F0ho in it is "orthy.G 8n the Talmudic language "ho deserves.


&D. An7 whosoe:er shall not recei:e yo.8 nor hear yo.r wor7s8 when ye 7epart o.t of that ho.se or city8 sha6e off the 7.st of yo.r feet.

F'hake off the dust of your feet.G The schools of the scribes taught that the dust of the heathen land defiled b" the touch. "The dust of 0"ria defiles as well as the dust of other heathen countries." ": traditionCwriter saith -The" bring not herbs into the land of 8srael out of a heathen land) but our 3abbins have #ermitted it.- 0hat difference is there bet"een these2 3. Jeremiah saith The care of their dust is among them." The !loss is "The" ta.e care lest together with the herbs something of the dust of the heathen land be brought which defiles in the tent and defiles the #urit" of the land of 8srael." ";" reason of siB doubts the" burn the truma) the doubt of a field in which heretofore might be a se#ulchre$ the doubt of dust brought from a heathen land " /c. 1here the !loss is this$ ";ecause it ma" be doubted of all the dust of a heathen land whether it were not from the se#ulchre of the dead." "3abbi saw a certain #riest standing in a #art of the cit" :co which #art was without the bounds of the land of 8srael) he said to him -8s not that heathen land concerning which the" have determined that it is as unclean as a bur"ingC#lace2-" Therefore that rite of shaking the dust off the feet commanded the disci#les s#ea.s thus much$ "1heresoever a cit" of 8srael shall not receive "ou when "e de#art shew b" shaking off the dust from your feet that "e esteem that cit" however a cit" of 8srael for a heathen #rofane im#ure cit"$ and as such abhor it."
&@. 1.t beware of men: for they will 7eli:er yo. .p to the co.ncils8 an7 they will sco.rge yo. in their synagog.es<

FThey shall scourge you in their synagogues.G ;e%a here as he does ver" often when he cannot eB#lain a case sus#ects it) for thus he writes$ "1hen 8 neither find s"nagogues elsewhere to have their names from houses of 1udgment as the Debrews s#ea. nor that civil #unishments were ta.en in s"nagogues 8 sus#ect this #lace." ;ut without an" cause for 8. 8n ever" s"nagogue there was a civil triumvirate that is three magistrates who 4udged of matters in contest arising within that s"nagogue$ which we have noted before.

88. 'courging "as by that bench of three. 0o that fivefold scourging of 0t. 7aul (' 5or 11)'() was in the s"nagogue$ that is By that bench of three magistrates such as was in ever" s"nagogue. 8t is something obscure that is said But be"are of men. 9f whom else should the" beware2 ;ut #erha#s the word men ma" occur in that sense as men in these forms of s#eech$...the men of the great assembly and the men of the house of 1udgment /c. ;ut we will not contend about it. ;B. 1.t when they persec.te yo. in this city8 flee ye into another: for :erily I say .nto yo.8 2e shall not ha:e gone o:er the cities of Israel8 till the 0on of man be come. F>e shall not have gone over the cities of Israel /c.G "Le shall not have travelled through the cities of 8srael #reaching the gos#el before the 0on of man is revealed b" his resurrection " (3omans 1)(. <a" to this :cts +)1* ', "3e#ent "e therefore and be converted that "our sins ma" be blotted out that the times of refreshment may come" (for "e eB#ect refreshment and consolation under the &essias)$ "and he ma" send Jesus 5hrist first #reached to "ou." :nd verse '6 "To "ou first !od raising u# his 0on sent him to bless "ou " /c. The e#och of the &essias is dated from the resurrection of 5hrist.
;(. It is eno.gh for the 7isciple that he be as his master8 an7 the ser:ant as his lor7. If they ha:e calle7 the master of the ho.se 1eel=eb.b8 how m.ch more shall they call them of his ho.sehol7C

FBeel!ebub.G 0ee cha#ter 1')'(.


;@. What I tell yo. in 7ar6ness8 that spea6 ye in light: an7 what ye hear in the ear8 that preach ye .pon the ho.setops.

F0hat ye hear in the ear.G 1e have observed before that allusion is here made to the manner of the schools where the doctor whis#ered out of the chair into the ear of the inter#reter and he with a loud voice re#eated to the whole school that which was spoken in the ear. "The" said to Judah ;ar Nachmani the interpreter of *esh Lachish# )o you stand for his e2positor ." The !loss is "To tell out the eB#osition to the s"nagogue "hich he shall "hisper to you." 1e cannot here but re#eat that which we #roduced before The doctor "hispered him in the ear in /ebre" . :nd we cannot but sus#ect that that custom in the church of 5orinth which the a#ostle re#roves of s#ea.ing in the s"nagogue in an un.nown tongue were some footste#s of this custom. 1e read of whis#ering in the ear done in another sense namel" to a certain woman with child which longed for the #erfumed flesh$ "Therefore 3abbis said 7o "hisper her that it is the da" of =B#iation. They "hispered to her# and she "as "hispered ") that is she was satisfied and at @uiet. FPreach ye upon the housetops.G 7erha#s allusion is made to that custom when the minister of the s"nagogue on the sabbathCeve sounded with a trum#et siB times u#on the roof of an eBceeding high house that thence all might have notice of the coming in of the sabbath. The first sound was that the" should cease from their wor.s in the fields$ the second that the" should cease from theirs in the cit"$ the third that the" should light the sabbath candle /c.
BD. *hin6 not that I am come to sen7 peace on earth: I came not to sen7 peace8 b.t a swor7.

FThink not that I am come to send peace /c.G :lthough these words ma" be understood trul" of the difference between believers and unbelievers b" reason of the gos#el which all inter#reters observe$ "et the" do #ro#erl" and #rimaril" #oint out as it were with the finger those horrid slaughters and civil wars of the Jews among themselves such as no other age ever saw nor stor" heard.

"3. =lie%er saith The da"s of the &essias are fort" "ears as it is said ->ort" "ears was 8 #rovo.ed b" this generation.-" :nd again$ "3. Judah saith 8n that generation when the 0on of ?avid shall come the schools shall be harlots$ !alilee shall be laid waste$ !ablan shall be destro"ed$ and the inhabitants of the earth Fthe !loss is -the 0anhedrim-G shall wander from cit" to cit" and shall not obtain #it"$ the wisdom of the scribes shall stin.$ and the" that fear to sin shall be des#ised$ and the faces of that generation shall be li.e the faces of dogs$ and truth shall fail /c. 3un over the histor" of these fort" "ears from the death of 5hrist to the destruction of Jerusalem (as the" are vulgarl" com#uted) and "ou will wonder to observe the nation cons#iring to its own destruction and re4oicing in the slaughters and s#oils of one another be"ond all eBam#le and even to a miracle. This #hrens" certainl" was sent u#on them from heaven. :nd first the" are deservedl" become mad who trod the wisdom of !od as much as the" could under their feet. :nd secondl" the blood of the #ro#hets and of 5hrist bringing the good tidings of #eace could not be eB#iated b" a less vengeance. Tell me 9 Jew whence is that rage of "our nation towards the destruction of one another and those monsters of madness be"ond all eBam#les2 ?oes the nation rave for nothing unto their own ruin2 :c.nowledge the ?ivine vengeance in th" madness more than that which befell thee from men. De that rec.ons u# the difference contentions and broils of the nation after the dissension betwiBt the 7harisees and the 0adducees will meet with no less between the scholars of 0hammai and Dillel which increased to that degree that at last it came to slaughter and blood. "The scholars of 0hammai and Dillel came to the chamber of 5hananiah ;en =%e.iah ;en !aron to visit him) that was a woeful da" li.e the da" wherein the golden calf was made. The scholars of 0hammai stood below and slew some of the scholars of Dillel. The tradition is That siB of them went u# and the rest stood there #resent with swords and s#ears." 8t #assed into a common #roverb that "=lias the Tishbite himself could not decide the controversies between the scholars of Dillel and the scholars of 0hammai." The" dream the" were determined b" a voice from heaven$ but certainl" the @uarrels and bitternesses were not at all decided. ";efore the Bath 9ol Fin JabnehG went forth it was lawful e@uall" to embrace either the decrees of the school of Dillel or those of the school of 0hammai. :t last the Bath 9ol came forth and s#a.e thus$ -The words both of the one #art" and the other are the words of the living !od$ but the certain decision of the matter is according to the decrees of the school of Dillel.- :nd from thenceforth whosoever shall transgress the decrees of the school of Dillel is guilt" of death." :nd thus the controvers" was decided$ but the hatreds and s#ites were not so ended. 8 observe in the Jerusalem !emarists the word 'hamothi used for a scholar of 'hammai) which 8 almost sus#ect from the affinit" of the word 'hammatha which signifies %nathema to be a word framed b" the scholars of Dillel in hate ignomin" and re#roach of those of 'hammai. :nd when 8 read more than once of 3. Tar#hon-s being in danger b" robbers because in some things he followed the custom and manner of the school of 0hammai$ 8 cannot but sus#ect snares were dail" laid b" one another and hostile treacheries continuall" watching to do each other mischief. "3. Tar#hon saith -:s 8 was travelling on the wa" 8 went aside to recite the #h"lacteries according to the rite of the school of 0hammai and 8 was in danger of thieves.- The" said to him and deservedl" too -;ecause thou hast transgressed the words of the school of Dillel.-" This is wanting in the Jerusalem &isna. "3. Tar#hon went down to eat figs of his own according to the school of 0hammai. The enemies saw him and .ic.ed against him) when he saw himself in danger -;" "our life - saith he -carr" word unto the house of Tar#hon that graveclothes be made read" for him.-" Thus as if the" were struc. with a #hrens" from heaven the doctors of the nation rage one against another$ and from their ver" schools and chairs flow not so much doctrines as animosities 4arrings

slaughters and butcheries. To these ma" be added those fearful outrages s#oils murders devastations of robbers cutCthroats %ealots and ama%ing cruelties be"ond all eBam#le. :nd if these things do not savour of the divine wrath and vengeance what ever did2
Chapter && B. An7 sai7 .nto him8 Art tho. he that sho.l7 come8 or 7o we loo6 for anotherC

F%rt thou he that should come# or do "e look for another 2G The reason of the message of John to 5hrist is something obscure) >irst That it was not because he .new not 5hrist is without all controvers" when he had been full" instructed from heaven concerning his #erson when he was ba#ti%ed$ and when he had again and again most evidentl" borne "itness to him in those words "This is the <amb of !od " /c. 0econdl" Nor was that message certainl" that the disci#les of John might receive satisfaction about the #erson of 5hrist) for indeed the disci#les were most unworth" of such a master if the" should not believe him without further argument when he taught them concerning him. Thirdl" John therefore seems in this matter to res#ect his own im#risonment and that his @uestion ":rt thou he which should come " /c. tends to that. De had heard that miracles of all sorts were done b" him that the blind received their sight the dead were raised devils were cast out /c. :nd wh" therefore among all the rest is not John set at libert"2 This scru#le as it seems stuc. with the good man$ -1h" do all receive benefit and comfort from 5hrist but onl" 82- 7erha#s he laboured under that dimC sightedness which the disci#les of 5hrist and the whole nation did concerning his earthl" .ingdom victories and trium#hs) from which how distant (alasE) was this that his forerunner and the chief minister should lie in chainsE -8f thou art he concerning whose trium#hing the #ro#hets declare so much wh" am 8 so long detained in #rison2 :rt thou he or is another to be eB#ected from whom these things are to be loo.ed for2>irst "That 8 am he that should come these things which 8 do bear witness -The blind receive their sight the lame wal. -" /c. 0econdl" ":s to the #resent case of John who eB#ects somebod" to come to deliver him out of bonds and to free the #eo#le from the "o.e of men <et him (saith he) ac@uiesce in m" divine dis#ensation and -;lessed is he whosoever shall not be offended in me - however all things are not according to his mind which he hath eB#ected to fall out for his #resent and bodil" advantage." :nd the words of our 0aviour verse 11 seem to eB#ress some secret re#roof of this error in John "De that is less in the .ingdom of heaven is greater than he." The Julgar version renders well the word less not least) as if he should sa" "1hen "e went out into the desert to John "e neither loo.ed for trifles nor earthl" #om# neither -a reed sha.en with the wind - nor -a man clothed in soft raiment-$ but "e loo.ed in good earnest for a #ro#het) and in that "e did ver" well$ for he was the greatest of #ro#hets na" of men as to his office$ honoured in this above all others that he is the forerunner of the &essias. howbeit there are some which indeed in res#ect of office are much less than he in the .ingdom of heaven or in the commonwealth of 5hrist who "et are greater than he in res#ect of the .nowledge of the state and condition of his .ingdom." : com#arison certainl" is not here made either in res#ect of office or in res#ect of dignit" or in res#ect of holiness or in res#ect of eternal salvation$ for who 8 #ra" eBceeded the ;a#tist in all these or in an" of them2 but in res#ect of clear and distinct .nowledge in 4udging of the nature and @ualit" of the .ingdom of heaven. <et the austerit" of John-s life and the ver" fre@uent fasts which he en4oined his disci#les be well considered and what our 0aviour saith of both and "ou will easil" believe that John also according to

the universal conceit of the nation eB#ected tem#oral redem#tion b" the &essias not so clearl" distinguishing concerning the nature of the .ingdom and redem#tion of 5hrist. :nd "ou will the more easil" give credit to this when "ou shall have observed how the disci#les of 5hrist themselves that conversed a long time with him were dimCsighted li.ewise in this ver" thing.
&;. An7 from the 7ays of John the 1aptist .ntil now the 6ing7om of hea:en s.ffereth :iolence8 an7 the :iolent ta6e it by force.

FThe kingdom of heaven suffereth violence.G :nd these words also ma.e for the #raise of John. That he was a ver" eminent #ro#het and of no ordinar" mission or authorit" these things evince$ that from his #reaching the .ingdom of heaven too. its beginning and it was so crowded into b" infinite multitudes as if the" would ta.e and sei%e u#on the .ingdom b" violence. The divine warmth of the #eo#le in beta.ing themselves thither b" such numberless crowds and with so eBceeding a %eal sufficientl" argued the divine worth both of the teacher and of his doctrine.
&D. An7 if ye will recei:e it8 this is lias8 which was for to come.

FIf ye "ill receive it# this is lias.G If ye "ill receive it. The words hint some sus#icion that the" would not receive his doctrine$ which the obstinate eB#ectation of that nation unto this ver" da" that =lias is #ersonall" to come witnesseth also. K#on what ground some 5hristians are of the same o#inion let themselves loo. to it. 0ee the notes on cha#ter 16)1,.
;&. Woe .nto thee8 Chora=inH woe .nto thee8 1ethsai7aH for if the mighty wor6s8 which were 7one in yo.8 ha7 been 7one in *yre an7 0i7on8 they wo.l7 ha:e repente7 long ago in sac6cloth an7 ashes.

FIn Tyre and 'idon.G De com#ares the cities of the Jews with the cities of the 5anaanites who were of a cursed original$ "but "et these cities of a cursed seed and name if the" had been #arta.ers of the miracles done among "ou had not hardened themselves to such a degree of madness and obstinac" as "ou have done) but had turned from their heathenism and 5anaanitism unto the .nowledge of the gos#el$ or at least had betoo. themselves to such a re#entance as would have #revented vengeance." 0o the re#entance of the Ninevites however it were not to salvation "et it was such as #reserved them and freed their cit" from the wrath and scourge that hung over them. The most horrid stiffness of the Jews is here intimated of all im#ious men the most im#ious of all cursed wretches the most cursed.
;;. 1.t I say .nto yo.8 It shall be more tolerable for *yre an7 0i7on at the 7ay of A.7gment8 than for yo..

F%t the day of 1udgment.G In the day of 1udgment) and In the day of the great 1udgment) a form of s#eech ver" usual among the Jews.
;). *a6e my yo6e .pon yo.8 an7 learn of me< for I am mee6 an7 lowly in heart: an7 ye shall fin7 rest .nto yo.r so.ls.

F(y yoke.G 0o The yoke of the la"5 The yoke of the precept5 The yoke of the kingdom of heaven . 5ha#ters 1' 1+ Oscri#5om t"#eN"5ommentar"" #assageN"&atthew 1' 1+" #arsedN"P&attP1'P,P,P,$P&attP1+P,P,P," osis3efN";ible)&att.1' ;ible)&att.1+" QR
&. At that time Jes.s went on the sabbath 7ay thro.gh the corn< an7 his 7isciples were a h.ngere78 an7 began to pl.c6 the ears of corn8 an7 to eat.

F%t that time Jesus "ent on the sabbath day through the corn .G The time is determined b" <u.e in these words on the sabbath from the second+first.

8. 7rovision was made b" the divine law that the sheaf of firstfruits should be offered on the second da" of the 7assoverCwee. <eviticus '+)1, 11) &n the morro" after the sabbath the priest shall shake For"aveG it. Not on the morrow after the ordinar" sabbath of the wee. but the morrow after the first da" of the 7assover wee. which was a sabbatic da" =Bodus 1')16$ <eviticus '+)6. Dence the 0event" the morro" of the first day$ the 5haldee after the holy+day. The 3abbins 0olomon and &enachem on the morro" after the first day of the Passover+feast) of which mention had been made in the verses foregoing. 88. ;ut now from that second da" of the 7assoverCsolemnit" wherein the sheaf was offered were numbered seven wee.s to 7entecost. >or the da" of the sheaf and the da" of 7entecost did mutuall" res#ect each other. >or on this second da" of the 7assover the offering of the sheaf was su##licator" and b" wa" of #ra"er beseeching a blessing u#on the new corn and leave to eat it and to #ut in the sic.le into the standing corn. Now the offering of the first fruit loaves on the da" of 7entecost (<ev '+)15C 16) did res#ect the giving of than.s for the finishing and inning of barle" harvest. Therefore in regard of this relation these two solemnities were lin.ed together that both might res#ect the harvest) that the harvest beginning$ this the harvest ended) this de#ended on that and was numbered seven wee.s after it. Therefore the com#utation of the time coming between could not but carr" with it the memor" of that second da" of the 7assoverCwee.$ and hence 7entecost is called the ->east of wee.s- (?eut 16)1,). The true calculation of the time between could not otherwise be retained as to sabbaths but b" numbering thus) This is the first sabbath after the second day of the Passover . This is the second sabbath after that second day. :nd so of the rest. 8n the Jerusalem Talmud the word the sabbath of the first marriage is a com#osition not ver" unli.e. 1hen the" numbered b" da"s and not b" wee.s the calculation began on the da" of the sheaf) ": great number of certain scholars died between the 7assover and 7entecost b" reason of mutual res#ect not given to one another. There is a #lace where it is said that the" died fifteen da"s before 7entecost that is thirt"Cthree da"s after the sheaf." :t the end of the &idrash of 0amuel which 8 have it is thus concluded$ "This wor. was finished the threeCandCthirtieth da" after the sheaf." 888. Therefore b" this word the second+first added b" 0t. <u.e is shown first that this first sabbath was after the second day of the Passover$ and so according to the order of evangelic histor" either that ver" sabbath wherein the #aral"tic man was healed at the #ool of ;ethesda John 5 or the sabbath neBt after it. 0econdl" that these ears of corn #luc.ed b" the disci#les were of barle") how far alasE from those dainties wherewith the Jews are wont to 4un.et not out of custom onl" but out of religion alsoE Dear their !loss savouring of the .itchen and the dish u#on that of the #ro#het 8saiah cha#ter 58)1+) "-Thou shalt call the sabbath a delight-)CC8t is forbidden " sa" the" "to fast on the sabbath$ but on the contrar" men are bound to delight themselves with meat and drin.. >or we must live more delicatel" on the sabbath than on other da"s) and he is highl" to be commended who #rovides the most delicious 4un.ets against that da". 1e must eat thrice on the sabbath and all men are to be admonished of it. :nd even the #oor themselves who live on alms let them eat thrice on the sabbath. >or he that feasts thrice on the sabbath shall be delivered from the calamities of the &essias from the 4udgment of hell and from the war of !og and &agog." -1hose god is their bell" - 7hili##ians +)1*. 8J. ;ut was the standing corn ri#e at the feast of the 7assover2 8 answer 8. The seedCtime of barle" was #resentl" after the middle of the month &archesvan$ that is about the beginning of our November) "De heard that the seed sown at the first rain was destro"ed b" hail$ he went and sowed at the second rain /c.) and when the seed of all others #erished with the hail his seed #erished not." K#on which words the !loss writes thus$ "The first rain was the seventeenth da" of the month &archesvan$ the second rain the threeCandCtwentieth da" of the same month$ and the third was in the beginning of the month 5hisleu. 1hen therefore the rain came down that which was sown at the

first rain was now become somewhat stiff and so it was bro.en b" the hail$ but that which was sown at the second rain b" reason of its tenderness was not bro.en /c. Therefore the barle" was sown at the coming in of the winter and growing b" the mildness of the weather in winter when the 7assover came in it became ri#e) so that from that time (the sheaf being then offered) barle"Charvest too. its beginning. '. ;ut if when the 4ust time of the 7assover was come the barle" were not ri#e the intercalar" month was added to that "ear and the" waited until it ri#ened) ">or for three things the" intercalated the "ear$ for the e@uinoB for the new corn and for the fruit of the trees. >or the elders of the 0anhedrim do com#ute and observe if the vernal e@uinoB will fall out on the siBteenth da" of the month Nisan or be"ond that$ then the" intercalate that "ear and the" ma.e that Nisan the second :dar$ so that the 7assover might ha##en at the time of new corn. 9r if the" observe that there is no new corn and that the trees s#routed not when the" were wont to s#rout then the" intercalate the "ear " /c. Lou have an eBam#le of this thing) "3abban !amaliel to the elders of the great 0anhedrim our brethren in Judea and !alilee /c.$ health. ;e it .nown unto "ou that since the lambs are too "oung and the doves are not fledged and there is no "oung corn we have thought good to add thirt" da"s to this "ear " /c. F%nd his disciples "ere an hungered.G The custom of the nation as "et had held them fasting$ which suffered none unless he were sic. to taste an" thing on the sabbath before the morning #ra"ers of the s"nagogue were done. :nd on common da"s also and that in the afternoon #rovision was made b" the canons "That none returning home from his wor. in the evening either eat or drin. or slee# before he had said his #ra"ers in the s"nagogue." 9f the #ublic or #rivate wa"s that la" b" the cornCfields let him that is at leisure read 7eah cha#ter '.
;. 1.t when the $harisees saw it8 they sai7 .nto him8 1ehol78 thy 7isciples 7o that which is not lawf.l to 7o .pon the sabbath 7ay.

FThey do that "hich is not la"ful to do on the sabbath day .G The" do not contend about the thing itself because it was lawful ?euteronom" '+)'5$ but about the thing done on the sabbath. 5oncerning which the >athers of the Traditions write thus$ "De that rea#s on the sabbath though never so little is guilt". :nd to #luc. the ears of corn is a .ind of rea#ing$ and whosoever #luc.s an" thing from the s#ringing of his own fruit is guilt" under the name of a rea#er." ;ut under what guilt were the" held2 De had said this before at the beginning of cha#ter 6 in these words) "The wor.s whereb" a man is guilt" of stoning and cutting off if he do them #resum#tuousl"$ but if ignorantl" he is bound to bring a sacrifice for sin are either primitive or derivative" 9f -#rimitive - or of the general .inds of wor.s are nineCandCthirt" rec.oned$ "To #lough to sow to rea# to gather the sheaves to thrash to sift to grind to ba.e /c.$ to shear shee# to d"e wool " /c. The derivative wor.s or the #articulars of those generals are such as are of the same ran. and li.eness with them. >or eBam#le digging is of the same .ind with #loughing$ cho##ing of herbs is of the same ran. with grinding$ and #luc.ing the ears of corn is of the same nature with rea#ing. 9ur 0aviour therefore #leaded the cause of the disci#les so much the more eagerl" because now their lives were in danger$ for the canons of the scribes ad4udged them to stoning for what the" had done if so be it could be #roved that the" had done it #resum#tuousl". >rom hence therefore he begins their defence that this was done b" the disci#les out of necessit" hunger com#elling them not out of an" contem#t of the laws.
B. 1.t he sai7 .nto them8 Ha:e ye not rea7 what %a:i7 7i78 when he was a h.ngere78 an7 they that were with him<

F)avid# and those that "ere "ith him.G >or those words of :himelech are to be understood com#arativel" "1herefore art thou alone and no man with thee2" (1 0am '1)1) that is com#arativel" to that noble train wherewith thou wast wont to go attended and which becomes the ca#tainCgeneral of 8srael. ?avid came to Nob not as one that fled but as one that came to in@uire at the oracle concerning

the event of war unto which he #retended to come b" the .ing-s command. ?issembling therefore that he hastened to the war or to eB#edite some warli.e design he dissembles li.ewise that he sent his arm" to a certain #lace$ and that he had turned aside thither to worshi# !od and to in@uire of the vent$ that he had brought but a ver" few of his most trust" servants along with him for whom being an hungered he as.eth a few loaves. F0hen he "as an hungered.G Dere hear.en to Iimchi #roducing the o#inion of the ancients concerning this stor" in these words) "9ur 3abbins of blessed memor" sa" that he gave him the showCbread /c. The inter#retation also of the clause yea# though it "ere sanctified this day in the vessel Fv 6G is this$ 8t is a small thing to sa" that it is lawful for us to eat these loaves ta.en from before the <ord when we are hungr"$ for it would be lawful to eat this ver" loaf which is now set on which is also sanctified in the vessel (for the table sanctifieth)$ it would be lawful to eat even this when another loaf is not #resent with "ou to give us and we are so hungerCbitten." :nd a little after$ "There is nothing which ma" hinder ta.ing care of life beside idolatr" adulter" and murder." These words do eBcellentl" agree with the force of our 0aviour-s arguments$ but with the genuine sense of that clause methin.s the" do not well agree. 8 should under correction render it otherwise onl" #refacing this beforehand that it is no im#robable con4ecture that ?avid came to Nob either on the sabbath itself or when the sabbath was but newl" gone. ">or the showCbread was not to be eaten unless for one da" and one night$ that is on the sabbath and the goingCout of the sabbath$ ?avid therefore came thither in the goingCout of the sabbath." :nd now 8 render ?avid-s words thus$ "1omen have been .e#t from us these three da"s " Fso that there is no uncleanness with us from the touch of a menstruous womanG "and the vessels of the "oung men were hol" even in the common wa" " Fthat is while we travelled in the common manner and 4ourne"G$ "therefore much more are the" hol" as to their vessels this FsabbathG da"." :nd to this sense #erha#s does that come) ";ut there was there one of the servants of 0aul detained that day before the Lord " Fv 8G. The reverence of the sabbath had brought him to worshi# and as "et had detained him there.
(. #r ha:e ye not rea7 in the law8 how that on the sabbath 7ays the priests in the temple profane the sabbath8 an7 are blamelessC

FThe priests in the Temple profane the sabbath# and are guiltless .G "The servile "ork "hich is done in the holy things is not servile. The same wor.s which were done in the Tem#le on the other da"s were done also on the sabbath." :nd There is no sabbatism at all in the Temple . '. "or the 0on of man is Lor7 e:en of the sabbath 7ay. FFor the 'on of man is Lord also of the sabbath .G 8. De o##osed this ver" argument against their cavils before the 0anhedrim John 5. 1hen he was summoned into the court concerning his healing the #aral"tic man on this ver" sabbath or on the sabbath neBt before he shews his dominion over the sabbath from this ver" thing that he the 0on was invested and honoured with the same authorit" #ower and dignit" in res#ect of the administration of the New Testament as the >ather was in regard of the 9ld. 88. The care of the sabbath la" u#on the first :dam under a double law according to his double condition) 1. ;efore his fall under the law of nature written in his heart) under which he had .e#t the sabbath if he had remained innocent. :nd here it is not unworth" to be observed that although the seventh da" was not come before his fall "et the institution of the sabbath is mentioned before the histor" of his fall. '. :fter his fall under a #ositive law. >or when he had sinned on the siBth da" and the seventh came he was not now bound under the bare law of nature to celebrate it$ but according as the condition of :dam was changed and as the condition of the sabbath was not a little changed also a new and #ositive law concerning the .ee#ing the sabbath was su#erinduced u#on him. 8t will not be un#leasant to #roduce a few #assages from the Jewish masters of that first sabbath)CC

"5ircumcision " saith 3. Judah "and the sabbath were before the law." ;ut how much bac.ward before the law2 Dear ;aal Turim) "The 8sraelites were redeemed (saith he) out of =g"#t because the" observed circumcision and the sabbathCda"." Lea and further bac.ward still) "The inheritance of Jacob is #romised to those that sanctif" the sabbath because he sanctified the sabbath himself." Lea and more bac.wards "et even to the beginning of the world) "The first #salm in the world was when :dam-s sin was forgiven) and when the sabbath entered he o#ened his mouth and uttered the #salm of the sabbath." 0o also the Targum u#on the title of 7salm *') "The #salm or song which :dam com#osed concerning the sabbathCda"." K#on which #salm among other things thus &idrash Tillin) "1hat did !od create the first da"2 Deaven and earth. 1hat the second2 The firmament /c. 1hat the seventh2 The sabbath. :nd since !od had not created the sabbath for servile wor.s for which he had created the other da"s of the wee. therefore it is not said of that as of the other da"s -:nd the evening and the morning was the seventh da".-" :nd a little after ":dam was created on the eve of the sabbath) the sabbath entered when he had now sinned and was his advocate with !od " /c. ":dam was created on the sabbathCeve that he might immediatel" be #ut under the command." 888. 0ince therefore the sabbath was so instituted after the fall and that b" a law and condition which had a regard to 5hrist now #romised and to the fall of man the sabbath could not but come under the #ower and dominion of the 'on of man that is of the #romised seed to be ordered and dis#osed b" him as he thought good and as he should ma.e #rovision for his own honour and the benefit of man.
&G. An78 behol78 there was a man which ha7 his han7 withere7. An7 they as6e7 him8 saying8 Is it lawf.l to heal on the sabbath 7aysC that they might acc.se him.

FIs it la"ful to heal on the sabbath days2G These are not so much the words of in@uirers as deniers. >or these were their decisions in that case$ "<et not those that are in health use #h"sic on the sabbath da". <et not him that labours under a #ain in his loins anoint the #lace affected with oil and vinegar$ but with oil he ma" so it be not oil of roses /c. De that hath the toothache let him not swallow vinegar to s#it it out again$ but he ma" swallow it so he swallow it down. De that hath a sore throat let him not gargle it with oil) but he ma" swallow down the oil whence if he receive a cure it is well. <et no man chew mastich or rub his teeth with s#ice for a cure$ but if he do this to ma.e his mouth sweet it is allowed. The" do not #ut wine into a sore e"e. The" do not a##l" fomentations or oils to the #lace affected " /c. :ll which things however the" were not a##licable to the cure wrought b" 5hrist (with a word onl") "et the" afforded them an occasion of cavilling) who indeed were sworn together thus to @uarrel him$ that canon affording them a further #retence "This certainl" obtains that whatsoever was #ossible to be done on the sabbath eve driveth not awa" the sabbath." To which sense he s#ea.s <u.e 1+)1(. <et the reader see if he be at leisure what diseases the" 4udge dangerous and what #h"sic is to be used on the sabbath.
&&. An7 he saith .nto them8 What man shall there be among yo.8 that shall ha:e one sheep8 an7 if it fall into a pit on the sabbath 7ay8 will he not lay hol7 on it8 an7 lift it o.tC

FIf a sheep fall into a ditch on the sabbath days /c.G 8t was a canon 0e must take a tender care of the goods of an Israelite. Dence "8f a beast fall into a ditch or into a #ool of waters let F the o"nerG bring him food in that #lace if he can$ but if he cannot let him bring clothes and litter and bear u# the beast$ whence if he can come u# let him come u# " /c. "8f a beast or his foal fall into a ditch on a hol"Cda" 3. <a%ar saith -<et him lift u# the former to .ill him and let him .ill him) but let him give fodder to the other lest he die in that #lace.- 3. Joshua saith -<et

him lift u# the former with the intention of .illing him although he .ill him not) let him lift u# the other also although it be not in his mind to .ill him.-"
&?. An7 charge7 them that they sho.l7 not ma6e him 6nown:

FThat they should not make him kno"n .G ;ut this not that he refused to heal the sic. nor onl" to shun #o#ular a##lause$ but because he would .ee# himself hid from those who would not ac.nowledge him. This #rohibition tends the same wa" as his #reaching b" #arables did &atthew 1+)1+$ "8 s#ea. to them b" #arables because seeing the" see not." De would not be .nown b" them who would not .now him.
;G. A br.ise7 ree7 shall he not brea68 an7 smo6ing fla5 shall he not E.ench8 till he sen7 forth A.7gment .nto :ictory.

F% bruised reed shall he not break.G These words are to be a##lied as a##ears b" those that went before to our 0aviour-s silent transaction of his own affairs without hunting after a##lause the noise of boasting or the loud re#orts of fame. De shall not ma.e so great a noise as is made from the brea.ing of a reed now alread" bruised and half bro.en or from the hissing of smo.ing flaB onl" when water is thrown u#on it. Dow far different is the &essias thus described from the &essias of the eB#ectation of the JewsE :nd "et it a##ears sufficientl" that 8saiah from whom these words are ta.en s#a.e of the &essias and the Jews confess it. FTill he send forth 1udgment unto victory.G The Debrew and <SS in 8saiah read it thus "De shall bring forth 4udgment unto truth." The words in both #laces mean thus much That 5hrist should ma.e no sound in the world or noise of #om# or a##lause or state but should manage his affairs in humilit" silence #overt" and #atience both while he himself was on earth and b" his a#ostles after his ascension labouring under contem#t #overt" and #ersecution$ but at last "he should bring forth 4udgment to victor""$ that is that he should brea. forth and show himself a 4udge avenger and con@ueror against that most wic.ed nation of the Jews from whom both he and his suffered such things) and then also "he sent forth 4udgment unto truth " and asserted himself the true &essias and the 0on of !od before the e"es of all$ and confirmed the truth of the gos#el b" avenging his cause u#on his enemies in a manner so cons#icuous and so dreadful. :nd hence it is that that sending forth and eBecution of 4udgment against that nation is almost alwa"s called in the New Testament "his coming in glor"." 1hen 5hrist and his .ingdom had so long laid hid under the veil of humilit" and the cloud of #ersecution at last he bra.e forth a revenger and cut off that #ersecuting nation and shewed himself a con@ueror before the e"es of all both Jews and !entiles. <et it be observed in the teBt before us how after the mention of that 4udgment and victor" (against the Jews) #resentl" follows "and in his name shall the !entiles trust."
;D. 1.t when the $harisees hear7 it8 they sai78 *his fellow 7oth not cast o.t 7e:ils8 b.t by 1eel=eb.b the prince of the 7e:ils.

FBy Beel!ebub4 the prince of the devils.G >or the searching out the sense of this horrid blas#hem" these things are worth" observing) 8. :mong the Jews it was held in a manner for a matter of religion to re#roach idols and to give them odious names. "3. :.ibah saith 8dolatr" #ollutes as a menstruous woman #ollutes) as it is said -Thou shalt cast awa" the FidolG as something that is menstruous and thou shalt sa" to it !et thee hence- (8sa +,)''). 3. <a%ar saith Thou shalt sa" to it !et thee hence) that which the" call the face of 7od let them call the face of a dog) that which the" call the fountain of a cup let them call the fountain of toil For of flailsG) that which the" call fortune let them call a stink /c. That town which sometimes was called Beth+el was afterward called Beth+aven." 0ee also the tract 'chabbath where these same words are.

%ll 1eering is forbidden# e2cept the 1eering of idolatry . This also is re#eated in the tract (egillah) where this is added "8t is lawful for a Jew to sa" to a 5uthite Take your idol# and put it under your buttocks." 88. :mong the ignominious names bestowed u#on idols the general and common one was :ebul# dung or a dunghill. "=ven to them who have stretched out their hands in a dunghill Fthat is in an idolCtem#le or in idolatr"G there is ho#e. Thou canst not bring them Finto the churchG because the" have stretched forth their hands in a dunghill) but "et "ou cannot re4ect them because the" have re#ented." :nd a little after "/e that sees them ,dunging, Fthat is -sacrificing-G to an idol let him sa" 5ursed be he that sacrifices to a strange god." <et them therefore who dare form this word in &atthew into Beel!ebub. 8 am so far from doubting that the 7harisees #ronounced the word Beel!ebul and that &atthew so wrote it that 8 doubt not but the sense fails if it be writ otherwise. 888. Jer" man" names of evil s#irits or devils occur in the Talmudists which it is needless here to mention. :mong all the devils the" esteemed that devil the worst the foulest and as it were the #rince of the rest who ruled over the idols and b" whom oracles and miracles were given forth among the heathens and idolaters. :nd the" were of this o#inion for this reason because the" held idolatr" above all other things chiefl" wic.ed and abominable and to be the #rince and head of evil. This demon the" called Baal+!ebul not so much b" a #ro#er name as b" one more general and common$ as much as to sa" the lord of idolatry) the worst devil and the worst thing) and the" called him the "#rince of devils " because idolatr" is the #rince (or chief) of wic.edness. 1e meet with a stor" where mention is made of the prince of spirits. 1hether it be in this sense let the reader consult and 4udge. :lso in the :ruch we meet with these words the demon %smodeus# the prince of spirits. 8J. The Talmudists being taught b" these their fathers do give out horribl" blas#heming that Jesus of Na%areth our <ord was a magician a broacher of strange and wic.ed worshi#$ and one that did miracles b" the #ower of the devil to beget his worshi# the greater belief and honour. ";en 'atda brought magic out of =g"#t b" cuttings which he had made in his flesh." ;" Ben 'atda the" understand Jesus of Na%areth as we have said before$ whom the" dishonour b" that name that the" might b" one word and in one breath re#roach him and his mother together. >or 'atda or 'tada sounds as much as an adulterous "ife which the !emara shews after a few lines 'he "ent aside from her husband. The" feign that Jesus travelled with Joshua ;en 7erachiah into =g"#t when the said Joshua fled from the anger and sword of Janneus the .ing which we have mentioned at the second cha#ter$ and that he brought thence magical witchcrafts with him but under the cutting of his flesh that he might not be ta.en b" the =g"#tian magicians who strictl" eBamined all that went out of that land that none should trans#ort their magic art into another land. :nd in that #lace the" add these horrid words Jesus practised magic# and deceived# and drove Israel to idolatry . Those whel#s bar. as the" were taught b" these dogs. To this therefore does this blas#hem" of the 7harisees come$ as if the" should sa" "De casts out devils indeed$ but he doth this b" the hel# of the devil the lord of idols that dwells in him$ b" him that is the worst of all devils who favours him and hel#s him because it is his ambition to drive the #eo#le from the worshi# of the true !od to strange worshi#."
;(. An7 Jes.s 6new their tho.ghts8 an7 sai7 .nto them8 :ery 6ing7om 7i:i7e7 against itself is bro.ght to 7esolation< an7 e:ery city or ho.se 7i:i7e7 against itself shall not stan7:

FBut Jesus kno"ing their thoughts.G ;ehold 9 7harisee a sign of the true &essias for a sign "ou would have) he smells out a wic.ed man.

"8t is written of &essias The 0#irit of the <ord shall rest u#on him and shall make him smell in the fear of the Lord. 3abba said he shall smell and 4udge$ as it is said he shall not 4udge b" the sight of his e"es /c. ;en 5o%ba reigned two "ears and a half and said to the 3abbins 8 am the &essias) the" said to him 8t is written of &essias that he shall smell and 4udge (the !loss is he shall smell out the man and shall 4udge and .now whether he be guilt"). <et us see whether thou canst smell and 4udge. %nd "hen they sa" that he could not smell and 1udge# they sle" him ."
;@. An7 if I by 1eel=eb.b cast o.t 7e:ils8 by whom 7o yo.r chil7ren cast them o.tC therefore they shall be yo.r A.7ges.

F By "hom do your children cast them out2G ;" your children 5hrist seems to understand some disci#les of the 7harisees$ that is some of the Jews who using eBorcisms seemed to cast out devils such as the" :cts 1*)1+$ and "et the" said not to them "Le cast out devils b" ;eel%ebul." 8t is worth" mar.ing that 5hrist #resentl" saith "8f 8 b" the 0#irit of !od cast out devils then the .ingdom of !od is come among "ou." >or what else does this s#ea. than that 5hrist was the first who should cast out devils2 which was an undoubted sign to them that the .ingdom of heaven was now come. ;ut that which was #erformed b" them b" eBorcisms was not so much a casting out of devils as a delusion of the #eo#le$ since 0atan would not cast out 0atan but b" com#act with himself and with his com#an" he seemed to be cast out that he might the more deceive. The sense therefore of 5hrist-s words comes to this) "That "our disci#les cast out devils "e attribute not to ;eel%ebul no nor to magic$ but "e a##laud the wor. when it is done b" them) the" therefore ma" in this matter be "our 4udges that "ou #ronounce these words of m" actions out of the ran.ness and venom of "our minds." 8n the !loss mention is made of a devil cast out b" a Jew at 3ome.
B;. An7 whosoe:er spea6eth a wor7 against the 0on of man8 it shall be forgi:en him: b.t whosoe:er spea6eth against the Holy Ghost8 it shall not be forgi:en him8 neither in this worl78 neither in the world to come.

FIt shall not be forgiven him# neither in this "orld# nor in that "hich is to come .G The" that endeavour hence to #rove the remission of some sins after death seem little to understand to what 5hrist had res#ect when he s#a.e these words. 1eigh well this common and most .nown doctrine of the Jewish schools and 4udge) "De that transgresses an affirmative #rece#t if he #resentl" re#ent is not moved until the <ord #ardon him. :nd of such it is said -;e "e converted 9 bac.sliding children and 8 will heal "our bac.slidings.De that transgresses a negative #rece#t and re#ents his re#entance sus#ends 4udgment and the da" of eB#iation eB#iates him$ as it is said -This da" shall all "our uncleannesses be eB#iated to "ou.- De that transgressed to cutting off Fby the stroke of 7od G or to death b" the 0anhedrim and re#ents re#entance and the da" of eB#iation do sus#end 4udgment and the stro.es that are laid u#on him wi#e off sin$ as it is said -:nd 8 will visit their transgression with a rod and their ini@uit" with scourges.- ;ut he b" whom the name of !od is #rofaned For blas#hemedG re#entance is of no avail to him to sus#end 4udgment nor the da" of eB#iation to eB#iate it nor scourges For corrections inflictedG to wi#e it off but all sus#end 4udgment and death wi#es it off." Thus the ;ab"lonian !emara writes) but the Jerusalem thus$ "3e#entance and the da" of eB#iation eB#iate as to the third #art and corrections as to the third #art and death wi#es it off) as it is said and "our ini@uities shall not be eB#iated to "ou until "e die. Behold# "e learn that death "ipes off." Note this which 5hrist contradicts concerning blas#hem" against the Dol" !host$ "8t shall not be forgiven (saith he ) neither in this world nor in the world to come"$ that is neither before death nor as "ou dream b" death.

FIn the "orld to come.G 8. 0ome #hrases were received into common use b" which in common s#eech the" o##osed the heres" of the 0adducees who denied immortalit". 9f that sort were the "orld to come5 paradise5 hell /c. ":t the end of all the #ra"ers in the Tem#le" (as we observed before) "the" said for ever. ;ut when the heretics bra.e in and said -There was no age but one - it was a##ointed to be said for ever and ever." This distinction of this "orld and of the "orld to come "ou ma" find almost in ever" #age of the 3abbins. "The <ord recom#ense thee a good reward for this th" good word in this "orld and let th" reward be #erfected in the "orld to come." "8t Fthat is the histor" of the creation and of the ;ibleG begins therefore with the letter Beth Fin the word BereshithG because two worlds were created this world and a world to come." 88. The "orld to come hints two things es#eciall" (of which see 3ambam)) 1. The times of the &essias) ";e mindful of the da" wherein thou camest out of =g"#t all the da"s of th" life. The wise men sa" ;" -the da"s of th" life - is intimated -this world-) b" -all the da"s of th" life - the da"s of the &essias are su#erinduced." 8n sense the a#ostle seems to s#ea. Debrews ')5 and 6)5. '. The state after death The "orld to come is# "hen a man is departed out of this "orld . B). 1.t he answere7 an7 sai7 .nto them8 An e:il an7 a7.ltero.s generation see6eth after a sign< an7 there shall no sign be gi:en to it8 b.t the sign of the prophet Jonas: F%n evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign .G 8. Their schools also confessed that signs and miracles were not to be eB#ected but b" a fit generation. "The elders being once assembled at Jericho the ;ath Iol went forth and said There is one among "ou who is fit to have the Dol" !host dwell u#on him but that FthisG generation is not fit. The" fiB their e"es u#on Dillel the =lder. The elders being assembled again in an upper room in Jabneh Bath 9ol came forth and said There is one among "ou who is fit to have the Dol" 0#irit dwell u#on him but that the generation is not fit. The" cast their e"es u#on 0amuel the <ittle." 88. That generation b" which and in which the <ord of life was crucified la" and that deservedl" under an ill re#ort for their great wic.edness above all other from the beginning of the world until that da". 1hence that of the #ro#het "1ho shall declare his generation2" 8saiah 5+)'$ that is his generation (vi%. that generation in which he should live) should #roceed to that degree of im#iet" and wic.edness that it should sur#ass all eB#ression and histor". 1e have observed before how the Talmudists themselves confess that that generation in which the &essias should come should eBceed all other ages in all .inds of ama%ing wic.edness. 888. That nation and generation might be called adulterous literall"$ for what else 8 beseech "ou was their irreligious #ol"gam" than continual adulter"2 :nd what else was their ordinar" #ractice of divorcing their wives no less irreligious according to ever" man-s foolish or naught" will2 FBut the sign of Jonah the prophet.G Dere and elsewhere while he gives them the sign of Jonah he does not barel" s#ea. of the miracle done u#on him which was to be e@ualled in the 0on of man but girds them with a silent chec.$ instructing them thus much that the !entiles were to be converted b" him after his return out of the bowels of the earth as heathen Nineveh was converted after Jonah was restored out of the bell" of the whale. Than which doctrine scarce an"thing bit that nation more shar#l".

DG. "or as Jonas was three 7ays an7 three nights in the whaleFs belly< so shall the 0on of man be three 7ays an7 three nights in the heart of the earth.

FThe 'on of man shall be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth .G 1. The Jewish writers eBtend that memorable station of the unmoving sun at Joshua-s #ra"er to siBCandCthirt" hours$ for so Iimchi u#on that #lace) ":ccording to more eBact inter#retation the sun and moon stood still for siBC andCthirt" hours) for when the fight was on the eve of the sabbath Joshua feared lest the 8sraelites might brea. the sabbath) therefore he s#read abroad his hands that the sun might stand still on the siBth da" according to the measure of the da" of the sabbath and the moon according to the measure of the night of the sabbath and of the goingCout of the sabbath$ which amounts to siBCandCthirt" hours." 88. 8f "ou number the hours that #assed from our 0aviour-s giving u# the ghost u#on the cross to his resurrection "ou shall find almost the same number of hours$ and "et that s#ace is called b" him "three da"s and three nights " when as two nights onl" came between and onl" one com#lete da". Nevertheless while he s#ea.s these words he is not without the consent both of the Jewish schools and their com#utation. 1eigh well that which is dis#uted in the tract 'chabbath concerning the uncleanness of a woman for three da"s$ where man" things are discussed b" the !emarists concerning the com#utation of this s#ace of three da"s. :mong other things these words occur$ "3. 8smael saith 'ometimes it contains four &noth sometimes five sometimes siB. ;ut how much is the s#ace of an &nah2 3. Jochanan saith either a da" or a night." :nd so also the Jerusalem Talmud$ "3. :.iba fiBed a da" for an &nah and a night for an &nah) but the tradition is that 3. =lie%ar ;en :%ariah said % day and a night make an &nah# and a part of an &nah is as the "hole ." :nd a little after *$ Ismael computeth a part of the &nah for the "hole. 8t is not eas" to translate the word &nah into good <atin) for to some it is the same with the half of a natural da"$ to some it is all one with a "hole natural day. :ccording to the first sense we ma" observe from the words of 3. 8smael that sometimes four &noth or halves of a natural da" ma" be accounted for three da"s) and that the" also are so numbered that one #art or the other of those halves ma" be accounted for a whole. 5om#are the latter sense with the words of our 0aviour which are now before us) ": da" and a night (saith the tradition) ma.e an &nah and a #art of an &nah is as the whole." Therefore 5hrist ma" trul" be said to have been in his grave three &noth or three natural days (when "et the greatest #art of the first da" was wanting and the night altogether and the greatest #art b" far of the third da" also) the consent of the schools and dialect of the nation agreeing thereunto. >or "the least #art of the &nah concluded the whole." 0o that according to this idiom that diminutive #art of the third da" u#on which 5hrist arose ma" be com#uted for the whole da" and the night following it.
D(. *hen goeth he8 an7 ta6eth with himself se:en other spirits more wic6e7 than himself8 an7 they enter in an7 7well there: an7 the last state of that man is worse than the first. :en so shall it be also .nto this wic6e7 generation.

F'o shall it be to this evil generation.G These words foretell a dreadful a#ostas" in that nation and generation. 8. 8t is something difficult so to suit all things in the #arable aforegoing that the" ma" agree with one another) 1. Lou can hardl" understand it of unclean s#irits cast out of men b" 5hrist$ when through the whole evangelic histor" there is not the least shadow of #robabilit" that an" devil cast out b" him did return again into him out of whom he had been cast. '. Therefore our 0aviour seems to allude to the casting out of devils b" eBorcisms) which art as the Jews were well instructed in so in #ractising it there was need of deBterous deceits and collusions. +. >or it is scarcel" credible that the devil in truth finds less rest in dr" #laces than in wet) but it is credible that those diabolical artists have found out such .ind of figments for the honour and fame of their art. >or (. 8t would be ridiculous to thin. that the" could b" their eBorcisms cast a devil out of a man into whom he had been sent b" !od. The" might indeed with a com#act with the devil #rocure some lucid intervals to the #ossessed$ so that the inhabiting demon

might deal gentl" with him for some time and not disturb the man) but the demoniacal heats came bac. again at last and the former outrages returned. Therefore here there was need of deceits well #ut together that so #rovision might the better be made for the honour of the eBorcistical art$ as that the devil being sent awa" into dr" and waste #laces could not find an" rest$ that he could not that he would not alwa"s wander about here and there alone b" himself without rest$ that he therefore returned into his old mansion which he had formerl" found so well fitted and #re#ared for him /c. Therefore these words seem to have been s#o.en b" our 0aviour according to the ca#acit" of the common #eo#le or rather according to the deceit #ut u#on them more than according to the realit" or truth of the thing itself$ ta.ing a #arable from something commonl" believed and entertained that he might eB#ress the thing which he #ro#ounded more #lainl" and familiarl". 88. ;ut however it was whether those things were true indeed or onl" believed and conceived so b" a most a#t and o#en com#arison is shown that the devil was first cast out of the Jewish nation b" the gos#el$ and then see.ing for a seat and rest among the !entiles and not finding it the gos#el ever"where veBing him came bac. into the Jewish nation again fiBed his seat there and #ossessed it much more than he had done before. The truth of this thing a##ears in that fearful a#ostas" of an infinite multitude of Jews who received the gos#el and most wic.edl" revolted from it afterward$ concerning which the New Testament s#ea.s in abundance of #laces.
Chapter &B ;. An7 great m.ltit.7es were gathere7 together .nto him8 so that he went into a ship8 an7 sat< an7 the whole m.ltit.7e stoo7 on the shore.

F'o that he sat# and the "hole multitude stood .G 0o was the manner of the nation that the masters when the" read their lectures sat and the scholars stood) which honorar" custom continued to the death of !amaliel the =lder$ and then so far ceased that the scholars sat when their masters sat. Dence is that #assage) ">rom that time that old 3abban !amaliel died the honour of the law #erished and #urit" and 7harisaism died." 1here the !loss from (egillah writes us$ ";efore his death health was in the world and the" learned the law standing$ but when he was dead sic.ness came down into the world and the" were com#elled to learn the law sitting."
B. An7 he spa6e many things .nto them in parables8 saying8 1ehol78 a sower went forth to sow.

FIn parables.G 8. No figure of Jewish rhetoric was more familiarl" used than that of parables) which #erha#s cree#ing in from thence among the heathen ended in fables. 8t is said in the #lace of the Talmud 4ust now cited From the time that *$ (eir died# those that spake in parables ceased ) not that that figure of rhetoric #erished in the nation from that time but because he sur#assed all others in these flowers$ as the !loss there from the tract 'anhedrim s#ea.s$ % third part Fof his discourses or sermonsG "as tradition# a third part allegory# and a third part parable . The Jewish boo.s abound ever"where with these figures the nation inclining b" a .ind of natural genius to this .ind of rhetoric. 9ne might not amiss call their religion Parabolical folded u# within the coverings of ceremonies$ and their orator" in their sermons was li.e to it. ;ut it is a wonder indeed that the" who were so given to and delighted in parables and so deBtrous in unfolding them should stic. in the outward shell of ceremonies and should not have fetched out the #arabolical and s#iritual sense of them$ neither should he be able to fetch them out. 88. 9ur 0aviour (who alwa"s and ever"where s#a.e with the vulgar) useth the same .ind of s#eech and ver" often the same #reface as the" did in their #arables. To "hat is it likened /c. ;ut in him thus s#ea.ing one ma" both ac.nowledge the ?ivine 4ustice who s#ea.s dar.l" to them that des#ise the light$ and his ?ivine wisdom li.ewise who so s#ea.s to them that see and "et see not that the" ma" see the shell and not see the .ernel.

D. An7 when he sowe78 some seeds fell by the way si7e8 an7 the fowls came an7 7e:o.re7 them .p:

F'ome fell by the "ay side /c.G 5oncerning the husbandr" of the Jews and their manner of sowing we meet with various #assages in the tracts Peah# )emai# 9ilaim# 'heviith) we shall onl" touch u#on those things which the words of the teBt under our hands do readil" remind us of. There were wa"s and #aths as well common as more #rivate along the sown fields$ see cha#ter 1')1. Dence in the tract Peah where the" dis#ute what those things are which divide a field so that it owes a double corner to the #oor$ thus it is determined "These things divide) a river an a@ueduct a #rivate wa" a common wa" a common #ath and a #rivate #ath " /c. 0ee the #lace and the !loss.
(. 0ome fell .pon stony places8 where they ha7 not m.ch earth: an7 forthwith they spr.ng .p8 beca.se they ha7 no 7eepness of earth:

F'ome fell among stony places.G ?iscourse is had concerning some laws of the 9ilaim (or of the seeds of different kinds) and of the seventh "ear) where among other things we meet with these words$ "3. 0imeon ;en <achish saith that he is freed Ffrom those la"sG who sows his seed b" the sea upon rocks# shelves# and rocky places." These words are s#o.en according to the reason and nature of the land of 8srael which was ver" roc."$ and "et those #laces that were so were not altogether unfit for tillage.
@. An7 some fell among thorns< an7 the thorns spr.ng .p8 an7 cho6e7 them:

F&thers fell among thorns.G Dere the distinction comes into m" mind of a "hite field that is which is all sown$ and of a "oody field that is in which trees and bushes grow here and there) concerning which see the tract 'heviith. 0o there is ver" fre@uent mention in the Talmudists of beds in fields and vine"ards which s#ea.s the same thing. :nd of baldness in a field) that is when some #laces are left not sown and some #laces l"ing between are.
'. 1.t other fell into goo7 gro.n78 an7 bro.ght forth fr.it8 some an h.n7re7fol78 some si5tyfol78 some thirtyfol7.

F%nd brought forth fruit# some a hundred /c.G These words are s#o.en according to the fruitfulness of the land of 8srael$ concerning which the Talmudists s#ea. much and h"#erbolicall" enough) which nevertheless the" confess to be turned long since into miserable barrenness$ but are dimCsighted as to the true cause of it. The" treat of this matter and various stories are #roduced which "ou ma" see) we will onl" mention these two)CC "3. Jochanan said The worst fruit which we eat in our "outh eBcelled the best which we now eat in our old age) for in his da"s the world was changed." "3. 5hai4ah ;ar ;a said The %rbelite bushel formerl" "ielded a bushel of flour a bushel of meal a bushel of bran and a bushel of coarse bran and a bushel of coarser bran "et and a bushel of the coarsest bran also) but now one bushel scarcel" comes from one bushel."
&B. *herefore spea6 I to them in parables: beca.se they seeing see not< an7 hearing they hear not8 neither 7o they .n7erstan7.

FThey seeing see not.G Dere "ou ma" observe this #eo#le to have been given u# to a re#robate mind and a s#irit of dee# slee# now a great while before the death of 5hrist. 1hich being observed the sense of the a#ostle will more easil" a##ear 3omans 11)8$ where these ver" words are re#eated. 8f "ou there state aright the re4ection of that #eo#le "ou will understand more clearl" the a#ostle concerning their call which is there handled. 7harisaism and the sottishness of traditions had now a good while ago thrown them into blindness stu#idit" and hardness of heart$ and that for some ages before 5hrist

was born) but when the gos#el came the <ord had his gleanings among them and there were some that believed and unto whom the #artici#ation of the #romises was granted) concerning them the a#ostle s#ea.s in that cha#ter) see verse 5. %t this present time there is a remnant according to election " /c. which we have observed before at cha#ter +)6.
;(. 1.t while men slept8 his enemy came an7 sowe7 tares among the wheat8 an7 went his way.

FTares.G :unin in Talmudic language. 0heat and ,:unin, are not seeds of different kinds . 1here the !loss is this$ "8s a .ind of wheat which is changed in the earth both as to its form and to its nature." ;" the best <eBicogra#hers it is rendered !i!ania in <atin. 0o that that field in this #arable was sown b" the lord with good wheat$ b" the enem" with bad and degenerate wheat$ but all of it was sown with wheat one or the other. These words do not so barel" mean good and bad men as good and bad 5hristians$ both distinguished from other men namel" from heathens as wheat is distinguished from other seeds) but the" are distinguished also among themselves as good wheat is distinguished from that which is degenerate. 0o cha#ter '5 all those ten women eB#ecting the bridegroom are virgins$ but are distinguished into wise and foolish.
B;. Which in7ee7 is the least of all see7s Im.star7J: b.t when it is grown8 it is the greatest among herbs8 an7 becometh a tree8 so that the bir7s of the air come an7 lo7ge in the branches thereof.

F0hich# indeed# is the least of all seeds /c.G Dence it is #assed into a common #roverb %ccording to the =uantity of a grain of mustard ) and %ccording to the =uantity of a little drop of mustard ver" fre@uentl" used b" the 3abbins when the" would eB#ress the smallest thing or the most diminutive @uantit". FIs the greatest among herbs.G "There was a stal. of mustard in 0ichin from which s#rang out three boughs) of which one was bro.e off and covered the tent of a #otter and #roduced three cabes of mustard. 3. 0imeon ;en 5hala#hta said : stal. of mustard was in m" field into which 8 was wont to climb as men are wont to climb into a figCtree."
BB. Another parable spa6e he .nto them< *he 6ing7om of hea:en is li6e .nto lea:en8 which a woman too68 an7 hi7 in three meas.res of meal8 till the whole was lea:ene7.

FIn three ?sata@ measures of meal G That is in an ephah of meal. =Bodus 16)+6$ "Now an omer is the tenth #art of an ephah." The 5haldee reads The tenth part of three sata. The <SS reads The tenth part of three measures. :nd 3uth ')16 "8t was as an ephah of barle"." 1here the Targum reads %s it "ere three sata of barley. ": seah contains a double hin siB cabes twent"Cfour login a hundred and fort"Cfour eggs."
(;. *hen sai7 he .nto them8 *herefore e:ery scribe which is instr.cte7 .nto the 6ing7om of hea:en is li6e .nto a man that is an ho.sehol7er8 which bringeth forth o.t of his treas.re things new an7 ol7.

FBringeth forth out of his treasury things ne" and old .G These words are s#o.en according to the dialect of the schools where the @uestion was not seldom started 1hat wine what corn or fruits were to be used in the hol" things and in some rites new or more old$ namel" of the present year# or the years past. ;ut now a thrift" man #rovident of his own affairs was stored both with the one and the other #re#ared for either which should be re@uired. 0o it becomes a scribe of the gos#el to have all things in readiness to bring forth according to the condition and nature of the thing of the #lace and of the hearers. "?o "e understand all these things (saith 5hrist) both the things which 8 have said and wh" 8 have said them2 0o a scribe of the gos#el ought to bring forth " /c. 5ha#ters 1( 15 16

Oscri#5om t"#eN"5ommentar"" #assageN"&atthew 1( 15 16" #arsedN"P&attP1(P,P,P,$P&attP15P,P,P,$P &attP16P,P,P," osis3efN";ible)&att.1( ;ible)&att.15 ;ible)&att.16" QR


;. An7 sai7 .nto his ser:ants8 *his is John the 1aptist< he is risen from the 7ea7< an7 therefore mighty wor6s 7o show forth themsel:es in him.

FThis is John /c.G 1as not Derod of the 0adducean faith2 >or that which is said b" &atthew ";eware of the leaven of the 7harisees and 0adducees " cha#ter 16)6 is rendered b" &ar. ";eware of the leaven of the 7harisees and of the leaven of Derod " cha#ter 8)15$ that is -of their doctrine.8f therefore Derod embraced the doctrine of the 0adducees his words "This is John the ;a#tist he is risen from the dead " seem to be eBtorted from his conscience #ric.ed with the sting of horror and guilt as though the image and ghost of the ;a#tist but newl" butchered b" him were before his e"es) so that his mind is under horror$ and forgetting his 0adduceism groaning and trembling he ac.nowledgeth the resurrection of the dead whether he will or no. 9r let it be su##osed that with the 7harisees he owned the resurrection of the dead$ "et certainl" it was unusual for them that confessed it to dream of the resurrection of one that was but newl" dead) the" eB#ected there should be a resurrection of the dead hereafter) but this which Derod s#ea.s believes and sus#ects is a great wa" distant from that doctrine and seems indeed to have #roceeded from a conscience touched from above. D. "or John sai7 .nto him8 It is not lawf.l for thee to ha:e her. FDerod has ta.en his brother-s wife.G FIt is not la"ful for thee to have her.G "There are thirt"CsiB cuttings off in the law") that is sinners who deserve cutting off. :nd among the rest he that lies "ith his brother,s "ife. 7hili# was now alive and lived to the twentieth "ear of Tiberius.
?. 1.t when Hero7Fs birth7ay was 6ept8 the 7a.ghter of Hero7ias 7ance7 before them8 an7 please7 Hero7.

F%nd "hen /erod,s birthday "as kept.G The Jewish schools esteem the .ee#ing of birthdays a #art of idolatrous worshi#) #erha#s the" would #ronounce more favourabl" and flatteringl" of thine 9 tetrarch because thine. These are the times of idolaters) the 9alends4 the 'aturnalia4$$$the birthday of the kingdom4 and the day of a man,s birth... FThe daughter of /erodias danced.G Not so much out of lightness as according to the custom of the nation namel" to eB#ress 4o" and to celebrate the da". The Jews were wont in their #ublic and more than ordinar" re4oicings and also in some of their hol" festivals to eB#ress their cheerfulness b" lea#ing and dancing. 9mitting the eBam#les which occur in the hol" ;ible it is re#orted b" the >athers of the Traditions that the chief #art of the mirth in the feast of Tabernacles consisted in such .ind of dancing) the chief men the aged and the most religious dancing in the 5ourt of the 1omen$ and b" how much the more vehementl" the" did it so much the more commendable it was. The gesture therefore or motion of the girl that danced too. not so much with Derod as her mind and affection) namel" because hereb" she shewed honour towards his birthda" and love and res#ect towards him and 4o" for his life and health) from whom indeed Derod had little deserved such things since he had de#rived her father 7hili# of his wife and defiled her mother with unlawful wedloc. and continual incest.
@. Where.pon he promise7 with an oath to gi:e her whatsoe:er she wo.l7 as6.

F/e promised her "ith an oath /c.G This .ind of oath is called b" the Talmudists a rash oath) concerning which see &aimonides and the Talmudic tract under that title. 8f the form of the oath were "b" his head "

which was ver" usual the re@uest of the maid ver" fitl" though ver" un4ustl" answered to the #romise of the .ing$ as if she should sa" -Lou swore b" "our head that "ou would give me whatsoever 8 shall as.$ give me then the head of John ;a#tist.&G. An7 he sent8 an7 behea7e7 John in the prison.

F/e beheaded John.G Jose#hus relates that John was im#risoned b" Derod in &achaerus) Through the suspicion of /erod he "as sent prisoner to (achaerus . Now &achaerus was the utmost bounds of 7erea) and 7erea was within Derod-s 4urisdiction. ;ut now if John la" #risoner there when the decree went out against his life the eBecutioner must have gone a long 4ourne" and which could scarcel" be #erformed in two da"s from Tiberias where the t"rant-s court was to eBecute that blood" command. 0o that that horrid dish the head of the venerable #ro#het could not be #resented to the maid but some da"s after the celebration of his birthda". The time of his beheading we find out b" those words of the evangelist John "but now the 7assover was nigh " b" reasoning after this manner) 8t ma" be concluded without all controvers" that the disci#les as soon as the" heard of the death of their master and buried him betoo. themselves to 5hrist relating his slaughter and giving him caution b" that eBam#le to ta.e care of his own safet". De hearing of it #asseth over into the desert of ;ethsaida and there he miraculousl" feeds five thousand men when the 7assover was now at hand as John relates mentioning that stor" with the rest of the evangelists. Therefore we su##ose the beheading of the ;a#tist was a little before the 7assover when he had now been in durance half a "ear as he had freel" #reached b" the s#ace of half a "ear before his im#risonment.
&B. When Jes.s hear7 of it8 he 7eparte7 thence by ship into a 7esert place apart: an7 when the people ha7 hear7 thereof8 they followe7 him on foot o.t of the cities.

F/e departed thence by ship into a desert place /c.G That is from 5a#ernaum into the desert of ;ethsaida which is rendered b" John /e "ent over the sea 1hich is to be understood #ro#erl" namel" from !alilee into 7erea. The chorogra#hical ma#s have #laced ;ethsaida in !alilee on the same coast on which 5a#ernaum is also) so also commentators feign to themselves a ba" of the sea onl" coming between these two cities which was our o#inion once also with them) but at last we learned of Jose#hus that ;ethsaida was in the upper 7aulanitis (which we observe elsewhere ) on the east coast of the sea of !ennesaret in 7erea. FThey follo"ed him on foot.G >rom hence inter#reters argue that 5a#ernaum and ;ethsaida la" not on different shores of the sea but on the same) for how else sa" the" could the multitude follow him afoot2 Jer" well sa" 8 #assing Jordan near Tiberias whose situation 8 have elsewhere shewn to be at the effluB of Jordan out of the sea of !alilee. The" followed him afoot from the cities saith our evangelist) now there were cities of some note ver" near 5a#ernaum Tarichea on one side Tiberias on the other. <et it be granted that the multitude travelled out of these cities after 5hrist$ the wa" b" which the" went afoot was at the bridge of Jordan in 5hammath) that #lace was distant a mile or something less from Tiberias and from 5a#ernaum three miles or thereabouts. 7assing Jordan the" went along b" the coast of &agdala$ and after that through the countr" of Di##o) now &agdala was distant one mile from Jordan Di##o two$ and after Di##o was ;ethsaida at the east shore of the sea$ and after ;ethsaida was a ba" of the sea thrusting out itself somewhat into the land$ and from thence was the desert of ;ethsaida. 1hen therefore the" returned bac. from thence he commands his disci#les to get into a shi# and to go to ;ethsaida while he sent the multitude awa" whence he would afterward follow them on foot and would sail with them thence to 5a#ernaum.
&@. An7 they say .nto him8 We ha:e here b.t fi:e loa:es8 an7 two fishes.

FT"o fishes.G 1hat .ind of fish the" were we do not determine. That the" were brought hither b" a bo" to be sold together with the five loaves we ma" gather from 5ha#ter 6)*. The Talmudists discourse ver" much of salt fish. 8 render the word salt fish u#on the credit of the :ruch) he citing this tradition out of ;eracoth ")o they set before him first something salt and with it a morsel2 De blesseth over the salt meat and omits Fthe blessingG over the morsel because the morsel is as it were an a##endiB to it. The salt meat saith he is to be understood of fish as the tradition teacheth that he that vows abstinence from salt things is restrained from nothing but from salt fish." 1hether these were salt fish it were a ridiculous matter to attem#t to determine$ but if the" were the manner of blessing which 5hrist used is worth" to be com#ared with that which the tradition now alleged commands.
;G. An7 they 7i7 all eat8 an7 were fille7: an7 they too6 .p of the fragments that remaine7 twel:e bas6ets f.ll.

F%nd they did all eat# and "ere filled.G 0o eating or a repast after food is defined b" the Talmudists$ namel" "1hen the" eat their fill. 3abh saith %ll eating# "here salt is not# is not eating." The :ruch citing these words for salt reads something seasoned and adds "8t is no eating because the" are not filled."
;;. An7 straightway Jes.s constraine7 his 7isciples to get into a ship8 an7 to go before him .nto the other si7e8 while he sent the m.ltit.7es away.

F%nd immediately he compelled his disciples /c.G The reason of this com#ulsion is given b" 0t. John namel" because the #eo#le seeing the miracle were ambitious to ma.e him a .ing) #erha#s that the disci#les might not cons#ire to do the same who as "et dreamed too much of the tem#oral and earthl" .ingdom of the &essias.
;B. An7 when he ha7 sent the m.ltit.7es away8 he went .p into a mo.ntain apart to pray: an7 when the e:ening was come8 he was there alone.

F0hen the evening "as come.G 0o verse 15 but in another sense) for that denotes the lateness of the da"$ this the lateness of the night. 0o evening in the Talmudists signifies not onl" the declining #art of the da" but the night also) "from what time do the" recite the #h"lacteries in the evening2 >rom the time when the #riests go in to eat their Truma even to the end of the first watch as 3. =lie%er saith$ but as the wise men sa" unto midnight$ "ea as 3abban !amaliel saith even to the rising of the #illar of the morning." 1here the !loss is in the evening# that is# in the night. ;(. An7 in the fo.rth watch of the night Jes.s went .nto them8 wal6ing on the sea. FIn the fourth "atch of the night.G That is after coc. crowing) the Jews ac.nowledge onl" three watches of the night for this with them was the third$ The "atch is the third part of the night. Thus the !loss u#on the #lace now cited. 0ee also the Debrew commentators u#on Judges 6)1*. Not that the" divided not the night into four #arts but that the" esteemed the fourth #art or the watch not so much for the night as for the morning. 0o &ar. 1+)+5 that s#ace after coc.crowing is called the morning. 0ee also =Bodus 1()'(. There were therefore in truth four watches of the night but onl" three of dee# night. 1hen therefore it is said that !ideon set u#on the &idianites in the "middle watch of the night " Judges 6)1* it is to be understood of that watch which was indeed the second of the whole night but the middle watch of the dee# night) namel" from the ending of the first watch to midnight.
Chapter &( ;. Why 7o thy 7isciples transgress the tra7ition of the el7ersC for they wash not their han7s when they eat brea7.

F0hy do they transgress the tradition of the elders 2G Dow great a value the" set u#on their traditions even above the word of !od a##ears sufficientl" from this ver" #lace verse 6. 9ut of infinite eBam#les which we meet with in their writings we will #roduce one #lace onl"$ " The "ords of the scribes are lovely

above the "ords of the la") for the words of the law are weight" and light$ but the words of the scribes are all weight"." "De that shall sa" -There are no #h"lacteries transgressing the words of the law - is not guilt"$ but he that shall sa" -There are five Totaphoth adding to the words of the scribes - he is guilt"." "The "ords of the elders are "eightier than the "ords of the prophets ." ": #ro#het and an elder to what are the" li.ened2 To a .ing sending two of his servants into a #rovince. 9f one he writes thus -Knless he shew "ou m" seal believe him not-) of the other thus -:lthough he shews "ou not m" seal "et believe him.- Thus it is written of the #ro#het -De shall shew thee a sign or a miracle-$ but of the elders thus -:ccording to the law which the" shall teach thee -" /c. ;ut enough of blas#hemies. FFor they "ash not their hands /c.G The undervaluing of the washing of hands is said to be among those things for which the 0anhedrim eBcommunicates) and therefore that 3. =lea%ar ;en Da%ar was eBcommunicated b" it because he undervalued the "ashing of hands $ and that when he was dead b" the command of the 0anhedrim a great stone was laid u#on his bier. "1hence "ou ma" learn (sa" the") that the 0anhedrim stones the ver" coffin of ever" eBcommunicate #erson that dies in his eBcommunication." 8t would re@uire a 4ust volume and not a short commentar" or a running #en to la" o#en this m"ster" of 7harisaism concerning washing of hands and to discover it in all its niceties) let us gather these few #assages out of infinite numbers) 8. The "ashing of hands and the plunging of them is appointed by the "ords of the scribes ) but b" whom and when it is doubted. 0ome ascribe the institution of this rite to Dillel and 0hammai others carr" it bac. to ages before them) "Dillel and 0hammai decreed concerning the washing of hands. 3. Josi ;en 3abbi ;on in the name of 3. <evi saith -That tradition was given before but the" had forgotten it-) these second stand forth and a##oint according to the mind of the former." 88. ":lthough it was #ermitted to eat unclean meats and to drin. unclean drin.s "et the ancient religious eat their common food in cleanness and too. care to avoid uncleanness all their da"s$ and the" were called 7harisees. :nd this is a matter of the highest sanctit" and the wa" of the highest religion$ namel" that a man se#arate himself and go aside from the vulgar and that he neither touch them nor eat nor drin. with them) for such se#aration conduceth to the #urit" of the bod" from evil wor.s " /c. Dence that definition of a 7harisee which we have #roduced before The Pharisees eat their common food in cleanness) and the 7harisaical ladder of heaven "1hosoever hath his seat in the land of 8srael and eateth his common food in cleanness and s#ea.s the hol" language and recites his #h"lacteries morning and evening let him be confident that he shall obtain the life of the world to come." 888. Dere that distinction is to be observed between forbidden meats and unclean meats. 9f both &aimonides wrote a #ro#er tract. Forbidden meats such as fat blood creatures unlawful to be eaten (<ev ') were b" no means to be eaten) but meats# unclean in themselves were lawful indeed to be eaten but contracted some uncleanness elsewhere) it was lawful to eat them and it was not lawful$ or to s#ea. as the thing indeed is the" might eat them b" the law of !od but b" the canons of 7harisaism the" might not. 8J. The distinction also between unclean and profane or polluted is to be observed. 3ambam in his #reface to Toharoth declares it. Profane or polluted denotes this# that it does not pollute another beside itself . >or ever" thing which uncleanness invades so that it becomes unclean but renders not another thing unclean is called

profane. :nd hence it is said of ever" one that eats unclean meats or drin.s unclean drin.s that his body is polluted) but he #ollutes not another. Note that "The bod" of the eater is #olluted b" unclean meats." To which "ou ma" add that which follows in the same &aimonides in the #lace before alleged) "0e#aration from the common #eo#le /c. conduces to the #urit" of the bod" from evil wor.s$ the #urit" of the bod" conduceth to the sanctit" of the soul from evil affections$ the sanctit" of the soul conduces unto li.eness to !od as it is said -:nd "e shall be sanctified and "e shall be hol" because 8 the <ord that sanctif" "ou am hol".-" Dence "ou ma" more clearl" #erceive the force of 5hrist-s confutation which we have verses 16C',. J. The" thought that clean food was #olluted b" unclean hands and that the hands were #olluted b" unclean meats. Lou would wonder at this tradition) "Knclean meats and unclean drin.s do not defile a man if he touch them not but if he touch them with his hands then his hands become unclean$ if he handle them with both hands both hands are defiled$ if he touch them with one hand onl" one hand onl" is defiled." J8. This care therefore laid u#on the 7harisee sect that meats should be set on free as much as might be from all uncleanness) but es#eciall" since the" could not alwa"s be secure of this that the" might be secure that the meats were not rendered unclean b" their hands. Dence were the washings of them not onl" when the" .new them to be unclean but also when the" .new it not. 3ambam in the #reface to the tract of hands hath these words$ "8f the hands are unclean b" an" uncleanness which renders them unclean$ or if it be hid from a man and he .nows not that he is #olluted$ "et he is bound to wash his hands in order to eating his common food " /c. J88. To these most rigid canons the" added also bugbears and ghosts to affright them. It "as the business of 'hibta. 1here the !loss is "'hibta was one of the demons who hurt them that wash not their hands before meat." The :ruch writes thus " 'hibta is an evil s#irit which sits u#on men-s hands in the night) and if an" touch his food with unwashen hands that s#irit sits u#on that food and there is danger from it." <et these things suffice as we #ass along) it would be infinite to #ursue all that is said of this rite and su#erstition. 9f the @uantit" of water sufficient for this washing$ of the washing of the hands and of the #lunging of them$ of the first and second water$ of the manner of washing$ of the time$ of the order when the number of those that sat down to meat eBceeded five or did not eBceed$ and other such li.e niceties) read if "ou have leisure and if the toil and nauseousness of it do not offend "ou the Talmudic tract of hands &aimonides u#on the tract lavers and ;ab"lonian Beracoth) and this article indeed is inserted through the whole volume entitled cleanness. <et this discourse be ended with this canon$ ">or a ca.e and for the washing of hands let a man wal. as far as four miles."
(. 1.t ye say8 Whosoe:er shall say to his father or his mother8 It is a gift8 by whatsoe:er tho. mightest be profite7 by me<

FIt is a gift by "hatsoever thou mightest be profited by me /c.G 8. ;eside the law alleged b" 5hrist "Donour th" father and th" mother " /c. the" ac.nowledge this also for law % son is bound to provide his father meat and drink# to clothe him# to cover him# to lead him in and out# to "ash his face# hands and feet. Lea that goes higher ": son is bound to nourish his father "ea to beg for him." Therefore it is no wonder if these things which are s#o.en b" our 0aviour are not found verbatim in the Jewish #andect$ for the" are not so much alleged b" him to shew that it was their direct design to banish awa" all reverence and love towards #arents as to show how wic.ed their traditions were and into what ungodl" conse@uences the" oftentimes fell. The" denied not directl" the nourishment of their #arents na" the" command it the" eBhorted to it$ but conse@uentl" b" this tradition the" made all void. The" taught o#enl" indeed that a father was to be made no account of in com#arison of a 3abbin that taught

them the law$ but the" b" no means o#enl" asserted that #arents were to be neglected) "et o#enl" enough the" did b" conse@uence drawn from this foolish and im#ious tradition. 88. 9ne might readil" comment u#on this clause "8t is a gift" (or as &ar. "it is Corban") by "hatsoever thou mightest be profited by me if we have read the Talmudic tracts Nedarim and Na!ir where the discourse is of vows and oaths$ and the #hrase which is before us s#ea.s a vow or a form of swearing. 1. Jows were distinguished into two ran.s vo"s of consecration and vo"s of obligation or of prohibition. : vo" of consecration was when an" thing was devoted to hol" uses namel" to the use of the altar or the Tem#le) as when a man b" a vow would dedicate this or that for sacrifice or to bu" wood salt wine /c. for the altar) or for the reparation of the Temple /c. % vo" of obligation or prohibition was when a man bound himself b" a vow from this or that thing which was lawful in itself$ as that he would not eat that he would not #ut on that he would not do this or that /c. '. This went for a noted aBiom among them %ll epithets of vo"s are as the vo"s themselves. The" added certain short forms b" which the" signified a vow and which carried with it the force of a vow as if the thing were s#o.en out in a larger #eri#hrasis) as for eBam#le "8f one should sa" to his neighbour 9onem# 9onah# 9ones behold these are e#ithets of a thing devoted unto sacred uses." The word 9onem 3ambam thus eB#lains$ Let it be upon me as a thing devoted. 0o also 3. Nissim 9onem# 9oneh# are "ords of devoting. 1e #roduced before at cha#ter 5)++ some forms of oaths which were onl" %ssertive) these under our hands are 3otive also. 8n the #lace from Beracoth 4ust now alleged one saith Let the "ine be ,9onem#, "hich I shall taste# for "ine is hard to the bo"els ) that is <et the wine which 8 taste be as devoted wine) as though he had said 8 vow that 8 will not taste wine. "To which others answered 8s not old wine good for the bowels2 Then he held his #eace." 888. ;ut above all such li.e forms of vowing the word Corban was #lainest of all$ which o#enl" s#ea.s a thing devoted and dedicated to sacred use. :nd the reader of those tracts which we have mentioned shall observe these forms fre@uentl" to occur. Let it be ,Corban#, "hereby I am profitable to thee $ and Let it be ,9onem#, "hereby I am profitable to thee . 1hich words sound the ver" same thing unless 8 am ver" much mista.en with the words before us "<et it be Corban or a gift b" which whatsoever thou ma"est be #rofited b" me." 1hich words that the" ma" be more clearl" understood and that the #lain and full sense of the #lace ma" be discovered let these things be considered) >irst That the word a gift is rather to be rendered Let it be a gift than It is a gift. >or 9onem and Corban as we have noted signified not -It is, as something devoted but -Let it be, as something devoted. and De of whom we had mention before...meant not The "ine "hich I shall taste is as something devoted but Let "hatsoever "ine I shall taste be as something devoted ) that is To me let all "ine be devoted# and not to be tasted. 0econdl" This form of s#eech % gift# by "hatsoever thou mightest be profited by me does neither argue that he who thus s#a.e devoted his goods to sacred uses nor obliged him (according to the doctrine of the scribes) to devote them$ but onl" restrained him b" an obligation from that thing for the den"ing of which he used such a form$ that is from hel#ing him b" his goods to whom he thus s#a.e. De might hel# others with his wealth but him he might not. Thirdl" The words are brought in as though the" were #ronounced with indignation$ as if when the need" father re@uired food from his son he should answer in anger and with contem#t Let it be as a

thing devoted# "hatsoever of mine may profit thee . ;ut now things that were devoted were not to be laid out u#on common uses. >ourthl" 5hrist not onl" cites the law -Donour th" father and mother - but adds this also /e that curseth father or mother. ;ut now there was no cursing here at all$ if the son s#o.e trul" and modestl" and as the thing was namel" that all his estate was devoted before. >ifthl" Therefore although these words should have been s#o.en b" the son irreverentl" wrathfull" and inhumanl" towards his father "et such was the foll" together with the im#iet" of the traditional doctrine in this case which #ronounced the son so obliged b" these his words that it was lawful b" no means to succour his need" father. De was not at all bound b" these words to dedicate his estate to sacred uses$ but not to hel# his father he was inviolabl" bound. 9 eBcellent doctrine and charit"E 0iBthl" The words of the verse therefore ma" thus be rendered without an" addition #ut between which man" inter#reters do) 0hosoever shall say to his father or mother# Let it be a FdevotedG gift# in "hatsoever thou mayest be helped by me5 then let him not honour his father and mother at all .
&&. +ot that which goeth into the mo.th 7efileth a man< b.t that which cometh o.t of the mo.th8 this 7efileth a man.

F)efileth the man.G 9r maketh him common$...because the" esteemed defiled men for common and vulgar men) on the contrar" a religious man among them is a singular man...
;G. *hese are the things which 7efile a man: b.t to eat with .nwashen han7s 7efileth not a man.

F0ith un"ashen hands.G De saith not with unclean hands but un"ashen$ because as we said before the" were bound to wash although the" were not conscious that their hands were unclean. 8n &ar. it is "ith common or defiled hands &ar. 6)'$ which seem to be called b" the Talmudists impure hands merel" because not washed. Judge from that which is said in the tract 5hallah) ": ca.e is owing out of that dough which the" .nead with the 4uice of fruits) and it is eaten "ith unclean hands."
;;. An78 behol78 a woman of Canaan came o.t of the same coasts8 an7 crie7 .nto him8 saying8 Ha:e mercy on me8 # Lor78 thou son of %a:i7< my 7a.ghter is grie:o.sly :e5e7 with a 7e:il.

F% "oman of Canaan.G 8n &ar. it is % 7reek "oman# a 'yrophoenician by nation cha#ter 6)'6. 8. &f Canaan. 8t is worth" observing that the Dol" ;ible rec.oning u# the seven nations which were to be destro"ed b" the 8sraelites names the 7eri%%ites who were not at all recited among the sons of 5anaan !enesis 1,$ and the 5anaanites as a #articular nation when all the seven indeed were 5anaanites. 0ee ?euteronom" 6)1 Joshua *)1 11)+ Judges +)5 /c. The reason of the latter (with which our business is) is to be fetched thence that 5anaan himself inhabited a #eculiar #art of that (northern) countr" with his firstCborn sons 0idon and Deth) and thence the name of 5anaanites was #ut u#on that #articular #rogen" distinguished from all his other sons$ and that countr" was #eculiarl" called b" the name of -5anaan - distinctl" from all the rest of the land of 5anaan. Dence Jabin the .ing of Da%or is called the -.ing of 5anaan - Judges ()' and the .ings of T"re and 0idon if 8 mista.e not are called -the .ings of the Dittites - 1 Iings 1,)'*. 88. % 7reek "oman# a 'yrophoenician :lthough Judea and almost the whole world had now a long while stoo#ed under the "o.e of the 3omans "et the memor" of the 0"roC!recian .ingdom and the name of the nation was not "et vanished. :nd that is worth" to be noted In the captivity# they compute the years only from the kingdom of the 7reeks. The" said before "That the 3omans for a hundred and fourscore "ears ruled over the Jews before the destruction of the Tem#le"$ and "et the" do not com#ute the times to that destruction b" the "ears of the 3omans but b" the "ears of the !ree.s. <et the Jews

themselves well consider this and the 5hristians with them who rec.on the 3oman for the fourth monarch" in ?aniel. Therefore that woman that is here s#o.en of (to reduce all into a short conclusion) was a 0"roC!recian b" nation a 7hoenician in res#ect of her habitation and from thence called a "oman of Canaan. ;?. 1.t he answere7 an7 sai78 It is not meet to ta6e the chil7renFs brea78 an7 cast it to 7ogs. FTo the dogs.G ;" this title the Jews out of s#ite and contem#t disgraced the !entiles whose first care it was to hate to moc. and to curse all beside themselves. The nations of the "orld Fthat is the heathenG are likened to dogs. >rom the common s#eech of the nation rather than from his own sense our 0aviour uses this eB#ression to whom -the !entiles- were not so hateful and whose custom was to s#ea. with the vulgar. This ignominious name li.e a stone cast at the heathen at length fell u#on their own heads$ and that b" the hand and 4ustice of !od directing it) for although the" out of #ride and contem#t fiBed that disgraceful name u#on the !entiles according to their ver" 4ust desert the Dol" 0#irit recoiled it u#on themselves. 0ee 7salm 5*)6$ 7hili##ians +)'$ 3evelation '')15 /c.
B?. An7 he too6 the se:en loa:es an7 the fishes8 an7 ga:e than6s8 an7 bra6e them8 an7 ga:e to his 7isciples8 an7 the 7isciples to the m.ltit.7e.

F/e gave thanks and brake.G 0ee here the tract Beracoth where it is discoursed of the manner of giving than.s when man" ate together) Three "ho eat together ought to give thanks together ) that is one gave than.s for the rest (as the !loss writes) "in the #lural number sa"ing <et us give than.s." 0o when there were ten or a hundred or a thousand or more one gave than.s for all and the" answered after him %men or some words which he had recited.
Chapter &? B. An7 in the morning8 It will be fo.l weather to7ay: for the s6y is re7 an7 lowering. # ye hypocrites8 ye can 7iscern the face of the s6y< b.t can ye not discern the signs of the timesC

FCan ye not discern the signs of the times 2G The Jews were ver" curious in observing the seasons of the heavens and the tem#er of the air. "8n the going out of the last da" of the feast of Tabernacles all observed the rising of the smo.e. 8f the smo.e bended northward the #oor re4oiced but the rich were troubled$ because there would be much rain the following "ear and the fruits would be corru#ted) if it bended southward the #oor grieved and the rich re4oiced$ for then there would be fewer rains that "ear and the fruit would be sound) if eastward all re4oiced) if westward all were troubled." The !loss is "The" observed this the last da" of the feast of Tabernacles because the da" before the decree of their 4udgment concerning the rains of that "ear was signed as the tradition is 8n the feast of Tabernacles the" 4udged concerning the rains." "3. :cha said 8f an" wise man had been at Hi##or when the first rain fell he might foretell the moistness of the "ear b" the ver" smell of the dust " /c. ;ut the" were dimCsighted at the signs of times$ that is at those eminent signs which #lainl" #ointed as with the finger and b" a visible mar. that now those times that were so much foretold and eB#ected even the da"s of the &essias were at hand. :s if he had said "5an "e not distinguish that the times of the &essias are come b" those signs which #lainl" declare it2 ?o "e not observe ?aniel-s wee.s now eB#iring2 :re "e not under a "o.e the sha.ing off of which "e have neither an" ho#e at all nor eB#ectation to do2 ?o "e not see how the nation is sun. into all manner of wic.edness2 :re not

miracles done b" me such as were neither seen nor heard before2 ?o "e not consider an infinite multitude flowing in even to a miracle to the #rofession of the gos#el2 and that the minds of all men are raised into a #resent eB#ectation of the &essias2 0trange blindness voluntar" and "et sent u#on "ou from heaven) "our sin and "our #unishment tooE The" see all things which ma" demonstrate and declare a &essias but the" will not see."
?. *hen Jes.s sai7 .nto them8 *a6e hee7 an7 beware of the lea:en of the $harisees an7 of the 0a77.cees.

FBe"are of the leaven of the Pharisees /c.G There were two things es#eciall" which seem to have driven the disci#les into a mista.en inter#retation of these words so that the" understood them of leaven #ro#erl" so called. 8. That the" had more seldom heard leaven used for doctrine. The meta#horical use of it indeed was fre@uent among them in an ill sense namel" for evil affections and the naughtiness of the heart$ but the use of it was more rare if an" at all for evil doctrine. Thus one #ra"s) "<ord of ages it is revealed and .nown before th" face that we would do th" will$ but do thou subdue that which hinders) namel" the leaven "hich is in the lump# and the tyranny of -heathen. kingdoms." 1here the !loss is thus$ "The -leaven which is in the lum# - are evil affections which leavens us in our hearts." Cyrus "as leavened that is grew worse. 0ometimes it is used in a better sense$ "The 3abbins sa" ;lessed is that 4udge who leaveneth his 4udgment." ;ut this is not to be understood concerning doctrine but concerning deliberation in 4udgment. 88. ;ecause ver" eBact care was ta.en b" the 7harisaical canons what leaven was to be used and what not$ dis#utations occur here and there whether heathen leaven is to be used and whether 5uthite leaven /c. 1ith which caution the disci#les thought that 5hrist armed them when he s#a.e concerning the leaven of the 7harisees) but withal the" sus#ected some silent re#roof for not bringing bread along with them.
&B. When Jes.s came into the coasts of Caesarea $hilippi8 he as6e7 his 7isciples8 saying8 Whom 7o men say that I the 0on of man amC

F0hom do men say that I the 'on of man am2G 8. That #hrase or title the 'on of man which 5hrist ver" often gives himself denotes not onl" his humanit" nor his humilit" (for see that #assage John 5)'6 "De hath given him authorit" of eBecuting 4udgment because he is the 'on of man")$ but it bes#ea.s the -seed #romised to :dam the second :dam-) and it carried with it a silent confutation of a double ignorance and error among the Jews) 1. The" .new not what to resolve u#on concerning the original of the &essias$ and how he should rise whether he should be of the living as we noted before the manner of his rise being un.nown to them$ or whether of the dead. This #hrase unties this .not and teaches o#enl" that he being a seed #romised to the first man should arise and be born from the seed of the women. '. The" dreamed of the earthl" victories of the &essias and of nations to be subdued b" him$ but this title The 'on of man recalls their minds to the first #romise where the victor" of the #romised seed is the bruising of the ser#ent-s head not the subduing of .ingdoms b" some warli.e and earthl" trium#h. 88. 1hen therefore the o#inion of the Jews concerning the #erson of the &essias what he should be was uncertain and wavering 5hrist as.eth not so much whether the" ac.nowledged him the &essias as ac.nowledging the &essias what .ind of #erson the" conceived him to be. The a#ostles and the other disci#les whom he had gathered and were ver" man" ac.nowledged him the &essias) "ea those blind men cha#ter *)'6 had confessed this also) therefore that @uestion had been needless as to them "?o the" thin. me to be the &essias2" but that was needful "1hat do the" conceive of me the

&essias2" and to this the answer of 7eter has regard "Thou art 5hrist the 0on of the living !od") as if he should sa" "1e .new well enough a good while ago that thou art the &essias) but as to the @uestion -1hat .ind of #erson thou art - 8 sa" -Thou art the 0on of the living !od.-" 0ee what we note at cha#ter 16)5(. Therefore the word "hom as.s not so much concerning the #erson as concerning the @ualit" of the #erson. 8n which sense also is the word "ho in those words 1 0amuel 16)55 not "The son of "hom " but the son "of "hat kind of man " is this "outh2
&D. An7 they sai78 0ome say that thou art John the 1aptist: some8 lias< an7 others8 Jeremias8 or one of the prophets.

FBut others# Jeremias.G The reason wh" the" name Jeremiah onl" of all the #ro#hets we give at cha#ter '6)*. Lou observe that recourse is here made to the memor" of the dead from whom the &essias should s#ring rather than from the living) among other things #erha#s this reason might #ersuade them so to do that that #iet" could not in those da"s be eB#ected in an" one living as had shined out in those deceased #ersons. (9ne of the ;ab"lonian !emarists sus#ects that ?aniel raised from the dead should be the &essias.) :nd this #erha#s #ersuaded them further because the" thought that the .ingdom of the &essias should arise after the resurrection) and the" that were of this o#inion might be led to thin. that the &essias himself was some eminent #erson among the saints de#arted and that he rising again should bring others with him. &@. An7 Jes.s answere7 an7 sai7 .nto him8 1lesse7 art tho.8 0imon 1ar9Aona: for flesh an7 bloo7 hath not re:eale7 it .nto thee8 b.t my "ather which is in hea:en. FFlesh and blood.G The Jewish writers use this form of s#eech infinite times and b" it o##ose men to 7od. "8f the" were about to lead me before a king of flesh and blood /c.$ but the" are leading me before the Iing of .ings." ": .ing of flesh and blood forms his #icture in a table /c.$ the Dol" ;lessed 9ne his /c." This #hrase occurs five times in that one column) "the Dol" ;lessed !od doth not as flesh and blood doth /c. Flesh and blood wound with one thing and heal with another) but the Dol" ;lessed 9ne wounds and heals with one and the same thing. Jose#h was sold for his dreams and he was #romoted b" dreams."
&'. An7 I say also .nto thee8 *hat tho. art $eter8 an7 .pon this roc6 I will b.il7 my ch.rch< an7 the gates of hell shall not pre:ail against it.

FThou art Peter /c.G 8. There is nothing either in the dialect of the nation or in reason forbids us to thin. that our 0aviour used this ver" same !ree. word since such !raeci%ings were not unusual in that nation. ;ut be it granted (which is asserted more without controvers") that he used the 0"riac word$ "et 8 den" that he used that ver" word Cepha which he did #resentl" after) but he #ronounced it Cephas after the !ree. manner$ or he s#o.e it Cephai in the ad4ective sense according to the 0"riac formation. >or how 8 #ra" could he be understood b" the disci#les or b" 7eter himself if in both #laces he had retained the same word Thou art a rock# and upon this rock 8 will build m" church2 8t is readil" answered b" the 7a#ists that "7eter was the roc.." ;ut let them tell me wh" &atthew used not the same word in !ree. if our 0aviour used the same word in 0"riac. 8f he had intimated that the church should be built u#on 7eter it had been #lainer and more agreeable to be the vulgar idiom to have said "Thou art 7eter and u#on thee 8 will build m" church." 88. The words concerning the rock u#on which the church was to be built are evidentl" ta.en out of 8saiah cha#ter '8)16$ which the New Testament being inter#reter in ver" man" #laces do most #lainl"

s#ea. 5hrist. 1hen therefore 7eter the first of all the disci#les (from the ver" first beginning of the #reaching of the gos#el) had #ronounced most clearl" of the #erson of 5hrist and had declared the m"ster" of the incarnation and confessed the deit" of 5hrist the minds of the disci#les are with good reason called bac. to those words of 8saiah that the" might learn to ac.nowledge who that stone was that was set in 0ion for a foundation never to be sha.en and whence it came to #ass that that foundation remained so unsha.en$ namel" thence that he was not a creature but !od himself the 0on of !od. 888. Thence therefore 7eter too. his surname$ not that he should be argued to be that rock but because he was so much to be em#lo"ed in building a church u#on a rock) whether it were that church that was to be gathered out of the Jews of which he was the chief minister or that of the !entiles (concerning which the discourse here is #rinci#all" of) unto which he made the first entrance b" the gos#el.
&). An7 I will gi:e .nto thee the 6eys of the 6ing7om of hea:en: an7 whatsoe:er tho. shalt bin7 on earth shall be bo.n7 in hea:en: an7 whatsoe:er tho. shalt loose on earth shall be loose7 in hea:en.

F%nd I "ill give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven .G That is Thou shalt first open the door of faith to the 7entiles. De had said that he would build his church to endure for ever against which "the gates of hell should not #revail"... "and to thee 9 7eter (saith he) 8 will give the .e"s of the .ingdom of heaven that thou ma"est o#en a door for the bringing in the gos#el to that church." 1hich was #erformed b" 7eter in that remar.able stor" concerning 5ornelius :cts 1,. :nd 8 ma.e no doubt that those words of 7eter res#ect these words of 5hrist :cts 15)6$ % good "hile ago 7od made choice among us# that the 7entiles should hear the "ord of the gospel by my mouth# and believe . F%nd "hatsoever thou shalt bind on earth /c. %nd "hatsoever thou shalt loose on earth /c.G 8. 1e believe the .e"s were committed to 7eter alone but the #ower of binding and loosing to the other a#ostles also cha#ter 18)18. 88. 8t is necessar" to su##ose that 5hrist here s#a.e according to the common #eo#le or he could not be understood without a #articular commentar" which is nowhere to be found. 888. ;ut now to bind and loose a ver" usual #hrase in the Jewish schools was s#o.en of things not of persons$ which is here also to be observed in the articles "hat and "hatsoever cha#ter 18. 9ne might #roduce thousands of eBam#les out of their writings) we will onl" offer a double decad$ the first whence the fre@uent use of this word ma" a##ear$ the second whence the sense ma") 1. "3. Jochanan said Fto those of TiberiasG -1h" have "e brought this elder to me2 0hatsoever I loose# he binds4 "hatsoever I bind# he looseth.-" '. Thou shalt neither bind nor loose$ +. "Nachum the brother of 3. 8lla as.ed 3. Jochanan concerning a certain matter. To whom he answered Thou shalt neither bind nor loose." (. This man binds# but the other looseth. 5. "3. 5hai4a said 0hatsoever I have bound to you else"here# I "ill loose to you here ." 6. /e asked one "ise man# and he bound5 )o not ask another "ise man# lest perhaps he loose . 6. The mouth that bindeth is the mouth that looseth .

8. 6%lthough of the disci#les of 0hammai and those of Dillel the one bound# and the other loosed$ "et the" forbade not but that these might ma.e #urifications according to the others." *. % "ise man that 1udgeth 1udgment# defileth and cleanseth Fthat is he declares defiled or cleanG$ he looseth and bindeth. The same also is in &aimonides. 1,. 1hether it is lawful to go into the necessar"Chouse with the #h"lacteries onl" to #iss2 *abbena looseth# and *abh %da bindeth$ The mystical doctor# "ho neither bindeth nor looseth . The other decad shall show the #hrase a##lied to things) 1. "8n Judea the" did FservileG wor.s on the 7assoverCeve" (that is on the da" going before the 7assover) "until noon but in !alilee not. ;ut that which the school of 'hammai binds until the night the school of /illel looseth until the rising of the sun ." '. ": festivalCda" ma" teach us this in "hich they loosed by the notion of a -servile. "ork " .illing and boiling /c. as the !loss notes. But in "hich they bound by the notion of a sabbatism ) that is as the same !loss s#ea.s -The bringing in some food from without the limits of the sabbath.+. "The" do not send letters b" the hand of a heathen on the eve of a sabbath no nor on the fifth da" of the wee.. >ea# the school of 'hammai binds it# even on the fourth day of the "eek4 but the school of /illel looseth it." (. "The" do not begin a vo"age in the great sea on the eve of the sabbath no nor on the fifth da" of the wee.. >ea# the school of 'hammai binds it# even on the fourth day of the "eek4 but the school of /illel looses it." 5. "To them that bathe in the hotCbaths in the sabbathCda" they bind "ashing# and they loose s"eating." 6. "1omen ma" not loo. into a loo.ingCglass on the sabbathCda" if it be fiBed to a wall *abbi loosed it# but the "ise men bound it." 6. "5oncerning the moving of em#t" vessels Fon the sabbathCda"G of the filling of which there is no intention$ the school of 'hammai binds it# the school of /illel looseth it ." 8. "5oncerning gathering wood on a feastCda" scattered about a field the school of 0hammai binds it the school of Dillel looseth it." *. They never loosed to us a cro"# nor bound to us a pigeon . 1,. "?oth a seah of unclean Truma fall into a hundred seahs of clean Truma2 The school of 0hammai binds it the school of Dillel looseth it." There are infinite eBam#les of this nature. <et a third decad also be added (that nothing ma" be left unsaid in this matter) giving eBam#les of the #arts of the #hrase distinctl" and b" themselves) 1. "The things "hich they bound not# that they might have a hedge to the law." '. "The scribes bound the leaven." +. They neither punished nor bound# unless concerning the leaven itself .

(. "The "ise men bound the eating of leaven from the beginning of the siBth hour " of the da" of the 7assover. 5. "3. :bhu saith 3. !amaliel ;en 3abbi as.ed me. 1hat if 8 should go into the mar.et2 and I bound it him." 1. The 'anhedrim# "hich looseth t"o things# let it not hasten to loose three . '. "3. Jochanan saith They necessarily loose saluting on the sabbath ." +. The "ise men loose all oils or all fat things. (. "The school of 0hammai saith The" do not stee# in. colours and vetches" on the eve of the sabbath "unless the" be stee#ed before the da" be ended) but the school of /illel looseth it." &an" more such li.e instances occur there. 5. "*$ (eir loosed the mi2ing of wine and oil to anoint a sic. man on the sabbath." To these ma" be added if need were the fre=uent (shall 8 sa"2) or infinite use of the #hrases bound and loosed which we meet with thousands of times over. ;ut from these allegations the reader sees abundantl" enough both the fre@uenc" and the common use of this #hrase and the sense of it also$ namel" first that it is used in doctrine and in 4udgments concerning things allowed or not allowed in the law. 0econdl" That to bind is the same with to forbid or to declare forbidden. To thin. that 5hrist when he used the common #hrase was not understood b" his hearers in the common and vulgar sense shall 8 call it a matter of laughter or of madness2 To this therefore do these words amount) 1hen the time was come wherein the &osaic law as to some #art of it was to be abolished and left off$ and as to another #art of it was to be continued and to last for ever) he granted 7eter here and to the rest of the a#ostles cha#ter 18)18 a #ower to abolish or confirm what the" thought good and as the" thought good being taught this and led b" the Dol" 0#irit) as if he should sa" "1hatsoever "e shall bind in the law of &oses that is forbid it shall be forbidden the ?ivine authorit" confirming it$ and whatsoever "e shall loose that is permit or shall teach that it is permitted and la"ful shall be la"ful and permitted." Dence the" bound that is forbade circumcision to the believers$ eating of things offered to idols of things strangled and of blood for a time to the !entiles$ and that which the" bound on earth was confirmed in heaven. The" loosed that is allo"ed #urification to 7aul and to four other brethren for the shunning of scandal :cts '1)'() and in a word b" these words of 5hrist it was committed to them the Dol" 0#irit directing that the" should ma.e decrees concerning religion as to the use or re4ection of &osaic rite and 4udgments and that either for a time or for ever. <et the words be a##lied b" wa" of #ara#hrase to the matter that was transacted at #resent with 7eter) "8 am about to build a !entile church (saith 5hrist)$ and to thee 9 7eter do 8 give the .e"s of the .ingdom of heaven that thou ma"est first o#en the door of faith to them$ but if thou as.est b" what rule that church is to be governed when the &osaic rule ma" seem so im#ro#er for it thou shalt be so guided b" the Dol" 0#irit that whatsoever of the law of &oses thou shalt forbid them shall be forbidden$ whatsoever thou grantest them shall be granted and that under a sanction made in heaven." Dence in that instant when he should use his .e"s that is when he was now read" to o#en the gate of the gos#el to the !entiles :cts 1,)'8 he was taught from heaven that the consorting of the Jew with the !entile which before had been bound was now loosed$ and the eating of an" creature convenient for food was now loosed which before had been bound$ and he in li.e manner looses both these.

Those words of our 0aviour John ',)'+ "1hose sins "e remit the" are remitted to them " for the most #art are forced to the same sense with these before us$ when the" carr" @uite another sense. Dere the business is of doctrine onl" not of persons$ there of persons not of doctrine) here of things lawful or unlawful in religion to be determined b" the a#ostles$ there of #ersons obstinate or not obstinate to be #unished b" them or not to be #unished. :s to doctrine the a#ostles were doubl" instructed) 1. 0o long sitting at the feet of their &aster the" had imbibed the evangelical doctrine. '. The Dol" 0#irit directing them the" were to determine concerning the legal doctrine and #ractice$ being com#letel" instructed and enabled in both b" the Dol" 0#irit descending u#on them. :s to their #ersons the" were endowed with a #eculiar gift so that the same 0#irit directing them if the" would retain and #unish the sins of an" a #ower was delivered into their hands of delivering to 0atan of #unishing with diseases #lagues "ea death itself$ which 7eter did to :nanias and 0a##hira$ 7aul to =l"mas D"meneus and 7hiletus /c. 5ha#ters 16 18 1* Oscri#5om t"#eN"5ommentar"" #assageN"&atthew 16 18 1*" #arsedN"P&attP16P,P,P,$P&attP18P,P,P,$P &attP1*P,P,P," osis3efN";ible)&att.16 ;ible)&att.18 ;ible)&att.1*" QR
;. An7 was transfig.re7 before them: an7 his face 7i7 shine as the s.n8 an7 his raiment was white as the light.

F%nd "as transfigured.G 1hen 5hrist was ba#ti%ed being now read" to enter u#on his evangelical #riesthood he is sealed b" a heavenl" voice for the /igh Priest and is anointed with the Dol" 0#irit as the high #riests were wont to be with hol" oil. 8n this transfiguration he is sealed for the high #riest) for mar. 1. Dow two of the greatest #ro#hets &oses and =lias resort to him. '. Dow to those words "This is m" beloved 0on in whom 8 am well #leased " which also were heard from heaven at his ba#tism is added that clause "hear "e him") which com#are with the words of &oses concerning a #ro#het to be raised u# b" !od ?euteronom" 18)1* "1hosoever shall not hear.en to m" words which 8 shall #ut into his mouth " /c. +. Dow the heavenl" voice went out of the cloud that overshadowed them when at his ba#tism no such cloud a##eared. Dere that is worth" observing which some Jews note and reason dictates namel" That the cloud of glor" the conductor of 8srael de#arted at the death of &oses$ for while he lived that cloud was the #eo#le-s guide in the wilderness$ but when he was dead the ar. of the covenant led them. Therefore as that cloud de#arted at the death of &oses that great #ro#het so such a cloud was now #resent at the sealing of the greatest 7ro#het. (. 5hrist here shines with such a brightness na" with a greater than &oses and =lias now glorified$ and this both for the honour of his #erson and for the honour of his doctrine$ both which sur#assed b" infinite degrees the #ersons and the doctrines of both of them. 1hen "ou recollect the face of 5hrist transfigured shining with so great lustre when he tal.ed with &oses and =lias ac.nowledge the brightness of the gos#el above the cloud" obscurit" of the law and of the #ro#hets.

D. *hen answere7 $eter8 an7 sai7 .nto Jes.s8 Lor78 it is goo7 for .s to be here: if tho. wilt8 let .s ma6e here three tabernacles< one for thee8 an7 one for 3oses8 an7 one for lias.

FLet us make here three tabernacles /c.G The transfiguration of 5hrist was b" night. 5om#are <u.e *)+6. The form of his face and garments is changed while he #ra"s$ and &oses and =lias come and discourse with him concerning his death (it is uncertain how long) while as "et the disci#les that were #resent were overcharged with slee#. 1hen the" awa.ed 9 what a s#ectacle had the"E being afraid the" observe and contem#late the" discover the #ro#hets) whom now de#arting 7eter would detain$ and being loath that so noble a scene should be dis#ersed made this #ro#osition "<et us ma.e here

three tabernacles " /c. 1hence he should .now them to be #ro#hets it is in vain to see. because it is nowhere to be found$ but being .nown he was loath the" should de#art thence being ravished with the sweetness of such societ" however astonished at the terror of the glor"$ and hence those words which when he s#a.e he is said b" <u.e "not to .now what he said"$ and b" &ar. "not to .now what he should sa""$ which are rather to be understood of the misa##lication of his words than of the sense of the words. De .new well enough that he said these words and he .new as well for what reason he said them$ but "et "he .new not what he said"$ that is he was much mista.en when he s#a.e these words while he believed that 5hrist &oses and =lias would abide and dwell there together in earthl" tabernacles.
(. While he yet spa6e8 behol78 a bright clo.7 o:ersha7owe7 them: an7 behol7 a :oice o.t of the clo.78 which sai78 *his is my belo:e7 0on8 in whom I am well please7< hear ye him.

F0hile he yet spake# behold# a cloud /c.G &oses and =lias now turning their bac.s and going out of the scene 7eter s#ea.s his words$ and as he s#ea.s them when the #ro#hets were now gone ";ehold a cloud " /c. The" had foretold 5hrist of his death (such is the cr" of the <aw and of the 7ro#hets that "5hrist should suffer " <u.e '()(()$ he #reaches his deit" to his disci#les and the heavenl" voice seals him for the true &essias. 0ee ' 7eter 1)16 16.
&G. An7 his 7isciples as6e7 him8 saying8 Why then say the scribes that lias m.st first comeC

F0hy therefore say the scribes that lias must first come 2G 8. 8t would be an infinite tas. to #roduce all the #assages out of the Jewish writings which one might concerning the eB#ected coming of =lias) we will mention a few things in passing which sufficientl" s#ea. out that eB#ectation and the ends also of his eB#ected coming. 8. <et ?avid Iimchi first be heard u#on those words of &alachi ";ehold 8 send "ou =lias the #ro#het") "!od (saith he) shall restore the soul of =lias which ascended of old into heaven into a created bod" li.e to his former bod") for his first bod" returned to earth when he went u# to heaven each element to its own element. ;ut when !od shall bring him to life in the bod" he shall send him to 8srael before the da" of 4udgment which is -the great and terrible da" of the <ord-) and he shall admonish both the fathers and the children together to turn to !od$ and the" that turn shall be delivered from the da" of 4udgment " /c. 5onsider whither the e"e of the disci#les loo.s in the @uestion under our hands. 5hrist had commanded in the verse before "Tell the vision" of the transfiguration "to no man until the 0on of man be risen from the dead." ;ut now although the" understood not what the resurrection from the dead meant (which &ar. intimates ) "et the" roundl" retort "1h" therefore sa" the scribes that =lias shall first come2" that is before there be a resurrection and a da" of 4udgment) for as "et the" were altogether ignorant that 5hrist should rise. The" believed with the whole nation that there should be a resurrection at the coming of the &essias. '. <et :ben =%ra be heard in the second #lace) "1e find (saith he) that =lias lived in the da"s of :ha%iah the son of :hab) we find also that Joram the son of :hab and Jehosha#hat in@uired of =lisha the #ro#het$ and there it is written F' Iings +)11G -This is =lisha the son of 0ha#hat "ho poured "ater u#on the hands of =li4ah.- :nd this is a sign that =lias was first gone u# into heaven in a whirlwind) because it is not said -who poureth water - but -who poured.- &oreover =lisha de#arted not from =li4ah from the time that he first waited u#on him until =lias went u#. :nd "et we find that after the death of Jehosha#hat in the da"s of :ha%iah his son it was written -:nd a letter came to him from =li4ah the #ro#het.- :nd this #roves that he then writ and sent it) for if it had been written before his ascension it would be said a letter was found or brought to him which =lias had left behind him. :nd it is without controvers" that he was seen in the da"s of our hol" wise men. !od of his merc" hasten his #ro#hec" and the times of his coming." 0o he u#on &alachi (.

+. The Talmudists do su##ose =lias .ee#ing the sabbath in mount 5armel) "<et not the Trumah (saith one) of which it is doubted whether it be clean or unclean be burnt$ lest =lias .ee#ing the sabbath in mount 5armel come and testif" of it on the sabbath that it is clean." (. The Talmudical boo.s abound with these and the li.e trifles) "8f a man finds an" thing that is lost he is bound to declare it b" a #ublic outcr"$ but if the owners come not to as. for it let him la" it u# b" him until =lias shall come." :nd "8f an" find a bill of contract between his countr"men and .nows not what it means let him la" it u# until =lias shall come." 5. That we be not tedious it shall be enough to #roduce a few #assages out of ;ab"lonian rubhin) where u#on this sub4ect "8f an" sa" ;ehold 8 am a Na%arite on the da" wherein the 0on of ?avid comes it is #ermitted to drin. wine on the sabbaths and feastCda"s " it is dis#uted what da" of the wee. &essias shall come and on what da" =lias) where among other things these words occur lias came not yesterday) that is the same da" wherein he comes he shall a##ear in #ublic$ and shall not lie hid to da" coming "esterda". The !loss thus) "8f thou sa"est #erha#s he shall come on the eve of the sabbath and shall preach the gospel on the sabbath$ "ou ma" answer with that teBt -;ehold 8 send "ou =lias the #ro#het before the da" of the <ord come-) "ou ma" argue that he shall #reach on that ver" da" in which he shall come." "The Israelites are certain that =lias shall come neither on the sabbath eves nor on the eves of the feast da"s by reason of labour." :nd again lias cometh not on the sabbath day. Thus s#ea. the scholars of Dillel) "1e are sure =lias will not come on the sabbath nor on a feast da"." The !lossers give the reason "Not on the sabbath eves or the eves of the feast da"s b" reason of labour"$ that is b" reason of the #re#aration for the sabbath$ namel" lest the" should leave the necessaries for the sabbath unfinished to go to meet him) "Nor on the sabbaths b" reason of labour" in the ban@uets$ that the" omit not those feastings and eatings which were esteemed so necessar" to the sabbath whiles the" went out to meet =lias. <et these three observations out of the !lossers u#on the #age cited serve for a conclusion)CC 1. Before the coming of the 'on of )avid# lias shall come to preach of him . '. "(essias cometh not on the first day of the sabbath because =lias shall not come on the sabbath." 1hence it a##ears that =lias is eB#ected the da" before the &essias- a##earing. +. Is not (essias Ben Joseph to come first2 88. 1e meet with numberless stories in the Talmudists concerning the a##aritions of =lias) according to that which was said before b" :ben =%ra "8t is without controvers" that =lias was seen in the da"s of our wise men." There is no need of eBam#les when it ma" not be so much doubted who of these wise men saw =lias as who saw him not. >or m" #art 8 cannot esteem all those stories for mere fables$ but in ver" man" of them 8 cannot but sus#ect witchcrafts and the a##earances of ghosts which we also said before concerning the Bath 9ol. >or thus the devil craftil" deluded this nation willing to be deceived$ and even the ca#acit" of observing that the coming of the &essias was now #ast was obliterated when here and there in this age and in the other his forerunner =lias a##eared as if he intended hence to let them .now that he was "et to come.
&&. An7 Jes.s answere7 an7 sai7 .nto them8 lias tr.ly shall first come8 an7 restore all things.

F%nd he shall restore all things.G The Jews feign man" things which =lias shall restore) " /e shall purify the bastards and restore them to the congregation. De shall render to 8srael the #ot of manna the vial of hol" oil the vial of water$ and there are some who sa" the rod of :aron."

/e shall restore or make up not into the former state but into a better. There were times of restitution of all things determined b" !od :cts +)'1$ wherein all things were to be framed into a gos#elCstate and a state worth" of the &essias) a church was to be founded and the doctrine of the gos#el dis#ersed the hearts of the fathers the Jews to be united to the sons the !entiles$ and the hearts of the sons the !entiles to the fathers the Jews) which wor. was begun b" the ;a#tist and finished b" 5hrist and the a#ostles. 1hich term of the restitution of all these eB#iring the commonwealth of the Jews eB#ired also$ and the gifts of revelation and miracles granted for this #ur#ose and so necessar" to it failed. "Dowever therefore "e have crucified 5hrist " saith 7eter in that #lace of the :cts now cited ""et !od shall still send "ou Jesus 5hrist in the #reaching of the gos#el to fulfil these things. Dim indeed as to his #erson the heavens do contain and shall contain until all these things be #erfected$ eB#ect not therefore with the erring nation his #ersonal #resence alwa"s on earth) but he shall ma.e u# and constitute all things b" us his ministers until the times determined and #refiBed for the #erfecting of this restitution shall come."
&(. Lor78 ha:e mercy on my son: for he is a l.natic8 an7 sore :e5e7: for ofttimes he falleth into the fire8 an7 oft into the water.

F/e is lunatic.G <u.e *)+* a spirit taketh him$ &ar. *)16 hath a dumb spirit. 8. De that is s.illed in the Talmudic writings will here remember what things are said concerning a deaf and mad man concerning whom there is so much mention in their writings. "There are five who do not #a" the Trumah$ but if the" do their Trumah is no Trumah5 the deaf and dumb# the lunatic " /c. ":n" one is fit to sacrifice a beast eBce#t a dumb and deaf# a lunatic# and a child") and ver" man" #assages of this nature /c. 8 have rendered deaf and dumb according to the sense of the masters who in the first #lace cited do thus inter#ret the word$ "concerning which the wise men s#ea. is he "ho neither heareth nor speaketh." 0ee there the Jerusalem !emara where among other things this occurs not unworth" our noting$ "That all the sons of 3. Jochanan ;en !udgoda were deaf and dumb." 88. 8t was ver" usual to the Jews to attribute some of the more grievous diseases to evil s#irits s#eciall" those wherein either the bod" was distorted or the mind disturbed and tossed with a #hrens". "If any one# ve2ed "ith an evil spirit# shall say# "hen the disease did first invade him 1rite a bill of divorce for m" wife " /c. "If any# "hom 9ordicus ve2eth sa" 1rite a bill of divorce for m" wife " /c. "9ordicus sa" the !lossers is a demon which rules over those that drin. too much new wine. 0hat is ,9ordicus2- 0amuel saith 1hen new wine out of the #ress hath caught an" one." 3ambam u#on the #lace hath these words$ "9ordicus is a disease generated from the re#letion of the vessels of the brain whereb" the understanding is confounded$ and it is a .ind of fallingCsic.ness." ;ehold the same a demon and a diseaseE to which the !emarists a##lied eBorcisms and a diet. "0hibta is an evil s#irit who ta.ing hold on the nec.s of infants dries u# and contracts their nerves." "De that drin.s u# double cu#s is punished by the devils." >rom this vulgar o#inion of the nation namel" that devils are the authors of such .ind of diseases one evangelist brings in the father of this child sa"ing of him he is lunatic another he hath a spirit. De had been dumb and deaf from his birth$ to that miser" was added a #hrens" or a l"canthro#" which .ind of disease it was not unusual with the nation to attribute to the devil$ and here in truth a devil was #resent.

&@. *hen Jes.s answere7 an7 sai78 # faithless an7 per:erse generation8 how long shall I be with yo.C how long shall I s.ffer yo.C bring him hither to me.

F& faithless and perverse generation /c.G The edge of these words is levelled es#eciall" against the scribes (see &ar. *)1()$ and "et the disci#les esca#ed not altogether untouched. 5hrist and his three #rime disci#les being absent this child is brought to the rest to be healed) the" cannot heal him #artl" because the devil was reall" in him$ #artl" because this evil had adhered to him from his ver" birth. K#on this the scribes insult and scoff at them and their master. % faithless and perverse generation which is neither overcome b" miracles when the" are done and vilif" when the" are not doneE The faith of the disci#les (v ',) wavered b" the #lain difficult" of the thing which seemed im#ossible to be overcome when so man" evils were digested into one deafness dumbness #hrens" and #ossession of the devil) and all these from the cradle.
;G. An7 Jes.s sai7 .nto them8 1eca.se of yo.r .nbelief: for :erily I say .nto yo.8 If ye ha:e faith as a grain of m.star7 see78 ye shall say .nto this mo.ntain8 !emo:e hence to yon7er place< an7 it shall remo:e< an7 nothing shall be impossible .nto yo..

FFaith as a grain of mustard seed /c.G %s a seed of mustard or as a drop of mustard in Talmudic language. 0ee cha#ter 1+)'+. F>e shall say to this mountain /c.G 0ee what we note at cha#ter '1)'1.
;&. Howbeit this 6in7 goeth not o.t b.t by prayer an7 fasting.

FThis kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting .G 8t is not much unli.e this which is said By reason of an evil spirit a singular or religious man may afflict himself with fastings.
;D. An7 when they were come to Caperna.m8 they that recei:e7 trib.te money came to $eter8 an7 sai78 %oth not yo.r master pay trib.teC

FThey that receive the ?didrachma@ tribute+money .G Two things #ersuade me that this is to be understood of the halfCshe.el to be "earl" #aid into the treasur" of the Tem#le) 1. The word itself whereb" this tribute is called 5oncerning this thus Jose#hus writes) "De laid a taB u#on all the Jews wheresoever the" were namel" t"o drachms) commanding ever" one of whatever age to bring it into the 5a#itol as before the" had #aid it into the Tem#le at Jerusalem." :nd ?ion 5assius of the same thus "De commanded all to bring the didrachm "earl" to Ju#iter 5a#itolinus." The 0event" 8nter#reters indeed u#on =Bodus +,)1+ render it half a didrachm$ but adding this moreover "hich is according to the holy didrachm. ;e it so$ the whole she.el was the holy didrachm) then let the half she.el be the common didrachm. Dowever the thing is he that #aid the halfCshe.el in the vulgar dialect was called he that paid the shekels$ and that which is here said b" &atthew they that receive the didrachm the Talmudists eB#ress they that demand or collect the shekels. The Targumists render that #lace =Bodus + F1+G the half of the shekel$ the reason of which see if "ou #lease in &aimonides. "The she.el (saith he) concerning which the <aw s#ea.s did weigh three hundred and twent" grains of barle"$ but the wise men sometime added to that weight and made it to be of the same value with the mone" 'ela under the second Tem#le that is three hundred eight"Cfour middling grains of barle"." 0ee the #lace and the !loss. '. The answer of 5hrist sufficientl" argues that the discourse is concerning this taB when he saith De is son of that .ing for whose use that tribute was demanded) for "from thence were bought the dail" and additional sacrifices and their drin. offerings the sheaf the two loaves (<ev '+)16) the shewbread all

the sacrifices of the congregation the red cow the sca#egoat and the crimson tongue which was between his horns " /c. ;ut here this ob4ection occurs which is not so eas" to answer. The time of the #a"ment of the half she.el was about the feast of the 7assover$ but now that time was far gone and the feast of Tabernacles at hand. 8t ma" be answered 1. That &atthew who recites this stor" observed not the course and order of time which was not unusual with him as being he among all the evangelists that most dis4oints the times of the stories. ;ut let it be granted that the order of the histor" in him is right and #ro#er here it is answered '. =ither 5hrist was scarcel" #resent at the 7assover last #ast$ or if he were #resent b" reason of the danger he was in b" the snares of the Jews he could not #erform this #a"ment in that manner as it ought to have been. 5onsider those words which John s#ea.s of the 7assover last #ast cha#ter 6)( "The 7assover a feast of the Jews was near"$ and cha#ter 6)1 ":fter these things Jesus wal.ed in !alilee$ for he would not wal. an" more in Jewr" because the Jews sought to .ill him." +. 8t was not unusual to defer the #a"ment of the half she.els of this "ear to the "ear following b" reason of some urgent necessit". Dence it was when the" sat to collect and receive this tribute the collectors had before them two chests #laced$ in one of which the" #ut the taB of the #resent "ear in the other of the "ear #ast. ;ut it ma" be ob4ected 1h" did the collectors of 5a#ernaum re@uire the #a"ment at that time when according to custom the" began not to demand it before the fifteenth da" of the month :dar2 8 answer 1. 8t is certain there were in ever" cit" moneychangers to collect it and being collected to carr" it to Jerusalem. Dence is that in the tract cited "The fifteenth da" of the month :dar the collectors sit in the cities " to demand the half she.el$ "and the fiveCandCtwentieth the" sit in the Tem#le." '. The uncertain abode of 5hrist at 5a#ernaum gave these collectors no un4ust cause of demanding this due whensoever the" had him there #resent$ at this time es#eciall" when the feast of Tabernacles was near and the" about to go to Jerusalem to render an account #erha#s of their collection. ;ut if an" list to understand this of the taB #aid the 3omans we do not contend. :nd then the words of those that collected the tribute "?oes not "our master #a" the didrachm2" seem to sound to this effect "8s "our master of the sect of Judas of !alilee2"
Chapter &' &. At the same time came the 7isciples .nto Jes.s8 saying8 Who is the greatest in the 6ing7om of hea:enC

F0ho is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven2G 8t cannot be #assed over without observation that the ambitious dis#ute of the disci#les concerning #rimac" for the most #art followed the mention of the death of 5hrist and his resurrection. 0ee this stor" in &ar. *)+1C++ and <u.e *)((C(6) "De said to his disci#les <a" u# these discourses in "our ears) for the time is coming that the 0on of man is delivered into the hands of men. ;ut the" .new not that sa"ing /c.$ and there arose a contest between them who among them should be greatest." :lso &atthew ',)18C',) "De said to them ;ehold we go u# to Jerusalem$ and the 0on of man shall be betra"ed unto the chief #riests /c. Then came to him the mother of Hebedee-s children with her sons sa"ing !rant that these m" two sons ma" sit one on th" right hand " /c. :nd <u.e '')''C'($ "The 0on of man indeed goeth as it is determined /c.$ and there arose a contention among them who of them should seem to be the greater." The dream of the earthl" .ingdom of the &essias did so #ossess their minds (for the" had suc.ed in this doctrine with their first mil.) that the mention of the most vile death of the &essias re#eated over and over again did not at all drive it thence. The image of earthl" #om# was fiBed at the bottom of their hearts and there it stuc.$ nor b" an" words of 5hrist could it as "et be rooted out no not when the" saw the death of 5hrist when together with that the" saw his resurrection) for then the" also as.ed "1ilt thou at this time restore the .ingdom to 8srael2" :cts 1)6.

Dowever after 5hrist had oftentimes foretold his death and resurrection it alwa"s follows in the evangelists that "the" understood not what was s#o.en"$ "et the o#inion formed in their minds b" their doctors that the resurrection should go before the .ingdom of the &essias su##lied them with such an inter#retation of this matter that the" lost not an ace of the o#inion of a future earthl" .ingdom. 0ee more at cha#ter '()+.
?. 1.t whoso shall offen7 one of these little ones which belie:e in me8 it were better for him that a millstone were hange7 abo.t his nec68 an7 that he were 7rowne7 in the 7epth of the sea.

FIt "ere better for him that a millstone "ere hanged about his neck /c.G It is good for him in Talmudic language. % millstone seems to be said in distinction from those ver" small mills wherewith the" were wont to grind the s#ices that were either to be a##lied to the wound of circumcision or to be added to the delights of the sabbath. Dence the !loss of 3. 0olomon u#on Jeremiah '5)1,$ "The sound of mills and the light of the candle") "The sound of mills (saith he) wherewith s#ices were ground and bruised for the healing of circumcision." That 5hrist here s#ea.s of a .ind of death #erha#s nowhere certainl" never used among the Jews$ he does it either to aggravate the thing or in allusion to drowning in the ?ead sea in which one cannot be drowned without some weight hung to him) and in which to dro"n an" thing b" a common manner of s#eech im#lied to devote to re4ection hatred and eBecration$ which we have observed elsewhere.
&G. *a6e hee7 that ye 7espise not one of these little ones< for I say .nto yo.8 *hat in hea:en their angels 7o always behol7 the face of my "ather which is in hea:en.

FTheir angels in heaven do al"ays behold /c.G This one ma" ver" well eB#ound b" la"ing to it that which is said Debrews 1)1( "The angels are ministering s#irits sent to minister for them who shall be heirs of the salvation to come") as if he should sa" "0ee that "e do not des#ise one of these little ones who have been received with their believing #arents into the gos#elCchurch) for 8 sa" unto "ou that after that manner as the angels minister to adult believers the" minister to them also."
&;. How thin6 yeC if a man ha:e an h.n7re7 sheep8 an7 one of them be gone astray8 7oth he not lea:e the ninety an7 nine8 an7 goeth into the mo.ntains8 an7 see6eth that which is gone astrayC

FIf one of them be gone astray# doth he not leave the ninety+and+nine /c.G : ver" common form of s#eech)CC"8n distributing some gra#es and dates to the #oor although ninety+nine sa" -0catter them-$ and onl" one -?ivide them-) the" hear.en to him because he s#ea.s according to the tradition." "8f ninety+nine die b" an evil e"e " that is b" bewitchings$ "and but one b" the hand of Deaven " that is b" the stro.e of !od /c. "8f ninety+nine die b" reason of cold but one b" the hand of !od " /c.
&(. 3oreo:er if thy brother shall trespass against thee8 go an7 tell him his fa.lt between thee an7 him alone: if he shall hear thee8 tho. hast gaine7 thy brother.

FTell him his fault bet"een thee and him alone .G The reason of the #rece#t is founded in that charitable law <eviticus 1*)16$ "Thou shalt not hate th" brother in th" heart$ but thou shalt surel" re#rove him and shalt not suffer sin in him." Dere the Talmudists s#ea. not amiss) "The 3abbins deliver -Thou shalt not hate th" brother in th" heart.- 7erha#s he does not beat him he does not #ull off his hair he does not curse him) the teBt saith -in th" heart - s#ea.ing of hatred in the heart. ;ut whence is it #roved that he that sees his brother doing some foul action is bound to re#rove him2 ;ecause it is said In reproving# thou shalt reprove. De re#roves but he heareth not) whence is it #roved he is bound to a second re#roof2 The teBt saith -8n

re#roving thou shalt re#rove.-" :nd a little after "Dow long must we re#rove2 3abh saith -=ven to blows-"$ that is until he that is re#roved stri.es him that re#roves him) "0amuel saith -Kntil he is angr".-" 0ee also &aimonides.
&?. 1.t if he will not hear thee, then ta6e with thee one or two more8 that in the mo.th of two or three witnesses e:ery wor7 may be establishe7.

FTake "ith thee one or t"o more /c.G The Debrew law"ers re@uire the same thing of him that sins against his brother) "0amuel saith -1hosoever sins against his brother he must sa" to him 8 have sinned against thee. 8f he hear it is well) if not let him bring others and let him a##ease him before them. 8f #erha#s he die let him a##ease him at his se#ulchre and sa" 8 have sinned against thee.-" ;ut our 0aviour here re@uires a higher charit"$ namel" from him who is the offended #art". 8n li.e manner "The great 0anhedrim admonished a cit" la#sed to idols b" two disci#les of the wise men. 8f the" re#ented well) if not all 8srael waged war against it." 8n li.e manner also "The 4ealous husband warned his wife before two witnesses -?o not tal. with N.-"
&@. An7 if he shall neglect to hear them8 tell it .nto the ch.rch: b.t if he neglect to hear the ch.rch8 let him be .nto thee as a heathen man an7 a p.blican.

FTell it unto the church.G That which was incumbent u#on him against whom the sin was committed was this that he should deliver his soul b" re#roving his brother and b" not suffering sin in him. This was the reason that he had need of witnesses for what else could the" testif"2 The" could not testif" that the brother had sinned against him that re#roved him$ for this #erha#s the" were altogether ignorant of) but the" might testif" this that he against whom the sin was committed used due re#roof and omitted nothing which was commanded b" the law in that case whereb" he might admonish his brother and if #ossible bring him bac. into the right wa". The witnesses also added their friendl" admonition) whom if the offender hear.ened not unto "let it be told the church." 1e do not here enter u#on that long dis#ute concerning the sense of the word church in this #lace. Dowever "ou ta.e it certainl" the business here is not so much concerning the censure of the #erson sinning as concerning the vindication of the #erson re#roving$ that it might be .nown to all that he discharged his dut" and freed his soul. 8t was ver" customar" among the Jews to note those that were obstinate in this or that crime after #ublic admonition given them in the s"nagogue and to set a mar. of infam" u#on them. %ll these have need of public admonition in the consistory . The business there is about some she#herds collectors and #ublicans$ and it is declared how inca#able the" are of giving evidence in an" 4udiciar" matter$ but not before #ublic admonition is gone out against them in the consistor". "8f an" den" to feed his children the" re#rove him the" shame him the" urge him) if he still refuse the" ma.e #roclamation against him in the s"nagogue sa"ing -N. is a cruel man and will not nourish his children) more cruel than the unclean birds themselves for the" feed their "oung ones -" /c. ": #rovo.ing wife who saith -8 will create veBation to m" husband because he hath done thus or thus to me or because he hath miscalled me or because he hath chid me - /c. The consistor" b" messengers send these words to her -;e it .nown unto "ou if "ou #ersist in "our #erverseness although "our dowr" be a hundred #ounds "ou have lost it all.- %nd moreover they set forth a public proclamation against her in the synagogues# and in the divinity schools ever" da" for four sabbaths." FLet him be to thee as a heathen and a publican .G De saith Let him be to ,thee,$ not Let him be to ,the church,) because the discourse is of #eculiar and #rivate scandal against a single man$ who after three

admonitions given and the" to no #ur#ose is freed from the law of brotherl" obligation$ and he who being admonished does not re#ent is not to be esteemed so much for a brother to him as for a heathen /c. 8. 5hrist does not here #rescribe concerning ever" offender according to the full latitude of that law <eviticus 1*)16$ but of him that #articularl" offends against his brother$ and he does #articularl" teach what is to be done to that brother. 88. :lthough he against whom the offence is committed had a 4ust cause wh" he should be loosed from the obligation of the office of a brother towards him who neither would ma.e satisfaction for the wrong done nor be admonished of it$ "et to others in the church there is not the same reason. 888. The words #lainl" mean this$ "8f after a threefold and 4ust re#roof he that sinned against thee still remains untractable and neither will give thee satisfaction for the in4ur" nor being admonished doth re#ent thou hast delivered thine own soul and art free from brotherl" offices towards him"$ 4ust as the Jews rec.on themselves freed from friendl" offices towards heathens and publicans. That of &aimonides is not much different) ": Jew that a#ostati%es or brea.s the sabbath #resum#tuousl" is altogether li.e a heathen." 1. The" rec.oned not heathens for brethren or neighbours) "8f an" one-s oB shall gore his neighbour-s oB) his neighbour-s not a heathen,s) when he saith neighbour,s he eBcludes heathens." : @uotation which we #roduced before. '. The" re#uted publicans to be b" no means within religious societ") % religious man# "ho becomes a publican# is to be driven out of the society of religion . +. Dence the" ate neither with heathens nor with publicans) concerning which thing the" often @uarrel F"ithG our 0aviour. Dence that of the a#ostle 1 5orinthians 5)11$ "1ith such an one no not to eat " is the same with what is s#o.e here "<et him be to thee as a heathen " /c. "8t is forbidden a Jew to be alone with a heathen to travel with a heathen " /c. (. The" denied also brotherl" offices to heathens and publicans) "8t is forbidden to bring home an" thing of a heathen,s that is lost." "8t is lawful for publicans to swear that is an oblation which is not$ that "ou are of the .ing-s retinue when "ou are not " /c. that is publicans ma" deceive and that b" oath.
&'. ,erily I say .nto yo.8 Whatsoe:er ye shall bin7 on earth shall be bo.n7 in hea:en: an7 whatsoe:er ye shall loose on earth shall be loose7 in hea:en.

F0hatsoever ye shall bind on earth /c.G These words de#end u#on the former. De had been s#ea.ing concerning being loosed from the office of a brother in a #articular case) now he s#ea.s of the authorit" and #ower of the a#ostles of loosing and binding "an" thing" whatsoever seemed them good being guided in all things b" the Dol" !host. 1e have eB#lained the sense of this #hrase at cha#ter 16$ and he gives the same authorit" in res#ect of this to all the a#ostles here as he did to 7eter there$ who were all to be #arta.ers of the same 0#irit and of the same gifts. This #ower was built u#on that noble and most selfCsufficient foundation John 16)1+ "The 0#irit of truth shall lead "ou into all truth." There lies an em#hasis in those words "into all truth." 8 den" that an" one an" where at an" time was led or to be led into all truth from the ascension of 5hrist unto the world-s end beside the a#ostles. =ver" hol" man certainl" is led into all truth necessar" to him for salvation) but the a#ostles were led into all truth necessar" both for themselves and the whole church$ because the" were to deliver a rule of faith and manners to the whole church throughout all ages. Dence whatsoever the" should confirm in the law was to be confirmed$ whatsoever the" should abolish was to

be abolished) since the" were endowed as to all things with a s#irit of infallibilit" guiding them b" the hand into all truth.
&). Again I say .nto yo.8 *hat if two of yo. shall agree on earth as to.ching any thing that they shall as68 it shall be 7one for them of my "ather which is in hea:en.

FThat if t"o of you shall agree upon earth /c.G :nd these words do closel" agree with those that went before) there the s#eech was concerning the a#ostles- determination in all things res#ecting men$ here concerning their grace and #ower of obtaining things from !od. 8. FT"o of you.G Dence 7eter and John act 4ointl" together among the Jews :cts ' + /c. and the" act 4ointl" among the 0amaritans :cts 8)1($ and 7aul and ;arnabas among the !entiles :cts 1+)'. This bond being bro.e b" ;arnabas the 0#irit is doubled as it were u#on 7aul. 88. F%gree together.G That is to obtain something from !od$ which a##ears also from the following words touching any thing that they shall ask) su##ose concerning conferring the 0#irit b" the im#osition of hands of doing this or that miracle /c.
;G. "or where two or three are gathere7 together in my name8 there am I in the mi7st of them.

FFor "here t"o or three are gathered together in my name# there am I in the midst of them .G The li.e do the 3abbins s#ea. of two or three sitting in 4udgment that the divine presence is in the midst of them.
;&. *hen came $eter to him8 an7 sai78 Lor78 how oft shall my brother sin against me8 an7 I forgi:e himC till se:en timesC

F'hall I forgive him< till seven times 2G This @uestion of 7eter res#ects the words of our 0aviour verse 15. "Dow far shall 8 forgive m" brother before 8 #roceed to the eBtremit"2 1hatE seven times2" De thought that he had measured out b" these words a large charit" being in a manner double to that which was #rescribed b" the schools) "De that is wronged (sa" the") is forbidden to be difficult to #ardon$ for that is not the manner of the seed of 8srael. ;ut when the offender im#lores him once and again and it a##ears he re#ents of his deed let him #ardon him) and whosoever is most read" to #ardon is most #raiseworth"." 8t is well$ but there lies a sna.e under it$ ">or (sa" the") the" #ardon a man once that sins against another$ secondl" the" #ardon him$ thirdl" the" #ardon him$ fourthl" the" do not #ardon him " /c.
Chapter &) &. An7 it came to pass8 that when Jes.s ha7 finishe7 these sayings8 he 7eparte7 from Galilee8 an7 come into the coasts of J.7aea beyon7 Jor7an<

F/e came unto the coasts of Judea beyond Jordan .G 8f it were barel" said the coasts of Judea beyond Jordan b" the coasts of Judea one might understand the bounds of the Je"s beyond Jordan. Nor does such a construction want its #arallel in Jose#hus$ for "D"rcanus (saith he) built a fortification the name of which was T"re bet"een %rabia and Judea# beyond Jordan# not far from ssebonitis ." ;ut see &ar. here cha#ter 1,)1 relating the same stor" with this our evangelist) /e came saith he into the coasts of Judea (ta.ing a 4ourne" from !alilee ) along the country beyond Jordan.
B. *he $harisees also came .nto him8 tempting him8 an7 saying .nto him8 Is it lawf.l for a man to p.t away his wife for e:ery ca.seC

FIs it la"ful for a man to put a"ay his "ife for every cause 2G 9f the causes ridiculous (shall 8 call them2) or "icked for which the" #ut awa" their wives we have s#o.e at cha#ter 5)+1. 1e will #roduce onl" one eBam#le here$ "0hen *abh "ent to )arsis (-whither - as the !loss saith -he often went-) he made a

public proclamation# 0hat "oman "ill have me for a day 2 3abh Nachman when he went to 0acne%ib made a #ublic #roclamation 1hat woman will have me for a da"2" The !loss is "8s there an" woman who will be m" wife while 8 tarr" in this #lace2" The @uestion here #ro#ounded b" the 7harisees was dis#uted in the schools and the" divided into #arties concerning it as we have noted before. >or the school of 0hammai #ermitted not divorces but onl" in the case of adulter"$ the school of Dillel otherwise.
'. He saith .nto them8 3oses beca.se of the har7ness of yo.r hearts s.ffere7 yo. to p.t away yo.r wi:es: b.t from the beginning it was not so.

FBecause (oses for the hardness of your hearts suffered /c.G 8nter#reters ordinaril" understand this of the un.indness of men towards their wives$ and that not ill") but at first sight hardness of heart for the most #art in 0cri#ture denotes rather obduration against !od than against men. =Bam#les occur ever"where. Nor does this sense want its fitness in this #lace) not to eBclude the other but to be 4oined with it here. 8. That !od delivered that rebellious #eo#le for the hardness of their hearts to s#iritual fornication that is to idolatr" sufficientl" a##ears out of sacred stor" and #articularl" from these words of the first mart"r 0te#hen :cts 6)(') 7od turned# and gave them up to "orship the host of heaven /c. :nd the" seem not less given u# to carnal fornication if "ou observe the horrid records of their adulteries in the Dol" 0cri#ture and their not less horrid allowances of divorces and #ol"gamies in the boo.s of the Talmudists) so that the #article...carries with it a ver" #ro#er sense if "ou inter#ret it to according to its most usual signification$ "&oses to the hardness of "our hearts added this that he #ermitted divorces$ something that savours of #unishment in itself however "ou esteem it for a #rivilege." 88. ;ut "ou ma" inter#ret it more clearl" and a#tl" of the inhumanit" of husbands towards their wives) but this is to be understood also under restriction) for &oses #ermitted not divorces because sim#l" and generall" men were severe and un.ind towards their wives$ for then wh" should he restrain divorces to the cause of adulter"2 but because from their fierceness and cruelt" towards their wives the" might ta.e hold of and see. occasions from that law which #unished adulter" with death to #rosecute their wives with all manner of severit" to o##ress them to .ill them. <et us search into the divine laws in case of adulter" a little more largel". 1. There was a law made u#on the sus#icion of adulter" that the wife should undergo a trial b" the bitter waters Numbers 5) but it is dis#uted b" the Jewish schools rightl" and u#on good ground whether the husband was bound in this case b" dut" to #rosecute his wife to eBtremit" or whether it were lawful for him to connive at and #ardon her if he would. :nd there are some who sa" he was bound b" duty$ and there are others who sa" that it was left to his pleasure. '. There was a law of death made in case of the discover" of adulter" ?euteronom" '')'1C'+) "8f a man shall be found l"ing with a married woman both shall die " /c. Not that this law was not in force unless the" were ta.en in the ver" act$ but the word shall be found is o##osed to sus#icion and means the same as if it were said "1hen it shall be found that a man hath lain " /c. +. : law of divorce also was given in case of adulter" discovered ?euteronom" '()1$ for in that case onl" and when it is discovered it #lainl" a##ears from our 0aviour-s gloss and from the concession of some 3abbins also that divorces too. #lace) for sa" the" in the #lace last cited "?oes a man find something foul in his wife2 he cannot #ut her awa" because he hath not found foul nakedness in her "$ that is adultery.

;ut now how do the law of death and that of divorce consist together2 8t is answered The" do not so consist together that both retain their force$ but the former was #artl" ta.en off b" the latter and #artl" not. The ?ivine 1isdom .new that inhuman husbands would use that law of death unto all manner of cruelt" towards their wives) for how read" was it for a wic.ed and un.ind husband to la" snares even for his innocent wife if he were wear" of her to o##ress her under that law of deathE :nd if she were ta.en under guilt how cruell" and insolentl" would he trium#h over her #oor woman both to the disgrace of wedloc. and to the scandal of religionE Therefore the most #rudent and withal merciful lawgiver made #rovision that the woman if she were guilt" might not go without her #unishment$ and if she were not guilt" might go without danger$ and that the wic.ed husband that was im#atient of wedloc. might not satiate his cruelt". That which is said b" one does not #lease me "That there was no #lace for divorce where matrimon" was bro.e off b" ca#ital #unishment"$ for there was #lace for divorce for that end that there might not be #lace for ca#ital #unishment. That law indeed of death held the adulterer in a snare and eBacted ca#ital #unishment u#on him and so the law made sufficient #rovision for terror) but it consulted more gentl" for the woman the wea.er vessel lest the cruelt" of her husband might unmercifull" trium#h over her. Therefore in the sus#icion of adulter" and the thing not discovered the husband might if he would tr" his wife b" the bitter waters$ or if he would he might connive at her. 8n case of the discover" of adulter" the husband might #ut awa" his wife but he scarce might #ut her to death$ because the law of divorce was given for that ver" end that #rovision might be made for the woman against the hardheartedness of her husband. <et this stor" serve for a conclusion$ "0hemaiah and :btalion com#elled 5archemith a libertine womanC servant to drin. the bitter waters." The husband of this woman could not #ut her awa" b" the law of &oses because she was not found guilt" of discovered adulter". De might #ut her awa" b" the traditional law which #ermitted divorces without the case of adulter"$ he might not if he had #leased have brought her to trial b" the bitter waters$ but it argued the hardness of his heart towards his wife or burning 4ealous" that he brought her. 8 do not remember that 8 have an"where in the Jewish #andect read an" eBam#le of a wife #unished with death for adulter". There is mention of the daughter of a certain #riest committing fornication in her father-s house that was burnt alive$ but she was not married.
&B. *hen were there bro.ght .nto him little chil7ren8 that he sho.l7 p.t his han7s on them8 an7 pray: an7 the 7isciples reb.6e7 them.

FThen "ere little children brought unto him .G Not for the healing of some disease$ for if this had been the end #ro#ounded wh" did the disci#les .ee# them bac. above all others or chide an" for their access2 Nor can we believe that the" were the children of unbelieving Jews when it is scarcel" #robable that the" des#ising the doctrine and #erson of 5hrist would desire his blessing. 0ome therefore of those that believe brought their infants to 5hrist that he might ta.e #articular notice of them and admit them into his disci#leshi# and mar. them for his b" his blessing. 7erha#s the disci#les thought this an eBcess of officious religion$ or that the" would be too troublesome to their &aster$ and hence the" o##osed them) but 5hrist countenanceth the same thing and favours again that doctrine which he had laid down cha#ter 18)+$ namel" that the infants of believers were as much disci#les and #arta.ers of the .ingdom of heaven as their #arents.
&'. He saith .nto him8 WhichC Jes.s sai78 *ho. shalt 7o no m.r7er8 *ho. shalt not commit a7.ltery8 *ho. shalt not steal8 *ho. shalt not bear false witness8

FThou shalt do no murder /c.G 8t is worth" mar.ing how again and again in the New Testament when mention is made of the whole law onl" the second table is eBem#lified as in this #lace$ so also 3omans 1+)8 * and James ')8 11 /c. 5harit" towards our neighbour is the to# of religion and a most undoubted sign of love towards !od.

;&. Jes.s sai7 .nto him8 If tho. wilt be perfect8 go and sell that tho. hast8 an7 gi:e to the poor8 an7 tho. shalt ha:e treas.re in hea:en: an7 come and follow me.

F'ell that thou hast# and give to the poor.G 1hen 5hrist calls it perfection to sell all and give to the #oor he s#ea.s according to the idiom of the nation which thought so) and he tries this rich man boasting of his eBact #erformance of the law whether when he #retended to as#ire to eternal life he would as#ire to that perfection which his countr"men so #raised. Not that hence he either devoted 5hristians to voluntar" #overt" or that he eBhorted this man to rest ultimatel" in a 7harisaical perfection$ but lifting u# his mind to the renouncing of worldl" things he #rovo.es him to it b" the ver" doctrine of the 7harisees which he #rofessed. ">or these things the measure is not stated$ for the corner of the field" to be left for the #oor$ "for the firstfruits for the a##earance in the Tem#le" (according to the law =Bodus '+)15 16 where what or how great an oblation is to be brought is not a##ointed) "for the shewing merc" and for the stud" of the law." The casuists discussing that #oint of -shewing merc" - do thus determine concerning it) ": stated measure is not indeed #rescribed to the shewing of merc" as to the affording #oor men hel# with th" bod" " that is with th" bodil" labour$ "but as to mone" there is a stated measure namel" the fifth #art of th" wealth$ nor is an" bound to give the #oor above the fifth #art of his estate unless he does it out of e2traordinary devotion." 0ee 3ambam u#on the #lace and the Jerusalem !emara) where the eBam#le of 3. 8shbab is #roduced distributing all his goods to the #oor.
;D. An7 again I say .nto yo.8 It is easier for a camel to go thro.gh the eye of a nee7le8 than for a rich man to enter into the 6ing7om of Go7.

F% camel to go through the eye of a needle /c.G : #hrase used in the schools intimating a thing ver" unusual and ver" difficult. There where the discourse is concerning dreams and their inter#retation these words are added. They do not she" a man a palm tree of gold# nor an elephant going through the eye of a needle. The !loss is ": thing which he was not wont to see nor concerning which he ever thought." 8n li.e manner 3. 0heshith answered 3. :mram dis#uting with him and asserting something that was incongruous in these words$ "7erha#s thou art one of those of 7ombeditha who can ma.e an ele#hant #ass through the e"e of a needle") that is as the :ruch inter#rets it "who s#ea. things that are im#ossible."
;'. An7 Jes.s sai7 .nto them8 ,erily I say .nto yo.8 *hat ye which ha:e followe7 me8 in the regeneration when the 0on of man shall sit in the throne of his glory8 ye also shall sit .pon twel:e thrones8 A.7ging the twel:e tribes of Israel.

F>e that have follo"ed me# in the regeneration .G That the world is to be renewed at the coming of the &essias and the #reaching of the gos#el the 0cri#tures assert and the Jews believe$ but in a grosser sense which we observe at cha#ter '(. 9ur 0aviour therefore b" the word regeneration calls bac. the mind of the disci#les to a right a##rehension of the thing$ im#l"ing that renovation concerning which the 0cri#ture s#ea.s is not of the bod" or substance of the world$ but that it consists in the renewing of the manners doctrine and a dis#ensation conducing thereunto) men are to be renewed regenerated CCnot the fabric of the world. This ver" thing he teaches Nicodemus treating concerning the nature of the .ingdom of heaven John +)+. F0hen the 'on of man shall sit upon the throne of his glory# ye also shall sit .G These words are fetched out of ?aniel cha#ter 6)* 1,$ which words 8 wonder should be translated b" the inter#reters :ben =%ra 3. 0aadia and others as well Jews as 5hristians thrones "ere cast do"n. 3. 0olomon the Julgar and others read it righter thrones "ere set up) where <"ranus thus "De saith thrones in the #lural number because not onl" 5hrist shall 4udge but the a#ostles and #erfect men shall assist him in 4udgment sitting u#on thrones." The same wa" ver" man" inter#reters bend the words under our hands namel"

that the saints shall at the da" of 4udgment sit with 5hrist and a##rove and a##laud his 4udgment. ;ut 1. besides that the scene of the last 4udgment #ainted out in the 0cri#ture does alwa"s re#resent as well the saints as the wic.ed standing before the tribunal of 5hrist &atthew '5)+' ' 5orinthians 5)1, /c.$ we have mention here onl" of "twelve thrones." :nd ' we have mention onl" of 4udging the "twelve tribes of 8srael." The sense therefore of the #lace ma" ver" well be found out b" weighing these things following) 8. That those thrones set u# in ?aniel are not to be understood of the last 4udgment of 5hrist but of his 4udgment in his entrance u#on his evangelical government when he was made b" his >ather chief ruler .ing and 4udge of all things) 7salm ')6 &atthew '8)18 John 5)'6. >or observe the sco#e and series of the #ro#het that after the four monarchies namel" the ;ab"lonian the &edoC7ersian the !recian and the 0"roC!recian which monarchies had veBed the world and the church b" their t"rann" were destro"ed the .ingdom of 5hrist should rise /c. Those words "The .ingdom of heaven is at hand " that 4udiciar" scene set u# 3evelation ( and 5 and those thrones 3evelation ',)1 /c. do inter#ret ?aniel to this sense. 88. The throne of glor" concerning which the words before us are is to be understood of the 4udgment of 5hrist to be brought u#on the treacherous rebellious wic.ed #eo#le. 1e meet with ver" fre@uent mention of the coming of 5hrist in his glor" in this sense$ which we shall discourse more largel" of at cha#ter '(. 888. That the sitting of the a#ostles u#on thrones with 5hrist is not to be understood of their persons it is sufficientl" #roved$ because Judas was now one of the number) but it is meant of their doctrine) as if he had said "1hen 8 shall bring 4udgment u#on this most un4ust nation then our doctrine which "ou have #reached in m" name shall 4udge and condemn them." 0ee 3omans ')16. Dence it a##ears that the gos#el was #reached to all the twelve tribes of 8srael before the destruction of Jerusalem. 5ha#ters ', '1 '' Oscri#5om t"#eN"5ommentar"" #assageN"&atthew ', '1 ''" #arsedN"P&attP',P,P,P,$P&attP'1P,P,P,$P &attP''P,P,P," osis3efN";ible)&att.', ;ible)&att.'1 ;ible)&att.''" QR
&. "or the 6ing7om of hea:en is li6e .nto a man that is an ho.sehol7er8 which went o.t early in the morning to hire labo.rers into his :ineyar7.

F0ho "ent out early in the morning to hire labourers .G Lou have such a #arable as this but madl" a##lied in the Talmud) we will #roduce it here for the sa.e of some #hrases) "To what was 3. ;on ;ar 5hai4a li.e2 To a king "ho hired many labourers$ among which there was one hired who #erformed his wor. eBtraordinar" well. 1hat did the .ing2 De too. him aside and wal.ed with him to and fro. 0hen even "as come those labourers came that they might receive their hire and he gave him a com#lete hire with the rest. %nd the labourers murmured sa"ing -0e have laboured hard all the day and this man onl" two hours "et he hath received as much wages as we-) the .ing saith to them -De hath laboured more in those two hours than "ou in the whole da".- 0o 3. ;on #lied the law more in eightCandC twent" "ears than another in a hundred "ears." F arly in the morning.G "The time of wor.ing is from sunrising to the a##earing of the stars and not from brea. of da") and this is #roved from the cha#ter the president of the priests saith to them$ where the" sa" -8t is light all in the east and men go out to hire labourers-) whence it is argued that the" do not begin their wor. before the sun riseth. 8t is also #roved from the tract Pesachin where it is said that it is #rohibited on the da" of the 7assover to do an" servile wor. after the sun is u#$ intimating this that that was the time when labourers should begin their wor. " /c.

FTo hire labourers.G 3ead here if "ou #lease the tract Bava (a!ia ca#. 6$ which begins thus /e that hireth labourers) and &aimonides a tract entitled /iring.
;. An7 when he ha7 agree7 with the labo.rers for a penny a 7ay8 he sent them into his :ineyar7.

F%greed for a penny a day.G : penny of silver which one of gold eBceeded twent"Cfour times$ for % penny of gold is "orth five+and+t"enty of silver. The canons of the Debrews concerning hiring of labourers distinguish as reason re@uires between being hired by the day and being hired (onl") for some hours) which ma" be observed also in this #arable) for in the morning the" are hired for all the da" and for a #enn" but afterward for certain hours$ and have a #art of a #enn" allotted them in #ro#ortion to the time the" wrought.
'. 0o when e:en was come8 the lor7 of the :ineyar7 saith .nto his stewar78 Call the labo.rers8 an7 gi:e them their hire8 beginning from the last .nto the first.

FCall the labourers.G >or "it is one of the affirmative #rece#ts of the law that a hired labourer should have his wages #aid him when the" are due as it is said -Lou shall #a" him his wages in his da"-) and if the" be detained longer it is a breach of a negative #rece#t$ as it is said -The sun shall not go down u#on him -" /c.
&B. 1.t he answere7 one of them8 an7 sai78 "rien78 I 7o thee no wrong: 7i7st not tho. agree with me for a pennyC

F)idst not thou agree "ith me for a penny2G 8n hiring of labourers the custom of the #lace most #revailed$ hence came that aBiom &bserve the custom of the city$ s#ea.ing of this ver" thing. There is also an eBam#le "Those of Tiberias that went u# to ;ethmeon to be hired for labourers were hired according to the custom of ;ethmeon " /c. ;" the b" also we ma" observe that which is said b" the ;ab"lonians in the #lace cited...as the !loss renders it "Notice must be ta.en whether the" come from several #laces$ for at some #laces the" go to wor. sooner and at some later." Dence two things ma" be cleared in the #arable before us) 1. 1h" the" are said to be hired at such different hours$ namel" therefore because the" are su##osed to have come together from several #laces. '. 1h" there was no certain agreement made with those that were hired at the third siBth and ninth hours as with those that were hired earl" in the morning$ but that he should onl" sa" "1hatsoever is right 8 will give "ou") that is su##osing that the" would submit to the custom of the #lace. ;ut indeed when their wages were to be #aid them there is b" the favour of the lord of the vine"ard an e@ualit" made between those that were hired for some hours and those that were hired for the whole da"$ and when these last murmured the" are answered from their own agreement >ou agreed "ith me. Note here the canon$ "The master of the famil" saith to his servant -!o hire me labourers for four#ence-) he goes and hires them for three#ence$ although their labour deserves four#ence the" shall not receive but three because they bound themselves by agreement# and their complaint is against the servant ."
;;. 1.t Jes.s answere7 an7 sai78 2e 6now not what ye as6. Are ye able to 7rin6 of the c.p that I shall 7rin6 of8 an7 to be bapti=e7 with the baptism that I am bapti=e7 withC *hey say .nto him8 We are able.

FThe baptism that I am bapti!ed "ith .G The #hrase that goes before this concerning the cup is ta.en from divers #laces of 0cri#ture where sad and grievous things are com#ared to draughts of a bitter cu#. Lou ma" thin. that the cup of vengeance of which there is mention in ;ab. Beracoth means the same thing but it is far otherwise) give me leave to @uote it though it be somewhat out of our bounds) "<et them not tal. (sa" the") over their cu# of blessing$ and let them not bless over their cup of vengeance$ 0hat is the cup of vengeance2 The second cu# saith 3. Nachman ;ar 8saac." 3abbena :sher and 7is.e are more clear) "8f he shall drin. off two cu#s let him not bless over the third." The !loss "De that drin.s off double cu#s is #unished b" devils." ;ut to the matter before us.

0o cruel a thing was the ba#tism of the Jews being a #lunging of the whole bod" into water when it was never so much chilled with ice and snow that not without cause #artl" b" reason of the burying as 8 ma" call it under water and #artl" b" reason of the cold it used to signif" the most cruel .ind of death. The Jerusalem Talmudists relate that "in the da"s of Joshua ;en <evi some endeavoured @uite to ta.e awa" the washings FbaptismsG of women because the women of !alilee grew barren b" reason of the coldness of the waters"$ which we noted before at the siBth verse of the third cha#ter.
Chapter ;& &. An7 when they 7rew nigh .nto Jer.salem8 an7 were come to 1ethphage8 .nto the mo.nt of #li:es8 then sent Jes.s two 7isciples8

FTo the mount of &lives.G (ons &livarum Hechariah 1()(. ;. 0aying .nto them8 Go into the :illage o:er against yo.8 an7 straightway ye shall fin7 an ass tie78 an7 a colt with her: loose them8 an7 bring them .nto me. F%n ass and her foal.G 8n the Talmudists we have the li.e #hrase an ass and a little colt. 8n that treatise &e%ia the" s#ea. concerning a hired ass and the terms that the hired is obliged to. :mong other things there the ;ab"lon !emara hath these words 0hosoever transgresses against the "ill of the o"ner is called a robber. >or instance if an" one hires an ass for a 4ourne" on the #lains and turns u# to the mountains /c. Dence this of our 0aviour a##ears to be a miracle not a robber"$ that without an" agreement or terms this ass should be led awa"$ and that the owner and those that stood b" should be satisfied with these bare words "The <ord hath need of him."
(. *ell ye the 7a.ghter of 0ion8 1ehol78 thy King cometh .nto thee8 mee68 an7 sitting .pon an ass8 an7 a colt the foal of an ass.

F(eek# and sitting upon an ass.G This trium#h of 5hrist com#letes a double #ro#hec") 1. This #ro#hec" of Hechariah here mentioned. '. The ta.ing to themselves the 7aschal lamb for this was the ver" da" on which it was to be ta.en according to the command of the law =Bodus 1')+$ "8n the tenth da" of this month the" shall ta.e to them ever" man a lamb." 8t scarce a##ears to the Talmudists how those words of ?aniel concerning the &essias that "he comes with the clouds of heaven " are consistent with these words of Hechariah that "he comes sitting u#on an ass." "8f (sa" the") the 8sraelites be good then he shall come with the clouds of heaven$ but if not good then riding u#on an ass." Thou art much mista.en 9 Jew) for he comes "in the clouds of heaven " as 4udge and revenger$ but sitting upon an ass not because "ou are but because he is good. " 9ing 'apores said to 'amuel -Lou sa" "our &essias will come u#on an ass 8 will send him a brave horse.De answers him -Lou have not a horse with a hundred s#ots as is his ass." 8n the greatest humilit" of the &essias the" dream of grandeur even in his ver" ass.
'. An7 a :ery great m.ltit.7e sprea7 their garments in the way< others c.t 7own branches from the trees8 an7 strowe7 them in the way.

F'tre"ed branches in the "ay.G Not that the" strewed garments and boughs 4ust in the wa" under the feet of the ass to be trod on$ this #erha#s might have thrown down the rider$ but b" the wa"side the" made little tents and tabernacles of clothes and boughs according to the custom of the feast of Tabernacles. John also adds that ta.ing branches of palm trees in their hands the" went forth to meet him. That boo. of &aimonides entitled Tabernacles and palm branches will be an eBcellent comment on this #lace and so will the Talmudic treatise 'uccah. 1e will #ic. out these few things not unsuitable to the #resent stor") "?oth an" one s#read his garment on his tabernacle against the heat of the sun /c.2 it is absurd$ but if he s#read his garment for comeliness and ornament it is a##roved." :gain "The boughs of #alm trees of which the law <eviticus '+)(, s#ea.s are the "oung growing s#routs of

#alms before their leaves shoot out on all sides$ but when the" are li.e small staves and these are called young branches of palms." :nd a little after "8t is a notable #rece#t to gather young branches of palms the boughs of m"rtle and willow and to ma.e them u# into a small bundle and to carr" them in their hands " /c.
). An7 the m.ltit.7es that went before8 an7 that followe78 crie78 saying8 Hosanna to the son of %a:i7: 1lesse7 is he that cometh in the name of the Lor7< Hosanna in the highest.

F/osanna to the 'on of )avid.G 0ome are at a loss wh" it is said to the 'on and not & 'on) wherefore the" fl" to 5aninius as to an oracle who tells us that those ver" bundles of boughs are called /osanna$ and that these words /osanna to the 'on of )avid signif" no more than boughs to the 'on of )avid. 1e will not den" that bundles are sometimes so called as seems in these clauses...where it is #lain that a branch of #alm is called Lulab and boughs of m"rtle and willow bound together are called /osanna) but indeed if /osanna to the 'on of )avid signifies boughs to the 'on of )avid what do those words mean /osanna in the highest2 The words therefore here sung im#ort as much as if it were said 0e no" sing /osanna to the (essias. 8n the feast of Tabernacles the great /allel as the" call it used to be sung that is 7salm 11+C118. :nd while the words of the 7salms were sung or said b" one the whole com#an" used sometimes to answer at certain clauses /alleluia. 0ometimes the same clauses that had been sung or said were again re#eated b" the com#an") sometimes the bundles of boughs were brandished or sha.en. ";ut when were the bundles sha.en2" The rubric of the Talmud saith ":t that clause 7ive thanks unto the Lord in the beginning of 7salm 118 and at the end. %nd at that clause# 'ave no"# I beseech thee 9 <ord (7sa 118)'5) as saith the school of Dillel) but the school of 0hammai saith also at that clause & Lord# I beseech thee# send no" prosperity . 3. :.ibah said 8 saw 3. !amaliel and 3. Joshuah when all the com#an" shoo. their bundles the" did not sha.e theirs but onl" at that clause 'ave no"# I beseech thee# & Lord." 9n ever" da" of the feast the" used once to go round the altar with bundles in their hands singing this 'ave no"# I beseech thee# & Lord4 I beseech thee# & Lord# send no" prosperity . ;ut on the seventh da" of the feast the" went seven times round the altar /c. "The tossing or sha.ing of the bundles was on the right hand on the left hand u#wards and downwards." "The reason of the bundles was this because it is written -Then let all the trees of the wood sing - (7sa *6)1'). :nd afterward it is written -!ive than.s unto the <ord because he is good - (7sa 1,6)1). :nd afterward -0ave us 9 <ord 9 our !od - /c. (7sa 1,6)(6). :nd the reason is m"stical. 8n the beginning of the "ear 8srael and the nations of the world go forth to 4udgment$ and being ignorant who are to be cleared and who guilt" the hol" and blessed !od commanded 8srael that the" should re4oice with these bundles as a man re4oiceth who goeth out of the #resence of his 4udge ac@uitted. ;ehold therefore what is written -<et the trees of the wood sing-$ as if it were said <et them sing with the trees of the wood when the" go out 4ustified from the #resence of the <ord " /c. F>or more information on feast da"s #lease see "The Tem#le) 8ts &inistr" and 0ervices" b" :lfred =dersheim.G These things being #remised concerning the rites and customs of that feast we now return to our stor")CC 8. 8t is ver" much worth our observation that the com#an" receives 5hrist coming now to the 7assover with the solemnit" of the feast of Tabernacles. >or what hath this to do with the time of the 7assover2 8f one search into the reason of the thing more accuratel" these things occur$ >irst The mirth of that feast above all others$ concerning which there needs not much to be said since the ver" name of the feast (for b" wa" of em#hasis it was called Festivity or (irth) sufficientl" #roves it. 0econdl" That #ro#hec" of

Hechariah which however it be not to be understood according to the letter "et from thence ma" sufficientl" be gathered the singular solemnit" and 4o" of that feast above all others$ and #erha#s from that same #ro#hec" the occasion of this #resent action was ta.en. >or being willing to receive the &essias with all 4o"fulness trium#h and affection of mind (for b" calling him the 'on of )avid it is #lain the" too. him for the (essias) the" had no wa" to eB#ress a more ardent %eal and 4o" at his coming than b" the solemn #rocession of that feast. The" have the &essias before their e"es$ the" eB#ect great things from him$ and are therefore trans#orted with eBcess of 4o" at his coming. 88. ;ut whereas the 7reat /allel according to the custom was not now sung b" reason of the suddenness of the #resent action the whole solemnit" of that song was as it were swallowed u# in the fre@uent cr"ing out and echoing bac. of /osanna$ as the" used to do in the Tem#le while the" went round the altar. :nd one while the" sing /osanna to the 'on of )avid$ another while /osanna in the highest$ as if the" had said "Now we sing /osanna to the 'on of )avid4 save us# "e beseech thee# & thou Fwho dwellestG in the highest# save us by the (essias."
&;. An7 Jes.s went into the temple of Go78 an7 cast o.t all them that sol7 an7 bo.ght in the temple8 an7 o:erthrew the tables of the moneychangers8 an7 the seats of them that sol7 7o:es8

F/e cast out all them that sold and bought in the Temple .G 8. There was alwa"s a constant mar.et in the Tem#le in that #lace which was called the shops$ where ever" da" was sold wine salt oil and other re@uisites to sacrifices$ as also oBen and shee# in the s#acious 5ourt of the !entiles. 88. The nearness of the 7assover had made the mar.et greater$ for innumerable beasts being re@uisite to this solemnit" the" were brought hither to be sold. This brings to mind a stor" of ;ava ;en ;uta) "De coming one da" into the court found it @uite em#t" of beasts. -<et their houses - said he -be laid waste who have laid waste the house of our !od.- De sent for three thousand of the shee# of Iedar$ and having eBamined whether the" were without s#ot brought them into the &ountain of the Douse"$ that is into the 5ourt of the !entiles. F&verthre" the tables of the moneychangers.G 1ho those moneychangers were ma" be learned ver" well from the Talmud and &aimonides in the treatise 'hekalim)CC "8t is an affirmative #rece#t of the law that ever" 8sraelite should give half a she.el "earl") even the #oor who live b" alms are obliged to this$ and must either beg the mone" of others or sell their clothes to #a" half a she.el$ as it is said -The rich shall give no more and the #oor shall give no less.-" "8n the first da" of the month :dar the" made a #ublic #roclamation concerning these she.els that ever" one should #rovide his half she.el and be read" to #a" it. Therefore on the fifteenth da" of the same month the e2changers sat in ever" cit" civill" re@uiring this mone") the" received it of those that gave it and com#elled those that did not. 9n the fiveCandCtwentieth da" of the same month the" sat in the Tem#le$ and then com#elled them to give$ and from him that did not give the" forced a #ledge even his ver" coat." "The" sat in the cities with two chests before them$ in one of which the" laid u# the mone" of the #resent "ear and in the other the mone" of the "ear #ast. The" sat in the Tem#le with thirteen chests before them$ the first was for the mone" of the #resent "ear$ the second for the "ear #ast$ the third for the mone" that was offered to bu" #igeons " /c. The" called these chests trumpets because li.e trumpets the" had a narrow mouth and a wide bell". "8t is necessar" that ever" one should have half a she.el to #a" for himself. Therefore when he comes to the eBchanger to change a she.el for two half she.els he is obliged to allow him some gain which is called kolbon. :nd when two #a" one she.el Fbetween themG each of them is obliged to allo" the same gain or fee."

:nd not much after "/o" much is that gain2 :t that time when the" #aid #ence for the half she.el a kolbon For the fee that was #aid to the mone"changerG was half a mea that is the twelfth #art of a #enn" and never less. ;ut the kolbons were not li.e the half she.el$ but the eBchangers laid them b" themselves till the hol" treasur" were #aid out of them." Lou see what these moneychangers were and whence the" had their name. Lou see that 5hrist did not overturn the chests in which the hol" mone" was laid u# but the tables on which the" traffic.ed for this unhol" gain. F&f those that sold dovesG 'ellers of doves. 0ee the Talmudic treatise of that title. ")oves "ere at one time sold at Jerusalem for pence of gold. 1hereu#on 3abban 0imeon ;en !amaliel said By this temple 8 will not lie down this night unless the" be sold for #ence of silver /c. !oing into the councilC house he thus decreed : woman of five undoubted labours or of five undoubted fluBes shall be bound onl" to ma.e one offering$ whereb" doves were sold that ver" da" for two farthings." The offering for women after childbirth and fluBes for their #urification were #igeons /c. ;ut now when the" went u# to Jerusalem with their offerings at the feasts onl" there was at that time a greater number of beasts #igeons and turtles /c. re@uisite. 0ee what we have said at the fifth cha#ter and the threeCandC twentieth verse.
&(. An7 when the chief priests an7 scribes saw the won7erf.l things that he 7i78 an7 the chil7ren crying in the temple8 an7 saying8 Hosanna to the son of %a:i7< they were sore 7isplease7.

FThe children crying in the temple# and saying# /osanna .G Children from their first infanc" were taught to manage the bundles to sha.e them and in sha.ing to sing Dosanna. % child# so soon as he kno"s ho" to "ave the bundle# is bound to carry a bundle 1here the !emara saith thus$ "The 3abbins teach that so soon as a little child can be taught to manage a bundle he is bound to carr" one) so soon as he .nows how to veil himself he must #ut on the borders) as soon as he .nows how to .ee# his father-s #h"lacteries he must #ut on his own) as soon as he can s#ea. let his father teach him the law and to sa" the #h"lacteries " /c.
&). An7 when he saw a fig tree in the way8 he came to it8 an7 fo.n7 nothing thereon8 b.t lea:es only an7 sai7 .nto it8 Let no fr.it grow on thee henceforwar7 for e:er. An7 presently the fig tree withere7 away.

FFound nothing thereon but leaves only.G This #lace is not a little obscure being com#ared with &ar. 11)1+ who seems to sa" that therefore figs were not found on this tree because it "as not yet the time of figs. 1h" then did our 0aviour eB#ect figs when he might certainl" .now that it "as not yet the time of figs2 :nd wh" not finding them did he curse the tree being innocent and agreeable to its own nature2 8. 1e will first consider the situation of this tree. 9ur evangelist saith that it was in the "ay. This minds me of a distinction used ver" often b" the Talmudists between the fruits of trees of common right which did not belong to an" #eculiar master but grew in wood" #laces or in common fields$ and the fruits of trees which grew in gardens orchards or fields that had a #ro#er owner. Dow much difference was made between these fruits b" the canonists as to tithing and as to eating is in man" #laces to be met with through the whole classes entitled 'eeds. This figCtree seems to have been of the former .ind) a "ild fig+tree growing in a #lace or field not belonging to an" one in #articular but common to all. 0o that our 0aviour did not in4ure an" #articular #erson when he caused this tree to wither$ but it was such a tree that it could not be said of it that it was mine or thine. 88. /e found nothing thereon but leaves because the time of figs was not "et a great while &ar. 11)1+. 1. ":t what time in the seventh "ear do the" forbear to lo# their trees2 The school of 0hammai saith %ll trees from that time# they bring forth FleavesG." The !loss "The beginning of leaves is in the da"s of Nisan."

'. "3abban 0imeon ;en !amaliel saith >rom the #utting forth of leaves till there be green figs is fift" da"s$ from the green figs till the buds fall off fift" da"s$ and from that time till the figs be ri#e are fift" da"s." 8f therefore the first #utting out of the leaves was in the month Nisan and that was five monthstime before the figs came to be ri#e it is #lain enough that the figs of that "ear coming on were not eB#ected b" our 0aviour nor could be eB#ected. That we ma" #ursue the matter somewhat home and ma.e it a##ear that the teBt of &ar. as it is commonl" read for the time of figs "as not yet is uncorru#ted 8. 1e must first observe what is said about the intercalation of the "ear) "The" intercalate the "ear u#on three accounts$ for the green "ear for the fruit of the tree and for Tekupha." &aimonides is more large$ whom see. Now if "ou as. what means the intercalation for the fruit of the tree the !loss answers "8f the fruit be not ri#ened till 7entecost is #ast the" intercalate the "ear$ because 7entecost is the time of bringing the firstfruits) and if at that time one should not bring them along with him when he comes to the feast he would be obliged to ma.e another 4ourne"." ;ut now this is not to be understood of all trees but of some onl" which #ut forth their fruit about the time of the 7assover and have them ri#e at the feast of 7entecost. >or thus &aimonides in the #lace cited) "8f the council sees that there is not "et an" green ear and that the fruit of the trees which used to bud at the feast of the 7assover is not "et budded Fmar. that -used to bud-G moved b" these two causes the" intercalate the "ear." :mong these the figC tree can b" no means be rec.oned) for since our 0aviour being witness the #utting forth of its leaves is a sign that summer is at hand "ou could not eB#ect an" ri#e figs na" (according to the Talmudists) not so much as the #utting out of leaves before the 7assover. 1hen it is before said that 7entecost was the time of bringing the firstfruits it must not be so understood as if the firstfruits of all trees were then to be brought but that before 7entecost it was not lawful to bring an"$ for thus it is #rovided for b" a #lain canon "The firstfruits are not to be brought before 7entecost. The inhabitants of mount Heboim brought theirs before 7entecost but the" did not receive them of them because it is said in the law -:nd the feast of harvest the firstfruit of th" labours which thou hast sown in th" field.-" 88. There are several .inds of figs mentioned in the Talmudists besides these common ones$ namel" figs of a better sort which grew in gardens and #aradises) 1. 'hithin. 5oncerning which the tract )emai among those things which were accounted to deserve lesser care and among those things which were doubtful as to tithing were shithin) which the !losser tells us were "ild figs. '. There is mention also in the same #lace of...a fig mi2ed "ith a plane+tree. +. ;ut among all those .inds of figs the" were memorable which were called a kind of fig$ and the" "et more which were called "hite figs$ which unless 8 mista.e ma.e to our #ur#ose) not that the" were more noble than the rest but their manner of bearing fruit was more unusual. There is mention of these in 'heviith in these words we will render the words in the #ara#hrase of the !lossers) "... "hite figs and a kind of fig) the seventh "ear" (that is the "ear of release) "is to those the second" (vi% of the seven "ears following)$ "to these the gong out of the seventh. 0hite figs #ut forth fruit ever" "ear but it is ri#e onl" ever" third "ear) so that on that tree ever" "ear one might see three sorts of fruit namel" of the #resent "ear of the #ast and of the "ear before that. Thus the kind of fig bring forth ri#e fruit in two "ears " /c. 5oncerning "hite figs thus the Jerusalem !emara) "?o the" bear fruit ever" "ear or once in three "ears2 The" bear fruit ever" "ear$ but the fruit is not ri#e till the third "ear. ;ut how ma" one .now which is the fruit of each "ear2 3. Jona saith -;" the threads that hang to them.- The tradition of 0amuel -De ma.es little strings hang to it -" /c. 888. The fruit of ver" man" trees hung u#on them all the winter b" the mildness of the weather if the" were not gathered or sha.en off b" the wind) na" the" ri#ened in winter. Dence came those cautions about tithing) "The tree which #uts forth its fruit before the beginning of the "ear of the world" Fthat is before the beginning of the month Tisri in which month the world was createdG "must be tithed for the "ear #ast) but if after the beginning of the world then it must be tithed for the "ear coming on. 3. Judan ;ar 7hilia answered before 3. Jonah -;ehold the tree 5harob #uts forth its fruits before the beginning of

the world and "et it is tithed for the "ear following.- 3. Jissa saith -8f it #uts forth a third #art before the "ear of the world it must be tithed for the "ear #ast$ but if after then for the "ear following.- 3. Heira answers before 3. Jissa -0ometimes #almCtrees do not bring forth #art of their fruit till after the beginning of the "ear of the world$ and "et the" must be tithed for the "ear before.- 0amuel ;ar :bba saith -8f it #uts forth the third #art of its fruit before the fifteenth da" of the month 0hebat it is to be tithed for the "ear #ast$ if after the fifteenth da" of the month 0hebat for the "ear to come.-" Dence that aBiom in 3osh Dashanah "The first da" of the month 0hebat is the beginning of the "ear for trees according to the school of 0hammai$ but according to that of Dillel the fifteenth da"." Dowever figCtrees were not among those trees that #ut forth their fruit after the beginning of Tisri$ for "ou have seen before out of the Talmudists that the" used to #ut forth their leaves in the month Nisan) and that their fruit used to be ri#e in thrice fift" da"s after this. Let #erha#s it ma" be ob4ected about them what we meet with in the Jerusalem !emara at the #lace before cited) "9ne gathers figs (sa" the") and .nows not at what time the" were #ut forth" (and thereb" is at a loss for what "ear to tithe them). "3. Jonah saith -<et him rec.on a hundred da"s bac.wards$ and if the fifteenth da" of the month 0hebat falls within that number then he ma" .now when the" were #ut forth.-" ;ut this must be understood of figs of a #articular sort which do not grow after the usual manner which is #lain also from that which follows$ for "the" sa" to him -1ith "ou at Tiberias there are figCtrees that bear fruit in one "ear-) to which he answers -;ehold with "ou at Hi##or there are trees that bear fruit in two "ears.-" 5oncerning common figCtrees their ordinar" time of #utting out green figs was sufficientl" .nown$ as also the "ear of tithing them) but concerning those trees of another sort which had ri#e fruit onl" in two or three "ears it is no wonder if the" were at a loss in both. 8J. 5hrist therefore came to the tree see.ing fruit on it although the ordinar" time of figs was not "et$ because it was ver" #robable that some fruit might be found there. 9f the #resent "ear indeed he neither eB#ected nor could eB#ect an" fruit when it was so far from being the time of figs that it was almost five months off) and it ma" be doubted whether it had "et so much as an" leaves of the #resent "ear. 8t was now the month Nisan and that month was the time of the first #utting out of leaves$ so that if the buds of the leaves had 4ust #ee#ed forth the" were so tender small and scarce worth the name of leaves (for it was but the eleventh da" of the month) that to eB#ect figs of the same "ear with those leaves had not been onl" in vain but ridiculous. Those words seem to denote something #eculiar having leaves$ as if the other trees thereabout had been without leaves or at least had not such leaves as #romised figs. &ar. seems to give the reason wh" he came rather to that tree than to an" other$ namel" because he saw leaves on it and thereb" ho#ed to find figs. ">or when he saw (saith he) a fig tree afar off having leaves he came if ha#l" he might find an" thing thereon." >rom the leaves he had ho#es of figs) these therefore certainl" were not the leaves of the #resent s#ring for those were hardl" so much as in being "et) but the" were either the leaves of the "ear #ast that had hung u#on the tree all winter$ or else this tree was of that .ind which had figs and leaves together hanging on it for two or three "ears before the fruit grew ri#e. :nd 8 rather a##rove of this latter sense which both renders the matter itself more clear and better solves the difficulties that arise from the words of &ar.. This tree it seems had leaves which #romised fruit and others had not so$ whereas had the" all been of the same .ind it is li.el" the" would all have had leaves after the same manner. ;ut when others had lost all their leaves of the former "ear b" winds and the winter and those of the #resent "ear were not as "et come out this .e#t its leaves according to its nature and .ind both summer and winter. 0t. &ar. therefore in that clause which chiefl" #er#leBes inter#reters for the time of figs "as not yet doth not strictl" and onl" give the reason wh" he found no figs but gives the reason of the whole action$ namel" wh" on that mountain which abounded with fig trees he saw but one that had such leaves$ and being at a great distance when he saw it he went to it eB#ecting figs onl" from it. The reason saith he was this ";ecause it was not the usual time of figs") for had it been so he might have gathered figs from the trees about him$ but since it was not all his eB#ectation was from this which seemed to be the .ind of fig or white fig which never wanted leaves or figs. >or to ta.e an instance in the tree) That tree (su##ose) bore figs such a summer which hung u#on the boughs all the following winter$ it bore others also neBt summer$ and those together with the former hung on the boughs all this winter too) the third summer it

bore a third degree and this summer brought those of the first bearing to ri#eness and so onwards continuall"$ so that it was no time to be found without fruit of several "ears. 8t is less therefore to be wondered at if that which #romised so much fruitfulness b" its loo.s that one might have eB#ected from it at least the fruit of two "ears did so far deceive the ho#es it had raised as not to afford one fig$ if that 8 sa" should suffer a 4ust #unishment from our <ord whom it had so much in a##earance disa##ointed) an emblem of the #unishment that was to be inflicted u#on the Jews for their s#iritual barrenness and h"#ocris".
;&. Jes.s answere7 an7 sai7 .nto them8 ,erily I say .nto yo.8 If ye ha:e faith8 an7 7o.bt not8 ye shall not only 7o this which is done to the fig tree8 b.t also if ye shall say .nto this mo.ntain8 1e tho. remo:e78 an7 be tho. cast into the sea< it shall be 7one.

FBut if ye shall say unto this mountain# Be thou removed# and be thou cast into the sea4 it shall be done .G this is a h"#erbolical wa" of s#ea.ing ta.en from the common language of the schools of the Jews and designed after a manner for their refutation. 0uch a h"#erbole concerning this ver" mountain "ou have Hechariah 1()(. The Jews used to set out those teachers among them that were more eminent for the #rofoundness of their learning or the s#lendour of their virtues b" such eB#ressions as this$ /e is a rooter up (or a remover) of mountains. "3abh Jose#h is 0inai and 3abbah is a rooter up of mountains." The !loss$ "The" called 3abh Jose#h 'inai because he was ver" s.ilful in clearing of difficulties$ and 3abbah ;ar Nachmani % rooter up of mountains because he had a #iercing 4udgment." "3abba said 8 am li.e ;en :%%ai in the streets of Tiberias." The !loss$ "<i.e ;en :%%ai who taught #rofoundl" in the streets of Tiberias$ nor was there in his da"s such another rooter up of mountains as he." "De saw 3esh <achish in the school as if he were plucking up mountains and grinding them one u#on another." The same eB#ression with which the" sillil" and flatteringl" eBtolled the learning and virtue of their men 5hrist deservedl" useth to set forth the #ower of faith as able to do all things &ar. *)'+.
BB. Hear another parable: *here was a certain ho.sehol7er8 which plante7 a :ineyar78 an7 he7ge7 it ro.n7 abo.t8 an7 7igge7 a winepress in it8 an7 b.ilt a tower8 an7 let it o.t to h.sban7men8 an7 went into a far co.ntry:

FPlanted a vineyard.G 5oncerning vines and their husbandr" see Iilaim where there is a large discourse of the beds of a vine"ard the orders of the vines of the measure of the wine#ress of the hedge of the trenches of the void s#ace of the #laces within the hedge which were free from vines whether the" were to be sown or not to be sown /c.
B(. An7 the h.sban7men too6 his ser:ants8 an7 beat one8 an7 6ille7 another8 an7 stone7 another.

FBeat4 killed4 stoned.G There seems to be an allusion to the #unishments and manners of death in the council) 1. ;eat which #ro#erl" signifies the flaying off of the skin is not amiss rendered b" inter#reters beat$ and the word seems to related to "hipping where fort" stri#es save one did miserabl" flay off the skin of the #oor man...'. 9illed signifies a death b" the sword...Four kinds of death are delivered to the 'anhedrim# stoning# burning# killing# and strangling .
B'. 1.t when the h.sban7men saw the son8 they sai7 among themsel:es8 *his is the heir< come8 let .s 6ill him8 an7 let .s sei=e on his inheritance.

FThis is the heir /c.G 5om#are this verse with John 11)(8$ and it seems to hint that the rulers of the Jews ac.nowledged among themselves that 5hrist was the &essias$ but being strangel" trans#orted beside their senses the" #ut him to death$ lest bringing in another worshi# and another #eo#le he should either destro" or su##ress their worshi# and themselves.

DD. An7 whosoe:er shall fall on this stone shall be bro6en: b.t on whomsoe:er it shall fall8 it will grin7 him to pow7er.

F%nd "hosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken /c.G Dere is a #lain allusion to the manner of stoning concerning which thus 'anhedrim) "The #lace of stoning was twice as high as a man. >rom the to# of this one of the witnesses stri.ing him on his loins felled him to the ground) if he died of this well$ if not the other witness threw a stone u#on his heart " /c. "3. 0imeon ;en =lea%ar saith There was a stone there as much as two could carr") this the" threw u#on his heart."
Chapter ;; ). Go ye therefore into the highways8 an7 as many as ye shall fin78 bi7 to the marriage.

F7o ye into the high"ays /c.G That is -;ring in hither the travellers.- "1hat is the order of sitting down to meat2 The travellers come in and sit down u#on benches or chairs till all are come that were invited." The !loss$ "8t was a custom among rich men to invite #oor travellers to feasts."
&?. An7 they sent o.t .nto him their 7isciples with the Hero7ians8 saying8 3aster8 we 6now that tho. art tr.e8 an7 teachest the way of Go7 in tr.th8 neither carest tho. for any man: for tho. regar7est not the person of men.

F0ith the /erodians.G &an" things are con4ectured concerning the /erodians. 8 ma.e a 4udgment of them from that histor" which is #roduced b" the author Juchasin s#ea.ing of Dillel and 0hammai. "Deretofore (saith he) Dillel and &enahem were (heads of the council)$ but &enahem withdrew into the famil" of Derod together with eight" men bravel" clad." These and such as these 8 su##ose were called /erodians who #artl" got into the court and #artl" were of the faction both of the father and son. 1ith how great o##osition of the generalit" of the Jewish #eo#le Derod ascended and .e#t the throne we have observed before. There were some that obstinatel" resisted him$ others that as much defended him) to these was deservedl" given the title of /erodians$ as endeavouring with all their might to settle the .ingdom in his famil") and the" it seems were of the 0adducean faith and doctrine$ and it is li.el" had leavened Derod who was now tetrarch with the same #rinci#les. >or (as we noted before) -the leaven of the 0adducees- in &atthew is in &ar. -the leaven of Derod.- :nd it was craftil" contrived on both sides that the" might be a mutual establishment to one another the" to his .ingdom and he to their doctrine. 1hen 8 read of &anaem or &enahem the fosterCbrother of Derod the tetrarch it readil" brings to m" mind the name and stor" before mentioned of &enahem who carried over with him so man" eminent #ersons to the court of Derod.
;G. An7 he saith .nto them8 Whose is this image an7 s.perscriptionC

F0hose is this image and superscription2G The" endeavour b" a #ernicious subtilt" to find out whether 5hrist were of the same o#inion with Judas of !alilee. 1hich o#inion those lewd disturbers of all things whom Jose#hus brands ever"where under the name of !ealots had ta.en u#$ stiffl" den"ing obedience and tribute to a 3oman #rince$ because the" #ersuaded themselves and their followers that it was a sin to submit to a heathen government. 1hat great calamities the outrageous fur" of this conceit brought u#on the #eo#le both Jose#hus and the ruins of Jerusalem at this da" testif". The" chose 5aesar before 5hrist$ and "et because the" would neither have 5aesar nor 5hrist the" remain sad monuments to all ages of the divine vengeance and their own madness. To this fur" those fre@uent warnings of the a#ostles do relate "That ever" one should submit himself to the higher #owers." :nd the characters of these madmen "the" contemn dominations " and "the" eBalt themselves against ever" thing that is called !od." 5hrist answers the treacher" of the @uestion #ro#ounded out of the ver" determinations of the schools where this was taught "1heresoever the mone" of an" .ing is current there the inhabitants ac.nowledge that .ing for their lord." Dence is that of the Jerusalem 'anhedrim) ":bigail said to ?avid -1hat evil have 8 done or m" sons or m" cattle2- De answered -Lour husband vilifies m" .ingdom.- -:re

"ou then - said she -a .ing2- To which he -?id not 0amuel anoint me for a .ing2- 0he re#lied - The money of our lord 'aul as yet is current-") that is -8s not 0aul to be accounted .ing while his mone" is still received commonl" b" all2;B. *he same 7ay came to him the 0a77.cees8 which say that there is no res.rrection8 an7 as6e7 him8

FThe 'adducees# "ho say that there is no resurrection .G "The 0adducees cavil and sa" The cloud faileth and #asseth awa"$ so he that goeth down to the grave doth not return." Just after the same rate of arguing as the" use that den" infant ba#tism$ because forsooth in the law there is no eB#ress mention of the resurrection. :bove we sus#ected that the 0adducees were Derodians that is to sa" courtiers) but these here mentioned were of a more inferior sort.
B;. I am the Go7 of Abraham8 an7 the Go7 of Isaac8 an7 the Go7 of JacobC Go7 is not the Go7 of the 7ea78 b.t of the li:ing.

F7od is not the 7od of the dead.G 3ead if "ou #lease the beginning of the cha#ter 5hele. where "ou will observe with what arguments and inferences the Talmudists maintain the resurrection of the dead out of the la"$ namel" b" a manner of arguing not unli.e this of our 0aviour-s. 1e will #roduce onl" this one$ "3. =lie%er ;en 3. Josi said 8n this matter 8 accused the scribes of the 0amaritans of falsehood while the" sa" That the resurrection of the dead cannot be #roved out of the law. 8 told them Lou corru#t "our law and it is nothing which "ou carr" about in "our hands$ for "ou sa" That the resurrection of the dead is not in the law when it saith -That soul shall be utterl" cut off$ his ini@uit" is u#on him.-0hall be utterl" cut off-$ namel" in this world. -Dis ini@uit" is u#on him-) when2 8s it not in the world to come2" 8 have @uoted this rather than the others which are to be found in the same #lace$ because the" seem here to taB the 0amaritan teBt of corru#tion$ when indeed both the teBt and the version as ma" easil" be observed agree ver" well with the Debrew. 1hen therefore the 3abbin saith that the" have corrupted their la" he doth not so much den" the #urit" of the teBt as re#rove the vanit" of the inter#retation) as if he had said "Lou inter#ret "our law falsel" when "ou do not infer the resurrection from those words which s#ea. it so #lainl"." 1ith the #resent argument of our 0aviour com#are first those things which are said b" 3. Tanchum) "3. 0imeon ;en Jochai saith !od hol" and blessed doth not 4oin his name to hol" men while the" live but onl" after their death$ as it is said -To the saints that are in the earth.- 1hen are the" saints2 1hen the" are laid in the earth$ for while the" live !od doth not 4oin his name to them$ because he is not sure but that some evil affection ma" lead them astra") but when the" are dead then he 4oins his name to them. ;ut we find that !od 4oined his name to 8saac while he was living) -8 am the !od of :braham and the !od of 8saac.- The 3abbins answer De loo.ed on his dust as if it were gathered u#on the altar. 3. ;erachiah said 0ince he became blind he was in a manner dead." 0ee also 3. &enahem on the <aw. 5om#are also those words of the Jerusalem !emara) "The righteous even in death are said to live$ and the wic.ed even in life are said to be dead. ;ut how is it #roved that the wic.ed even in life are said to be dead2 >rom that #lace where it is said I have no delight in the death of the dead . 8s he alread" dead that is alread" here called dead2 :nd whence is it #roved that the righteous even in death are said to live2 >rom that #assage -:nd he said to him This is the land concerning which 8 sware to :braham to 8saac and to Jacob-...De saith to him !o and tell the fathers whatsoever 8 #romised to "ou 8 have #erformed to "our children." The o#inion of the ;ab"lonians is the same$ "The living .now that the" shall die. The" are righteous who in their death are said to live) as it is said -:nd ;enaiah the son of Jehoiada the son of a living man - FThe son of a valiant man. :.J. ' 0amuel '+)',G " /c. :nd a little after$ "The dead .now nothing) The" are the wic.ed who even in their life are called dead as it is said %nd thou# dead "icked prince of Israel." The word which is commonl" rendered profane in this #lace the" render it also in a sense ver" usual namel" for one "ounded or dead.

There are further divers stories alleged b" which the" #rove that the dead so far live that the" understand man" things which are done here$ and that some have s#o.e after death /c. 5ha#ter '+ Oscri#5om t"#eN"5ommentar"" #assageN"&atthew '+" #arsedN"P&attP'+P,P,P," osis3efN";ible)&att.'+" QR
;. 0aying8 *he scribes an7 the $harisees sit in 3osesF seat:

FIn (oses, seat /c.G this is to be understood rather of the legislative seat (or chair) than of the merel" doctrinal) and 5hrist here asserts the authorit" of the magistrate and #ersuadeth to obe" him in lawful things. 5oncerning the chairs of the 0anhedrim there is mention made in ;ab. 'uccah) "There were at :leBandria sevent"Cone golden chairs according to the number of the sevent"Cone elders of the great council." 5oncerning the authorit" of &oses and his vicegerent in the council there is also mention in 'anhedrim) "The great council consisted of sevent"Cone elders. ;ut whence was this number derived2 >rom that #lace where it is said -5hoose me out sevent" men of the elders of 8srael) and &oses was #resident over them.- ;ehold sevent"ConeE" 1hat is here observed b" !alatinus from the signification of the aorist sat is too light and air") "De saith The" sat and not The" sit that he might #lainl" demonstrate that their #ower was then ceased." ;ut if we would be so curious to gather an" thing from this aorist we might ver" well transfer it to this sense rather) "The scribes and 7harisees the worst of men have long usur#ed &oses- seat$ nevertheless we ought to obe" them because b" the dis#ensation of the divine #rovidence the" bear the chief magistrac"." 5oncerning their authorit" thus &aimonides) "The great council of Jerusalem was the ground (the pillar and ground) of the traditional law and the pillar of doctrine) whence #roceeded statutes and 4udgments for all 8srael. :nd concerning them the law asserts this ver" thing sa"ing -:ccording to the sentence of the law which the" shall teach thee.- 1hosoever therefore believes &oses our master and his law is bound to rel" u#on them for the things of the law." 5hrist teacheth that the" were not to be esteemed as oracles but as magistrates. D. "or they bin7 hea:y b.r7ens an7 grie:o.s to be borne8 an7 lay them on menFs sho.l7ers< b.t they themselves will not mo:e them with one of their fingers F/eavy burdens.G ...a heavy prohibition4 Let him follo" him that imposeth heavy things . There are rec.oned u# fourCandCtwent" things of the "eighty things of the school of /illel# and the light things of that of 'hammai. "3. Joshua saith : foolish religious man a crafty "icked man a sheC#harisee and the voluntar" dashing of the 7harisees destro" the world." 8t is dis#uted b" the !emarists who is that crafty "icked man) and it is answered b" some "De that #rescribes light things to himself and heav" to others."
(. 1.t all their wor6s they 7o for to be seen of men: they ma6e broa7 their phylacteries8 an7 enlarge the bor7ers of their garments.

FThey make broad their phylacteries.G These four #laces of the law =Bodus 1+)+C1, =Bodus 1+)11C16 ?euteronom" 6)5C* ?euteronom" 11)1+C'1$ being writ u#on two #archment labels (which the" called tephillin) were carried about with them constantl" with great devotion being fastened to their forehead and their left arm. To the forehead in that #lace "here the pulse of an infant,s brain is. This of the

forehead was most cons#icuous and made broad) hence came that "<et nobod" #ass b" the s"nagogue while #ra"ers are sa"ing there.CC;ut if he hath #h"lacteries u#on his head he ma" #ass b" because the" show that he is studious of the law."CC"8t is not lawful to wal. through bur"ingC#laces with #h"lacteries on one-s head and the boo. of the law hanging at one-s arm." The" are called in !ree. phylacteries that is observatories$ because the" were to #ut them in mind of the law$ and #erha#s the" were also called preservatories because the" were su##osed to have some virtue in them to drive awa" devils) "8t is necessar" that the phylacteries should be re#eated at home aC nights to drive a"ay devils." 5oncerning the curious writing of the phylacteries see &aimonides on Tephellin. 5oncerning their strings mar.ed with certain small letters see Tosaphoth on (egillah. 5oncerning the re#eating of them see both the Talmuds in Beracoth. Dow the Jews did swear touching their phylacteries see &aimonides in 'hevuoth) and how !od is brought in swearing b" the phylacteries see Tanchum. 9ur 0aviour does not so much condemn the bare wearing of them as the doing it out of #ride and h"#ocris". 8t is not unli.el" that he wore them himself according to the custom of the countr") for the children of the Jews were to be brought u# from their infanc" in sa"ing the phylacteries$ that is as soon as the" were ca#able of being catechised. The scribes and 7harisees made theirs ver" broad and visible that the" might obtain a #ro#ortional fame and esteem for their devotion with the #eo#le$ these things being loo.ed u#on as arguments of the stud" of the law and signs of devotion. F nlarge the borders of their garments .G 0ee Numbers 15)+8$ ?euteronom" '')1'CC"De that ta.es care of the candle of the sabbath his children shall be the disci#les of wise men. De that ta.es care to stic. u# labels against the #osts shall obtain a glorious house$ and he that ta.es care of ma.ing borders to his garment shall obtain a good coat."
@. An7 greetings in the mar6ets8 an7 to be calle7 of men8 !abbi8 !abbi.

F%nd to be called *abbi# *abbi.G 8. 5oncerning the original of this title see :ruch) "The elder times which were more worth" had not need of the title either of *abban or *abbi or *abh to adorn either the wise men of ;ab"lon or the wise men of the land of 8srael) for behold Dillel comes u# out of ;ab"lon and the title of *abbi is not added to his name) and thus it was with those who were noble among the #ro#hets$ for he saith Daggai the #ro#het Fnot *abbi DaggaiG. =%ra did not come u# out of ;ab"lon /c. Fnot *abbi =%raG$ whom the" did not honour with the titles of *abbi when the" s#o.e their names. :nd we have heard that this had its beginning onl" in the #residents Fof the councilG from 3abban !amaliel the old man and 3abban 0imeon his son who #erished in the destruction of the second Tem#le) and from 3abban Jochanan ;en Haccai who were all #residents. :nd the title also of *abbi began from those that were #romoted Fto be eldersG from that time *abbi Hado. and 3. =lie%er ;en Jacob) and the thing went forth from the disci#les of 3abban Jochanan ;en Haccai and onwards. Now the order as all men use it is this) *abbi is greater than *abh and *abban is greater than *abbi$ and he is greater who is called b" his own (single) name than he who is called *abban." That this haught" title of *abbi was not in use before the times of Dillel sufficientl" a##ears from thence that the doctors before that were called b" their #lain names and .new nothing of this title. :ntigonus 0ocheus 0hemaiah and :btalion !ebihah ;en 7esisa 5alba 0avua :dmon and Danan Dillel and 0hammai and man" others whose names we meet with in the Jewish stor". Let "ou shall find these that were more ancient sometimes officiousl" honoured b" the writers of their nation with this title which the" themselves were strangers to. The" feign that .ing Jehosha#hat thus called the learned men) "1hen he saw (sa" the") a disci#le of the wise men he rose u# out of his throne and embraced him and .issed him and called him & Father# Father# *abbi# *abbi# Lord# Lord ." :nd Joshua ;en 7erachia is called *abbi Joshua...

88. 8t was customar" and the" loved it to be saluted with this honourable title notwithstanding the dissembled aBiom among them Love the "ork# but hate the title. 1. ?isci#les were thus taught to salute their masters) "3. =lie%er saith he that prayeth behind the back of his master# and he that salutes his master#++or returns a salute to his master CCand he that ma.es himself a se#aratist from the school of his master CCand he that teaches an" thing which he hath not heard from his master CChe #rovo.es the ?ivine &a4est" to de#art from 8srael." The !lossers on these words -De that salutes or returns a salute to his master - thus comment$ "he that salutes his master in the same form of words that he salutes other men and doth not sa" to him 7od save you# *abbi." 8t is re#orted also that the council eBcommunicated certain #ersons four and twent" times for the honour of master$ that is for not having given due honour to the *abbins. '. The masters saluted one another so. "3. :.ibah said to 3. =lea%ar *abbi# *abbi."CC"3. =lea%ar ;en 0imeon of &agdal !edor came from the house of his master sitting u#on an ass) he went forward along the ban. of the river re4oicing greatl" and being ver" much #leased with himself because he had learned so much of the law. There meets him a ver" deformed man and said 'ave you# *abbi) he did not salute him again but on the contrar" said thus -3aca how deformed is that manE #erha#s all "our townsmen are as deformed as "ou.- De answered -8 .now nothing of that but go "ou to the wor.man that made me and tell him how deformed is this vessel which thou hast madeE-" /c. :nd a little after "when that deformed man was come to his own town his fellow citi%ens came out to meet him and said 'ave you# & *abbi# *abbi# master# master . De F3. =lea%arG saith to them -To whom do "ou sa" *abbi# *abbi2- The" answer -To him that followeth thee.- De re#lied -8f this be a *abbi let there not be man" such in 8srael.-" &D. Woe .nto yo.8 scribes an7 $harisees8 hypocritesH for ye 7e:o.r wi7owsF ho.ses8 an7 for a pretence ma6e long prayer: therefore ye shall recei:e the greater 7amnation. F>e devour "ido"s, houses.G The scribes and 7harisees were ingenious enough for their own advantage. Dear one argument among man" forged u#on the anvil of their covetousness a little rudel" drawn but gainful enough) "The <ord saith -&a.e me an ar. of shittim wood.- /ence it is decided (sa" the") in behalf of a disciple of the "ise men# that his fello" citi!ens are bound to perform his servile "ork for him."CC9 mone" thou mistress of art and mother of witE 0o he that was #referred to be #resident of the council was to be maintained and enriched b" the councilE 0ee the !loss on ;ab"lonian Taanith. The" angled with a double hoo. among the #eo#le for res#ect and b" res#ect for gain. 8. :s doctors of the law) where the" first and above all things instilled into their disci#les and the common #eo#le that a wise man or a master was to be res#ected above all mortal men whatsoever. ;ehold the ran. and order of benches according to these 4udgesE ": wise man is to ta.e #lace of a .ing$ a .ing of a high #riest$ a high #riest of a #ro#het$ a #ro#het of one anointed for war$ one anointed for war of a #resident of the courses$ a #resident of the courses of the head of a famil"$ the head of a famil" of a counsellor$ a counsellor of a treasurer$ a treasurer of a #rivate #riest$ a #rivate #riest of a <evite$ a <evite of an 8sraelite$ an 8sraelite of a bastard$ a bastard of a Nethinim$ a Nethinim of a #rosel"te$ a #rosel"te of a freed slave. ;ut when is this to be2 namel" when the" are ali.e as to other things) but indeed if a bastard be a disci#le or a wise man and the high #riest be unlearned the bastard is to ta.e #lace of him. : wise man is to be #referred before a .ing) for if a wise man die he hath not left his e@ual$ but if a .ing die an" 8sraelite is fit for a .ingdom." This last brings to m" mind those words of 8gnatius the mart"r if indeed the" are his in his tenth e#istle) (y son# saith he# honour 7od and the .ing) but 8 sa" -Donour !od as the cause and <ord of all) the bisho# as the chief #riest bearing the image of !od$ in res#ect of his rule bearing !od-s image in res#ect of his #riestl" office 5hrist-s$ and after him we ought to honour the .ing also.-

88. Knder a #retence of might" devotion but es#eciall" under the goodl" show of long #ra"ers the" so drew over the minds of devout #ersons to them es#eciall" of women and among them of the richer widows that b" subtle attractives the" either drew out or wrested awa" their goods and estates. Nor did the" want nets of counterfeit authorit" when from the chair the" #ronounced according to their #leasures of the dowr" and estate befalling a widow and assumed to themselves the #ower of determining concerning those things. 9f which matter as it is #er#leBed with infinite difficulties and @uir.s "ou ma" read if "ou have leisure the treatises Jevamoth# Chetuboth and 7ittin. 5oncerning the length of their #ra"ers it ma" suffice to #roduce the words of the ;ab"lon !emara in Beracoth) "The religious ancientl" used to tarr" an hour F meditating before they began their prayers G) whence was this2 3. Joshua ;en <evi saith -8t was because the 0cri#ture saith Blessed are they "ho sit in thy house.- 3. Joshua ;en <evi saith also -De that #ra"s ought to tarr" an hour after #ra"ers) as it is said The 4ust shall #raise th" name the upright shall sit before thy face-) it is necessar" therefore that he should sta" FmeditatingG an hour before #ra"ers and an hour after$ and the religious ancientl" used to sta" an hour before #ra"ers an hour the" #ra"ed and an hour the" sta"ed after #ra"ers. 0ince therefore the" s#ent nine hours eer" da" about their #ra"ers how did the" #erform the rest of the law2 and how did the" ta.e care of their worldl" affairs2 1h" herein in being religious both the law was #erformed and their own business well #rovided for." :nd in the same #lace "<ong #ra"ers ma.e a long life."
&(. Woe .nto yo.8 scribes an7 $harisees8 hypocritesH for ye compass sea an7 lan7 to ma6e one proselyte8 an7 when he is ma7e8 ye ma6e him twofol7 more the chil7 of hell than yo.rsel:es.

FTo make one proselyte.G The Talmudists trul" s#ea. ver" ill of #rosel"tes) "9ur 3abbins teach that proselytes and 'odomites hinder the coming of the (essias$ Proselytes are as a scab to Israel ." The !loss$ ">or this reason that the" were not s.illed in the commandments that the" brought in revenge and moreover that the 8sraelites #erchance ma" imitate their wor.s " /c. Let in ma.ing of these the" used their utmost endeavours for the sa.e of their own gain that the" might some wa" or other drain their #urses after the" had drawn them in under the show of religion or ma.e some use or benefit to themselves b" them. The same covetousness therefore under a veil of h"#ocris" in devouring widows- houses which our 0aviour had condemned in the former clause he here also condemns in hunting after proselytes$ which the scribes and 7harisees were at all .ind of #ains to bring over to them. Not that the" cared for proselytes whom the" accounted as "a scab and #lague"$ but that the more the" could draw over to their religion the greater draught the" should have for gain and the more #urses to fish in. These therefore being so #rosel"ted "the" made doubl" more the children of hell than themselves." >or when the" had drawn them into their net having got their #re" the" were no further concerned what became of them so the" got some benefit b" them. The" might #erish in ignorance su#erstition atheism and all .ind of wic.edness) this was no matter of concern to the scribes and 7harisees$ onl" let them remain in Judaism that the" might lord it over their consciences and #urses.
&?. Woe .nto yo.8 ye blin7 g.i7es8 which say8 Whosoe:er shall swear by the temple8 it is nothing< b.t whosoe:er shall swear by the gol7 of the temple< he is a 7ebtorH

F0hosoever shall s"ear by the gold of the Temple# he is a debtor .G These words agree in the same sense with those of the Corban cha#ter 15)5. 1e must not understand the gold of the Temple here of that gold which shined all about in the walls and ceilings$ but the gold here meant is that which was offered u# in the Corban. 8t was a common thing with them and esteemed as nothing to swear by the Temple and by the altar which we have observed at the +1st verse of the fifth cha#ter) and therefore the" thought themselves not much obliged b" it$ but if the" swore Corban the" su##osed the" were bound b" an indis#ensable tie. >or eBam#le) if an" one should swear thus -;" the Tem#le or ;" the altar m" mone" m" cattle m" goods shall not #rofit "ou-$ it was lawful nevertheless for the swearer if

he #leased to suffer them to be #rofited b" these) but if he should swear thus - Corban m" gold is for the Tem#le Corban m" cattle are for the altar - this could nowa"s be dis#ensed with.
;B. Woe .nto yo.8 scribes an7 $harisees8 hypocritesH for ye pay tithe of mint an7 anise an7 c.mmin8 an7 ha:e omitte7 the weightier matters of the law8 A.7gment8 mercy8 an7 faith: these o.ght ye to ha:e 7one8 an7 not to lea:e the other .n7one.

F>e pay tithe of mint.G 8. "This is the general rule about tithes$ whatsoever serves for food whatsoever is .e#t Fthat is# "hich is not of common rightG and whatsoever grows out of the earth shall be tithed." 88. :ccording to the law cattle corn and fruit were to be tithed) the wa" and measure of which as the scribes teach was this) "9f breadCcorn that is thrashed and winnowed 1. : fifth #art is ta.en out for the #riest$ this was called the great offering. '. : tenth #art of the remainer belong to the <evite$ this was called the first tenth or tithe. +. : tenth #art again was to be ta.en out of the remainder and was to be eaten at Jerusalem or else redeemed$ this was called the second tithe. (. The <evite gives a tenth #art out of his to the #riest$ this was called the tithe of the tithe." These are handled at large in Peah# )emai# (aaseroth /c. 888. The tithing of herbs is from the *abbins. This tithing was added b" the scribes and "et a##roved of b" our 0aviour when he saith "Le ought not to have left these undone." Dear this 9 thou who o##osest tithes. The tithing of herbs was onl" of ecclesiastical institution and "et it hath the authorit" of our 0aviour to confirm it "Le ought not to have left these things undone") and that #artl" on account of the 4ustice of the thing itself and the agreeableness of it to law and reason #artl" that it was commanded b" the council sitting in &oses- chair as it is verse '. 8J. F(int.G ...is rec.oned among those things which come under the law of the seventh "ear. 1here 3ambam saith "8n the :ruch it is minta." 8t is called sometimes mintha) where 3. 0olomon writes "8n the :ruch it is minta in the mother tongue and it hath a sweet smell$ therefore the" strew it in s"nagogues for the sa.e of its scent." F%nise.G ...3. 0olomon "anise is a .ind of herb and is tithed both as to the seed and herb itself." 3ambam writes thus) "8t is eaten raw after meat and is not to be boiled$ while therefore it is not boiled it comes under the law of tithing." The !loss "in the 3oman language is anethum FaniseG and is tithed whether it be gathered green or ri#e." FCummin.G ...8t is rec.oned among things that are to be tithed.
;@. Woe .nto yo.8 scribes an7 $harisees8 hypocritesH for ye are li6e .nto white7 sep.lchres8 which in7ee7 appear bea.tif.l o.twar78 b.t are within f.ll of 7ea7 men's bones8 an7 of all .ncleanness.

F>e are like "hited sepulchres.G 'epulchres are distinguished b" the masters of the Jews into a deep sepulchre which cannot be .nown to be a se#ulchre$ graves that appear not F<u.e 11)((G$ and a painted sepulchre such as were all those that were .nown and to be seen. 9ur 0aviour com#ares the 0cribes and 7harisees to both$ to those in the #lace of <u.e last mentioned$ to these in the #lace before us each u#on a different reason. 5oncerning the "hiting of sepulchres there are these traditions) "8n the fifteenth da" of the month :dar the" mend the wa"s and the streets and the common sewers and #erform those things that concern the #ublic and they paint (or mark) the sepulchres." The manner is described in (aasar 'heni4 They paint the sepulchres "ith chalk# tempered and infused in "ater . The Jerusalem !emarists give the reason of it in abundance of #laces) "?o the" not mar. the se#ulchres (sa" the") before the month :dar2 Les but it is su##osed that the colours are wi#ed off. >or what cause do the" #aint them so2 That this matter ma" be li.e the case of the le#er. The le#rous man crieth out -Knclean unclean-$ and here

in li.e manner uncleanness cries out to "ou and saith -5ome not near.-" 3. 8lla in the name of 3. 0amuel ;ar Nachman allegeth that of =%e.iel$ "8f one #assing through the land seeth a man-s bone he shall set u# a burial sign b" it." The !lossers deliver both the reason and the manner of it thus) ">rom the fifteenth da" of the month :dar the" began their search$ and wheresoever the" found a se#ulchre whose whiting was washed off with the rain the" renewed it that the unclean #lace might be discerned and the #riests who were to eat the Trumah might avoid it." !loss on 'hekalim and again on (aasar 'heni) "The" mar.ed the se#ulchres with chal. in the li.eness of bones$ and miBing it with water the" washed the se#ulchre all about with it that thereb" all might .now that the #lace was unclean and therefore to be avoided." 5oncerning this matter also the !loss s#ea.s$ "The" made mar.s li.e bones on the se#ulchres with white chal. " /c. 0ee the #lace.
;'. :en so ye also o.twar7ly appear righteo.s .nto men8 b.t within ye are f.ll of hypocrisy an7 iniE.ity.

F ven so ye also out"ardly appear righteous unto men .G 0uch .ind of h"#ocrites are called distained or coloured. Jannai the .ing when he was d"ing warned his wife that she should ta.e heed of painted men# pretending to be Pharisees# "hose "orks are as the "orks of :imri# and yet they e2pect the re"ard of Phineas. The !loss is "Those painted men are those whose outward show doth not answer to their nature$ the" are coloured without but their in"ard part doth not ans"er to their out"ard $ and their wor.s are evil li.e the wor.s of Himri$ but the" re@uire the reward of 7hineas sa"ing to men That the" should honour them as much as 7hineas." The" had forgotten their own aBiom % disciple of the "ise# "ho is not the same "ithin that he is "ithout# is not a disciple of the "ise . FBut "ithin ye are full of hypocrisy and ini=uity .G The masters themselves ac.nowledged this to their own shame. The" in@uire what were those sins under the first Tem#le for which it was destro"ed$ and it is answered "8dolatr" fornication and bloodshed." The" in@uire what were the sins under the second$ and answer "Date without cause and secret ini@uit""$ and add these words "To those that were under the first Tem#le their end was revealed because their ini@uit" was revealed) but to those that "ere under the second their end "as not revealed# because their ini=uity "as not revealed ." The !loss "The" that were under the first Tem#le did not hide their ini@uit"$ therefore their end was revealed to them) as it is said -:fter sevent" "ears 8 will visit "ou in ;ab"lon-) but their ini@uit" under the second Tem#le was not revealed) those under the second Temple "ere secretly "icked ."
;). Woe .nto yo.8 scribes an7 $harisees8 hypocritesH beca.se ye b.il7 the tombs of the prophets8 an7 garnish the sep.lchres of the righteo.s8

F>e garnish the sepulchres of the righteous.G Let them raise some pillar upon his sepulchre . The !lossers are divided about the rendering of the word pillar. 0ome understand it of a .ind of building or #illar$ some of the whiting or mar.ing of a se#ulchre above s#o.en of. The #lace referred to s#ea.s concerning the remains of the didrachms #aid for the redem#tion of the soul) and the @uestion is if there be an" thing of them due or remaining from the man now dead what shall be done with it$ the answer is "<et it be laid u# till =lias come) but 3. Nathan saith Let them raise some pillar For buildingG upon his sepulchre." 1hich that it was done for the sa.e of adorning the se#ulchres is #roved from the words of the Jerusalem !emara u#on the #lace$ They do not adorn the sepulchres of the righteous# for their o"n sayings are their memorial. 1hence those buildings or ornaments that were set on their se#ulchres seem to have been sacred to their memor" and thence called as much as souls because the" #reserved the life and soul of their memor". These things being considered the sense of the words before us doth more clearl" a##ear. ?oth it deserve so severe a curse to adorn the se#ulchres of the #ro#hets and righteous men2 1as not this rather an act of #iet" than a crime2 ;ut according to their own doctrine 9 "e scribes and 7harisees their o"n acts and sa"ings are a sufficient memorial for them. 1h" do "e not res#ect follow and imitate

these2 ;ut neglecting and tram#ling u#on these "ou #ersuade "ourselves that "ou have #erformed #iet" enough to them if "ou bestow some cost in adorning their se#ulchres whose words indeed "ou des#ise.
BB. Ye serpents8 ye of :ipers8 how can ye escape the 7amnation of hellC

FThe damnation of hell.G The 1udgment of 7ehenna. 0ee the 5haldee #ara#hrast on 3uth ')1'$ ;aal Turim on !enesis 1)1$ and &idras Tillin.
BD. Wherefore8 behol78 I sen7 .nto yo. prophets8 an7 wise men8 an7 scribes: an7 some of them ye shall 6ill an7 cr.cify< an7 some of them shall ye sco.rge in yo.r synagog.es8 an7 persec.te them from city to city:

F0ise men and scribes.G <et them observe this who do not allow the ministers of the word to have a distinct calling. The Jews .new not an" that was called a "ise man or a scribe but who was both learned and se#arated from the common #eo#le b" a distinct order and office.
B(. *hat .pon yo. may come all the righteo.s bloo7 she7 .pon the earth8 from the bloo7 of righteo.s Abel .nto the bloo7 of >acharias son of 1arachias8 whom ye slew between the temple an7 the altar.

F;nto the blood of :acharias son of Barachias .G That the discourse here is concerning Hacharias the son of Jehoiada .illed b" .ing Joash we ma.e a##ear b" these arguments) 8. ;ecause no other Hacharias is said to have been slain before these words were s#o.en b" 5hrist. Those things that are s#o.e of Hacharias the father of the ;a#tist are dreams$ and those of Hacharias one of the twelve #ro#hets are not much better. The .illing of our Hacharias in the Tem#le is related in eB#ress words) and wh" neglecting this should we see. for another which in truth we shall nowhere find in an" author of good credit2 88. The Jews observe that the death of this Hacharias the son of Jehoiada was made memorable b" a signal character FnotaG and revenge) of the mart"rdom of the other Hacharias the" sa" nothing at all. Dear both the Talmuds) "3. Jochanan said =ight" thousand #riests were .illed for the blood of Hacharias. 3. Judah as.ed 3. :cha -1hereabouts the" .illed Hacharias whether in the 5ourt of the 1omen or in the 5ourt of 8srael2- De answered -Neither in the 5ourt of 8srael nor in the 5ourt of the women but in the 5ourt of the 7riests.- :nd that was not done to his blood which useth to be done to the blood of a ram or a .id. 5oncerning these it is written -:nd he shall #our out his blood and cover it with dust.- ;ut here it is written -Der blood is in the midst of her$ she set it u#on the to# of a roc. she #oured it not u#on the ground.- :nd wh" this2 -That it might cause fur" to come u# to ta.e vengeance. 8 have set her blood u#on a roc. that it should not be covered.- The" committed seven wic.ednesses in that da". The" .illed a #riest a #ro#het and a 4udge) the" shed the blood of an innocent man) the" #olluted the court) and that da" was the sabbath da" and the da" of =B#iation. 1hen therefore Nebu%arCadan went u# thither he saw the blood bubbling) so he said to them -1hat meaneth this2- -8t is the blood - sa" the" -of calves lambs and rams which we have offered on the altar.- -;ring then - said he -calves lambs and rams that 8 ma" tr" whether this be their blood.- The" brought them and slew them and that blood still bubbled but their blood did not bubble. -?iscover the matter to me - said he -or 8 will tear "our flesh with iron ra.es.- Then the" said to him -This was a #riest a #ro#het and a 4udge who foretold to 8srael all these evils which we have suffered from "ou and we rose u# against him and slew him.- -;ut 8 - saith he -will a##ease him.- De brought the 3abbins and slew them u#on that blood$ and "et it was not #acified) he brought the children out of the school and slew them u#on it and "et it was not @uiet) he brought the "oung #riests and slew them u#on it and "et it was not @uiet. 0o that he slew u#on it ninet"Cfour thousand and "et it was not @uiet. De drew near to it himself and said -9 Hacharias HachariasE thou hast destro"ed the best of th" #eo#le- Fthat is the" have been .illed for "our sa.eG$ -would "ou have me destro" all2- Then it was @uiet and did not bubble an" more " /c.

The truth of this stor" we leave to the relators) that which ma.es to our #resent #ur#ose we observe) that it was ver" im#robable na" neBt to im#ossible that those that heard the words of 5hrist (concerning Hacharias slain before the Tem#le and the altar) could understand it of an" other but of this concerning whom and whose blood the" had such famous and signal memor"$ and of an" other Hacharias slain in the Tem#le there was a #rofound silence. 8n Jose#hus indeed we meet with the mention of one Hacharias the son of ;aruch (which is the same thing with ;arachias ) .illed in the Tem#le not long before the destruction of it) whom some con4ecture to be #ro#heticall" mar.ed out here b" our 0aviour) but this is somewhat hard when 5hrist eB#ressl" s#ea.s of time #ast ye sle"$ and when b" no art nor arguments it can be #roved that this Hacharias ought to be rec.oned into the number of #ro#hets and mart"rs. There are two things here that stic. with inter#reters so that the" cannot so freel" subscribe to our Hacharias) 1. That he lived and died long before the first Tem#le was destro"ed$ when the eBam#le would have seemed more home and #ro#er to be ta.en under the second Tem#le and that now near eB#iring. '. That he was #lainl" and notoriousl" the son of Jehoiada$ but this is called b" 5hrist "the son of Barachias." To which we after others who have discoursed at large u#on this matter return onl" thus much) 8. That 5hrist #lainl" intended to bring eBam#les out of the 9ld Testament$ and he brought two which how much the further off the" seemed to be from deriving an" guilt to this generation so much heavier the guilt is if the" do derive it. >or a Jew would argue "1hat hath a Jew to do with the blood of %bel .illed almost two thousand "ears before :braham the father of the Jews was born2 :nd what hath this generation to do with the blood of :acharias which was eB#iated b" cruel #lagues and calamities man" ages since2" Na" saith 5hrist this generation hath arrived to that degree of im#iet" wic.edness and guilt that even these remote eBam#les of guilt relate and are to be a##lied to it) and while "ou thin. that the blood of %bel and the following mart"rs doth nothing concern "ou and believe that the blood of :acharias hath been long ago eB#iated with a signal #unishment$ 8 sa" unto "ou that the blood both of the one and the other and of all the righteous men .illed in the interval of time between them shall be re=uired of this generation$ 1. ;ecause "ou .ill him who is of more value than the" all. '. ;ecause b" "our wic.edness "ou so much .indle the anger of !od that he is driven to cut off his old church$ namel" the #eo#le that hath been of a long time in covenant with him. >or when 5hrist saith That on you may come all the righteous blood /c.$ it is not so much to be understood of their #ersonal guilt as to that blood as of their guilt for the .illing of 5hrist in whose death the guilt of the murder of all those his t"#es and members is in some measure included) and it is to be understood of the horrible destruction of that generation than which no former ages have ever seen an" more woeful or ama%ing nor shall an" future before the funeral of the world itself. :s if all the guilt of the blood of righteous men that had been shed from the beginning of the world had flowed together u#on that generation. 88. To the second which has more difficult" namel" that :acharias is here called the son of Barachias when he was the son of Jehoiada we will observe b" the wa" these two things out of the writings of the Jews before we come to determine the thing itself) 1. That that ver" :acharias of whom we s#ea. is b" the 5haldee #ara#hrast called the son of Iddo. >or thus saith he on <amentations +)',) "-8s it fit that the daughters of 8srael should eat the fruit of their womb2- /c. The rule of 4ustice answered and said -8s it also fit that the" should sla" a #riest and #ro#het in the Tem#le of the <ord as "e slew :acharias and the son of Iddo the high #riest and faithful #ro#het in the house of the 0anctuar" on the da" of =B#iation2-" /c. '. 8n the #lace of 8saiah concerning Hechariah the son of Jeberechiah the Jews have these things) "8t is written -8 too. unto me faithful witnesses to record Kriah the #riest and Hechariah the son of ;arachiah - 8saiah 8)1. ;ut what is the reason that Kriah is 4oined with Hechariah2 for Kriah was under the first Tem#le$ Hechariah under the second) but the 0cri#ture 4oineth the #ro#hec" of Hechariah to the

#ro#hec" of Kriah. ;" Krias it is written ->or "our sa.es 0ion shall be #loughed as a field.- ;" Hechariah it is written -:s "et old men and ancient women shall sit in the streets of Jerusalem.- 1hen the #ro#hec" of Kriah is fulfilled the #ro#hec" of Hechariah shall also be fulfilled." To the same sense also s#ea.s the 5haldee #ara#hrast u#on the #lace) "-:nd 8 too. unto me faithful witnesses.- The curses which 8 foretold 8 would bring in the #ro#hec" of Kriah the #riest behold the" are come to #ass) li.ewise all the blessings which 8 foretold 8 would bring in the #ro#hec" of Hechariah the son of Jeberechiah 8 will bring to #ass." 0ee also there 33. Jarchi and Iimchi. >rom both these we observe two things) 1. 8f Iddo did not signif" the same thing with Jehoiada to the Jewish nation wh" might not our 0aviour have the same libert" to call Barachias the father of Hacharias as the 5haldee #ara#hrast had to call him Iddo2 '. 8t is #lain that the Jews loo.ed u#on those words of 8saiah as the words of !od s#ea.ing to 8saiah not of 8saiah relating a matter of fact historicall"... >or if it had been to be construed in the #reter tense it should have been #ointed b" Iamets %nd I caused to "itness. 1hich being well observed (as 8 confess it hath not been b" me heretofore ) the difficult" under our hand is resolved as 8 imagine ver" clearl") and 8 su##ose that Hechariah the son of Jeberechiah in 8saiah is the ver" same with our :acharias the son of Jehoiada$ and that the sense of 8saiah comes to this) in that and the foregoing cha#ter there is a discourse of the future destruction of ?amascus 0amaria and Judea. >or a confirmation of the truth of this #ro#hec" !od ma.es use of a double testimon") first he commands the #ro#het 8saiah to write over and over again in a great volume from the beginning to the end "To hasten the s#oil he hastened the #re"") and this volume should be an undoubted testimon" to them that !od would certainl" bring on and hasten the forementioned s#oiling and destruction. ":nd moreover (saith !od) 8 will raise u# to m"self two faithful mart"rs " (or witnesses ) who shall testif" and seal the same thing with their words and with their blood namel" Kriah the #riest who shall hereafter be crowned with mart"rdom for this ver" thing Jeremiah '6)', '+ and Hechariah the son of ;arachiah or Jehoiada who is latel" alread" crowned) he the first mart"r under the first Tem#le$ this the last. Dear thou Jew who taBest &atthew in this #lace) "our own authors assert that Kriah the #riest is to be understood b" that Kriah who was .illed b" Jehoia.im$ and that trul". 1e also assert that Hechariah the son of Jehoiadah is to be understood b" Hechariah the son of Jeberechiah$ and that &atthew and 5hrist do not at all innovate in this name of ;arachias but did onl" #ronounce the same things concerning the father of the mart"r Hacharias which !od himself had #ronounced before them b" the #ro#het 8saiah. &b1ection. ;ut since our 0aviour too. eBam#les from the 9ld Testament wh" did he not rather sa" "from the blood of :bel to the blood of Kriah the #riest2" that is from the beginning of the world to the end of the first Tem#le2 8 answer 1. The .illing of Hechariah was more horrible as he was more high in dignit"$ and as the #lace wherein he was .illed was more hol". '. The consent of the whole #eo#le as more universal to his death. +. De was a more #ro#er and a##arent t"#e of 5hrist. (. The re@uiring of vengeance is mentioned onl" concerning :bel and Hechariah) ";ehold the voice of th" brother-s blood crieth unto me." :nd "<et the <ord loo. u#on it and re@uire it." 5. 8n this the death of 5hrist agrees eBactl" with the death of Hechariah$ that although the cit" and nation of the Jews did not #erish till about fort" "ears after the death of 5hrist "et the" gave themselves their death-s wound in wounding 5hrist. 0o it was also in the case of Hechariah) Jerusalem and the #eo#le of the Jews stood indeed man" "ears after the death of Hechariah but from that time began to sin. and draw towards ruin. 5onsult the stor" narrowl" and "ou will #lainl" find that all the affairs of the Jews began to decline and grow worse and worse from that time when "blood touched blood " (the

blood of the sacrificer mingled with the blood of the sacrifice) and when "the #eo#le became contentious and rebellious against the #riest."
B@. # Jer.salem8 Jer.salem8 thou that 6illest the prophets8 an7 stonest them which are sent .nto thee8 how often wo.l7 I ha:e gathere7 thy chil7ren together8 e:en as a hen gathereth her chic6ens .n7er her wings8 an7 ye wo.l7 notH

FJerusalem# that killest the prophets.G 3. 0olomon on those words ";ut now murderers") "The" have .illed (saith he) Kriah the" have .illed Hechariah." :lso on these words "Lour sword hath devoured "our #ro#hets"$ "Le have slain (saith he) Hechariah and 8saiah." "0imeon ;en :%%ai said -8 have found a boo. of genealogies at Jerusalem in which it was written &anasseh slew 8saiah -" /c. 5ha#ters '( '5 Oscri#5om t"#eN"5ommentar"" #assageN"&atthew '( '5" #arsedN"P&attP'(P,P,P,$P&attP'5P,P,P," osis3efN";ible)&att.'( ;ible)&att.'5" QR
&. An7 Jes.s went o.t8 an7 7eparte7 from the temple: an7 his 7isciples came to him for to show him the b.il7ings of the temple.

FTo she" him the buildings of the Temple.G "De that never saw the Tem#le of Derod never saw a fine building. 1hat was it built of2 3abba saith 9f white and green marble. ;ut some sa" 9f white green and s#otted marble. De made the laver to sin. and to rise" (that is the walls were built winding in and out or indented after the manner of waves) "being thus fitted to receive the #laster which he intended to la" on$ but the 3abbins said to him -9 let it continue for it is ver" beautiful to behold) for it is li.e the waves of the sea-) and ;ava ;en ;uta made it so " /c. 0ee there the stor" of ;ava ;en ;uta and Derod consulting about the rebuilding of the tem#le.
;. An7 Jes.s sai7 .nto them8 0ee ye not all these thingsC :erily I say .nto yo.8 *here shall not be left here one stone .pon another8 that shall not be thrown 7own.

FThere shall not be left one stone upon another .G The Talmudic 5hronicles bear witness also to this sa"ing "9n the ninth da" of the month :b the cit" of Jerusalem was #loughed u#"$ which &aimonides delivereth more at large) "9n that ninth da" of the month :b fatal for vengeance the wic.ed Turnus 3ufus of the children of =dom #loughed u# the Tem#le and the #laces about it that that sa"ing might be fulfilled -0ion shall be #loughed as a field.-" This Turnus 3ufus of great fame and infam" among the Jewish writers without doubt is the same with Terentius 3ufus of whom Jose#hus s#ea.s *ufus "as left general of the army by Titus$ with commission as it is #robable and as the Jews su##ose to destro" the cit" and Tem#le. 5oncerning which matter thus again Jose#hus in the #lace before @uoted The emperor commanded them to dig up the "hole city and the Temple . :nd a little after "Thus those that digged it up laid all level that it should never be inhabited to be a witness to such as should come thither."
B. An7 as he sat .pon the mo.nt of #li:es8 the 7isciples came .nto him pri:ately8 saying8 *ell .s8 when shall these things beC an7 what shall be the sign of thy coming8 an7 of the en7 of the worl7C

F%nd "hat shall be the sign of thy coming# and of the end of the "orld< G 1hat the a#ostles intended b" these words is more clearl" conceived b" considering the o#inion of that #eo#le concerning the times of the &essias. 1e will #ic. out this in a few words from ;ab"lonian 'anhedrin. "The tradition of the school of =lias) The righteous whom the Dol" ;lessed !od will raise u# from the dead shall not return again to their dust$ as it is said -1hosoever shall be left in Hion and remain in Jerusalem shall be called hol" ever" one being written in the boo. of life.- :s the Dol" (!od) liveth for ever so the" also shall live for ever. ;ut if it be ob4ected 1hat shall the righteous do in those "ears in

which the Dol" !od will renew his world as it is said -The <ord onl" shall be eBalted in that da"2- the answer is That !od will give them wings li.e an eagle and the" shall swim (or float) u#on the face of the waters." 1here the !loss sa"s thus$ "The righteous whom the <ord shall raise from the dead in the da"s of the &essiah when the" are restored to life shall not again return to their dust neither in the da"s of the &essiah nor in the following age) but their flesh shall remain u#on them till the" return and live to eternity. :nd in those "ears when !od shall renew his world (or age) this "orld shall be "asted for a thousand years$ were then shall those righteous men be in those "ears when the" shall not be buried in the earth2" To this "ou ma" also la" that ver" common #hrase the "orld to come$ whereb" is signified the days of the (essiah) of which we s#o.e a little at the thirt"Csecond verse of the twelfth cha#ter) "8f he shall obtain (the favour) to see the world to come that is the eBaltation of 8srael " namel" in the da"s of &essiah. "The Dol" ;lessed !od saith to 8srael 8n this world "ou are afraid of transgressions$ but in the world to come when there shall be no evil affection "ou shall be concerned onl" for the good which is laid u# for "ou$ as it is said -:fter this the children of 8srael shall return and see. the <ord their !od and ?avid their .ing -" /c.$ which clearl" relate to the time of the &essiah. :gain "0aith the Dol" ;lessed !od to 8srael -8n this world because m" messengers ( sent to spy out the land) were flesh and blood 8 decreed that the" should not enter into the land) but in the world to come 8 suddenl" send to "ou m" messenger and he shall #re#are the wa" before m" face.-" 0ee here the doctrine of the Jews concerning the coming of the &essiah) 1. That at that time there shall be a resurrection of the 4ust) The (essias shall raise up those that sleep in the dust. '. Then shall follow the desolation of this world) This "orld shall be "asted a thousand years . Not that the" imagined that a chaos or confusion of all things should last the thousand "ears$ but that this world should end and a new one be introduced in that thousand "ears. +. :fter which eternity should succeed. >rom hence we easil" understand the meaning of this @uestion of the disci#les)CC 1. The" .now and own the #resent &essiah$ and "et the" as. what shall be the signs of his coming2 '. ;ut the" do not as. the signs of his coming (as we believe of it) at the last da" to 4udge both the @uic. and the dead) but +. 1hen he will come in the evidence and demonstration of the &essiah raising u# the dead and ending this world and introducing a new$ as the" had been taught in their schools concerning his coming.
@. "or nation shall rise against nation8 an7 6ing7om against 6ing7om: an7 there shall be famines8 an7 pestilences8 an7 earthE.a6es8 in 7i:ers places.

FNation shall rise against nation.G ;esides the seditions of the Jews made horridl" blood" with their mutual slaughter and other storms of war in the 3oman em#ire from strangers the commotions of 9tho and Jitellius are #articularl" memorable and those of Jitellius and Jes#asian whereb" not onl" the whole em#ire was sha.en and the fortune of the empire changed "ith the change of the "hole "orld (the" are the words of Tacitus) but 3ome itself being made the scene of battle and the #re" of the soldiers and the 5a#itol itself being reduced to ashes. 0uch throes the em#ire suffered now bringing forth Jes#asian to the throne the scourge and vengeance of !od u#on the Jews.
). *hen shall they 7eli:er yo. .p to be afflicte78 an7 shall 6ill yo.: an7 ye shall be hate7 of all nations for my nameFs sa6e.

FThen shall they deliver you up to be afflicted .G To this relate those words of 1 7eter ()16 "The time is come that 4udgment must begin at the house of !od"$ that is the time foretold b" our 0aviour is now at hand in which we are to be delivered u# to #ersecution /c. These words denote that #ersecution which the Jews now near their ruin stirred u# almost ever"where against the #rofessors of the gos#el. The" had indeed o##ressed them hitherto on all sides as far as the" could with slanders ra#ines whi##ings stri#es /c. which these and such li.e #laces testif"$ 1 Thessalonians ')1( 15$ Debrews 1,)++ /c. ;ut there was something that #ut a rub in their wa" that as "et the" could not #roceed to the utmost cruelt"$ ":nd now "e .now what withholdeth"$ which 8 su##ose is to be understood of 5laudius enraged at and curbing in the Jews. 1ho being ta.en out of the wa" and Nero after his first five "ears suffering all things to be turned to#s" turv" the Jews now breathing their last (and 0atan therefore breathing his last effects in them because their time was short) the" bro.e out into slaughter be"ond measure and into a most blood" #ersecution) which 8 wonder is not set in the front of the ten #ersecutions b" ecclesiastical writers. This is called b" 7eter (who himself also at last suffered in it) a fiery trial$ b" 5hrist dictating the e#istles to the seven churches tribulation for ten days$ and the hour of temptation# "hich shall come upon all the "orld of 5hristians. :nd this is "the revelation of that wic.ed one" 0t. 7aul s#ea.s of now in livel" that is in blood" colours o#enl" declaring himself :ntichrist the enem" of 5hrist. 8n that #ersecution James suffered at Jerusalem 7eter in ;ab"lon and :nti#as at 7ergamus and others as it is #robable in not a few other #laces. Dence 3evelation 6)11 1' (where the state of the Jewish nation is delivered under the t"#e of siB seals) the" are slain who were to be slain for the testimon" of the gos#el under the fifth seal$ and immediatel" under the siBth followed the ruin of the nation.
&;. An7 beca.se iniE.ity shall abo.n78 the lo:e of many shall wa5 col7.

FThe love of many shall "a2 cold.G These words relate to that horrid a#ostas" which #revailed ever"where in the Jewish churches that had received the gos#el. 0ee ' Thessalonians ')+ /c.$ !alatians +)1$ 1 Timoth" 1)15 /c.
&D. An7 this gospel of the 6ing7om shall be preache7 in all the worl7 for a witness .nto all nations< an7 then shall the en7 come.

F%nd this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the "orld .G Jerusalem was not to be destro"ed before the gos#el was s#read over all the world) !od so ordering and designing it that the world being first a catechumen in the doctrine of 5hrist might have at length an eminent and undeniable testimon" of 5hrist #resented to it$ when all men as man" as ever heard the histor" of 5hrist should understand that dreadful wrath and severe vengeance which was #oured out u#on that cit" and nation b" which he was crucified.
&(. When ye therefore shall see the abomination of 7esolation8 spo6en of by %aniel the prophet8 stan7 in the holy place8 Kwhoso rea7eth8 let him .n7erstan7L:

FThe abomination of desolation.G These words relate to that #assage of ?aniel (cha#ter *)'6) which 8 would render thus$ "8n the middle of that wee. " namel" the last of the sevent" "he shall cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease even until the "ing or army of abomination shall make desolate " /c.$ or even by the "ing of abominations making desolate .... FLet him that readeth understand.G This is not s#o.en so much for the obscurit" as for the certaint" of the #ro#hec") as if he should sa" "De that reads those words in ?aniel let him mind well that when the arm" of the #rince which is to come that arm" of abominations shall com#ass round Jerusalem with a siege then most certain destruction hangs over it$ for saith ?aniel -the #eo#le of the #rince that shall come shall destro" the cit" and the sanctuar" - /c. verse '6. -:nd the arm" of abominations shall ma.e desolate even until the consummation and that which is determined shall be #oured out u#on the desolate.- >latter not "ourselves therefore with vain ho#es either of future victor" or of the retreating of

that arm" but #rovide for "ourselves$ and he that is in Judea let him fl" to the hills and #laces of most difficult access not into the cit"." 0ee how <u.e clearl" s#ea.s out this sense in the twentieth verse of the oneCandCtwentieth cha#ter. ;G. 1.t pray ye that yo.r flight be not in the winter8 neither on the sabbath 7ay: FThat your flight be not in the "inter.G 3. Tanchum observes a favour of !od in the destruction of the first Tem#le that it ha##ened in the summer not in winter. >or thus he) "!od vouchCsafed a great favour to 8srael$ for the" ought to have gone out of the land on the tenth da" of the month Tebeth as he saith -0on of man mar. this da"$ for on this ver" da" - /c. 1hat then did the <ord hol" and blessed2 -8f the" shall now go out in the winter - saith he -the" will all die-) therefore he #rolonged the time to them and carried them awa" in summer."
;;. An7 e5cept those 7ays sho.l7 be shortene78 there sho.l7 no flesh be sa:e7: b.t for the electFs sa6e those 7ays shall be shortene7.

FThose days shall be shortened.G !od lengthened the time for the sa.e of the elect before the destruction of the cit"$ and in the destruction for their sa.es he shortened it. 5om#are with these words before us ' 7eter +)* "The <ord is not slac. concerning his #romise " /c. 8t was certainl" ver" hard with the elect that were inhabitants of the cit" who underwent all .inds of miser" with the besieged where the #lague and sword raged so violentl" that there were not living enough to bur" the dead$ and the famine was so great that a mother ate her son (#erha#s the wife of ?oeg ;en Jose#h of whom see such a stor" in ;ab"l. Joma). :nd it was also hard enough with those elect who fled to the mountains being driven out of house living in the o#en air and wanting necessaries for food) their merciful !od and >ather therefore too. care of them shortening the time of their miser" and cutting off the re#robates with a s#eedier destruction$ lest if their stro.e had been longer continued the elect should too far have #arta.en of their miser". The 3abbins dream that !od shortened the da" on which wic.ed .ing :hab died and that ten hours$ lest he should have been honoured with mourning.
;D. "or there shall arise false Christs8 an7 false prophets8 an7 shall show great signs an7 won7ers< insom.ch that8 if it were possible8 they shall 7ecei:e the :ery elect.

F'hall she" great signs and "onders.G 8t is a dis#utable case whether the Jewish nation were more mad with su#erstition in matters of religion or with su#erstition in curious arts. 8. There was not a #eo#le u#on earth that studied or attributed more to dreams than the". Dence 1. The" often im#osed fastings u#on themselves to this end that the" might obtain ha##" dreams$ or to get the inter#retation of a dream$ or to divert the ill omen of a dream) which we have observed at the fourteenth verse of the ninth cha#ter. '. Dence their nice rules for handling of dreams$ such as these and the li.e) Let one observe a good dream t"o+and+t"enty years after the eBam#le of Jose#h) "8f "ou go to bed merr" "ou shall have good dreams " /c. +. Dence man" too. u#on them the #ublic #rofession of inter#reting dreams$ and this was rec.oned among the nobler arts. : certain old man (;ab"l. ;eracoth) relates this stor"$ "There were fourCandC twent" inter#reters of dreams in Jerusalem) and 8 having dreamed a dream went to them all) ever" one gave a different inter#retation and "et the" all came to #ass " /c. Lou have 3. Joses ;en 5hel#atha 3. 8smael ;en 3. Joses 3. <a%ar and 3. :.iba inter#reting divers dreams and man" coming to them for

inter#retation of their dreams. Na" "ou see there the disci#les of 3. <a%ar in his absence #ractising this art. 0ee there also man" stories about this business which it would be too much here to transcribe. 88. There were hardl" an" #eo#le in the whole world that more used or were more fond of amulets charms mutterings eBorcisms and all .inds of enchantments. 1e might here #roduce innumerable eBam#les$ a handful shall serve us out of the harvest) "<et not an" one go abroad with his amulet on the sabbath da" unless that amulet be #rescribed b" an a##roved #h"sician" (or "unless it be an a##roved amulet"$ see the !emara). Now these amulets were either little roots hung about the nec.s of sic. #ersons or what was more common bits of #a#er with words written on them whereb" the" su##osed that diseases were either driven awa" or cured) which the" wore all the wee. but were forbid to wear on the sabbath unless with a caution) "The" do not sa" a charm over a wound on the sabbath that also which is said over a mandra.e is forbid" on the sabbath. "8f an" one sa" 5ome and sa" this versicle over m" son or la" the boo." of the law "u#on him to ma.e him slee#$ it is forbid") that is on the sabbath but on other da"s is usual. "They used to say the psalm of meetings (that is against unlucky meetings) at Jerusalem. 3. Judah saith 0ometimes after such a meeting and sometimes when no such meeting had ha##ened. ;ut what is the 7salm of &eetings2 The third #salm -<ord how are m" foes increasedE- even all the #salm) and the ninet"Cfirst #salm -De that dwelleth in the secret #lace of the &ost Digh - to the ninth verse." There is a discourse of man" things which the" used to carr" about with them as remedies against certain ailments$ and of mutterings over wounds) and there "ou ma" see that while the" avoid the enchantments of the :morites the" have and allow their own. Lou have Bab$ Joma fol 8(.1 the form of an enchantment against a mad dog. :nd %vodah :arah fol. 1'.' the form of enchantment against the devil of blindness. Lou have /ieros$ 'chab. fol 1+.( and %vod$ :arah fol. (,.( mutterings and enchantments even in the name of Jesus. 0ee also the Babyl$ 'anhedr. fol. 1,1.1 concerning these .ind of mutterings. 888. 0o s.ilful were the" in con4urings enchantments and sorceries that the" wrought great signs man" villanies and more wonders. 1e #ass b" those things which the sacred stor" relates of 0imon &agus =l"mas the sons of 0ceva /c. and Jose#hus of others$ we will onl" #roduce eBam#les out of the Talmud a few out of man". Lou will wonder in the entrance at these two things in order to the s#ea.ing of their magical eB#loits$ and thence "ou will con4ecture at the ver" common #ractice of these evil arts among that #eo#le) 1. That "the senior who is chosen into the council ought to be s.illed in the arts of astrologers 4ugglers diviners sorcerers /c. that he ma" be able to 4udge of those who are guilt" of the same." '. The &asters tell us that a certain chamber was built b" a magician in the tem#le itself) "The chamber of Da##arva was built b" a certain magician whose name was 7arvah b" artCmagic." ">ourCandCtwent" of the school 3abbi intercalating the "ear at <"dda were .illed b" an evil e"e") that is with sorceries. 3. Joshua outdoes a magician in magic and drowns him in the sea. 8n ;ab"l. Taanith several miracles are related that the 3abbins had wrought. =lsewhere there is a stor" told of eight" womenCsorceresses at :scalon who were hanged in one da" b" 0imeon ;en 0hetah) "and the women of 8srael (saith the gloss) had generall" fallen to the #ractice of sorceries") as we have mentioned before. 8t is related of abundance of 3abbis that the" were skilful in "orking miracles) thus :bba 5helchia and 5hanin and 3. 5hanina ;en ?usa$ of which 3. 5hanina ;en ?usa there is almost an infinite number of stories concerning the miracles he wrought which savour enough and too much of magic. :nd that we ma" not be tedious in #roducing eBam#les what can we sa" of the fasting 3abbis causing it to rain in effect when the" #leased2 of which there are abundance of stories in Taanith. 1hat can we sa" of the ;ath Iol ver" fre@uentl" a##lauding the 3abbins out of heaven2 of which we have s#o.en before. 1hat can we sa" of the death or #lagues foretold b" the 3abbins to befall this or that man2 which came to #ass 4ust according as the" were foretold. 8 rather sus#ect some magic art in most of these than fiction in all.

8J. >alse 5hrists bro.e out and a##eared in #ublic with their witchcrafts so much the fre@uenter and more im#udent as the cit" and #eo#le drew nearer to its ruin$ because the #eo#le believed the &essias should be manifested before the destruction of the cit"$ and each of them #retended to be the &essias b" these signs. >rom the words of 8saiah ";efore her #ain came she was delivered of a man child " the doctors concluded "that the &essias should be manifested before the destruction of the cit"." Thus the 5haldee #ara#hrast u#on the #lace$ "0he shall be saved before her utmost eBtremit" and her .ing shall be revealed before her #ains of childbirth." &ar. that also$ "The 0on of ?avid will not come till the wic.ed em#ire Fof the *omansG shall have s#read itself over all the world nine months$ as it is said -Therefore will he give them u# until the time that she which travaileth hath brought forth.-"
;@. "or as the lightning cometh o.t of the east8 an7 shineth e:en .nto the west< so shall also the coming of the 0on of man be.

FFor as the lightning /c.G To discover clearl" the sense of this and the following clauses those two things must be observed which we have formerl" given notice of)CC 1. That the destruction of Jerusalem is ver" fre@uentl" eB#ressed in 0cri#ture as if it were the destruction of the whole world ?euteronom" +')''$ ": fire is .indled in mine anger and shall burn unto the lowest hell" (the discourse there is about the wrath of !od consuming that #eo#le$ see verses ', '1) "and shall consume the earth with her increase and set on fire the foundations of the mountains." Jeremiah ()'+$ "8 beheld the earth and lo it was without form and void$ and the heavens and the" had no light " /c. The discourse there also is concerning the destruction of that nation 8saiah 65)16$ ";ehold 8 create new heavens and a new earth) and the former shall not be remembered " /c. :nd more #assages of this sort among the #ro#hets. :ccording to this sense 5hrist s#ea.s in this #lace$ and 7eter s#ea.s in his 0econd =#istle third cha#ter$ and John in the siBth of the 3evelation$ and 7aul ' 5orinthians 5)16 /c. '. That 5hrist-s ta.ing vengeance of that eBceeding wic.ed nation is called 5hrist-s "coming in glor" " and his "coming in the clouds " ?aniel 6. 8t is also called "the da" of the <ord." 0ee 7salm 1)($ &alachi +)1 ' /c.$ Joel ')+1$ &atthew 16)'8$ 3evelation 1)6 /c. 0ee what we have said on cha#ter 1')',$ 1*)'8. The meaning therefore of the words before us is this) "1hile the" shall falsel" sa" that 5hrist is to be seen here or there) -;ehold he is in the desert - one shall sa"$ another -;ehold he is in the secret chambers-) he himself shall come li.e lightning with sudden and altogether uneB#ected vengeance) the" shall meet him whom the" could not find$ the" shall find him whom the" sought but @uite another than what the" loo.ed for."
;'. "or wheresoe:er the carcase is8 there will the eagles be gathere7 together.

FFor "heresoever the carcase is /c.G 8 wonder an" can understand these words of #ious men fl"ing to 5hrist when the discourse here is of @uite a different thing) the" are thus connected to the foregoing) 5hrist shall be revealed with a sudden vengeance$ for when !od shall cast off the cit" and #eo#le grown ri#e for destruction li.e a carcase thrown out the 3oman soldiers li.e eagles shall straight fl" to it with their eagles (ensigns) to tear and devour it. :nd to this also agrees the answer of 5hrist <u.e 16)+6$ when after the same words that are s#o.e here in this cha#ter it was in@uired "1here <ord2" he answered "1heresoever the bod" is " /c.$ silentl" hinting thus much that Jerusalem and that wic.ed nation which he described through the whole cha#ter would be the carcase to which the greed" and devouring eagles would fl" to #re" u#on it.
;). Imme7iately after the trib.lation of those 7ays shall the s.n be 7ar6ene78 an7 the moon shall not gi:e her light8 an7 the stars shall fall from hea:en8 an7 the powers of the hea:ens shall be sha6en:

FThe sun shall be darkened /c.G That is the Jewish heaven shall #erish and the sun and moon of its glor" and ha##iness shall be dar.ened and brought to nothing. The sun is the religion of the church$ the moon is the government of the state$ and the stars are the 4udges and doctors of both. 5om#are 8saiah 1+)1, and =%e.iel +')6 8 /c.
BG. An7 then shall appear the sign of the 0on of man in hea:en: an7 then shall all the tribes of the earth mo.rn8 an7 they shall see the 0on of man coming in the clo.7s of hea:en with power an7 great glory.

F%nd then shall appear the sign of the 'on of man .G Then shall the 'on of man give a #roof of himself whom the" would not before ac.nowledge) as #roof indeed not in an" visible figure but in vengeance and 4udgment so visible that all the tribes of the earth shall be forced to ac.nowledge him the avenger. The Jews would not .now him) now the" shall now him whether the" will or no 8saiah '6)11. &an" times the" as.ed of him a sign) now a sign shall a##ear that he is the true &essias whom the" des#ised derided and crucified namel" his signal vengeance and fur" such as never an" nation felt from the first foundations of the world.
B&. An7 he shall sen7 his angels with a great so.n7 of a tr.mpet8 an7 they shall gather together his elect from the fo.r win7s8 from one en7 of hea:en to the other.

F%nd he shall send his angels /c.G 1hen Jerusalem shall be reduced to ashes and that wic.ed nation cut off and re4ected then shall the 0on of man send his ministers with the trum#et of the gos#el and the" shall gather together his elect of the several nations from the four corners of heaven) so that !od shall not want a church...
BD. ,erily I say .nto yo.8 *his generation shall not pass8 till all these things be f.lfille7.

FThis generation shall not pass /c.G Dence it a##ears #lain enough that the foregoing verses are not to be understood of the last 4udgment but as we said of the destruction of Jerusalem. There were some among the disci#les (#articularl" John) who lived to see these things come to #ass. 1ith &atthew 16)'8 com#are John '1)''. :nd there were some 3abbins alive at the time when 5hrist s#o.e these things that lived till the cit" was destro"ed vi%. 3abban 0imeon who #erished with the cit" 3. Jochanan ;en Haccai who outlived it 3. Hadoch 3. 8smael and others.
B?. 1.t of that 7ay an7 ho.r 6noweth no man8 no8 not the angels of hea:en8 b.t my "ather only.

FNo man kno"eth# no# not the angels.G This is ta.en from ?euteronom" +')+() "8s not this laid u# in store with me and sealed u# among m" treasures2"
B@. 1.t as the 7ays of +oe were8 so shall also the coming of the 0on of man be.

FBut as the days of Noe "ere /c.G Thus 7eter #laceth as #arallels the ruin of the old world and the ruin of Jerusalem 1 7eter +)1*C'1$ and b" such a com#arison his words will be best understood. >or see how he s.i#s from the mention of the death of 5hrist to the times before the flood in the eighteenth and nineteenth verses #assing over all the time between. ?id not the 0#irit of 5hrist #reach all along in the times under the law2 1h" then doth he ta.e an eBam#le onl" from the times before the flood2 that he might fit the matter to his case and shew that the #resent state of the Jews was li.e theirs in the times of Noah and that their ruin should be li.e also. 0o also in his 0econd =#istle cha#ter +)6 6. The age or generation of the flood hath no portion in the "orld to come ) thus 7eter saith that "the" were shut u# in #rison") and here our 0aviour intimates that "the" were buried in securit" " and so were sur#rised b" the flood.
Chapter ;(

&. *hen shall the 6ing7om of hea:en be li6ene7 .nto ten :irgins8 which too6 their lamps8 an7 went forth to meet the bri7egroom.

FTen virgins.G The nation of the Jews delighted mightil" in the number ten both in sacred and civil matters) % synagogue consisted not but of ten at the least ) which we have observed before when we s#o.e about s"nagogues. This also was current among them %n order or ring of men consisted not but of ten at the least. The teBt is s#ea.ing of a com#an" to comfort mourners) which the !loss thus describes "1hen the com#an" was returned from bur"ing a dead bod" they set themselves in order about the mourners and comforted them) but now such an order or ring consisted of ten at the least." To this commonl" received number there seems to be an alluding in this #lace) not but that the" ver" fre@uentl" eBceeded that number of virgins in weddings of greater note but rarel" came short of it. FTo meet the bridegroom.G To go to a wedding was rec.oned among the wor.s of merc". "The she"ing of mercy im#lies two things) 1. That one should assist an 8sraelite with one-s wealth namel" b" alms and redeeming of ca#tives. '. That one should assist him in one-s own #erson$ to wit b" comforting the mourners b" attending the dead to burial and by being present at the chambers of bridegrooms." The #resence of virgins also adorned the #om# and festivit" of the thing. &arriages are called b" the 3abbins receivings /c. The introducing of the bride namel" into the house of her husband. There were no marriages but of such as had been before betrothed$ and after the betrothing the bridegroom might not lie with the bride in his fatherCinClaw-s house before he had brought her to his own. That -bringing- of her was the consummation of the marriage. This #arable su##oseth that the bride was thus fetched to the house of her husband and that the virgins were read" against her coming$ who "et being either fetched a great wa" or some accident ha##ening to dela" her did not come till midnight. FTook lamps.G The form of lamps is described b" 3ambam and 3. 0olomon whom see. These things are also mentioned b" 3. 0olomon) "8t is the fashion in the countr" of the 8smaelites to carr" the bride from the house of her father to the house of the bridegroom before she is #ut to bed$ and to carr" before her about ten wooden staves having each of them on the to# a vessel li.e a dish in which there is a #iece of cloth with oil and #itch) these being lighted the" carr" before her for torches."
;. An7 fi:e of them were wise8 an7 fi:e were foolish.

FFive "ise4 Five foolish.G : #arable not unli.e this is #roduced b" Iimchi) "3abban Jochanan ;en Haccai saith (as he hath it) This thing is li.e a .ing who invited his servants but did not a##oint them an" set time. Those of them that "ere "ise adorned themselves and sat at the gate of the #alace$ those that "ere foolish were about their own business. The .ing on a sudden called for his servants) those went in adorned$ these undressed. The .ing was #leased with the wise and angr" at the foolish."
(. While the bri7egroom tarrie78 they all sl.mbere7 an7 slept.

FThey all slumbered and slept.G "8f some slee#" Fwhile the" celebrate the #aschal su##erG "let them eat$ if all let them not eat. 3. Josi saith )o they slumber< let them eat$ )o they sleep< let them not eat ." The !emarists in@uire "0hence a man is to be reputed as a slumberer 2 3. 8shi saith De slee#s and doth not slee# he wa.es and is not awa.e. 8f "ou call him he answers$ but he cannot ans"er to the purpose." The !loss "8f "ou s#ea. to him he will answer yes# or no$ but if "ou as. an" thing that hath need of thin.ing$ as for instance where such a vessel is laid u#2 he cannot answer "ou."
&(. An7 .nto one he ga:e fi:e talents8 to another two8 an7 to another one< to e:ery man accor7ing to his se:eral ability< an7 straightway too6 his Ao.rney.

F%nd unto one he gave five talents /c.G Lou have a li.e and almost the same #arable <u.e 1*$ "et indeed not the ver" same$ for besides that there is mention there of pounds being given here of

talents CCthat #arable was s#o.en b" 5hrist going u# from Jericho to Jerusalem before the raising u# of <a%arus$ this as he was sitting on &ount 9livet three da"s before the 7assover. That u#on this account "because he was nigh to Jerusalem and because the" thought that the .ingdom of !od should immediatel" a##ear " <u.e 1*)11 and that he might shew that it would not be long before Jerusalem should be called to an account for all the #rivileges and benefits conferred u#on it b" !od (see verses the fourteenth and seventeenth)$ but this that he might warn all to be watchful and #rovide with their utmost care concerning giving u# their accounts at the last 4udgment.
;@. *ho. o.ghtest therefore to ha:e p.t my money to the e5changers8 an7 then at my coming I sho.l7 ha:e recei:e7 mine own with .s.ry.

FThou oughtest therefore to have put my money to the e2changers /c.G The lord did not deliver the talents to his servants with that intent that the" should receive the increase and #rofit of them b" usur"$ but that b" merchandise and some honest wa" of trade the" should increase them. De onl" returns this answer to the slothful servant as fitted to what he had alleged$ "Lou ta.e me for a covetous gri#ing and sordid man) wh" then did "ou not ma.e use of a manner of gain agreeable to these @ualities namel" interest or usur" (since "ou would not a##l" "ourself to an" honest traffic) that "ou might have returned me some increase of m" mone" rather than nothing at all2" 0o that our <ord in these words doth not so much a##rove of usur" as u#braid the foll" and sloth of his servant. 2changers answering to the word trape!ita ver" usual among the Talmudists) "%n e2changer (trape!ita) sells money$ and because a table is alwa"s before him u#on which he bu"s and sells therefore he is called mensarius " one that stands at a table. 9f the same em#lo"ment was the shopkeeper of whom is as fre@uent mention among them. De eBercised the em#lo"ment of a usurer in bu"ing and changing of fruits as the other in mone") for in these two es#eciall" consisted usur") of which "ou ma" see if "ou #lease the tract Bava (e!ia. 5ha#ter '6 Oscri#5om t"#eN"5ommentar"" #assageN"&atthew '6" #arsedN"P&attP'6P,P,P," osis3efN";ible)&att.'6" QR 9f the #resent :uthorit" of the 5ouncil and of its 7lace.
B. *hen assemble7 together the chief priests8 an7 the scribes8 an7 the el7ers of the people8 .nto the palace of the high priest8 who was calle7 Caiaphas.

F%ssembled together unto the palace of the high priest$ G Those ominous #rodigies are ver" memorable which are related b" the Talmudists to have ha##ened fort" "ears before the destruction of the Tem#le. ": tradition. >ort" "ears before the Tem#le was destro"ed the western candle" (that is the middlemost in the hol" candlestic.) "was #ut out. :nd the crimson tongue" (that was fastened to the horns of the sca#egoat or the doors of the Tem#le) ".e#t its redness. :nd the lot of the <ord" (for the goat that was to be offered u# on the da" of =B#iation) "came out on the left hand. :nd the gates of the Tem#le which were shut over night were found o#en in the morning. 3abban Jochanan ;en Haccai said -Therefore 9 Tem#le wherefore dost thou trouble us2 we .now th" fate$ namel" that thou art to be destro"ed) for it is said 9#en 9 <ebanon th" gates that the flame ma" consume th" cedars.-" ": tradition. >ort" "ears before the Tem#le was destro"ed 4udgment in ca#ital causes was ta.en awa" from 8srael." ">ort" "ears before the Tem#le was destro"ed the council removed and sat in the sheds." 1ith these two last traditions lies our #resent business. 1hat the Jews said John 18)+1 It is not la"ful for us to put any man to death signifies the same thing with the tradition before us "Judgments in

ca#ital causes are ta.en awa" from 8srael." 1hen were the" first ta.en awa"2 ">ort" "ears before the destruction of the Tem#le " sa" the Talmudists) no doubt before the death of 5hrist$ the words of the Jews im#l" so much. ;ut how were the" ta.en awa"2 8t is generall" received b" all that the 3omans did so far divest the council of its authorit" that it was not allowed b" them to #unish an" with death$ and this is gathered from those words of the Jews "8t is not lawful for us to #ut an" man to death." ;ut if this indeed be true 1. 1hat do then those words of our 0aviour mean they "ill deliver you up to the councils2 '. Dow did the" #ut 0te#hen to death2 +. 1h" was 7aul so much afraid to commit himself to the council that he chose rather to a##eal to 5aesar2 The Talmudists eBcellentl" well clear the matter) "1hat signifieth that tradition (sa" the") of the removal of the council fort" "ears before the ruin of the Tem#le2 3abh 8saac ;ar :bdimi saith -8t signifieth thus much that the" did not 4udge of fines.-" :nd a little after$ ";ut 3. Nachman ;ar 8saac saith -?o not sa" that it did not 4udge of fines but that it did not 4udge in ca#ital causes.- :nd the reason was this because they sa" murderers so much increase that they could not 1udge them . The" said therefore -8t is fit that we should remove from #lace to #lace that so we ma" avoid the guilt.-" That is the number and boldness of thieves and murderers growing so great that b" reason thereof the authorit" of the council grew wea. and neither could nor dared #ut them to death. "8t is better (sa" the") for us to remove from hence out of this chamber !a%ith where b" the @ualit" of the #lace we are obliged to 4udge them than that b" sitting still here and not 4udging them we should render ourselves guilt"." Dence it is that neither in the highest nor in the inferior councils an" one was #unished with death. (">or the" did not 4udge of ca#ital matters in the inferior councils in an" cit" but onl" when the great council sat in the chamber !a%ith " saith the !loss.) The authorit" of them was not ta.en awa" b" the 3omans but rather relin@uished b" themselves. The slothfulness of the council destro"ed its own authorit". Dear it 4ustl" u#braided in this matter) "The council which #uts but one to death in seven "ears is called ?estruction. 3. <a%ar ;en :%ariah said -1hich #uts one to death in sevent" "ears.- 3. Tar#hon and 3. :.iba said -8f we had been in the council- (when it 4udged of ca#ital matters) -there had none ever been #ut to death b" it.- 3. 0imeon ;en !amaliel said -These men have increased the number of murderers in 8srael.-" &ost certainl" true 9 0imeonE for b" this means the #ower of the council came to be wea.ened in ca#ital matters because the" either b" mere slothfulness or b" a foolish tenderness or as indeed the truth was b" a most fond estimation of an 8sraelite as an 8sraelite the" so far neglected to #unish bloodshed and murder and other crimes till wic.edness grew so untractable that the authorit" of the council trembled for fear of it and dared not .ill the .illers. 8n this sense their sa"ing must be understood It is not la"ful for us to put any man to death) their authorit" of 4udging not being ta.en from them b" the 3omans but lost b" themselves and des#ised b" their #eo#le. Notwithstanding it was not so lost but that sometimes the" eBercised it$ namel" when the" observed the" might do it safel" and without danger. "?at veniam corvis " /c spares cro"s# but ve2eth pigeons. Thieves murderers and wic.ed men armed with force the" dared not call into their 4udgment$ the" were afraid of so des#erate a crew) but to 4udge condemn torture and #ut to death #oor men and 5hristians from whom the" feared no such danger the" dreaded it not the" did not avoid it. The" had been read" enough at condemning our 0aviour himself to death if the" had not feared the #eo#le and if 7rovidence had not otherwise determined of his death. 1e ma" also b" the wa" add that also which follows after the #lace above cited In the day of 'imeon Ben Jochai# 1udgments of pecuniary matters "ere taken a"ay from Israel . 8n the same tract this is said to have been in "the da"s of 0imeon ;en 0hetah " long before 5hrist was born) but this is an error of the transcribers. ;ut now if the Jewish council lost their #ower of 4udging in #ecuniar" causes b" the same means as the" lost it in ca#ital it must needs be that deceits o##ressions and mutual in4uries were grown so common and daring that the" were let alone as being above all #unishment. The ;ab"lonian !emarists allege another reason$ but whether it be onl" in favour of their nation this is no fit #lace to eBamine.

That we ma" "et further confirm our o#inion that the authorit" of that council in ca#ital matters was not ta.en awa" b" the 3omans we will #roduce two stories as clear eBam#les of the thing we assert) one is this$ "3. <a%ar son of 3. Hado. said -1hen 8 was a little bo" sitting on m" father-s shoulders 8 saw a #riest-s daughter that had #la"ed the harlot com#assed round with fagots and burnt.-" The council no doubt 4udging and condemning her and this after Judea had then groaned man" "ears under the 3oman "o.e$ for that same 3. <a%ar saw the destruction of the cit". The other "ou have in the same tract where the" are s#ea.ing of the manner of #um#ing out evidence against a heretic and seducer of the #eo#le) "The" #lace (sa" the") two witnesses in ambush in the inner #art of the house and him in the outward with a candle burning b" him that the" ma" see and hear him. Thus the" dealt with ;en 0atda in <"dda. The" #laced two disci#les of the wise in ambush for him and the" brought him before the council and stoned him." The Jews o#enl" #rofess that this was done to him in the da"s of 3. :.iba long after the destruction of the cit"$ and "et then as "ou see the council still retained its authorit" in 4udging of ca#ital causes. The" might do it for all the 3omans if the" dared do it to the criminals. ;ut so much thus far concerning its authorit") let us now s#ea. of its #resent seat. "The council removed from the chamber !a%ith to the sheds from the sheds into Jerusalem from Jerusalem to Jafne from Jafne to 9sha from 9sha to 0he#haraama from 0he#haraama to ;ethshaarim from ;ethshaarim to Tsi##or from Tsi##or to Tiberias " /c. 1e con4ecture that the great bench was driven from its seat the chamber !a%ith half a "ear or thereabout before the death of 5hrist$ but whether the" sat then in the sheds Fa #lace in the 5ourt of the !entilesG or in the cit" when the" debated about the death of 5hrist does not clearl" a##ear since no authors ma.e mention how long it sat either here or there. Those things that are mentioned in cha#ter '6)(C6 seem to argue that the" sat in the Tem#le$ these before us that the" sat in the cit". 7erha#s in both #laces$ for it was not unusual with them to return thither as occasion served from whence the" came$ onl" to the chamber !a%ith the" never went bac.. 1hence the !loss u#on the #lace latel" cited "The" sat in Jafne in the da"s of 3abban Jochanan$ in 9sha in the da"s of 3abban !amaliel$ for the" returned from 9sha to Jafne " /c. Thus the council which was removed from Jerusalem to Jafne before the destruction of the cit" returned thither at the feast and sat as before. Dence 7aul is brought before the council at Jerusalem when Jafne at that time was its #ro#er seat. :nd hence 3abban 0imeon #resident of the council was ta.en and .illed in the siege of the cit"$ and 3abban Jochanan his viceC#resident was ver" near it both of them being drawn from Jafne to the cit" with the rest of the bench for observation of the 7assover. 1hether the hall of the high #riest were the ordinar" rece#tacle for the council or onl" in the #resent occasion we do not here in@uire. 8t is more material to in@uire concerning the bench itself and who sat #resident in 4udging. The #resident of the council at this time was 3abban !amaliel (7aul-s master ) and the viceC#resident 3abban 0imeon his son or 3abban Jochanan ;en Haccai (which we do not dis#ute now). 1hence therefore had the chief #riest here and in other #laces the #recedence and the chief voice in 4udging2 >or thus in 0te#hen-s case the high #riest is the chief of the in@uisition :cts 6)1$ also in 7aul-s case :cts '+)' see also :cts *)1. Dad the #riests a council and 4udgment seat of their own2 or might the" in the chief council when the #resident was absent hear causes of life and death2 To this long @uestion and that enough #er#leBed we re#l" these few things) 8. 1e confess indeed that the #riests had a bench and council of their own "et den"ing that there was a double council one for ecclesiastical the other for civil affairs as some would have it. 1e meet often with mention of the chamber of the counsellors neBt the court...5oncerning which thus the ;ab"l. Joma) "The tradition of 3. Juda. 1hat was it the chamber of2 1as it not the chamber of the counsellors2 :t first it was called the chamber of the counsellors) but when the high #riesthood came to be bought with mone" and changed "earl" as the king,s presidents are changed ever" "ear from that time forward it was called the chamber of the presidents."

Dear the !losser on this #lace) "The high #riests were wic.ed and did not fulfil their whole "ear$ and he that succeeded the other changed this building and adorned it that it might be called b" his own name." Dear also the !emara) "The first Tem#le stood four hundred and ten "ears and there were not above eighteen #riests under it. The second stood four hundred and twent" "ears and there were more than three hundred under it. Ta.e out fort" "ears of 0imeon the Just eight" of Jochanan ten of 8smael ;en 7habi and eleven of =lea%ar ;en Darsum and there doth not remain one whole "ear to each of the rest." ;ehold the chamber of the counsellors #ro#erl" so called because the #riests did meet and sit there not to 4udge but to consult$ and that onl" of things belonging to the Tem#leE Dere the" consulted and too. care that all #ersons and things belonging and necessar" to the worshi# of !od should be in readiness$ that the buildings of the Tem#le and the courts should be .e#t in re#air$ and that the #ublic <iturg" should be dul" #erformed) but in the meantime the" wanted all #ower of 4udging and #unishing$ the" had not authorit" to fine scourge or #ut to death "ea and in a word to eBercise an" 4udgment$ for b" their own eBamination and authorit" the" could not admit a candidate into the #riesthood but he was admitted b" the authorit" of the council) "8n the chamber !a%ith sat the council of 8srael and held the eBaminations of #riests) whosoever was not found fit was sent awa" in blac. clothes and a blac. veil$ whosoever was found fit was clothed in white and had a white veil and entered and ministered with his brethren the #riests." '. 1e meet also with mention of the council house of the priests$ 6The high priests made a decree and did not #ermit an 8sraelite to carr" the sca#egoat into the wilderness." ;ut in the !loss The council of the priests did not permit this$ 6The council of the priests eBacted for the #ortion of a virgin four hundred %u%ees and the wise men did not hinder it." >irst This was that council of which we s#o.e before in the chamber of the counsellors. 0econdl" That which was decreed b" them concerning the carr"ing awa" of the sca#egoat belonged merel" to the service of the Tem#le as being a caution about the right #erformance of the office in the da" of atonement. Thirdl" and that about the #ortion of a virgin was nothing else but what an" 8sraelite might do) and so the !emarists confess$ "8f an" noble famil" in 8srael (sa" the") would do what the #riests do the" ma"." The #riests set a #rice u#on their virgins and decreed b" common consent that not less than such a #ortion should be re@uired for them$ which was lawful for all the 8sraelites to do for their virgins if the" #leased. +. There is an eBam#le brought of "Tobias a #h"sician who saw the new moon at Jerusalem he and his son and his servant whom he had freed. The #riests admitted him and his son for witnesses his servant the" re4ected) but when the" came before the bench the" admitted him and his servant and re4ected his son." 9bserve 1. That the council is here o##osed to the #riests. '. That it belonged to the council to determine of the new moon because on that de#ended the set times of the feasts) this is #lain enough in the cha#ter cited. +. That what the #riests did was matter of eBamination onl" not decree. (. "The elders of the city (?eut '')18) are the triumvirate bench65 ,at the gate, (v '() means the bench of the chief priest. The matter there in debate is about a married woman who is found b" her husband to have lost her virginit" and is therefore to be #ut to death) ?euteronom" '')1+ /c. 8n that #assage among other things "ou ma" find these words verse 18) ":nd the elders of that cit" shall la" hold of that man and scourge him." The !emarists ta.e occasion from thence to define what the #hrase there and in other #laces means "The elders of the cit"") and what is the meaning of the word gate when it relates to the bench) "That (sa" the") signifies the triumvirate bench) this the bench or council of the high #riest") that is unless 8 be ver" much mista.en ever" council of twent"Cthree$ which is clear enough both from the #lace mentioned and from reason itself) 1. The words of the #lace @uoted are these) "3. ;on ;ar 5hai4a in@uired before 3. Heira 1hat if the father Fof the virginG should #roduce witnesses which invalidate the testimon" of the husband-s

witnesses2 if the father-s witnesses are #roved false he must be whi##ed and #a" a hundred selaim in the triumvirate court$ but the witnesses are to be stoned b" the bench of the twent"Cthree /c. 3. Heira thought that this was a double 4udgment) but 3. Jeremias in the name of 3. :bhu that it was but a single one) but the tradition contradicts 3. :bhu$ for To the elders of the city verse 5 is To the triumvirate+bench but at the gate means the bench of the high priest." 8t is #lain that the bench of the high priest is #ut in o##osition to the triumvirate bench$ and b" conse@uence that it is either the chief council or the council of the twent"Cthree or some other council of the #riests distinct from all these. ;ut it cannot be this third because the #lace cited in the Talmudists and the #lace in the law cited b" the Talmudists #lainl" s#ea. of such a council which had #ower of 4udging in ca#ital causes. ;ut the" that su##ose the ecclesiastical council among the Jews to have been distinct from the civil scarce su##ose that that council sat on ca#ital causes or #assed sentence of death$ much less is it to be thought that that council sat onl" on life and death$ which certainl" ought to be su##osed from the #lace @uoted if the council of the high priest did strictl" signif" such a council of #riests. <et us illustrate the Talmudical words with a #ara#hrase) 3. Heira thought that that cause of a husband accusing his wife for the loss of her virginit" belonged to the 4udgment of two benches$ namel" of the triumvirate which inflicted whi##ing and #ecuniar" mulcts$ and of the -twent"Cthree - which ad4udged to death$ but 3abbi :bhu thin.s it is to be referred to the 4udgment of one bench onl". ;ut "ou are mista.en good 3abbi :bhu$ and the ver" #hrase made use of in this case refutes "ou$ for the eB#ression which is brought in "To the elders of the cit" " signifies the triumviral bench$ and the #hrase "at the gate " signifies the bench of twent"Cthree$ for the chief council never at in the gate. '. Now the council of t"enty+three is called b" the Talmudists the bench or the council of the chief priest alluding to the words of the lawgiver ?euteronom" 16)* where the word priests denotes the inferior councils and 1udge the chief council. 88. 8n the chief council the #resident sat in the highest seat (being at this time when 5hrist was under eBamination 3abban !amaliel as we said)$ but the high #riest eBcelled him in dignit" ever"where) for the #resident of the council was chosen not so much for his @ualit" as for his learning and s.ill in traditions. De was (a #hrase ver" much used b" the author of Juchasin a##lied to #residents) that is keeper# father and deliver of traditions$ and he was chosen to this office who was fittest for these things. &emorable is the stor" of Dillel-s coming to the #residentshi# being #referred to the chair for this onl" thing because he solved some doubts about the 7assover having learned it as he saith himself from 0hemaiah and :btalion. 1e will not thin. it much to transcribe the stor") "The sons of ;etira once forgot a tradition) for when the fourteenth da" Fon which the 7assover was to be celebratedG fell out on the sabbath the" could not tell whether the 7assover should ta.e #lace of the sabbath or no. ;ut the" said There is here a certain ;ab"lonian Dillel b" name who was brought u# under 0hemaiah and :btalion$ he can resolve us whether the 7assover should ta.e #lace of the sabbath or no. The" sent therefore for him and said to him -Dave "ou ever heard in "our life Fthat is have "ou received an" tradition G whether when the fourteenth da" falls on the sabbath the 7assover should ta.e #lace of the sabbath or no2- De answered -Dave we but one 7assover that ta.es #lace of the sabbath "earl"2 or are there not man" 7assovers that #ut b" the sabbath "earl"2 namel" the continual sacrifice.- De #roved this b" arguments a pari from the e@ualit" of it from the less to the greater /c. ;ut the" did not admit of this from him till he said -&a" it thus and thus ha##en to me if 8 did not hear this of 0hemaiah and :btalion.- 1hen the" hear this the" immediatel" submitted and #romoted him to the #residentshi# " /c. 8t belonged to the #resident chiefl" to sum u# the votes of the elders to determine of a tradition to #reserve it and transmit it to #osterit"$ and these things eBce#ted "ou will scarce observe an" thing #eculiar to him in 4udging which was not common to all the rest. Nothing therefore hindered but that the high #riest and the other #riests (while he eBcelled in @ualit" and the" in number) might #romote acts in the council above the rest and #ursue them with the greatest vigour$ but es#eciall" when the business before them was about the sum of religion as it was here and in the eBam#les alleged of 7aul and 0te#hen. 8t was lawful for them to whose office it #eculiarl" belonged to ta.e care of scared things to show more officious diligence in matters where these were concerned than other men that the" might

#rovide for their fame among men and the good of their #laces. The council indeed might consist of 8sraelites onl" without either <evites or #riests in case such could not be found fit) "Thus it is commanded that in the great council there should be <evites and #riests$ but if such are not to be found and the council consists of other 8sraelites onl" it is lawful." ;ut such a scarcit" of #riests and <evites is onl" su##osed was never found$ the" were alwa"s a great #art if not the greatest of the council. 3abban Jochanan ;en Hacchai the #riest was either now viceC#resident of the council or neBt to him. 7riests were ever"where in such esteem with the #eo#le and with the council and the dignit" and veneration of the high #riest was so great that it is no wonder if "ou find him and them alwa"s the chief actors and the #rinci#al #art in that great assembl".
?. +ow when Jes.s was in 1ethany8 in the ho.se of 0imon the leper.

FNo" "hen Jesus "as in Bethany /c.G That this su##er in ;ethan" was the same with that mentioned John 1+ 8 dare venture to affirm$ however that be ta.en b" ver" man" for the #aschal su##er. <et us eBamine the matter a little home) 8. This su##er was before the 7assover$ so was that) that this was none need doubt$ no more ma" the" of the other if we consider these things) 1. 8t is said b" John in eB#ress words before the feast of the Passover verse 1 Passover indeed not seldom signifies the lamb itself$ sometimes the ver" time of eating the lamb$ sometimes the sacrifice of the da" following as John 18)'8. ;ut the feast of the Passover alwa" signifies the whole seven da"s#aschal feast both in the language of the 0cri#ture and of the Talmudists) a Jew would laugh at one that should inter#ret it otherwa"s. '. 1hen 5hrist said to Judas going out "1hat thou doest do @uic.l" " some thought he meant this ";u" those things that we have need of against the feast " at the twent"Cninth verse. >or what feast 8 #ra"2 for the #aschal su##er2 That according to the inter#reters which we here o##ose was 4ust #ast. >or the remaining #art of the feast of that solemnit"2 :las how unseasonableE 1here were those things 8 #ra" then to be bought if this were the ver" night on which the" had 4ust eaten the lamb2 The night of a feast da" was festival) where were there an" such mar.ets to be found then2 8t was an unusual thing indeed and unheard of to rise from the #aschal su##er to go to mar.et) a mar.et on a festivalCnight was unusual and unheard of. 8t would argue some negligence and a little good husbandr" if those things that were necessar" for the feast were not "et #rovided$ but that the" must be to run now late at night to bu" those things the" .new not where the" .new not how. 8t is certainl" ver" harsh and contrar" to reason to understand these things thus when from the first verse the sense is ver" #lain before the feast of the Passover. The 7assover was not "et come but was near at hand) the disci#les therefore thought that our 0aviour had given order to Judas to #rovide all those things that were necessar" to the #aschal solemnit" against it came. +. 9bserve that also of <u.e '')+ /c.) "0atan entered into Judas and he went his wa" and communed with the chief #riests " /c. :nd after in the seventh verse "Then came the da" of unleavened bread." Dence 8 in@uire 8s the method of <u.e direct or no2 8f not let there be some reason given of the trans#osition$ if it be direct then it is #lain that the devil entered into Judas before the 7assover) but he entered into him at that su##er in John 1+)'6$ therefore that su##er was before the 7assover. >or (. <et them who ta.e that su##er in John 1+ for the #aschal su##er tell me how this is #ossible that Judas after the #aschal su##er (at which the" do not den" that he was #resent with the rest of the disci#les) could ma.e his agreement with the #riests and get his blades together read" to a##rehend our 0aviour and assemble all the council verse 56. The evangelists sa" that he made an agreement with the chief #riests &atthew '6)1( and "ith the captains <u.e '')( and "with all the council " &ar. 1()1, 11. ;ut now which wa" was it #ossible that he could bargain with all these in so small a s#ace as there was between the going out of Judas from su##er and the betra"ing of our <ord in the garden2

1hatE were these all together at su##er that night2 This is a matter to be laughed at rather than credited. ?id he visit all these from door to door2 :nd this is as little to be thought since he had scarce time to discourse with an" one of them. =ver" one su##ed this night at home the master of a famil" with his famil". 8t would be ridiculous to su##ose that these chief #riests su##ed together while in the mean time their families sat down at home without their head. 8t is re@uired b" the law that ever" master of a famil" should be with his famil" that night instructing them and #erforming sacred rites with and for them. These were therefore to be sought from house to house b" Judas if that were the first time of his treating with them about this matter) and let reason answer whether that little time he had were sufficient for this2 1e affirm therefore with the authorit" of the evangelists that that su##er John 1+ was before the 7assover$ at which 0atan entering into Judas he bargained with the #riests before the 7assover he a##ointed the time and #lace of his betra"ing our 0aviour and all things were b" them made read" for this wic.ed deed before the 7assover came. 9bserve the method and order of the stor" in the evangelists &atthew '6)1(C16$ &ar. 1()1,C1') "Then went Judas to the #riests and said -1hat will "e give me - /c. :nd from that time he sought o##ortunit" to betra" him. Now the first da" of the feast of unleavened bread the disci#les came " /c. 1hen was it that Judas came to the #riests to treat about betra"ing 5hrist2 surel" before the first da" of unleavened bread. <u.e also whom we @uoted before #roceeds in the ver" same method) ">rom that time (sa" the") he sought for an o##ortunit" to betra" him." 8f then first he went to and agreed with the #riests when he rose u# from the #aschal su##er as man" su##ose he did not then see. for an o##ortunit" but had found one. The manner of s#ea.ing used b" the evangelists most #lainl" intimates some s#ace of deliberation not sudden eBecution. 5. <et those words of John be considered cha#ter 1()+1 %rise# let us go hence and com#ared with the words cha#ter 18)1 "1hen Jesus had s#o.en these words he went forth with his disci#les over the broo. 5edron." ?o not these s#ea. of two #lainl" different de#artures2 ?id not 5hrist rise u# and de#art when he said ":rise let us go hence2" Those words are brought in b" the evangelist without an" end or design if we are not to understand b" them that 5hrist immediatel" changed his #lace) and certainl" this change of #lace is different from that which followed the #aschal su##er John 18)1. 6. 8n that thirteenth cha#ter of John there is not the least mention nor s"llable of the #aschal su##er. There is indeed #lain mention of a su##er before the feast of the Passover that is before the festival da"$ but of a #aschal su##er there is not one s"llable. 8 #rofess seriousl" 8 cannot wonder enough how inter#reters could a##l" that cha#ter to the #aschal su##er when there is not onl" no mention at all in it of the #aschal su##er but the evangelist hath also #ronounced in most eB#ress words and than which nothing can be more #lain that that su##er of which he s#ea.s was not on the feast of the 7assover but before the feast. 6. 8f those things which we meet with John 1+ of the so# given to Judas /c. were acted in the #aschal su##er then how 8 #ra" was it #ossible for the disci#les to mista.e the meaning of those words "1hat thou doest do @uic.l"2" 8n the #aschal su##er he said "De that di#s with me in the dish is he"$ and the hand of Judas as some thin. was at that ver" moment in the dish. To Judas as.ing "8s it 82" he #lainl" answered "Thou hast said") and besides he gave him a so# for a to.en as the" sa" who maintain that o#inion) then with what reason or with what ignorance after so clear a discover" of the thing and #erson could the disci#les imagine that 5hrist said ";u" @uic.l" those things that are necessar" or give something to the #oor2" 8. :nd to what poor 8 #ra"2 8t was unseasonable trul" late at night to go to see. for #oor #eo#le here and there who were now dis#ersed all about in several families eating the #assover) for the #oorest 8sraelite was obliged to that dut" as well as the richest. The" who su##osed that 5hrist commanded him to give something to the #oor could not but understand it of a thing that was #resentl" to be done. >or it had been ridiculous to conceive that 5hrist sent him so hastil" awa" form su##er to give something to the #oor tomorrow. ;ut if it be granted that the matter was transacted at ;ethan" and that two da"s before the 7assover which we assert then it is neither necessar" "ou should su##ose that su##er to

have been so late at night$ nor were #oor #eo#le then and there to be far sought for since so great a multitude of men followed 5hrist ever"where. 88. This su##er was at ;ethan" two da"s before the 7assover) the same we conclude of that su##er John 1+ both as to the #lace and time$ and that #artl" b" the carr"ing on of the stor" to that time #artl" b" observing the se@uel of that su##er. 0iB da"s before the 7assover 5hrist su#s at ;ethan" John 1')1. The neBt da" (five da"s before the 7assover) he came to Jerusalem riding on an ass John 1')1') and in the evening he returned to ;ethan" &atthew '1)16$ &ar. 11)11. The da" following (four da"s before the 7assover) he went to Jerusalem &ar. 11)11 15 /c.$ and at evening he returned the same wa" to ;ethan" &ar. 11)1*. The da" after (three da"s before the 7assover) he goes again to Jerusalem &ar. 11)'6. 8n the evening he went out to the mount of 9lives &atthew '()1 +$ &ar. 1+)1 +$ <u.e '1)+6. Now where did he su# this night2 at ;ethan". >or so &atthew and &ar. ":fter two da"s was the 7assover " /c. "Now when Jesus was in ;ethan"." :nd from this time forward there is no account either of his su##ing or going to Jerusalem till the evening of the 7assover. >rom that su##er both the evangelists begin their stor" of Judas- contriving to betra" our <ord$ &atthew '6)1($ &ar. 1()1,) and ver" fitl"$ for at that su##er the devil had entered into him and hurried him forward to accom#lish his villain". 1e therefore thus draw u# the series of the histor" out of the hol" writers) Before the feast of the Passover (John 1+)1) namel" t"o days (&att '6)' 6) as Jesus was su##ing in ;ethan" a woman anoints his head) and some of the disci#les murmur at it. 9ur 0aviour himself becomes both her advocate and encomiast. ;efore su##er was done 5hrist riseth from the table and washeth his disci#les- feet$ and sitting down again ac@uaints them with the betra"er. John as.ing #rivatel" about him he #rivatel" also gives him a to.en b" a so# and gives a so# to Judas. 1ith this the devil entered into him and now he grows ri#e for his wic.edness) "The devil had before #ut it into his heart to betra" him " verse '$ now he is im#atient till he hath done it. De riseth u# immediatel" after he had the so# and goes out. :s he was going out Jesus said to him "1hat thou doest do @uic.l"") which some understood of bu"ing necessaries for the feast that was now two da"s off. 8t was natural and eas" for them to su##ose that he out of his diligence (having the #urse and the care of #roviding things that were necessar") was now gone to Jerusalem though it were night there being a great deal to be done to get all things read" against the feast. De goes awa"$ comes to Jerusalem$ and the neBt da" treats with the #riests about betra"ing our <ord and concludes a bargain with them. The" were afraid for themselves lest the" should be either hindered b" the #eo#le or suffer some violence from them on the feast da". De frees them from this fear #rovided the" would let him have soldiers and com#an" read" at the time a##ointed. 9ur 0aviour lodges at ;ethan" that night and s#ends the neBt da" and the night after there too) and being now read" to ta.e his leave of his disci#les he teaches instructs and comforts them at large. Judas having craftil" laid the design of his treacher" and set his nets in readiness returns as is #robable to ;ethan"$ and is su##osed b" the disci#les who were ignorant of the matter to have #erformed his office eBceeding diligentl" in #roviding necessaries for the a##roaching feast. 9n the da" itself of the 7assover Jesus removes from ;ethan" with his disci#les) ":rise (saith he) let us go hence " John 1()+1 and comes to Jerusalem.
@. *here came .nto him a woman ha:ing an alabaster bo5 of :ery precio.s ointment8 an7 po.re7 it on his hea78 as he sat at meat.

FPoured it upon his head# as he sat at meat .G Therefore it was not the same su##er with that in John 1')1$ for then our 0aviour-s feet were anointed now his head. 8 admire that an" one should be able to

confound these two stories. 9il #erfumed with s#ices was ver" usual in feasts es#eciall" sacred$ and it was wont to be #oured u#on the head of some one #resent. "The school of 0hammai saith De holds sweet oil in his right hand and a cu# of wine in his left. De sa"s grace first over the oil and then over the wine. The school of Dillel saith 9il in his right hand and wine in his left. De blesseth the sweet oil and anoints the head of him that serves) but if the waiter be a disci#le of the wise he anoints the wall$ for it is a shame for a disci#le of the wise to smell of #erfumes." Dere the waiter anoints the head of him that sits down.
'. 1.t when his 7isciples saw it8 they ha7 in7ignation8 saying8 *o what p.rpose is this wasteC

FTo "hat purpose is this "aste<G 8t was not without cause that it was called "#recious ointment " verse 6 and "ver" costl" " John 1')+) to shew that it was not of those common sorts of ointments used in feasts which the" thought it no waste to #our u#on the waiter-s head or to daub u#on the wall. ;ut this ointment was of much more value and thence arose the cavil.
). "or this ointment might ha:e been sol7 for m.ch8 an7 gi:en to the poor.

F%nd be given to the poor.G That it was Judas es#eciall" who cavilled at this we have reason to believe from what is said of him in another su##er John 1')(. 5om#are this with those words John 1+)'*. 1hen Jesus said to Judas "1hat thou doest do @uic.l" " some thought he had meant "!ive something to the #oor." That su##er 8 #resume was the same with this) and see how these things agreeE 1hen a com#laint arose of that #rodigal waste of the ointment here and before in John 1' and that it seemed unfit to some that that should be s#ent so unadvisedl" u#on our <ord which might have been bestowed much better and more fitl" u#on the #oor how easil" might the others thin. that 5hrist had s#o.en to him about giving somewhat to the #oor that he might show his care of the #oor notwithstanding what he had before said concerning them and the waste of the ointment.
&;. "or in that she hath po.re7 this ointment on my bo7y8 she 7i7 it for my b.rial.

F'he did it for my burial.G 0he had anointed his feet John 1')+ out of love dut" and honour to him$ but this (which is added over and above to them) is u#on account of his burial$ and that not onl" in the inter#retation of 5hrist but in the design of the woman. 0he and she first believes that 5hrist should die$ and under that notion she #ours the ointment u#on his head as if she were now ta.ing care of his bod" and anointing it for burial) and it is as if 5hrist had said to those that too. eBce#tions and com#lained "Lou account her too officious and diligent for her doing this$ and wasteful rather than #rudent in the immoderate #rofession of her friendshi# and res#ect$ but a great and weight" reason moves her to it. 0he .nows 8 shall die and now ta.es care of m" burial) what "ou a##rove of towards the dead she hath done to one read" to die. Dence her fame shall be celebrated in all ages for this her faith and this eB#ression of it."
&(. An7 sai7 unto them8 What will ye gi:e me8 an7 I will 7eli:er him .nto yo.C An7 they co:enante7 with him for thirty pieces of sil:er.

FThirty pieces of silver.G The #rice of a slave =Bodus '1)+'. &aimon. "The #rice of a slave whether great or little he or she is thirty selaim of #ure silver) if the slave be worth a hundred #ounds or worth onl" one #enn"." Now a selaa in his weight weighed three hundred and eight"Cfour barle"corns.
&@. +ow the first day of the feast of .nlea:ene7 brea7 the 7isciples came to Jes.s8 saying .nto him8 Where wilt tho. that we prepare for thee to eat the passo:erC

F0here "ilt thou that "e prepare /c.G >or the" might an"where$ since the houses at Jerusalem were not to be hired as we have noted elsewhere but during the time of the feast the" were of common right.

&). An7 the 7isciples 7i7 as Jes.s ha7 appointe7 them< an7 they ma7e rea7y the passo:er.

F7lease see "The Tem#le) 8ts &inistr" and 0ervices" b" :lfred =dersheim "The 7assover" for information on the wor.ings of the Tem#le during this feast.G FThey made ready the Passover.G 7eter and John were sent for this #ur#ose <u.e '')8) and #erha#s the" moved the @uestion "here "ilt thou /c. The" onl" .new that Judas was about another business while the rest su##osed he was #re#aring necessaries for the 7assover. This 7eter and John were to do after having s#o.en with the landlord whom our 0aviour #ointed out to them b" a sign to #re#are and fit the room. 8. : lamb was to be bought a##roved and fit for the 7assover. 88. This lamb was to be brought b" them into the court where the altar was. "The 7assover was to be .illed onl" in the court where the other sacrifices were slain) and it was to be .illed on the fourteenth da" after noon after the dail" sacrifice after the offering of the incense " /c. The manner of bringing the 7assover into the court and of .illing it "ou have in Pesachin in these words) "The 7assover is .illed in three com#anies$ according as it is said F=Bodus 1')6 G and all the assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it ?the Passover@4 assembly# congregation# and Israel. The first com#an" enters and fills the whole court) the" loc. the doors of the court) the trum#ets sound) the #riests stand in order having golden and silver vials in their hands) one row silver and the other gold$ and the" are not intermingled) the vials had no brims lest the blood should sta" u#on them and be congealed or thic.ened) an 8sraelite .ills it and a #riest receives the blood and gives it to him that stands neBt and he to the neBt who ta.ing the vial that was full gives him an em#t" one. The #riest who stands neBt to the altar s#rin.les the blood at one s#rin.ling against the bottom of the altar) that com#an" goes out and the second comes in " /c. <et them tell me now who su##ose that 5hrist ate his 7assover one da" sooner than the Jews did theirs how these things could be #erformed b" him or his disci#les in the Tem#le since it was loo.ed u#on as a heinous offence among the #eo#le not to .ill or eat the 7assover in the due time. The" commonl" carried the lambs into the court u#on their shoulders) this is called its carrying in Pesachin) where the !loss "The carr"ing of it u#on a man-s shoulders to bring it into the court as into a #ublic #lace." 888. 8t was to be #resented in the court under the name of the Paschal lamb and to be .illed for the company mentioned. 0ee what the !emarists sa" of this thing in Pesachin) "8f the" .ill it for such as are not to eat or as are not numbered for such as are not circumcised or unclean it is #rofane) if for those that are to eat and not to eat numbered and not numbered for circumcised and not circumcised clean and unclean it is right") that is for those that are numbered that atonement ma" be made for the not numbered$ for the circumcised that atonement ma" be made for the uncircumcised /c. 0o the !emarists and the !losses. 8J. The blood being s#rin.led at the foot of the altar the lamb fla"ed his bell" cut u# the fat ta.en out and thrown into the fire u#on the altar the bod" is carried bac. to the #lace where the" su#) the flesh is roasted and the s.in given to the landlord. J. 9ther things were also #rovided. ;read according to !od-s a##ointment wine some usual meats and the same called Charoseth) of which commentators s#ea. ever"where.
;G. +ow when the e:en was come8 he sat 7own with the twel:e.

F/e sat do"n "ith the t"elve.G

8. The schools of the 3abbins distinguish between sitting at the table and lying at the table) "8f they sit to eat ever" one sa"s grace for himself$ if the" lie one sa"s grace for all." ;ut now "that l"ing " as the !loss on the #lace saith "was when the" leaned on their left side u#on couches and ate and dran. as the" thus leaned." :nd the same !loss in another #lace$ "The" used to eat l"ing along u#on their left side their feet being on the ground ever" one on a single couch") ;ab"l. ;erac. :s also the !emara$ to lie on one,s back is not called lying do"n4 and to lie on one,s right side is not called lying do"n . 88. The 8sraelites accounted such l"ing down in eating a ver" fit #osture re@uisite in sacred feasts and highl" re@uisite and most necessar" in the 7aschal su##er) "1e do not use l"ing down but onl" to a morsel " /c. ":nd indeed to those that did eat leaning leaning was necessar". ;ut now our sitting is a .ind of leaning along. The" were used to lean along ever" one on his own couch and to eat his meat on his own table) but we eat all together at one table." ven the poorest Israelite must not eat till he lies do"n . The canon is s#ea.ing about the 7aschal su##er$ on which thus the ;ab"lonians) "8t is said that the feast of unleavened bread re@uires leaning or l"ing down but the bitter herbs not) concerning wine it is said in the name of 3abh Nachman that it hath need of l"ing down) and it is said in the name of 3abh Nachman that it hath not need of l"ing down) and "et these do not contradict one another$ for that is said of the two first cu#s this of the two last." The" lie down on the left side not on the right "because the" must necessaril" use their right hand in eating." 0o the !loss there. 888. The" used and were fond of that custom of l"ing down even to su#erstition because it carried with it a to.en and signification of libert") "3. <evi saith 8t is the manner of slaves to eat standing) but now let them eat l"ing along that it ma" be .nown that the" are gone out of bondage to libert". 3. 0imon in the name of 3. Joshua ;en <evi <et that which a man eats at the 7assover and does his dut" though it be but as big as an olive let it be eaten l"ing along." "The" eat the unleavened bread the first night l"ing down because it is a commemoration of deliverance. The bitter herbs have no need of l"ing down because the" are in memor" of bondage. :lthough it be the bread of affliction "et it is to be eaten after the manner of libert"." 0ee more there. "1e are obliged to lie down when we eat that we ma" eat after the manner of .ings and nobles." 8J. "1hen there were two beds the "orthiest person lay uppermost$ the second to him neBt above him. ;ut when there were three beds the worthiest #erson la" in the middle the second above him the third below him." 9n which thus the !loss) "1hen there were two the #rinci#al #erson la" on the first couch and the neBt to him la" above him that is on a couch #laced at the #illow of the more worth" #erson. 8f there were three the worthiest la" in the middle the neBt above him and the third below him$ that is at the coverlids of his feet. 8f the #rinci#al #erson desires to s#ea. with the second he must necessaril" raise himself so as to sit u#right$ for as long as he sits bending he cannot s#ea. to him$ for the second sat behind the head of the first and the face of the first was turned another awa") and it would be better with the second Fin respect of discourseG if he sat below him$ for then he might hear his words even as he la" along." This affords some light to that stor" John 1+)'+ '($ where 7eter as seems li.el" l"ing behind our 0aviour-s head in the first #lace neBt after him could not discourse with him nor as. about the betra"er) therefore loo.ing over 5hrist-s head u#on John he gave him a sign to in@uire. De sitting in the second #lace from 5hrist with his face towards him as.eth him
;;. An7 they were e5cee7ing sorrowf.l8 an7 began e:ery one of them to say .nto him8 Lor78 is it IC

FLord# is it I<G The ver" occasion namel" eating together and fellowshi# #artl" renews the mention of the betra"er at the 7aschal su##er$ as if he had said "1e are eating here friendl" together and "et there is one in this number who will betra" me") #artl" that the disci#les might be more full" ac@uainted with the matter itself) for at the su##er in John 1+ he had #rivatel" discovered the #erson to John onl"$ unless #erha#s 7eter understood it also who .new of John-s @uestion to 5hrist having at first #ut him

u#on it b" his bec.oning. The disci#les as. Is it I< #artl" through ignorance of the thing #artl" out of a sincere and assured #rofession of the contrar".
;D. *he 0on of man goeth as it is written of him: b.t woe .nto that man by whom the 0on of man is betraye7H it ha7 been goo7 for that man if he ha7 not been born.

FIt had been good for him if he had not been born G 8t "ere better for him that he "ere not created. : ver" usual wa" of s#ea.ing in the Talmudists.
;?. An7 as they were eating8 Jes.s too6 brea78 an7 blesse7 it8 an7 bra6e it8 an7 ga:e it to the 7isciples8 an7 sai78 *a6e8 eat< this is my bo7y.

FJesus took bread /c.G Bread at su##er the cu# after su##er) ":fter su##er he too. the cu# " saith <u.e '')',$ and 7aul 1 5orinthians 11)'5$ but not so of the bread. That we ma" more clearl" #erceive the histor" of this su##er in the evangelists it ma" not be amiss to transcribe the rubric of the #aschal su##er with what brevit" we can out of the Talmudists$ that we ma" com#are the things here related with the custom of the nation. 8. The #aschal su##er began with a cu# of wine) "The" mingle the first cu# for him. The school of 0hammai saith De gives than.s first for the da" and then for the wine) but the school of Dillel saith De first gives than.s for the wine and then for the da"." The 0hammeans confirm their o#inion Because the day is the cause of their having "ine) that is as the !loss eB#lains it that they have it before meat. "The" first mingle a cu# for ever" one and F the master of the familyG blesseth it$ -;lessed be he that created the fruit of the vine-) and then he re#eats the consecration of the da" Fthat is he gives than.s in the #lural number for all the com#an" sa"ing -<et us give than.s -G and drin.s u# the cu#. :nd afterward he blesseth concerning the washing of hands and washeth." 5om#are this cu# with that <u.e '')16. 88. Then the bitter herbs are set on) "The" bring in a table read" covered u#on which there is sour sauce and other herbs." <et the !lossers give the inter#retation) "The" do not set the table till after the consecration of the da") and u#on the table the" set lettuce. :fter he hath blessed over the wine the" set herbs and he eats lettuce di##ed but not in the sour sauce for that is not "et brought) and this is not meant sim#l" of lettuce unless when there be other herbs." Dis meaning is this before he comes to those bitter herbs which he eats after the unleavened bread when he also gives than.s for the eating of the bitter herbs "as it is written " Le shall eat ( it) with unleavened bread and bitter herbs) ">irst unleavened bread and then bitter herbs. :nd this first di##ing is used onl" for that reason that children ma" observe and in@uire$ for it is unusual for men to eat herbs before meat." 888. ":fterward there is set on unleavened bread and the sauce...and the lamb and the flesh also of the Chagigah of the fourteenth da"." &aimonides doth not ta.e notice of an" inter#osition between the setting on the bitter herbs and the setting on the unleavened bread) but the Talmudic &isna notes it in these words$ They set unleavened bread before him. 1here the !loss "This is said because the" have moved the table from before him who #erformed the dut" of the 7assover) now that removal of the table was for this end that the son might as. the father and the father answered him -<et them bring the table again that we ma" ma.e the second di##ing-$ then the son would as. -1h" do we di# twice2Therefore the" bring bac. the table with unleavened bread u#on it and bitter herbs " /c. 8J. De begins and blesseth "-;lessed be De that created the fruits of the earth-) and he ta.es the herbs and di#s them in the sauce Charoseth and eats as much as an olive he and all that lie down with him$ but less than the @uantit" of an olive he must not eat) then the" remove the table from before the master of the famil"." 1hether this removal of the table be the same with the former is not much worth our in@uir".

J. "No" they mingle the second cup for him) and the son as.s the father$ or if the son doth not as. him he tells him himself how much this night differs from all other nights. -9n other nights (saith he) we di# but once but this night twice. 9n other nights we eat either leavened or unleavened bread$ on this onl" unleavened /c. 9n other nights we eat either sitting or l"ing$ on this all l"ing.-" J8. "The table is set before them again$ and then he saith -This is the #assover which we therefore eat because !od #assed over the houses of our fathers in =g"#t.- Then he lifts u# the bitter herbs in his hand and saith -1e therefore eat these bitter herbs because the =g"#tians made the lives of our fathers bitter in =g"#t.- De ta.es u# the unleavened bread in his hand and saith -1e eat this unleavened bread because our fathers had not time to s#rin.le their meal to be leavened before !od revealed himself and redeemed them. 1e ought therefore to #raise celebrate honour magnif" /c. him who wrought all these wonderful things for our fathers and for us and brought us out of bondage into libert" out of sorrow into 4o" out of dar.ness into great light$ let us therefore sa" Dallelu4ah) 7raise the <ord #raise him 9 "e servants of the <ord /c. to :nd the flintCstone into foundations of watersFthat is from the beginning of 7salm 11+ to the end of 7salm 11(G. :nd he concludes -;lessed be thou 9 <ord !od our Iing eternal redeeming us and redeeming our fathers out of =g"#t and bringing us to this night$ that we ma" eat unleavened bread and bitter herbs-) and then he drin.s off the second cu#." J88. "Then washing his hands and ta.ing two loaves he brea.s one and la"s the bro.en u#on the whole one and blesseth it$ -;lessed be he who causeth bread to grow out of the earth-) and #utting some bread and bitter herbs together he di#s them in the sauce Charoseth CCand blessing -;lessed be thou 9 <ord !od our eternal Iing he who hath sanctified us b" his #rece#ts and hath commanded us to eat - he eats the unleavened bread and bitter herbs together$ but if he eats the unleavened bread and bitter herbs b" themselves he gives than.s severall" for each. :nd afterward giving than.s after the same manner over the flesh of the Chagigah of the fourteenth da" he eats also of it and in li.e manner giving than.s over the lamb he eats of it." J888. ">rom thenceforward he lengthens out the su##er eating this or that as he hath a mind and last of all he eats of the flesh of the #assover at least as much as an olive$ but after this he tastes not at all of an" food." Thus far &aimonides in the #lace @uoted as also the Talmudists in several #laces in the last cha#ter in the tract Pesachin. :nd now was the time when 5hrist ta.ing bread instituted the eucharist) but whether was it after the eating of those fare"ell morsels as 8 ma" call them of the lamb or instead of them2 8t seems to be in their stead because it is said b" our evangelist and &ar. %s they "ere eating# Jesus took bread. Now without doubt the" s#ea. according to the .nown and common custom of that su##er that the" might be understood b" their own #eo#le. ;ut all Jews .now well enough that after the eating of those morsels of the lamb it cannot be said %s they "ere eating$ for the eating was ended with those morsels. 8t seems therefore more li.el" that 5hrist when the" were now read" to ta.e those morsels changed the custom and gave about morsels of bread in their stead and instituted the sacrament. 0ome are of o#inion that it was the custom to taste the unleavened bread last of all and to close u# the su##er with it$ of which o#inion 8 confess 8 also sometimes was. :nd it is so much the more eas" to fall into this o#inion because there is such a thing mentioned in some of the rubrics about the #assover$ and with good reason because the" too. u# this custom after the destruction of the Tem#le. FBlessed and brake it.G >irst he blessed then he bra.e it. Thus it alwa"s used to be done eBce#t in the #aschal bread. 9ne of the two loaves was first divided into two #arts or #erha#s into more before it was blessed. &ne of them is divided) the" are the words of &aimonides who also adds ";ut wh" doth he not bless both the loaves after the same manner as in other feasts2 ;ecause this is called the bread of poverty. Now #oor #eo#le deal in morsels and here li.ewise are morsels." Let not him that is to break the bread# break it before %men be pronounced from the mouths of the ans"erers.

FThis is my body.G These words being a##lied to the 7assover now newl" eaten will be more clear) "This now is m" bod" in that sense in which the #aschal lamb hath been m" bod" hitherto." :nd in the twent"Ceighth verse "This is m" blood of the new testament in the same sense as the blood of bulls and goats hath been m" blood under the 9ld." =Bodus '( Debrews *.
;@. An7 he too6 the c.p8 an7 ga:e than6s8 an7 ga:e it to them8 saying8 %rin6 ye all of it<

FThe cup.G ;read was to be here at this su##er b" divine institution) but how came the wine to be here2 and how much2 and of what sort2 8. ": tradition. 8t is necessar" that a man should cheer u# his wife and his children for the feast. ;ut how doth he cheer them u#2 1ith wine." The same things are cited in the ;ab"lonian Talmud) "The 3abbins deliver " sa" the" "that a man is obliged to cheer u# his wife and his domestics in the feast$ as it is said -:nd thou shalt re4oice in th" feast.- (?eut 16)1(). ;ut how are the" cheered u#2 1ith wine. 3. Judah saith -&en are cheered u# with something agreeable to them$ women with that which is agreeable to them.- That which is agreeable to men to re4oice them is wine. ;ut what is that which is agreeable to women to cheer them2 3abh Jose#h saith -?"ed garments in ;ab"lon and linen garments in the land of 8srael.-" 88. >our cu#s of wine were to be drun. u# b" ever" one) " %ll are obliged to four cups men women and children) 3. Judah saith -;ut what have children to do with wine2- ;ut the" give them wheat and nuts " /c. The Jerusalem Talmudists give the reason of the number in the #lace before @uoted at full. 0ome according to the number of the four words made use of in the histor" of the redem#tion of 8srael out of =g"#t %nd I "ill bring forth# and I "ill deliver# and I "ill redeem# and I "ill take ) some according to the number of the re#etition of the word cup in !enesis (,)11 1+ which is four times$ some according to the number of the four monarchies$ some according to the number of the four cu#s of vengeance which !od shall give to the nations to drin. Jeremiah '5)15 51)6$ 7salm 11)6 65)8. :nd according to the number of the four cu#s which !od shall give 8srael to drin. 7salm '+)5 16)5 116)1+. The cup of t"o salvations. 888. The measure of these cu#s is thus determined) "3abbi 5haia saith - Four cups contain an Italian =uart of "ine.-" :nd more eBactl" in the same #lace) "Dow much is the measure of a cu#2 T"o fingers s=uare# and one finger and a half# and a third part of a finger deep ." The same words "ou have in the ;ab"lonian Talmud at the #lace before @uoted onl" with this difference that instead of the third part of a finger there is the fifth part of a finger. 8J. It is commanded# that he should perform this office "ith red "ine . 0o the ;ab"lonian "It is necessary that it should taste# and look li.e wine." The !loss that it should be red. J. If he drinks "ine pure and not mingled with water he hath performed his duty$ but commonl" the" mingled water with it) hence when there is mention of wine in the rubric of the feasts the" alwa"s use the word they mingle him a cu#. 5oncerning that mingling both Talmudists dis#ute in the forecited cha#ter of the 7assover) which see. "The 3abbins have a tradition. 9ver wine which hath not water mingled with it the" do not sa" that blessing -;lessed be De that created the fruit of the vine-$ but -;lessed be he that created the fruit of the tree.-" The !loss " Their "ine "as very strong and not fit to be drun. without water " /c. The !emarists a little after) "The wise agree with 3. =lea%ar -That one ought not to bless over the cu# of blessing till water be mingled with it.-" The mingling of water with ever" cu# was re@uisite for health and the avoiding of drun.enness. 1e have before ta.en notice of a stor" of 3abban !amaliel who found and confessed some disorder of mind and unfitness for serious business b" having drun. off an 8talian @uart of wine. These things being thus #remised concerning the #aschal wine we now return to observe this cu# of our 0aviour.

:fter those things which used to be #erformed in the #aschal su##er as is before related these are moreover added b" &aimonides) "Then he washeth his hands and blesseth the blessing of the meat " Fthat is gives than.s after meatG "over the third cu# of wine and drin.s it u#." That cu# was commonl" called the cup of blessing$ in the Talmudic dialect. The cup of blessing is "hen they give thanks after supper saith the !loss on ;ab"l. ;erac. 1here also in the teBt man" thin.ings are mentioned of this cu#) "Ten things are s#o.en of the cu# of blessing. 0ashing and cleansing") Fthat is to wash the inside and outside namel" that nothing should remain of the wine of the former cu#sG. "<et pure wine" be #oured into the cu# and water mingled with it there. "<et it be full5 the cro"ning"$ that is as the !emara "b" the disci#les." 1hile he is doing this let the disci#les stand about him in a crown or ring. The veiling$ that is "as 3abh 7a#a he veils himself and sits down$ as 3. 8ssai he s#reads a hand.erchief on his head. /e takes up the cup in both hands but #uts it into his right hand$ he lifts it from the table fiBeth his e"es u#on it /c. 0ome sa" he im#arts it (as a gift) to his famil"." 1hich of these rites our 0aviour made use of we do not in@uire$ the cu# certainl" was the same with the "cu# of blessing") namel" when according to the custom after having eaten the farewell morsel of the lamb there was now an end of su##er and than.s were to be given over the third cu# after meat he ta.es that cu# and after having returned than.s as is #robable for the meat both according to the custom and his office he instituted this for a cu# of eucharist or than.sgiving$ The cup of blessing "hich "e bless 1 5orinthians 1,)16. Dence it is that <u.e and 7aul sa" that he too. the cu# "after su##er"$ that is that cu# which closed u# the su##er. 8t must not be #assed b" that when he instituted the eucharistical cu# he said "This is m" blood of the new testament " as &atthew and &ar.) na" as <u.e and 7aul "This cu# is the new testament in m" blood." Not onl" the seal of the covenant but the sanction of the new covenant) the end of the &osaical econom" and the confirming of a new one. The confirmation of the old covenant was b" the blood of bulls and goats =Bodus '( Debrews * because blood was still to be shed) the confirmation of the new was b" a cu# of wine$ because under the new testament there was no further shedding of blood. :s it is here said of the cu# "This cu# is the new testament in m" blood " so it might be said of the cu# of blood (=Bo '()8) "That cu# was the old testament in the blood of 5hrist." There all the articles of that covenant being read over &oses s#rin.led all the #eo#le with blood and said "This is the blood of the covenant which !od hath made with "ou") and thus that old covenant or testimon" was confirmed. 8n li.e manner 5hrist having #ublished all the articles of the new covenant he ta.es the cu# of wine and gives them to drin. and saith "This is the new testament in m" blood") and thus the new covenant is established. There was besides a fourth cu# of which our author s#ea.s also$ "Then he mingled a fourth cu# and over it he finished the /allel$ and adds moreover the blessing of the hymn which is -<et all th" wor.s #raise thee 9 <ord - /c.$ and saith -;lessed is De that created the fruit of the vine-$ and afterward he tastes of nothing more that night " /c. ->inisheth the /allel-$ that is he begins there where he left off before to wit at the beginning of 7salm 115 and goes on to the end of 7salm 118. 1hether 5hrist made use of this cu# also we do not dis#ute$ it is certain he used the h"mn as the evangelist tells us "hen they had sung a hymn at the thirtieth verse. 1e meet with the ver" same word in (idras Tillim. :nd now loo.ing bac. on this #aschal su##er let me as. those who su##ose the su##er in John 1+ to be the same with this 1hat #art of this time the" do allot to the washing of the disci#les- feet2 what #art to Judas- going out2 and what #art to his discoursing with the #riests and getting read" his accom#lices for their wic.ed eB#loit2 8. 8t seems strange indeed that 5hrist should #ut off the washing of the disci#les- feet to the #aschal su##er when 1. That .ind of action was not onl" unusual and unheard of at that su##er but in nowise necessar" or fitting) for '. Dow much more convenientl" might that have been #erformed at a common

su##er before the 7assover as we su##ose when he was not straitened b" the time than at the #aschal su##er when there were man" things to be done which re@uired des#atchE 88. The office of the #aschal su##er did not admit of such interru#tion nor was it lawful for others so to decline from the fiBed rule as to introduce such a foreign matter) and wh" should 5hrist so swerve from it when in other things he conformed himself to the custom of the nation and when he had before a much more fit occasion for this action than when he was thus #ressed and straitened b" the time2 888. Judas sat at su#er with the rest and was there when he did eat &atthew '6)', '1$ &ar. 1()18) and alasE how unusual was it for an" to de#art in that manner from that su##er before it was doneE 8t is enough doubted b" the Jewish canons whether it were lawful$ and how far an" one who had 4oined himself to this or that family might leave it to go to another and ta.e one #art of the su##er here and another #art there) but for a #erson to leave the su##er and go about another business is a thing the" never in the least dreamed of$ the" would not the" could not su##ose it. Lou see how light a matter Judas- going awa" to bu" necessaries as the disci#les inter#reted it seemed to them because he went awa" from a common su##er) but if the" had seen him thus dismissed and sent awa" from the #aschal su##er it would have seemed a monstrous and wonderful thing. 1hatE to leave the #aschal su##er now begun to go to mar.etE To go from a common su##er at ;ethan" to bu" necessaries for the 7assover against the time of the 7assover this was nothing strange or unusual) but to go from the #aschal su##er before it was done to a mar.et or fair was more unusual and strange than that it should be so lightl" #assed over b" the disci#les. 1e therefore do not at all doubt that Judas was #resent both at the 7assover and the eucharist$ which <u.e affirms in direct words '')', '1) nor do we doubt much of his being #resent at the h"mn and that he went not awa" before all was done) but when the" all rose u# from the table and #re#ared for their 4ourne" to mount 9livet (in order to lie at ;ethan" as the disci#les su##osed) the villainous traitor stole awa" and went to the com#an" FcohortesG that he had a##ointed the #riests two da"s before to ma.e read" for him at such a time and #lace. &ethin.s 8 hear the words and consultations of this blood" wretch) "Tomorrow (saith he) will be the 7assover and 8 .now m" &aster will come to it) 8 .now he will not lie at Jerusalem but will go bac. to ;ethan" however late at night where he is used to lie. &a.e read" therefore for me armed men and let them come to a #lace a##ointed immediatel" after the #aschal su##er$ and 8 will steal out #rivatel" to them while m" &aster ma.es himself read" for his 4ourne"$ and 8 will conduct them to sei%e u#on him in the gardens without the cit" where b" reason of the solitariness of the #lace and the silence of the night we shall be secure enough from the multitude. ?o "e ma.e haste to des#atch "our #assovers that "ou ma" meet together at the council after su##er to eBamine and 4udge him when we shall bring him to "ou$ while the silence of the night favours "ou also and #rotects "ou from the multitude." Thus all things are #rovided against the #lace and time a##ointed$ and the thief stealing awa" from the com#an" of the disci#les as the" were going out towards the mount of 9lives and hastening to his armed confederates without dela" brings them #re#ared along with him and sets u#on his &aster now in the garden.
BD. Jes.s sai7 .nto him8 ,erily I say .nto thee8 *hat this night8 before the coc6 crow8 tho. shalt 7eny me thrice.

FBefore the cock cro"# thou shalt deny me thrice.G The same also he had said John 1+)+8 "The coc. shall not crow till thou hast denied me thrice." Therefore some sa" that that was the same su##er with this of the 7assover. Jer" right indeed if FitG ought to be rendered the cock shall not cro" once or the cock shall not cro" at all. ;ut it is not so$ but it amounts to this sense "1ithin the time of coc.crowing" thou shalt den" me thrice$ for 7eter had denied him but once before the first crowing of the coc. and thrice before the second &ar. 1()68 6'. >rom hence therefore we ma" easil" observe in what sense those words are to be understood which were s#o.en to 7eter two da"s before the 7assover John 1+)+8 "The coc. shall not crow " /c.) not that the coc. should not crow at all between that time and 7eter-s den"ing$ but as if our 0aviour had said ":re "ou so secure of "ourself 9 7eter2 Jeril" 8 sa" unto "ou the time shall be and that shortl" when "ou shall den" me thrice within the time of

coc.crowing." %t cockcro"ing &ar. 1+)+5. :t the 7aschal su##er it is said "This night before the coc. crow " /c. &att '6)+($ &ar. 1()+,$ <u.e '')+(. ;ut there is nothing of this said in that su##er John 1+. 5oncerning the coc.crowing thus the masters) "3. 0hilla saith 1hosoever begins his 4ourne" before coc.crowing his blood be u#on his head. 3. Josia saith 8f before the second crowing) but some sa" ;efore the third. ;ut of what .ind of coc. is this s#o.en2" &f a middling cock$ that is as the !loss eB#lains it "a coc. that doth not crow too soon nor too late." The &isna on which this !loss is hath these words$ "=ver" da" the" remove the ashes from the altar about coc.crowing$ but on the da" of atonement at midnight " /c. Lou ma" wonder that a dunghill coc. should be found at Jerusalem when it is forbid b" the canons that an" coc.s should be .e#t there) "They do not keep cocks at Jerusalem# upon account of the holy things $ nor do the #riests .ee# them throughout all the land of 8srael." The !loss gives the reason$ "=ven 8sraelites are forbid to .ee# coc.s at Jerusalem because of the hol" things) for 8sraelites have eaten there #eace offerings and than. offerings) but now it is the custom of dunghill coc.s to turn over dunghills where #erha#s the" might find cree#ing things that might #ollute those hol" things that are to be eaten." ;" what means and under what #retence the canon was dis#ensed with we do not dis#ute. 8t is certain there were coc.s at Jerusalem as well as at other #laces. :nd memorable is the stor" of a coc. which was stoned b" the sentence of the council for having .illed a little child.
B?. *hen cometh Jes.s with them .nto a place calle7 Gethsemane8 an7 saith .nto the 7isciples8 0it ye here8 while I go an7 pray yon7er.

F7ethsemane.G The place of the olive presses at the foot of mount &livet. 8n John it is "a garden be"ond 5edron." "The" do not ma.e gardens or #aradises in Jerusalem because of the stink. The !loss ";ecause of the stin. that riseth from the weeds which are thrown out) besides it is the custom to dung gardens$ and thence comes a stin.." K#on this account there were no gardens in the cit" (some few gardens of roses eBce#ted which had been so from the da"s of the #ro#hets ) but all were without the walls es#eciall" at the foot of 9livet.
D). An7 forthwith he came to Jes.s8 an7 sai78 Hail8 master< an7 6isse7 him.

F9issed him.G 8t was not unusual for a master to kiss his disci#le$ but for a disci#le to kiss his master was more rare. 1hether therefore Judas did this under #retence of res#ect or out of o#en contem#t and derision let it be in@uired.
?G. 1.t fo.n7 none: yea8 tho.gh many false witnesses came8 yet fo.n7 they none. At the last came two false witnesses.

F(any false "itnesses came.G ...


?(. *hen the high priest rent his clothes8 saying8 He hath spo6en blasphemy< what f.rther nee7 ha:e we of witnessesC behol78 now ye ha:e hear7 this blasphemy.

FThen the high priest rent his clothes.G "1hen witnesses s#ea. out the blas#hem" which the" heard then all hearing the blas#hem" are bound to rend their clothes." "The" that 4udge a blas#hemer first as. the witnesses and bid him s#ea. out #lainl" what he hath heard$ and when he s#ea.s it the 4udges standing on their feet rend their garments and do not sew them u# again " /c. 0ee there the ;ab"lonian !emara discoursing at large wh" the" stand u#on their feet wh" the" rend their garments and wh" the" ma" not be sewed u# again F0anhedr. ca#. 6. hal. 1,G. 5ha#ters '6 '8

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&. When the morning was come8 all the chief priests an7 el7ers of the people too6 co.nsel against Jes.s to p.t him to 7eath:

F0hen the morning "as come /c.G <et us trace a little the #roceedings of this council)CC 8. The" s#end the night in 4udging on a ca#ital cause which is eB#ressl" forbid b" their own canon) They handle capital causes in the day time# and finish them by day . &one" matters indeed that were begun b" da" might be ended in the night which is asserted in that #lace$ but ca#ital causes were onl" to be handled b" da") but here in sitting u#on the life and death of our 0aviour there is need of night and dar.ness. This 4udgment is begun in the night and carried on all the night through in a manner. 88. This night was the evening of a feast da" namel" of the first da" of the #aschal wee. at what time the" were also forbid to sit in 4udgment) "The" do not 4udge on a feast da"." Dow the law"ers are divided on this #oint 8 will not trouble "ou now with recounting. This ver" canon is sufficient ground for scru#le which we leave to them to clear who through rancour and hatred towards 5hrist seem to slight and tram#le under feet their own canons. 888. 0hen it "as morning. This was the time of sa"ing their #h"lacteries namel" from the first da"light to the third hour...:nother business that "ou had in hand (effectuall" to destro" Jesus) either robbed "ou of "our #ra"ers or robbed "our #ra"ers of charit". 8J. Now a##ears the first feast day of the Passover when the" used to #resent themselves in the Tem#le and offer their gifts =Bodus '+)15. ;ut when and how was this #erformed b" them toda"2 The" ta.e heed of going into the 4udgment (or 7raetor-s) hall lest the" should be defiled but that the" might eat the Chagigah or Passover) but "ou will scarce find what time the" allowed toda" for that #ur#ose$ nor indeed was it lawful for them to eat an" thing on that da"$ it being #rovided b" a canon "That when the council shall have ad4udged an" one to die let them not taste an" thing that da"." FTook counsel to put him to death.G <et that be considered$ "Cases of money are heard in the daytime# and may be determined in the night. 5a#ital causes are tried in the da" and finished in the da". Judgment in cases of mone" is #assed the same da" whether it be for fining or ac@uitting. Judgment in ca#ital causes is #assed the same da" if it be for ac@uitting) but if it be for condemning it is #assed the da" after." The reason of this difference is given b" the !emarists$ whom see. The reason of the latter is thus eB#ressed) Blessed is the 1udge "ho leaveneth his 1udgment ) that is as the !loss "who dela"s his 4udgment and lets it rest all night that he ma" sift out the truth." The difference between hear and determine is greater than the reader ma" #erha#s thin. at first sight. ;" the word hear the" signif" the whole #rocess of the trial the eBamining of the #laintiff and defendant and of the witnesses the ta.ing the votes of the council and the entering of them b" the scribes) determine signifies onl" the #assing of 4udgment or giving a definitive sentence. Lou ma" better #erceive the difference from the !lossar" on ;ab"l. 'anhedrin) in the teBt this is decried Let them not 1udge on the eve of the sabbath# nor on the eve of a feast day $ which is also re#eated in other #laces. The reason of the #rohibition is this namel" that the trials which were begun on the eve of the sabbath or a feast da" should not be finished on the sabbath or feast da". "1hich indeed (saith the !loss) is observed in #ecuniar" trials and care is ta.en that there be no writing" (for it is forbid to write so much as a letter on the sabbath)) "but in ca#ital causes it ta.es not #lace u#on that account$ for the votes of those that ac@uitted or condemned were written the da" before." Lou see in the histor" of the gos#el 1. The trial concerning our 0aviour-s life was not des#atched at one and the same sitting. '. :nd that too on a feastCda".

(. An7 he cast 7own the pieces of sil:er in the temple8 an7 7eparte78 an7 went an7 hange7 himself.

F/anged himself$G 'trangulatus est# "as strangled) namel" b" the devil who had now been in him three da"s together. The words of 7eter :cts 1)18 do not suffer me to understand this of hanging himself. Falling headlong he burst asunder in the midst . 8nter#reters ta.e a great deal of #ains to ma.e these words agree with his hanging himself$ but indeed all will not do. 8 .now the word is commonl" a##lied to a man-s hanging himself but not to eBclude some other wa" of strangling. :nd 8 cannot but ta.e the stor" (with good leave of anti@uit") in this sense) :fter Judas had thrown down the mone" the #rice of his treason in the Tem#le and was now returning again to his mates the devil who dwelt in him caught him u# on high strangled him and threw him down headlong$ so that dashing u#on the ground he burst in the midst and his guts issued out and the devil went out in so horrid an eBit. This certainl" agrees ver" well with the words of 7eter now mentioned and also with those that follow "This was .nown to all that dwelt at Jerusalem." 8t agrees also ver" well with the deserts of the wic.ed wretch and with the title of 8scariot. The wic.edness he had committed was above all eBam#le and the #unishment he suffered was be"ond all #recedent. There had been man" instances of #ersons who had hanged themselves$ this would not so much have stirred u# the #eo#le of Jerusalem to ta.e notice of it as such a strangling and throwing down headlong which we su##ose horrible above measure and singular be"ond eBam#le. 0ee what we have said at the tenth cha#ter concerning the word Iscariot.
). *hen was f.lfille7 that which was spo6en by Jeremy the prophet8 saying8 An7 they too6 the thirty pieces of sil:er8 the price of him that was :al.e78 whom they of the chil7ren of Israel 7i7 :al.e<

FThat "hich "as spoken by Jeremy the prophet.G Dow much this #lace hath troubled inter#reters let the famous ;e%a instead of man" others declare) "This .not hath ham#ered all the most ancient inter#reters in that the testimon" here is ta.en out of Hechariah and not from Jeremiah$ so that it seem #lainl" to have been a failing of memory as :ugustine su##oses in his third boo. -?e consensu evagelistarum - cha#ter the seventh$ as also =usebius in the twentieth boo. of demonstration. ;ut if an" one had rather im#ute this error to the transcribers or (as 8 rather su##ose) to the uns.illfulness of some #erson who #ut in the name of Jeremiah when the evangelist had writ onl" as he often doth in other #laces by the prophet "et we must confess that this error hath long since cre#t into the Dol" 0cri#tures as Jerome eB#ressl" affirms " /c. ;ut (with the leave of so great men) 8 do not onl" den" that so much as one letter is s#urious or cre#t in without the .nowledge of the evangelist but 8 do confidentl" assert that &atthew wrote Jeremy as we read it and that it was ver" readil" understood and received b" his countr"men. 1e will transcribe the following monument of anti@uit" out of the Talmudists and then let the reader 4udge) ": tradition of the 3abbins. This is the order of the #ro#hets. The ;oo. of Joshua Judges 0amuel Iings Jeremiah =%e.iel 8saiah and the twelve." :nd a little after) ";ut since 8saiah was before both Jeremiah and =%e.iel he ought to have been set before them) but since the Book of 9ings ends "ith destruction# and all Jeremiah is about destruction and since =%e.iel begins with destruction and ends with comfort$ and all 8saiah is about comfort they 1oined destruction "ith destruction# and comfort "ith comfort ") that is the" #laced these boo.s together which treat of destruction and those together which treat of comfort. Lou have this tradition @uoted b" ?avid Iimchi in his #reface to Jeremiah. 1hence it is ver" #lain that Jeremiah of old had the first #lace among the #ro#hets) and hereb" he comes to be mentioned above all the rest &atthew 16)1( because he stood first in the volume of the #ro#hets therefore he is first named. 1hen therefore &atthew #roduceth a teBt of Hechariah under the name of Jeremy he onl" cites the words of the volume of the #ro#hets under his name who stood first in the volume of the #ro#hets. 9f which sort is that also of our 0aviour <u.e '()(($ ":ll things must be fulfilled which are written of me in the <aw and the 7ro#hets and the 7salms." "8n the 7salms"$ that is in the ;oo. of Dagiogra#ha in which the 7salms were #laced first.
&?. An7 they ha7 then a notable prisoner8 calle7 1arabbas.

FBarabbas.G Bar %bba a ver" usual name in the Talmudists) "3. 0amuel ;arabba and 3. Nathan ;arabba." %bba Bar %bba 8n the Jerusalem dialect it is ver" often uttered Bar Ba) "0imeon ;ar ;a." "3. 5hai4ah ;ar ;a." This brings to m" mind what Jose#hus relates to have been done in the besieging of the cit" 0hen huge stones "ere thro"n against the city by the *oman slings# some persons sitting in the to"ers gave the citi!ens "arning by a sign to take heed# crying out in the vulgar dialect# ,The 'on cometh - that is Bar Ba. The 0on of man indeed then came in the glor" of his 4ustice and his vengeance as he had often foretold to destro" that most wic.ed and #rofligate nation.
&). When he was set 7own on the A.7gment seat8 his wife sent .nto him8 saying8 Ha:e tho. nothing to 7o with that A.st man: for I ha:e s.ffere7 many things this 7ay in a 7ream beca.se of him.

F/ave thou nothing to do "ith that 1ust man .G "1hen .ing 0a#ores went about to afflict 3abbah his mother sent to him sa"ing /ave thou nothing to do "ith that Je" " /c.
;?. *hen release7 he 1arabbas .nto them: an7 when he ha7 sco.rge7 Jes.s8 he 7eli:ere7 him to be cr.cifie7.

F0hen he had scourged Jesus# he delivered him to be crucified .G 0uch was the custom of the 3omans towards those that were to be crucified) 0hom after he had beaten "ith "hips# he crucified . :nd a little after To be "hipped before the 1udgment seat# and to be nailed to the cross .
;). An7 when they ha7 platte7 a crown of thorns8 they p.t it .pon his hea78 an7 a ree7 in his right han7: an7 they bowe7 the 6nee before him8 an7 moc6e7 him8 saying8 Hail8 King of the JewsH

F% reed in his right hand.G 0ee those fictions in Tanchum Ffol. 5*. (.G concerning an angel that a##eared in the sha#e of 0olomon) In "hose hand there "as a reed5 and "hom they struck "ith a reed .
B&. An7 after that they ha7 moc6e7 him8 they too6 the robe off from him8 an7 p.t his own raiment on him8 an7 le7 him away to cr.cify him.

FLed him a"ay to crucify him.G These things are delivered in 0anhedrim of one that is guilt" of stoning) "8f there be no defence found for him the" lead him out to be stoned and a crier went before sa"ing aloud thus -N. the son of N. comes out to be stoned because he hath done so and so. The witnesses against him are N. and N.) whosoever can bring an" thing in his defence let him come forth and #roduce it.-" 9n which thus the !emara of ;ab"lon) "The tradition is that on the evening of the 7assover Jesus was hanged and that a crier went before him for fort" da"s ma.ing this #roclamation -This man comes forth to be stoned because he dealt in sorceries and #ersuaded and seduced 8srael$ whosoever .nows of an" defence for him let him come forth and #roduce it-) but no defence could be found therefore the" hanged him on the evening of the 7assover. Klla saith Dis case seemed not to admit of an" defence since he was a seducer and of such !od hath said -Thou shalt not s#are him neither shalt thou conceal him -" ?euteronom" 1+)8. The" led him that was to be stoned out of the cit" :cts 6)58) so also him that was to be crucified) "The #lace of stoning was without the three cam#s$ for at Jerusalem there were three cam#s " (namel" !od-s the <evites- and the #eo#le-s as it was in the encam#ing in the wilderness)) "and in ever" cit" also where there was a council " (namel" of twent"Cthree ) "the #lace of stoning was without the cit". >or all cities that have walls bear a resemblance to the cam# of 8srael." ;ecause Jesus was 4udged at a heathen tribunal therefore a death is inflicted on him not usual with the Jewish council namel" crucifiBion. 8n several things the circumstances and actions belonging to his death differed from the custom of the Jews in #utting #ersons to death. 1. They never 1udge t"o on the same day. ;ut here besides 5hrist are two thieves 4udged.

'. The" never carried one that was to be hanged to hanging till near sunset) They stay till near sunset# and then they pass sentence# and e2ecute him . :nd the reason is given b" the !losser$ "The" do not #erfect his 4udgment nor hang him in the morning lest the" should neglect his burial and ha##en to forget themselves " and the malefactor should hang till after sunset$ "but near sunsetting so that the" ma" bur" him out of hand." ;ut 5hrist was sentenced to death before noon$ and at noon was nailed to the cross. >or +. They first put the condemned person to death# and then hanged him upon a tree ) but the custom of the (3oman) em#ire is first to hang them and then to #ut them to death. (. The" did not o#enl" lament for those that were led forth to be #ut to death$ but for Jesus the" did <u.e '+)'6 '8. The reason of this difference is not to be sought from the .ind of the death but from the #ersons) They did not be"ail for a person led out to e2ecution# but they lamented in"ardly in their hearts. Lou will wonder at the reason which the !loss thus gives "ou) "The" did not o#enl" bewail him u#on this account that his being vilified" Fwhen nobod" o#enl" lamented himG "might hel# to atone for him$ but the" sorrowed for him in their hearts$ for this did not tend to his honour nor lessen the atonement." Those were better instructed who lamented for 5hrist both as to the thing and #erson.
BB. An7 when they were come .nto a place calle7 Golgotha8 that is to say8 a place of a s6.ll8

F7olgotha.G ;e%a #retends that this is written amiss for 7olgoltha when "et it is found thus written in all co#ies. ;ut the good man censures amiss$ since such a leaving out of letters in man" 0"riac words is ver" usual) "ou have this word thus written without the second FlG b" the 0amaritan inter#reter in the first cha#ter of Numbers.
BD. *hey ga:e him :inegar to 7rin6 mingle7 with gall: an7 when he ha7 taste7 thereof8 he wo.l7 not 7rin6.

FThey gave him vinegar to drink mingled "ith gall .G "To those that were to be eBecuted the" gave a grain of myrrh infused in wine to drin. that their understanding might be disturbed " (that is that the" might lose their senses)$ "as it is said -!ive strong drin. to them that are read" to die and wine to those that are of a sorrowful heart - /c. :nd the tradition is That some women of @ualit" in Jerusalem allowed this freel" of their own cost " /c. ;ut it ma.es a scru#le that in &atthew it is vinegar "ith gall$ in &ar. "ine mingled "ith myrrh. 8f "ine wh" is it called vinegar2 8f wine mingled with myrrh wh" gall2 :ns. The words of &ar. seem to relate to the custom of the nation$ those of &atthew to the thing as it was reall" acted. 8 understand &ar. thus The" gave him according to the custom of the nation that cu# which used to be given to those that were led to eBecution$ but (as &atthew has it) not the usual miBture$ namel" wine and fran.incense or m"rrh$ but for the greater moc.er" and out of more bitter rancour vinegar and gall. 0o that we ma" su##ose this cu# not to have been #re#ared b" those honourable women com#assionating those that were to die but on #ur#ose b" the scribes and the other #ersecutors of 5hrist stud"ing to hea# u#on him all .ind of ignomin" and veBation. 8n this cu# the" afterward di##ed a s#onge as ma" be su##osed) see the (8th verse.
B(. An7 they cr.cifie7 him8 an7 parte7 his garments8 casting lots: that it might be f.lfille7 which was spo6en by the prophet8 *hey parte7 my garments among them8 an7 .pon my :est.re 7i7 they cast lots.

FParted my garments.G 9f stoning we have this account$ "1hen he is now four cubits from the #lace of stoning the" stri# him of his clothes$ and if it be a man the" hang a cloth before him$ if a woman both before and behind. These are the words of 3. Juda) but the wise sa" : man is stoned na.ed a woman not na.ed." 0o that it is #lain enough he was crucified na.ed.
B'. *hen were there two thie:es cr.cifie7 with him8 one on the right han78 an7 another on the left.

FT"o thieves.G 0ee in Jose#hus who the" were that at that time were called thieves and how much trouble and #ains the governors of Judea were at to restrain and root out this cursed sort of men) " &ne 'imon# straggling about "ith the robbers "ith "hom he associated# burnt the palaces in Jericho$6 6-Feli2. having caught the chief robber lea!ar# "ho for t"enty years had "asted the country "ith fire and s"ord# sent him to *ome# and many others "ith him$6 6%nother kind of robbers sprang up in Jerusalem# called sicarii who slew men in the da" time and in the midst of the cit" " /c. There is a rule set down and the art shewed of discovering and a##rehending robbers) "!o to the victuallingChouses at the fourth hour" (the !loss "That was the hour of eating and the" went all to the victuallingChouses to eat")$ "and if "ou see there a man drin.ing wine and holding the cu# in his hand and slee#ing /c. he is a thief$ la" hold on him " /c. :mong the monsters of the Jewish routs #receding the destruction of the cit" the multitude of robbers and the horrible slaughters committed b" them deservedl" claim the first consideration$ which neBt to the 4ust vengeance of !od against that most wic.ed nation "ou ma" 4ustl" ascribe to divers originals. 1. 8t is no wonder if that nation abounded be"ond measure with a vagabond dissolute and lewd sort of "oung men$ since b" means of #ol"gam" and the divorces of their wives at #leasure and the nation-s uns#ea.able addictedness to lasciviousness and whoredoms there could not but continuall" s#ring u# bastards and an offs#ring born onl" to beggar" or ra#ine as wanting both sustenance and ingenuous education. '. The foolish and sinful indulgence of the council could not but nurse u# all .ind of broods of wic.ed men while the" scarce ever #ut an" one to death though never so wic.ed as being an 8sraelite$ who must not b" an" means be touched. +. The o##osition of the Healots to the 3oman "o.e made them stud" onl" to mischief the 3omans and do all the mischief the" could to those Jews that submitted to them. (. The governors of Judea did often out of #olic" indulge a licentiousness to such .ind of ra#ines that the" might humble that #eo#le the" so much hated and which was continuall" sub4ect to insurrections b" beating them as it were with their own clubs$ and sometimes getting a share in the boot". Thus Jose#hus concerning >lorus) "De s#oiled all the #eo#le and he did in effect #roclaim that all might go out in the countr" to rob that he might receive a share in the s#oils." :nd thus a sword that first came out of their own bowels was sheathed in them.
B). An7 they that passe7 by re:ile7 him8 wagging their hea7s8

F0agging their heads.G To shake the head with the 3abbins signifies irreverence and lightness.
D?. An7 abo.t the ninth ho.r Jes.s crie7 with a lo.7 :oice8 saying8 li8 li8 lama sabachthaniC that is to say8 3y Go78 my Go78 why hast tho. forsa6en meC

F li# li# lama sabachthani.G 8. :ll the rout indeed and force of hell was let loose at that time against 5hrist without either bridle or chain) he calls it himself the po"er of darkness <u.e '')5+. !od who had foretold of old that the ser#ent should bruise the heel of the #romised seed and now that time is come had slac.ened the devil-s chain which in regard of men the ?ivine 7rovidence used to hold in his hand$ so that all the #ower and all the rancour of hell might freel" and without restraint assault 5hrist$ and that all that malice that was in the devil against the whole elect of !od summed u# and gathered together into one head might at one stro.e and onset be brandished against 5hrist without measure.

88. 9ur most blessed 0aviour therefore feeling such torments as either hell itself or the instruments of hell men cons#iring together in villain" and cruelt" could #our out u#on him cries out under the shar#ness of the #resent #rovidence "&" !odE m" !odE wh" hast thou delivered me u# and left me to such assaults such bitternesses and such merciless hands2" The Talmudists bring in =sther using such an e4aculation which is also cited in the !loss on Joma) "=sther stood in the inner court of the #alace. 3. <evi saith 1hen she was now 4ust come u# to the idolCtem#le the divine glor" de#arted from her) therefore she said li# li# lamma a!abhtani." D@8D). 0ome of them that stoo7 there8 when they hear7 that8 sai78 *his man calleth for lias. *he rest sai78 Let be8 let .s see whether lias will come to sa:e him. FThis man calleth for lias. <et us see whether =lias will come to save him.G That 5hrist here used the 0"riac dialect is #lain from the word sabachthani) but the word li# li is not so #ro#erl" 0"riac) and hence arose the error and misconstruction of the standers b". 8n 0"riac he should have said (ari# (ari) but li was strange to a 0"rian ear) this deceived the standersCb" who having heard more than enough of the a##aritions of =lias from the Jewish fables and being deceived b" the double meaning of the word su##osed that 5hrist was tainted with the same foll" and mista.e and called out to =lias for hel#$ which it was no strange thing for that deluded #eo#le to eB#ect.
(&. An78 behol78 the :eil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom< an7 the earth 7i7 E.a6e8 an7 the roc6s rent<

FThe veil of the Temple "as rent in t"ain /c.G <et us hear what the >athers of the Traditions sa" concerning this catapetasm or veil) "The wall of the #ronaon was five cubits the #ronaon itself eleven. The wall of the Tem#le was siB the Tem#le fort". The tara2is one cubit and the entrance twent"." 1hat tara2is means &aimonides will tell "ou$ "8n the first Tem#le there was a wall one cubit thic. se#arating the Dol" from the Dol" of Dolies$ but when the" built the second Tem#le it was doubted whether the thic.ness of that wall should be accounted to belong to the measure of the Dol" or to the measure of the Dol" of Dolies. 1herefore the" made the Dol" of Dolies twent" cubits com#lete and the Dol" fort" cubits com#lete$ and the" left a void cubit between the Dol" and the Dol" of Dolies but the" did not build an" wall there in the second Tem#le) onl" the" made two hangings one contiguous to the Dol" of Dolies and the other to the Dol"$ between which there was a void cubit according to the thic.ness of the wall that was in the first Tem#le$ in which there was but one catapetasm For veilG onl"." "The high #riest Fon the da" of atonementG goes forward in the Tem#le till he comes to the two hangings that divide the Dol" from the Dol" of Dolies between which there was a cubit. 3. Josi saith There was but one hanging there$ as it is said -:nd the hanging shall se#arate Fto orG between the Dol" and the Dol" of Dolies.-" 9n which words thus the !emara of ;ab"lon) "3. Josi saith rightl" to the 3abbins and the 3abbins to thee) for he s#ea.s of the tabernacle and the" of the second Tem#le$ in which since there was not a #artitionCwall as there was in the first Tem#le there was some doubt made of its holiness namel" whether it should belong to the outward #art of the Tem#le or to the inward$ whereu#on the" made two hangings." 1hile therefore their minds were troubled about this affair not .nowing whether the" should hang the veil at the Tem#le or at the inmost recess of it and whether the void s#ace between of a cubit thic. should belong to this or that$ the" called the #lace itself b" the !ree. word tara2is that is trouble as :ruch #lainl" affirms and the" hung u# two veils that the" might be sure to offend neither against this #art nor that. Lou will wonder therefore that &atthew doth not sa" veils in the #lural$ or #erha#s "ou will thin. that onl" one of these two veils was rent not both. ;ut it was enough for the evangelists &atthew and &ar. who s#ea. of this miracle to have shewed that that fence between which hindered seeing into the Dol" of Dolies and going into it was cleft and bro.en. This is it the" mean not being solicitous in eB#laining

#articulars but contented to have declared the thing itself. 7erha#s the #riest who offered the incense that evening was in the Tem#le at the ver" moment when this miracle ha##ened) and when he went out ama%ed to the #eo#le and should tell them The veil of the Temple is rent it would easil" be understood of a #assage bro.en into the Dol" of Dolies b" some astonishing and miraculous rending of the hangings. 5om#are Debrews 1,)1* ',. 1hen the high #riest went into the inmost recess of the Tem#le on the da" of atonement he went in b" the south side of the outward hanging and the north side of the inner. ;ut now both are rent in the ver" middle and that from the to# to the bottom. (;. An7 the gra:es were opene7< an7 many bo7ies of the saints which slept arose8 F%nd many bodies of saints "hich slept arose.G Lou can hardl" im#ute the rending of the hangings to the earth@ua.e but it must be ascribed rather to another #eculiar miracle$ since it is more #ro#er for an earth@ua.e to brea. hard things than soft and to rend roc.s rather than curtains. 3oc.s were rent b" it in those #laces where se#ulchres had been built so that now the gates of the resurrection were thrown o#en the bonds of the grave were unloosed and the bodies of dead men were made read" as it were for their rising again when 5hrist the firstfruits was raised. The Jews had a fanc" that the .ingdom of the &essias would begin with the resurrection of the dead as we have noted before$ vainl" indeed as to their sense of it$ but not without some truth as to the thing itself) for from the resurrection of 5hrist the glorious e#och of the .ingdom of !od too. its beginning as we said before (which he himself also signifieth in those words &atthew '6)'*)$ and when he arose not a few others arose with him. 1hat the" thought of the resurrection that was to be in the da"s of &essias besides those things which we have alread" mentioned "ou ma" see and smile at in this one eBam#le) "3. Jeremiah commanded -1hen "ou bur" me #ut shoes on m" feet and give me a staff in m" hand and la" me on one side$ that when the &essias comes 8 ma" be read".-"
(D. +ow when the cent.rion8 an7 they that were with him8 watching Jes.s8 saw the earthE.a6e8 an7 those things that were 7one8 they feare7 greatly8 saying8 *r.ly this was the 0on of Go7.

FTruly this "as the 'on of 7od.G That is "This was indeed the &essias." Dowsoever the Jews den" the 0on of !od in that sense in which we own it that is as the second 7erson in the Dol" Trinit" "et the" ac.nowledge the &essias for the 0on of !od (not indeed b" nature but b" ado#tion and de#utation$ see &atthew '6)6+) from those #laces 1 5hronicles 16)1+$ 7salm ')1' 8*)'6 '6 and suchCli.e. The centurion had learned this from the #eo#le b" conversing among them and seeing the miracles which accom#anied the death of 5hrist ac.nowledged him to be the &essias of whom he had heard so man" and great things s#o.en b" the Jews. 8n <u.e we have these words s#o.en b" him "5ertainl" this was a righteous man") which 8 su##ose were not the same with these words before us$ but that both the" and these were s#o.en b" him "5ertainl" this was a righteous man) trul" this was the &essias the 0on of !od." 0uch are the words of Nathanael John 1)(* "Thou art the 0on of !od$ thou art the Iing of 8srael." 7eter when he declared that "5hrist was the 0on of the living !od " &atthew 16)16 s#o.e this in a more sublime sense than the Jews either owned or .new$ as we have said at that #lace.
(?. Among which was 3ary 3ag7alene8 an7 3ary the mother of James an7 Joses8 an7 the mother of >ebe7eeFs chil7ren.

F(ary (agdalene.G That &agdalene was the same with &ar" the sister of <a%arus ;aronius #roves at large$ whom see. 8t is confirmed enough from this ver" #lace$ for if &ar" &agdalene was not the same with &ar" the sister of <a%arus then either &ar" the sister of <a%arus was not #resent at the crucifiBion of 5hrist and at his burial or else she is #assed over in silence b" the evangelists$ both which are im#robable. 1hence she was called (agdalene doth not so #lainl" a##ear$ whether from (agdala a town on the la.e of !ennesaret or from the word which signifies a plaiting or curling of the hair a thing

usual with harlots. <et us see what is s#o.en b" the Talmudists concerning (ary (agdala who the" sa" was mother of ;en 0atda) "The" stoned the son of 0atda in <"dda and the" hanged him u# on the evening of the 7assover. Now this son of 0atda was son of 7andira. 8ndeed 3abh 5hasda said -The husband F of his motherG was 0atda$ her husband was 7andira$ her husband was 7a#us the son of Juda) but "et 8 sa" his mother was 0atda namel" (ary# the plaiter of "omen,s hair$ as the" sa" in 7ombeditha she departed from her husband.-" These words are also re#eated in 'chabath) "3abh ;ibai at a time when the angel of death was with him said to his officer !o bring me (ary the plaiter of "omen,s hair. De went and brought to him (ary# the plaiter of young men,s hair " /c. The !loss$ "The angel of death rec.oned u# to him what he had done before) for this stor" of (ary# the plaiter of "omen,s hair was under the second Tem#le for she was the mother of N. as it is said in 'chabath." 0ee the !loss there at the #lace before @uoted. "There are some who find a fl" in their cu# and ta.e it out and will not drin.$ such was 7a#us ;en Judas who loc.ed the door u#on his wife and went out." 1here the !losser sa"s thus$ "7a#us ;en Juda was the husband of (ary# the plaiter of "omen,s hair$ and when he went out of his house into the street he loc.ed his door u#on his wife that she might not s#ea. with an"bod"$ which indeed he ought not to have done) and hence s#rang a difference between them and she bro.e out into adulteries." 8 #ronounce ,Ben 'atda#, not that 8 am ignorant that it is called ,Ben 'tada, b" ver" learned men. The reason of our thus #ronouncing it we fetch from hence that we find he was called Ben 'utdah b" the Jerusalem Talmudists$ to which the word 'atda more agrees than 'tada. ;" the li.e agreement of sounds the" call the same town both (agdala and (ugdala as we have observed elsewhere. :s the" contumeliousl" reflect u#on the <ord Jesus under the name of Ben 'atda so there is a shrewd sus#icion that under the name of (ary (agdala the" also cast re#roach u#on (ary (agdalene. The title which the" gave their &ar" is so li.e this of ours that "ou ma" with good reason doubt whether she was called (agdalene from the town (agdala or from that word of the Talmudists a plaiter of hair. 1e leave it to the learned to decide. FJoses.G Josi$ a ver" usual name in the Talmudists) ">ive were called Be *$ Josi 8smael <a%ar &enahem 5hel#atha :bdimus." :lso "3. Jose ;en 3. 5haninah " /c. 9ne ma" well in@uire wh" this &ar" is called the mother of -James and Joses - and not also of -Judas and 0imon - as &ar. 6)+.
('. He went to $ilate8 an7 begge7 the bo7y of Jes.s. *hen $ilate comman7e7 the bo7y to be 7eli:ere7.

FBegged the body of Jesus.G 8t was not lawful to suffer a man to hang all night u#on a tree ?euteronom" '1)'+) na" nor to lie all night unburied) "0hosoever suffers a dead body to lie all night unburied violates a negative precept. ;ut the" that were #ut to death b" the council were not to be buried in the se#ulchres of their fathers$ but two bur"ingC#laces were a##ointed b" the council one for those that were slain b" the sword and strangled the other for those that were stoned F "ho also "ere hangedG and burnt." There according to the custom Jesus should have been buried had not Jose#h with a #ious boldness begged of 7ilate that he might be more honourabl" interred) which the fathers of the council out of s#ite to him would hardl" have #ermitted if the" had been as.ed$ and "et the" did not use to den" the honour of a funeral to those whom the" had #ut to death if the meanness of the common burial would have been a disgrace to their famil". :s to the dead #erson himself the" thought it would be better for him to be treated dishonourabl" after death and to be neither lamented nor buried$ for this vilif"ing of him the" fancied amounted to some atonement for him$ as we have seen before. :nd "et to avoid the disgrace of his famil" the" used at the re@uest of it to allow the honour of a funeral. Chapter ;'

&. In the en7 of the sabbath8 as it began to 7awn towar7 the first day of the wee68 came 3ary 3ag7alene an7 the other 3ary to see the sep.lchre.

FIn the end of the sabbath.G 8n the Jerusalem Talmudists it is in the coming forth of the sabbath$ vulgarl" in the going out of the sabbath5 &n a certain eve of the sabbath namel" when the sabbath began "there was not wine to be found in all 0amaria) but at the end of the sabbath there was found abundance because the :ramites had brought it and the 5uthites had received it"... FTo"ards the first day of the "eek.G The Jews rec.on the da"s of the wee. thus$ &ne day (or the first day) of the sabbath5 t"o (or the second day) of the sabbath) "Two witnesses come and sa" The first of the sabbath this man stole /c. and# on the second day of the sabbath 4udgment #assed on him." The third of the sabbath) ": virgin is married on the fourth da" of the wee.$ for the" #rovide for the feast the first day of the "eek$ The second day of the "eek5 and the third day of the "eek." "&n the fourth day of the "eek the" set a#art him who was to burn the red heifer." &n the fifth of the sabbath. "=%ra ordained that the" should read the law #ublicl" on the second and fifth da"s of the sabbath /c. De a##ointed that 4udges should sit in the cities on the second and fifth da"s. =%ra also a##ointed that the" should wash their clothes on the fifth day of the sabbath." The siBth da" the" commonl" called the eve of the sabbath) "To wash their clothes on the fifth da" of the sabbath and eat onions on the eve of the sabbath$6 &n the fifth day of the sabbath -or "eek.# and the eve of the sabbath# and the sabbath. The first da" of the wee. which is now changed into the sabbath or <ord-s da" the Talmudists call the Christians, or the Christian day5 &n the Christians, day it is al"ays forbidden for a Jew to traffic with a 5hristian. 1here the !loss saith thus) % Na!arene or Christian is he who followeth the error of the man who commanded them "to make the first day of the "eek a festival day to him ) and according to the words of 8smael it is alwa"s unlawful to traffic with them three da"s before that da" and three da"s after$ that is not at all the wee. through." 1e cannot here #ass b" the words of the !lossers on ;ab"l. *osh hashanah$ "The ;aithusians desire that the first da" of the 7assover might be on the sabbath so that the #resenting of the sheaf might be on the first da" of the wee. and the feast of 7entecost on the first da" of the wee.." 1ith good reason did our blessed 0aviour remove the sabbath to this da" the da" of his resurrection the day "hich the Lord had made 7salm 118)'( when now the stone "hich the builders refused "as become the head stone of the corner. >or 8. 1hen 5hrist was to ma.e a new world or a new creation it was necessar" for him to ma.e a new sabbath. The sabbath of the old creation was not #ro#er for the new. 88. The .ingdom of 5hrist too. its beginning #rinci#all" from the resurrection of 5hrist) when he had now overcome death and hell. (The Jews themselves confess that the .ingdom of the &essiah was to begin with the resurrection of the dead and the renewing of the world.) Therefore it was ver" #ro#er that that da" from which 5hrist-s .ingdom too. its beginning should #ass into the sabbath rather than the old sabbath the memorial of the creation. 888. That old sabbath was not instituted till after the giving the #romise of 5hrist !enesis +)15$ and the rest of !od on that seventh da" was chiefl" in having #erfected the new creation in 5hrist$ that also was the sabbatical rest of :dam. 1hen therefore that was accom#lished which was then #romised namel" the bruising of the ser#ent-s head b" the resurrection of 5hrist and that was fulfilled which was t"#ified

and re#resented in the old sabbath namel" the finishing of a new creation the sabbath could not but 4ustl" be transferred to that da" on which these things were done. 8J. 8t was necessar" that the 5hristians should have a sabbath given them distinct from the sabbath of the Jews that a 5hristian might be thereb" distinguished from a Jew. >or as the law too. great care to #rovide that a Jew might be distinguished from a heathen$ so it was #rovided b" the gos#el with the li.e care that #artl" b" the forsa.ing of those rites #artl" b" the bringing in of different manners and observances a 5hristian might be distinguished from a Jew. The law was not more solicitous to mar. out and se#arate a Jew from a heathen b" circumcision than the gos#el hath been that b" the same circumcision a 5hristian should not Judai%e. :nd the same care it hath deservedl" ta.en about the sabbath) for since the Jews among other mar.s of distinction were made of a different colour as it were from all nations b" their .ee#ing the sabbath it was necessar" that b" the bringing in of another sabbath (since of necessit" a sabbath must be .e#t u#) that 5hristians might be of a different colour from the Jews.
). An7 as they went to tell his 7isciples8 behol78 Jes.s met them8 saying8 All hail. An7 they came an7 hel7 him by the feet8 an7 worshippe7 him.

F%ll hail.G 8n the vulgar dialect of the Jews "The 3abbins saw a certain hol" man of 5a#har 8mmi and said %ll hail$6 /o" do they salute an Israelite< %ll hail$ FThey held him by the feet.G This seems to have been done to .iss his feet. 0o ' Iings ()'6. >or this was not unusual) ":s 3. Janni and 3. Jonathan were sitting together a certain man came and .issed the feet of 3. Jonathan." 5om#are the evangelists here and "ou will find that this was done b" &ar" &agdalene onl" who formerl" had .issed 5hrist-s feet and who had gone twice to the se#ulchre however &atthew ma.es mention but of once going. The stor" in short is thus to be laid together) :t the first dawning of the morning 5hrist arose a great earth@ua.e ha##ening at that time. :bout the same time &agdalene and the other women left their houses to go to the se#ulchre) while the" met together and made all things read" and too. their 4ourne" to the tomb the sun was u#. 1hen the" were come the" are informed of his resurrection b" the angels and sent bac. to the disci#les. The matter being told to the disci#les 7eter and John run to the se#ulchre$ &agdalene also followed after them. The" having seen the signs of the resurrection return to their com#an" but she sta"s there. ;eing read" to return bac. 5hrist a##ears to her she supposing him to be the gardener. :s soon as she .new him she worshi#s him$ and embracing his feet .isseth them. :nd this is the histor" before us which &atthew relates in the #lural number running it over briefl" and com#endiousl" according to his manner.
&). Go ye therefore8 an7 teach all nations8 bapti=ing them in the name of the "ather8 an7 of the 0on8 an7 of the Holy Ghost.

F7o ye therefore and teach all nations# bapti!ing them /c.G 8. The enclosure is now thrown down whereb" the a#ostles were .e#t in from #reaching the gos#el to all the !entiles &atthew 1,)5. >or first the Jews had now lost their #rivilege nor were the" henceforward to be counted a #eculiar #eo#le$ na" the" were now become "<oCammi." The" had eBceeded the heathens in sinning the" had slighted tram#led u#on and crucified the 5reator himself a##earing visibl" before their e"es in human flesh$ while the heathens had onl" conceived amiss of the 5reator whom the" neither had seen nor could see and thereb" fallen to worshi# the creature. 0econdl" 5hrist had now b" his blood #aid a #rice for the heathens also. Thirdl" he had overcome 0atan who held them ca#tive. >ourthl" he had ta.en awa" the wall of #artition) and fifthl" had eBhibited an infinite righteousness. 88. (ake disciples. ;ring them in b" ba#tism that the" ma" be taught. The" are ver" much out who from these words cr" down infantCba#tism and assert that it is necessar" for those that are to be ba#ti%ed to be taught before the" are ba#ti%ed. 1. 9bserve the words here make disciples$ and then after teaching in the twentieth verse. '. :mong the Jews and also with us and in all nations those are made disci#les

that the" ma" be taught. : certain heathen came to the great Dillel and saith (ake me a proselyte# that thou mayest teach me. De was first to be #rosel"ted and then to be taught. Thus first make them disciples b" ba#tism$ and then teach them to observe all things /c. 888. Bapti!ing. There are divers ends of ba#tism)CC1. :ccording to the nature of a sacrament it visibl" teacheth invisible things that is the washing of us from all our #ollutions b" the blood of 5hrist and b" the cleansing of grace =%e.iel +6)'5. 1. :ccording to the nature of a sacrament it is a seal of divine truth. 0o circumcision is called 3omans ()11$ ":nd he received the sign of circumcision the seal of the righteousness of faith " /c. 0o the Jews when the" circumcised their children gave this ver" title to circumcision. The words used when a child was circumcised "ou have in their Talmud. :mong other things he who is to bless the action saith thus ";lessed be he who sanctified him that was beloved from the womb and set a sign in his flesh and sealed his children "ith the sign of the holy covenant " /c. ;ut in what sense are sacraments to be called seals2 Not that the" seal (or confirm) to the receiver his righteousness$ but that the" seal the divine truth of the covenant and #romise. Thus the a#ostle calls circumcision -the seal of the righteousness of faith-) that is it is the seal of this truth and doctrine that -4ustification is b" faith - which righteousness :braham had when he was "et uncircumcised. :nd that is the wa" whereb" sacraments confirm faith namel" because the" do doctrinall" eBhibit the invisible things of the covenant$ and li.e seals do b" divine a##ointment sign the doctrine and truth of the covenant. +. :ccording to the nature of a sacrament it obligeth the receivers to the terms of the covenant) for as the covenant itself is of mutual obligation between !od and man$ so the sacraments the seals of the covenant are of li.e obligation. (. :ccording to its nature it is an introductor" into the visible church. :nd 5. 8t is a distinguishing sign between a 5hristian and no 5hristian namel" between those who ac.nowledge and #rofess 5hrist and Jews Tur.s and 7agans who do not ac.nowledge him. )isciple all nations# bapti!ing . 1hen the" are under ba#tism the" are no longer under heathenism$ and this sacrament #uts a difference between those who are under the disci#leshi# of 5hrist and those who are not. 6. ;a#tism also brings its #rivilege along with it while it o#ens the wa" to a #arta.ing of hol" things in the church and #laceth the ba#ti%ed within the church over which !od eBerciseth a more singular #rovidence than over those that are out of the church. :nd now from what hath been said let us argue a little in behalf of infantCba#tism. 9mitting that argument which is commonl" raised form the words before us namel" that when 5hrist had commanded to ba#ti%e all nations infants also are to be ta.en in as #arts of the famil" these few things ma" be observed) 8. ;a#tism as a sacrament is a seal of the covenant. :nd wh" 8 #ra" ma" not this seal be set on infants2 The seal of divine truth hath sometimes been set u#on inanimate things and that b" !od-s a##ointment. The bow in the cloud is a seal of the covenant) the law engraven on the altar Joshua 8 was a seal of the covenant. The blood s#rin.led on the twelve #illars that were set u# to re#resent the twelve tribes was a seal and bond of the covenant =Bodus '(. :nd now tell me wh" are not infants ca#able in li.e manner of such a sealing2 The" were ca#able heretofore of circumcision$ and our infants have an e@ual ca#acit". The sacrament doth not lose this its end through the indis#osition of the receiver. 7eter and 7aul a#ostles were ba#ti%ed) their ba#tism according to its nature sealed to them the truth of !od in his #romises concerning the washing awa" of sins /c. :nd the" from this doctrinal virtue of the sacrament received confirmation of their faith. 0o also Judas and 0imon &agus h"#ocrites wic.ed men were ba#ti%ed) did not their ba#tism according to the nature of it seal this doctrine and truth "that there as a washing awa" of sins2" 8t did not indeed seal the thing itself to them$ nor was it at all a sign to them of the -washing awa"- of theirs) but ba#tism doth in itself seal this doctrine. Lou will grant that this aBiom is most true ":braham received the sign of circumcision the seal of the righteousness of faith." :nd is not this e@uall" true2 =sau :hab :ha% received the sign of circumcision the seal of the righteousness of faith) is not circumcision the same to all2 ?id not circumcision to whomsoever it was administered sign and seal this truth that there -was a

righteousness of faith-2 The sacrament hath a sealing virtue in itself that doth not de#end on the disposition of the receiver. 88. ;a#tism as a sacrament is an obligation. ;ut now infants are ca#able of being obliged. Deirs are sometimes obliged b" their #arents though the" are not "et born) see also ?euteronom" '*)11 15. >or that to which an" one is obliged obtains a right to oblige from the e=uity of the thing and not from the apprehension of the person obliged. The law is im#osed u#on all under this #enalt" "5ursed be ever" one that doth not continue in all " /c. 8t is ill arguing from hence that a man hath #ower to #erform the law$ but the e@uit" of the thing itself is ver" well argued hence. 9ur dut" obligeth us to ever" thing which the law commands$ but we cannot #erform the least tittle of it. 888. :n infant is ca#able of #rivileges as well as an old man$ and ba#tism is #rivilegial. :n infant hath been crowned .ing in his cradle) an infant ma" be made free who is born a salve. The !emarists s#ea. ver" well in this matter$ "3abh Douna saith The" ba#ti%e an infant #rosel"te b" the command of the bench." ;pon "hat is this grounded< 9n this that ba#tism becomes a privilege to him$ %nd they may endo" an absent person "ith a privilege) or the" ma" bestow a #rivilege u#on one though he be ignorant of it. Tell me then wh" an infant is not ca#able of being brought into the visible church and of receiving the distinguishing sign between a 5hristian and a heathen as well as a grown #erson. 8J. 9ne ma" add that an infant is #art of his #arent) u#on this account !enesis 16)1( an infant is to be cut off if he be not circumcised when indeed the fault is his #arents-$ because thus the #arents are #unished in a #art of themselves b" the cutting off of their child. :nd hence is that of =Bodus ',)5 "Jisiting the sins of the fathers u#on the children " because children are a #art of their fathers /c. >rom hence ariseth also a natural reason of infantCba#tism) the infants of ba#ti%ed #arents are to be ba#ti%ed because the" are #art of them and that the whole #arents ma" be ba#ti%ed. :nd u#on this account the" used of old with good reason to ba#ti%e the whole famil" with the master of it. FIn the name of the Father /c.G 8. 5hrist commands them to go and ba#ti%e the nations$ but how much time was #ast before such a 4ourne" was ta.enE :nd when the time was now come that this wor. should be begun 7eter doth not enter u#on it without a #revious admonition given him from heaven. :nd this was occasioned hereb" that according to the command of 5hrist the gos#el was first to be #reached to Judea 0amaria and !alilee. 88. De commands them to ba#ti%e in the name of the Father# and of the 'on# and of the /oly 7host ) but among the Jews the" ba#ti%ed onl" in the name of Jesus$ which we have observed before from :cts ')+8 8)16 1*)5. >or this reason that thus the ba#ti%ers might assert and the ba#ti%ed confess Jesus to be the true &essias$ which was chiefl" controverted b" the Jews. 9f the same nature is that a#ostolic blessing "!race and #eace from !od the >ather and from our <ord Jesus 5hrist." 1here then is the Dol" !host2 De is not eBcluded however he be not named. The Jews did more easil" consent to the 0#irit of the &essias which the" ver" much celebrate than to the #erson of the &essias. :bove all others the" den" and ab4ure Jesus of Na%areth. 8t belonged to the a#ostles therefore the more earnestl" to assert Jesus (to be the &essias) b" how much the more vehementl" the" o##osed him) which being once cleared the ac.nowledging of the 0#irit of 5hrist would be introduced without dela" or scru#le. &oses (in =Bodus 6)1() going about to rec.on u# all the tribes of 8srael goes no further than the tribe of <evi onl"$ and ta.es u# with that to which his business and stor" at that #resent related. 8n li.e manner the a#ostles for the #resent ba#ti%e in the name of Jesus bless in the name of the >ather and of Jesus that thereb" the" might more firml" establish the doctrine of Jesus which met with such shar# and virulent o##osition$ which doctrine being established among them the" would soon agree about the Dol" !host. 888. :mong the Jews the controvers" was about the true &essiah$ among the !entiles about the true !od$ it was therefore #ro#er among the Jews to ba#ti%e in the name of Jesus that he might be

vindicated to be the true &essias) among the !entiles In the name of the Father# and of the 'on# and of the /oly 7host that the" might be hereb" instructed in the doctrine of the true !od. Dear this 9 :rian and 0ocinianE 8J. The Jews ba#ti%ed #rosel"tes into the name of the Father that is into the #rofession of !od whom the" called b" the name of Father. The a#ostles ba#ti%e the Jews into the name of Jesus# the 'on) and the !entiles into the name of the Father# and of the 'on# and of the /oly 7host . J. The Father hath revealed himself in the old covenant the 'on in the new$ in human flesh b" his miracles doctrine resurrection and ascension$ the /oly 7host in his gifts and miracles. Thus the doctrine of the everCblessed Trinit" grew b" degrees to full maturit") for the arriving at the ac.nowledgment of which it was incumbent u#on all who #rofessed the true !od to be three in one to be ba#ti%ed into his name. : 5horogra#hical 5entur" 5ha#ters 1C1,
A Chorographical Cent.ry

John <ightfoot (16,'C1665) 5ha#ters 1C1, Chapter & The Division of the Land. The Jewish writers divide the whole world into "The land of 8srael " and "1ithout the land") that is the countries of the heathen. ;oth which #hrases the boo. of the gos#el owns) "The land of 8srael " &atthew ')',) and it calls the heathens "those that are without " 1 5orinthians 5)1+$ 1 Timoth" +)6 /c. :nd sometimes the unbelieving Jews themselves as &ar. ()11. The" distinguish all the #eo#le of the world into "8sraelites " and "the nations of the world." The boo. of the gos#el owns that #hrase also &atthew 6)+'$ ":fter all these things do the !entiles (or nations) see.") which in <u.e 1')+, is "The nations of the world." Dence the word -world- is most commonl" used for the !entiles$ John +)16 16$ 1 John ')' /c. 0omewhere a distinction is made into "The land Fof 8sraelG " and "The region of the sea"$ ":nd ever" foreign region is called the region of the sea eBce#t ;ab"lon")CCthe" are the words of 3abbi 0olomon. 1hich nevertheless fall under the censure of 3. Nissim) "8t is something hard (saith he) to rec.on ever" countr" which is out of the land to be the region of the sea) for then under that name would be included all the neighbouring #laces and which are as it were swallowed u# b" the land. The" sa" therefore that the more remote #laces are called -The region of the sea.- ;ut neither does this #lease me) for there is no need of so great a distance to ma.e an" #lace to be called -The region of the sea /c. ;ut it is s#o.en in relation to the western coast of the land of 8srael$ on which side there are no FheathenG cities near and swallowed u# b" the land. ;ut the sea sets the bounds$ but it doth not set the bounds on other sides /c. The sense therefore of 3. 0olomon when he saith -that ever" region without the land is the region of the sea - comes to this CCThat ever" region which is li.e to that region is so called." Deathen cities were on that western coast$ but seeing the" la" within the ancient bounds of the land namel" the -li# of the &editerranean sea -CCthe" could not so #ro#erl" be said to be -without the land - as

those which were altogether -without the limits.- Those cities and that countr" therefore are called b" a #eculiar title the "coast or countr" b" the &editerranean sea." 1hich title all other cities of the li.e condition underwent also wheresoever seated within the bounds of the land. =Bam#les will not be wanting as we go along. The" commonl" define the -land of 8srael- under a double notion) to wit that "which the" #ossessed who went u# out of =g"#t"$ and that "which the" #ossessed who went u# out of ;ab"lon." This was in ver" man" #laces circumscribed within narrower limits than that not onl" b" reason 0amaria was re4ected and shut out CCbut also because certain #ortions were cut off (and the" neither a few nor small) which became the #ossessions of those that went u# out of =g"#t$ but under the second Tem#le had #assed into the #ossessions of the heathen. Now the" were u#on this account the more eBact in observing their bounds distinguishing this land b" .nown bounds both from all others and in some #laces as it were from itself$ because the" decreed that ver" man" m"steries of their religion were to be handled nowhere but within these limits. >or besides the rites of that dis#ensation which the Dol" 0cri#ture doth o#enl" and evidentl" fiB to that land such as 0acrifices 7assovers the 7riesthood and other a##ointments of that nature (which are commonl" and not im#ro#erl" called "0tatutes a##endant to that land ") ver" man" others also are circumscribed within the same borders b" the fathers of the traditions. "The land of 8srael (sa" the") above all other lands is sanctified b" ten holinesses. :nd what is the holiness of it2 9ut of it the" bring the sheaf and the firstCfruits and the two loaves. :nd the" do not so out of an" other land." "The law of beheading the cow doth not ta.e #lace an" where but in the land of 8srael and be"ond Jordan." "The" do not a##oint or determine concerning the new moons nor do the" intercalate the "ear an" where but in the land of 8srael) as it is said The law shall go forth out of 0ion." "The" do not #refer to eldershi# out of the land of 8srael) no not although the" that do #refer have themselves been #referred within the land." :nd that 8 hea# not together more the" do in a manner circumscribe the Dol" 0#irit himself within the limits of that land. >or "0hechinah (sa" the") dwells not u#on an" out of the land." 5om#are :cts 1,)(5. The land which the Jews that came u# out of ;ab"lon #ossess the" divide after this manner)CC "There are three lands (or countries)CCJudea the land be"ond Jordan and !alilee$ and each of those have three countries")CCthose we shall ta.e notice of in their #laces. To this received division our 0aviour hath res#ect when sending his disci#les to #reach to the "lost shee# of 8srael " he eBcludes 0amaria &atthew 1,)5$ which according to the condition of the nation was not merel" heathen nor was it trul" Israel. 8t was not heathen$ for "The land of 0amaria is rec.oned clean and the gathering together of its waters clean and its dwellings clean and its #aths clean") which the Jewish curiosit" would b" no means #ronounce of a heathen land. ;ut as to man" other things the" made no difference between them and the !entiles... Chapter ; The Talmudic Girdle of the Land under the second Temple, ta en out of the !erusalem "heviith 8 fol. B?. B. 1hat all these things mean 8 cannot so much as con4ecture$ "ea nor can 8 scarce con4ecture what the meaning is of some of them. Neither is there an" 9edi#us at hand nor 0#hinB herself to eB#lain and

unriddle them. The Talmudists are silent from ma.ing an" comments here nor have we the advantage of an" other commentator. 1e must therefore act here according to the uncertain instruction of nods and win.s$ and that either b" sa"ing nothing or b" mere con4ecture since that the mind of the authors is either altogether un.nown or it is wholl" doubtful whether it be .nown or no. =B#ect not that 8 go from street to street to .noc. at all the gates of these #laces) it will be enough if we can scra#e out in what regions these #laces lie and are able to guess at what #oints of the heaven the" are dis#osed. 1e will at #resent ta.e in hand onl" the first and last clause of this #lace @uoted$ which ma" have some tendenc" towards our entrance into our #resent business. The rest (if there be an" we can attain unto) we shall handle in their #ro#er #laces. "These (sa" the") are the bounds of the land of 8srael which the" #ossessed that came out of ;ab"lon." "The division or #art of the walls of the tower 0id." Nor dare 8 confidentl" to assert that this is s#o.en of the -tower of 0trato - or -5aesarea-$ nor "et do 8 .now to what it ma" more fitl" be a##lied. 1e observe in its #lace that that tower is called b" the Talmudists "The tower 0ir") which b" how ver" little a #oint it differs from this words and how ver" a#t it is b" want of care in writing to be confounded with it the e"e of an" reader is witness... These #laces concerning which the Talmudists here treat are of a different condition from those which were called "The region of the sea." >or those #laces were certain towns here and there on this seaC coast and elsewhere$ which were indeed inhabited b" heathens and so could not #ro#erl" be rec.oned the -land of 8srael-$ "et the" were such as between which and the outmost bounds of the land was again the land of 8srael. ;ut these #laces which we are now handling are those which were the utmost bounds and be"ond which were no #laces at all but what was rec.oned the -land of the heathen-) the 7hoenicians 0"rians or other !entiles #ossessing all that coast thence forward unto the shore of the &editerranean sea. 1e cannot also #ass b" those things that are said b" the !emarists in the ver" same #age from whence the scheme beforeCmentioned is ta.en. "Lou see isles in the sea$ and if a line were drawn from the mountains of :mana to the river of =g"#t CCwhatsoever is within the line belongs to the land of Israel$ whatsoever is without the line is "ithout the land." :fter the same manner s#ea.s the Targum of Jerusalem u#on Numbers +()() ":nd their western bounds shall be the great sea and the isles of it." 8sles2 1hat isles2 <et the authors of the ma#s well weigh these #assages. Chapter B # great part of south !udea cut off under the second Temple. !ewish Idumean. The Talmudic girdle ends as "ou see in "Iadesh ;arnea and :scalon." Dence it cannot but be observed that these two #laces are #laced as it were in #arallel$ and whatsoever s#ace lies between :scalon and the river of =g"#t is eBcluded CCto wit fift"Cfour miles. :nd one might indeed almost see some footste#s of that eBclusion under the first Tem#le in that ver" common eB#ression ">rom ?an even to ;eerCsheba." This countr" that was eBcluded was something barren. The Talmudists s#ea. thus of it$ "That tract which lies in !erari.u F7erarG is ill to dwell in. Dow far2 To the river of =g"#t." :nd 0trabo thus$ "The countr" which follows !a%a is barren and sand" " /c. 8t was ancientl" inhabited b" the :vites CCnamel" from !a%a to the river of =g"#t. "The :vims dwelt in Da%erim " ?euteronom" ')'+. /a!ar is a word of most fre@uent mention in that southern land "Da%arC :ddar Da%arC!addah Da%arC0hua Da%arC0usah " /c. :nd it seems to denote some cham#aign #lain and level l"ing between the mountains. Dence the habitation of the :vites is called -Da%erim-$ who are numbered with the 7hilistines but "et b" themselves Joshua 1+)+)CCfor see there how the hol" teBt #romising to number five nations onl" numbers si2.

This eBcluded #ortion is #assed into the name of 8dumea. Dence 7lin") "7resentl" from the rising u# of the la.e 0irbon begins 8dumea and 7alestine." Nor that alone but another ver" great #art of Judea. Dence the sea of 0odom is said b" ?iodorus 0iculus to be "about the middle of 8dumea." :nd in Jose#hus and the ;oo. of the &accabees we find ver" man" #laces mentioned under the name of 8dumea which were almost in the ver" middle of Judea. >or eBam#le-s sa.e$ "De came even to the !adari and the #lains of 8dumea and :%otus and Jamnia." :nd again$ ":nd Judas and his brethren left not off fighting with the 8dumeans) but fell u#on them ever"where) and ta.ing the cit" 5hebron /c. and the cit" &arissa /c. :nd having come unto :%otus " /c. :nd more to this #ur#ose ma" be read here and there. 0o that distinction ma" be made between 8dumea the !reater and the <ess. 0imon of !erasa overran the towns along the mountainous countr" /c. :nd he overran :crabatene and the #arts as far as 8dumea the !reat. :nd there is mention of "8dumean called the K##er." 1ith these #assages com#are &ar. +)8. 1hilst the Jews were absent from their own countr" enduring the sevent" "ears- bondage in ;ab"lon CCit is eas" to be believed that their ancient enemies the =domites and that were so from the ver" first original of them had invaded their #ossessions as much as the" could and had fiBed their roots in that countr" es#eciall" which was nearest their own) but at length b" the #owerful arms of the &accabees and the :smoneans the" were either rooted out or constrained to embrace Judaism. 0o Jose#hus s#ea.s of D"rcanus) "D"rcanus ta.es :dor and &arissa cities of 8dumea) and having subdued all the 8dumeans suffered them to remain in the countr" on condition the" were willing to be circumcised and to use the Jewish laws. :nd the" out of a desire of their own countr" underwent circumcision and conformed to the same course of life with the Jews." Dence there became a mingled generation in that countr" between Jew and =domite) and the name of the #lace was mingled also and called both 8dumea and Judea) ":nd 7alestine was divided into five countries CC8dumea Judea 0amaria !alilee and the countr" be"ond Jordan." Chapter D The seven "eas according to the Talmudists, and the four $ivers compassing the Land. "0even seas (sa" the") and four rivers com#ass the land of 8srael. 8. The !reat 0ea or the &editerranean. 88. The sea of Tiberias. 888. The sea of 0odom. 8J. The la.e of 0amocho... The three first named among the seven are sufficientl" .nown and there is no doubt of the fourth)CConl" the three names of it are not to be #assed b". 8J. 1. The 0ibbichaean. The word seems to be derived from a bush. '. ... +. ... J. 7erha#s the sandy sea. 1hich fits ver" well to the la.e of 0irbon 4oining the commentar" of ?iodorus 0iculus. >or he relates that that la.e for the most #art is so covered with sand that it hath often deceived and su##lanted travellers "ea whole armies thin.ing it to be firm land... :fter these seas mentioned b" the Talmudists hear also no lean stor" of theirs concerning the fish) "3. 5haninah ;ar 3. :bhu said 0even hundred .inds of clean fish and eight hundred .inds of clean locusts and of birds an infinite number travelled with 8srael into ;ab"lon and returned when 8srael returned eBce#t Fa certainG fish. ;ut how did the fish travel2 3. Douna ;ar Jose#h saith the" travelled b" the wa" of the dee# and b" the dee# the" came bac.." 0urel" it re@uires a Jewish invention (which is able to frame an" thing out of an" thing) to trace a wa" either b" an" sea or b" an" river through which fish might swim out of 7alestine into ;ab"lon. ;" the same art the" bring Jonah in the bell" of the whale out of the 7hoenician sea into the 3ed sea. That indeed is somewhat hard "et not to be doubted of what is said ' 5hronicles 8)18 concerning Diram sending shi#s to 0olomon into the 3ed sea. 1hatE shi#s to come from T"re into the 3ed sea2 1hich wa" sailed the"2 8t is answered De sent such T"rian shi#s which had much and long traded

before in the 3ed sea to accom#an" 0olomon-s fleet. To this belongs that that it is said there li.ewise (and in 1 Iings *)'6) that "he sent seamen that had .nowledge of the sea"$ that is .nowledge of that sea) and the" #robabl" not such who had never "et adventured themselves into the 3ed sea but had eB#erience of it before and were not ignorant of the 9#hir vo"age. The four rivers for the com#assing of the land (the" sa") are 1. Jordan$ that is sufficientl" .nown. 88. Jarmoch. 8n 7lin" -DieramaB-) "!addara (saith he) DieramaB flowing before it." 888. 9irmion. 8J. Pigah. 5oncerning which thus the :ruch) "Iirmion is a river in the wa" to ?amascus and is the same with :manah. 7igah is 7har#har. and Jarmoch is also a river in the wa" to ?amascus." :nd the Talmudists) "The waters of Iirmion and 7igah are not fit" (to s#rin.le the unclean) "because the" are mudd" waters. The waters also of Jordan and the waters of Jarmoch are not fit because the" are miBed waters")CCthat is as the !loss s#ea.s miBed with the waters of other rivers which the" receive within themselves. To the seven seas concerning which we have s#o.en those things which are said b" &idras Tillim do refer) "8 have created seven seas saith the <ord but out of them all 8 have chosen none but the sea of !ennesaret."CC:nd of the river of :manah of which the :ruch s#ea.s mention is made in the Targum u#on 5anticles ()8) "The" that dwell u#on the river :manah shall offer thee a gift " /c. Chapter ( The "ea of "odom The bounds of Judea on both sides are the sea$ the western bound is the &editerranean CCthe eastern the ?ead sea or the sea of 0odom. This the Jewish writers ever" where call which "ou ma" not so #ro#erl" inter#ret here "the salt sea " as "the bituminous sea." 8n which sense word for word "0odom-s salt " but #ro#erl" "0odom-s bitumen " doth ver" fre@uentl" occur among them. The use of it was in the hol" incense. The" mingled -bitumen - -the amber of Jordan - and Fan herb .nown to fewG with the s#ices that made that incense. "The la.e :s#haltitis is distant from Jerusalem three hundred furlongs")CCabout eightCandCthirt" miles. "8t is eBtended in length five hundred and eight" furlongs"$ sevent"Ctwo miles.CC"8n breadth a hundred and fift" furlongs"$ eighteen miles. 7lin" s#ea.s thus of it) "8n length it is more than a hundred miles) in its greatest breadth it ma.es fiveC andCtwent" CCin its least siB." 1hat agreement is there between these two2 8 su##ose Jose#hus does not com#rehend within his measure the tongue of the sea of which mention is made Joshua 15)'CCand defines the breadth as it was generall" ever" where diffused. 5oncerning its distance from Jerusalem 0olinus also s#ea.s) "8n a long retreat from Jerusalem (saith he) a sad ba" o#eneth itself$ which that it was struc. from heaven the ground blac. and dissolved into ashes testifies. There were two towns there one named 0odom the other !omorrha." ;ut that distance was not directl" southward but b" a ver" long declination eastward. The Talmudists devote "to the sea of 0odom " an" thing that is destined to re4ection and cursing and that b" no means is to be used. "<et him devote the use of such a thing to the bituminous sea." "<et the #rice of an oblation for sin the owner whereof is dead de#art into the salt sea." "The #rosel"te :@uila divided the inheritance with his brother a !entile and devoted the use and benefit of it to the salt sea. 9f three doctors one saith That he devoted the mone"s of idolatr" into the salt sea." Dence is that allusion 3evelation ',)1( ":nd death and hell were cast into the la.e of fire."

8t doth not #lease me that 0odom in the ma#s is #laced in the northern bounds of the :s#haltites$ when it seems rather to be #laced in the southern eBtremit" of it. >or 8. The bounds of the land are thus defined b" &oses !enesis 1,)1*) "The borders of the 5anaanites were from 0idon" (on the north) "unto !a%a" (on the south) "as thou goest forward or until thou comest to 0odom." :re not the bounds here bent from !a%a to the farthest term o##osite to it on the east2 88. Jose#hus in the descri#tion of the :s#haltites which we @uoted a little above hath these words) "The length of it is five hundred and eight" furlongs) and it is stretched out as far as Hoar of :rabia." Note that the farthest coast of the eBtension of it southward is to Hoar. ;ut now Hoar was not far distant from 0odom when <ot with his com#an" got thither before the rising of the sun !enesis 1*)'+. "8t is written (sa" the !emarists) -The sun was risen u#on the earth when <ot entered into 0odom.-CCNow 0odom was four miles from Hoar." The ma#s show "ou Hoar and <ot-s 5ave in Judea at the northern coast almost of the :s#haltites)CCb" what authorit" 8 do not a##rehend. The Talmudists indeed do mention a certain Hoar which the" also call "The 5it" of 7alms."CC"There is a stor" (sa" the") of some <evites who travelled to Hoar the cit" of #alms) and one of them fell sic. whom the" brought to an inn and there he died." ;ut 8 should sooner believe that there were two Hoars than 8 should believe that the father of the &oabites were not conceived and born near Hoar of the land of &oab. 0ee 8saiah 15)5. 5oncerning the age of 0odom when it #erished see the #laces in the margin and weigh them well. Chapter ? The %oast of the #sphaltites, The &ssenes. &n'gedi. "9n the western shore" (of the :s#haltites) "dwell the =ssenes$ whom #ersons guilt" of an" crimes fl" from on ever" side. : nation it is that lives alone and of all other nations in the whole world most to be admired$ the" are without an" woman$ all lust banished /c. ;elow these was the town =ngadda the neBt to Jerusalem for fruitfulness and groves of #almCtrees now another bur"ingC#lace. >rom thence stands &assada a castle in a roc. and this castle not far from the :s#haltites." 0olinus 7lin"-s shadow s#ea.s the li.e things) "The =ssenes #ossess the inner #arts of Judea which loo. to the west. The town =ngadda la" beneath the =ssenes$ but it is now destro"ed) but its glor" for the famous groves that are there doth still endure) and in regard of its most loft" woods of #alms it hath received no dis#aragement either b" age or war. The castle &assada is the bounds of Judea." 1e are loo.ing for the #laces not the men)CCwe might otherwise begin the histor" of the =ssenes from those words Judges 1)16) ":nd the sons of the Ienite &oses- fatherCinClaw went out of the cit" of #alms with the sons of Judah into the deserts of Judah." >rom these we su##ose came the 3echabites CCand from their stoc. or eBam#le the =ssenes. 1hich if it be true we ma.e this an argument of the ill #lacing of =nCgedi in the ma#s being set too much towards the north when it ought to have been #laced towards the utmost southern coasts. 8f the =ssenes were the same with the Ienites in seat and #lace and the Ienites dwelt be"ond :rad southward or indeed even with :rad which is asserted in the teBt alleged CCand if below these were =nC gedi which is also asserted b" the authors cited CCcertainl" then the ma#s have laid it a long wa" distant from its own #ro#er #lace too much northward. Jiew them and thin. of these things. To which we also add this)CC The southern borders of the land =%e.iel (6)1* (the ver" same which are mentioned Numbers +( and Joshua 15)') are thus declared$ "The southern coast southward from Tamar to the waters of &eribah in 5adesh " /c. ;ut now Tamar and =nCgedi are the same ' 5hronicles ',)'. Nor have we an" reason

wh" we should see. another Tamar elsewhere. 5ertainl" the 5haldee #ara#hrast and 3abbi 0ol. Jarchi and Iimchi following him have rendered Tamar in =%e.iel Jericho. ;ut u#on what reason2 >or how 8 beseech "ou was it #ossible that Jericho should be the bounds of the south land when it was the utmost bounds of Judea northward2 8t was this without all doubt drove them to that version of the word because Jericho is called the City of Palms CCand Tamar signifies a palm$ since =nCgedi would not give #lace to Jericho one inch in regard of the glor" of #almCgroves. 1hether Tadmor 1 Iings *)18 be the same with this our Tamar CCand whether Tadmor in the Talmudists be the same with that Tadmor CCwe leave to the reader to consider. 1e #roduce these few things concerning it which are related b" themCCfor the sa.e of such consideration)CC "The" receive #rosel"tes from those of 5ard"a and Tadmor. 3ab. :bhu in the name of 3. Jochanan saith The tradition asserts that the #rosel"tes of Tadmor are fit to enter into the congregation." 8t was said a little before$ "Daggai the #ro#het taught these three lessons)CCThe rival of a daughter" (of a #riest) "ma" be married b" a #riest. The &oabites and :mmonites ought to tithe the #oor-s tithe the seventh "ear. :nd the #rosel"tes of Tadmor are fit to enter into the congregation." This stor" is recited in the Jerusalem &isna) "&ar" of Tadmor having #art of the blood s#rin.led u#on her" (whereb" she was to be #urified) "heard in that ver" 4uncture of time that her daughter was dead " /c. ;ut the ;ab"lonian calls her "of Tarmod."CC">rom the #lace Tarmud " saith the !loss.CCThe -Tarmudeans - are said b" those of the ;ab"lonian Talmud to be certain #oor #eo#le who got themselves a livelihood b" gathering u# wood and selling it. 3. Jochanan said ";lessed is he who shall see the destruction of Tadmor) for she communicated in the destruction of the first and second Tem#le. 8n the destruction of the first she brought eight" thousand archers) and so she did in the destruction of the second." Chapter @ (adesh. $e am, and that double. In)uiry is made, *hether the doubling it in the +aps is well done. The readers of the eastern inter#reters will observe that 9adesh is rendered b" all *ekam or in a sound ver" near it. 8n the 5haldee it is -3e.am-) in the 0"riac -3e.em-) in the :rabic -3a.im-... There are two #laces noted b" the name *ekam in the ver" bounds of the land CCto wit the southern and eastern) that is a double Iadesh. 8. 9f Iadesh or 3e.am in the south #art there is no doubt. 88. 9f it in the eastern #art there is this mention) ">rom 3e.am to the east and 3e.am is as the east") that is 3. Nissim inter#reting "3e.am itself is rec.oned for the east of the world" (that is for the land of the heathen) "not for the land of 8srael." ;eholdE a 3e.am or a Iadesh also on the east. ;ut the ma#s have feigned to themselves another Iadesh besides ;arnea and this eastern 3e.am$ whither the" thin. the #eo#le of 8srael came in the fortieth "ear of their travel Numbers ',. These we su##ose were some of the reasons whereb" the authors of them were drawn to it. 8. ;ecause IadeshCbarnea was in the desert of 7aran Numbers 1')16 1()1. ;ut the Iadesh whither the" came the fortieth "ear was in the desert of Hin Numbers ',)1.CC8 answer The searchers of the land de#arting from IadeshCbarnea are said also to go out of the deserts of Hin Number 1+)'1. 7aran was the general name of that dreadful desert$ Hin onl" one #art of it. 88. 8n IadeshCbarnea the" encam#ed man" da"s ?euteronom" 1)(6. ;ut in that Iadesh concerning which mention is made Numbers ', there was not #rovision sufficient whereb" the" might be

sustained one da". >or the" com#lain that it was a #lace altogether destitute of seed figs vines and #omegranates Numbers ',)5) which the" did not at all com#lain of while the" remained in IadeshC barnea.CC8 answer 9mitting that wheresoever the" encam#ed the" were fed b" manna$ the com#laint arose among them not so much of the #lace itself as of the ill boding and #re4udice as 8 ma" so sa" of the #lace$ because from the barrenness of this #lace the" #re4udged of the li.e barrenness of that land into which the" were to enter CCand the #orch as it were of which was IadeshCbarnea. 1hen the" came hither first now thirt"Ceight "ears before "Le came to the mountain of the :morites (saith &oses) which the <ord giveth "ou " ?euteronom" 1)', '1. -8s it so2- (thin. the" with themselves) -?oes the first entrance of the land of #romise #romise no better2 There is little ho#e of the land itself if the beginnings of it are such. 8t is convenient therefore that we send before us s#ies who ma" bring us word whether it is of so great account that we should tire and ha%ard ourselves b" going to that soil whose first a##earance is so horrid and des#erate.-CC:nd hence was that unha##" argument before their e"es b" the inducement of which the whole multitude b" so unanimous a vote concluded and resolved against the land. :nd since now after so much time #assed the" are come bac. to the same #lace the" thin. distrust and com#lain of the same things. 888. 8n IadeshCbarnea the" had a su##l" of water$ in Iadesh whither the" came the fortieth "ear there was no water Numbers ', /c.CC8 answer The" dran. when the" first came to IadeshCbarnea of the roc. which followed them (1 5or 1,)') which dried u# when the" were now read" to enter into the land. 8f "ou as. 1h" had those rivers that followed them dried u# as soon as the" came at IadeshCbarnea which before had not dried u# when the" came thither$CCthen 8 as. also 1h" had the" dried u# when the" came to another Iadesh2 8J. 5oncerning the Iadesh whither the" came the last "ear of their travel it is said that the cit" was in the utmost bounds of the land of =dom) and therefore the" desire leave of the .ing to #ass through the land of =dom Numbers ',)16 16.CC8 answer Nothing at all hinders but these things ma" be s#o.e of IadeshCbarnea which l"ing contiguous to the mountain of the :morites that is to mountainous Judea showed so great an arm" an access and #romised it$ onl" that access was winding and ver" difficult to be #assed. The" desire therefore a more level wa" of the .ing of =dom but obtain it not. J. 7erha#s that which chiefl" moved them was this$ that su##osing one Iadesh onl" to wit ;arnea CCit will be scarce #ossible not to confound the encam#ings of 8srael in the wilderness and their movings from #lace to #lace.CC8 answer There will be the same easiness of ordering them if "ou do but reduce the siBth and seventh verses of ?euteronom" 1, into a true sense and into agreement with Numbers ++ from verses +1 to (1$ which is not hard to do. ;ut let these things suffice for the #resent to have s#o.e besides our sco#e. That that Iadesh to which the" came in the fortieth "ear (which is called &eribah Numbers ',)1+) is the same with IadeshCbarnea is clear enough from hence CCthat &eribah in Iadesh is assigned for the southern border of the land =%e.iel (6)1*$ which border of old was IadeshCbarnea Numbers +()($ Joshua 15)+. Chapter ' The $iver of &gypt, $hinocorura. The La e of "irbon. 7lin" writes ">rom 7elusium are the intrenchments of 5habrias) mount 5asius) the tem#le of Ju#iter 5asius) the tomb of 7om#e" the !reat) 9stracine) :rabia is bounded siBt"Cfive miles from 7elusium) soon after begins 8dumea and 7alestine from the rising u# of the 0irbon la.e." =ither m" e"es deceive me while 8 read these things CCor mount 5asius lies nearer 7elusium than the la.e of 0irbon. The ma#s have ill #laced the 0irbon between mount 5asius and 7elusium. 'irbon im#lies burning$ the name of the la.e being derived from its nature which is fier" and bituminous. 8t is described b" ?iodorus 0iculus 0trabo and others whom "ou ma" loo. u#on. : la.e li.e to that of 0odom and #erha#s was of the li.e fate and original$ to wit an eBam#le of divine indignation. 1hat if it be the monument of that dreadful earth@ua.e in the da"s of K%%iah :mos 1)1 Hechariah 1()52 when

!od contended also in fire :mos 6)() so that some cities #erished after the manner of 0odom and !omorrha :mos ()11$ 8saiah 1)*. The farthest border of the land of 8srael southward is not Nile in =g"#t but 0hihor in the wa" to =g"#t Joshua 1+)+$ Jeremiah ')18. 8n the 0event" inter#reters it is 3hinocorura$ for the" render that in 8saiah '6)1' "unto the stream of =g"#t." "Knto 3hinocorura." 9f which #lace and name derived from the -cutting of nostrils - see ?iodorus 0iculus lib. 1. F6,.G Chapter ) # "ight of !udea "8n Judea is the mountainous countr" the #lain and the vale. 1hat is the mountainous countr" of Judea2 8t is the .ing-s mountain. The #lain of it is the #lain of the south. The vale is from =nCgedi to Jericho. The #lain of <"dda is as the #lain of the south) and its mountainous countr" is as the .ing-s mountainous countr". >rom ;ethChoron to the sea is one circum4acent region. 3abbi Jochanan saith Let it hath a mountainous #art a #lain and a vale. >rom ;ethChoron to =mmaus is mountainous CCfrom =mmaus to <"dda is #lain CCfrom <"dda to the sea is valle"." Judea is not divided amiss into four #arts)CCnamel" into the countr" which formerl" was the 7hilistineswhich ta.es u# the western #art. To this 4oins on the east the mountainous countr" of Judea which is also called "The .ing-s mount." To the mountainous countr" on the east 4oins a #lain a countr" more low and level than the mountains which nevertheless here and there hath its hills...": valle" l"ing between mountains is rec.oned with the mountains and mountains in a valle" are numbered with the valle"." To the #lain eastwardl" 4oins a valle" lower than the #lain CCnamel" the coast of the sea of 0odom and at length of Jordan. The land of ;en4amin in li.e manner which is numbered with Judea in res#ect of its su#erficies was of the same nature$ which although "it was a #ortion of the narrowest limits b" reason of the goodness of the soil " "et had its mountainous #art its #lain and vale) and that not onl" towards <"dda and the great sea but towards Jericho and Jordan. Judea did eBcel all the other #arts of the land of 8srael in ver" man" #rivileges. >or besides that in it was seated Jerusalem the metro#olis of the whole nation and in Jerusalem stood the Tem#le and in the Tem#le sat the 0anhedrim)CCthis was also #eculiar to it out of the 5anons that "it was not lawful to intercalate the "ear out of Judea while the" might do it in Judea." &aimonides gives the reason of the thing ";ecause there dwelt the divine glor"."CC"Nor was the sheaf of the firstCfruits of the barle" to be fetched elsewhere than from Judea and as near as might be to Jerusalem." 9nce it was fetched a great wa" off /c. Chapter &G # Description of the "ea'coast, out of ,liny and "trabo. "8dumea and 7alestine begin from the rising u# of the 0irbon la.e. The towns of 3hinocorura and within 3a#hea. !a%a and within :nthedon. &ount :ngaris. The countr" along the coast 0amaria. The free town :scalon :%otus. The two Jamnes the one a village" (otherwise Jamne within). "Jo##e of the 7hoenicians. Thence :#ollonia. The tower of 0trato$ the same is 5aesarea. The bounds of 7alestine are a hundred and eight"Cnine miles from the confines of :rabia. Then begins 7hoenice." :nd cha#ter 1*) "1e must go bac. to the coast and 7hoenice. There was the town 5rocodilon$ it is now a river. 3ains of some cities. ?orum. 0"caminum. The #romontor" 5armel) and in the mountain a town of the same name heretofore called =cbatana. Near that !etta <ebba the river 7agida or ;elus mingling glass" sand with its small shore) it flows from the la.e 5endevia at the root of 5armel. NeBt that is 7tolemais a colon" of 5laudius 5aesar which heretofore was called :ce. The town =cdi##a. The

1hite 7romontor". T"rus heretofore an island /c. 8t is in com#ass nineteen miles 7alaeCT"re l"ing within being included. The town itself contains twoCandCtwent" furlongs. Then the towns =nh"dra 0are#ta and 9rnithon$ and 0idon the artist of glass and the mother of Thebes in ;oeotia." 0trabo goes bac.ward) "T"rus is not distant from 0idon above two hundred furlongs")CCfiveCandCtwent" miles. The masters of the Jews have observed this neighbourhood in that canon whereb" #rovision is made that nobod" beta.e himself to sail in the &editerranean sea within three da"s before the sabbath) ";ut if an" (sa" the") will sail from T"re to 0idon he ma" even on the eve of the sabbath) because it is well .nown that that s#ace ma" be sailed while it is "et da"." ";etween T"re and 0idon there is the little cit" 9rnithon" (the cit" of birds). ":t T"re a river goes out." "Thirt" furlongs be"ond T"re is 7alaeCT"rus") three miles three @uarters. 1hen therefore 7lin" saith the com#ass of T"re is nineteen miles "7alaeCT"re that lies within being included " he shows manifestl" that it is not to be understood of the com#ass of the cit" itself since he saith "The town itself held twoCandCtwent" furlongs")