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ACCOUNTS PAYABLE SYSTEM The purpose of accounts payable system is to keep track of amount owed by the organization for

the goods purchased, to pay the suppliers for items purchased and to provide reports of accounts payable.

The system involved in accounts payable is The stores department sends a requisition to the purchase department for procuring goods mentioned in the requisition. The purchase department issues a purchase order to an appropriate supplier for the supply of the goods. The supplier supplies the goods along with challan which are received by the receiving department.

Goods received are sent to stores department, which makes a stores receiving report. Supplier sends his invoice to the accounts department Accounts payable department processes this invoice on the basis of purchase order, challan, daily receiving report of receiving department and store receiving confirmation. After verifying all the records, a voucher is prepared to record the invoice and a payment to the supplier. This manual processing could be done automatically as well. The accounts payable department makes a batch of these payments vouchers and prepares a batch control slip by deriving the following totals: Record count which consists of number of payment vouchers in a batch.

Hast total e.g., total of supplier account numbers. Financial total by adding the net amount due for each invoice. This batch control slip is generally processed as a control record. After the processing of these payment vouchers is completed, these totals are compared with totals generated by the computer for authenticity. Thus, the inputs to the accounts payable system are: Purchase orders Invoices from suppliers Daily receiving reports Store receiving confirmation

The outputs from the accounts payable system are: Supplier payment cheque along with remittance statement Cheque disbursement register Statement of account payable for the month To produce the outputs, accounts payable system uses two types of stored data. First is the accounts payable data, which consists of one record of each supplier. Accounts payable data consists of supplier number, invoice data, payment amount, due date, payments date and amount paid. All fields in this data, except for supplier number, are repeated for each supplier invoice. The other stored data used is the supplier master file which contains details

regarding supplier number, suppliers name and address. Processing in the accounts payable system consists of following activities: The supplier invoice is compared with purchase order to determine whether description of items ordered matches with the description of the items mentioned in the invoice. The supplier invoice is compared with receiving report to determine whether the items billed have actually been received. The supplier invoice is compared with the store receiving confirmation to determine whether the items billed have actually been received in the stores. If the above comparisons are found in order, invoice is processed by the

system to update the accounts payable data, which records the due payment of invoice. The updated accounts payable data is checked everyday to see whether any invoice payments are due and when a payment is almost due, a cheque is prepared. As the cheques are posted, the accounts payable data is updated to indicate that the particular invoice has been paid. At the end of the month, the total accounts payable is computed from the accounts payable data. The figure shows the accounts payable system diagram

INPUT INPUT Purchase order Supplier invoice Receiving report Store receiving confirmation

PROCESSING Checking of purchase Order, supplier invoice Receiving report and store Receiving confirmations Checks payment due date Computes total accounts payable

Output Supplier cheques Accounts payable report

STORAGE Accounts payable data Supplier master data


Payables edit program Vendor vvv invoices Sort by vendor number Vendor update Vendor master file Payables held over Vendor update program Payables merge program Payables program Payable to be paid Payables cheque program Payables summary program Vendor cheques General ledger report Payable register report Missing vendor accounts Edit and balance

Payables cutoff vendor hold

The functions and properties of these Pending payables computer programs file are briefly discussed below:

(a) Payable edit program- edits and balances keyed vendor invoice information as well as edits any vendor change information to be added to the vendor master file. Those transact which fail to clear various checks are printed in the error list (b) Vendor update program- updates the vendor master file, prints a vendor report and identifies missing vendor accounts. Inputs to the vendor update program consist of vendor master file and sorted transaction file of vendors. (c) Payable register program- produces a list of all vendor invoices to be paid. Before printing the list, however, a second payable merge is made. This merger combines new payables transactions with payables which have not been paid.

(d) Payable cheque program- consists of printing the vendor voucher cheques. Along with the cheques, details of payment e.g. invoice number, date and amount against which payment is being made is also printed. (e) Payable summary programsummarizes payable by general leger codes, i.e; by account categories. The accounts payable system generates the following reports:(a) Daily payment list-which itemizes the invoices processed for payment on a particular date. (b) Cheque register- is the permanent record of payments made to vendors. (c) Accrued liability report-is a summary of all unpaid liabilities at the times of closing, which provides the basis for

recognizing legitimate obligations to outsiders. (d) Cash forecasting-provides information for preparation of short range cash payment forecast. (e) Discrepancy reporting- as the computer performs the programmed audits of the documents supporting payment, discrepancies which require action on the part of vendors may be brought to the attention through the automatic preparation of vendor advisory messages read for mailing.

PAYROLL SYSTEM The employee payroll represents a business expense. The purpose of payroll

system is to prepare pay cheques for their employees, payslips and to provide payroll reports. Payroll is one of the most important computer applications. The process involves collecting of details of number of days for which each employee has worked in a month through his attendance card, computing gross pay, deduction and net pay.

Computer based payroll system helps in making prompt and accurate payments to employees as well as reports to management, employees and government agencies concerning earnings, taxes and other deductions. They also provide reports analyzing labour costs and productivity, which may be very helpful for the management.

Maintenance of employee master file is a major task associated with payroll processing. Employee master file contains the following details:(a)Employee pay status (b)Employee identification Employee code Department code Employee name Employee address Bank account number Sex Date of birth Date of joining (c) Wage and salary information Salary rate

Overtime rate Voluntary deductions (d)Current payroll information Current gross pay Current dearness allowance Current house rent allowance Current voluntary deductions Current tax deductions Current net pay (e)Year to date payroll information YTD gross pay YTD Income tax YTD net pay The layout of employee master file helps to clarify the relationships between the recording of number of days worked by an

employee and printing of the employee pay cheque. There may be several changes which must be made in the payroll master file every month before payroll processing is done. After incorporating the changes in the payroll master file, the information contained in the payroll transaction file is entered. The payroll transaction file contains the following information:Employee code Number of days worked Overtime hours Special deductions The figure shows the processing of payroll:
INPUT Employee work report data contained in payroll Payroll master file PROCESSING Compute payroll data Compute payroll totals OUTPUT Pay cheques Pay slips Payroll report

STORAGE Employee work data Employee master data

THE PAYROLL SYSTEM The input to the payroll system is the employee work report data, which indicates how much the employee has worked. The outputs from the system include the pay cheques, payslips in which details of salaries under different heads and deductions made on account of income tax, loan investments, provident fund, etc. are indicated, and the net play. To produce the output, the system stores employee work data from the employee attendance cards. The system also requires

employees master data. Payroll processing involves using the employee work data and master data to calculate payroll data for each employee. The batch processing of payroll transaction is explained in figure:
Time cards Payroll edit programs Edit and balance report

Sort by employment code

Payroll register Employee master file Payroll register program

Payroll cheque program

Employee pay cheques

journal program The first step in Payroll processing is the entry of keyed attendance card information. After

data entry, following four programs are required in computer processing:(a)Payroll edit program- detects errors in input data. The reported errors are rectified and the edit program is re-runed to produce an errors free input file. (b)Payroll register program- produces a printed register of the amounts to be paid to the employees. (c)Payroll cheque program- produces employees pay cheques and pay slips. (d)Payroll journal program-summarizes the results of payroll processing, generally by general ledger code. With this, payroll expenses can be entered directly into the financial statements At the end of the year, the completed master payroll file is used to print annual

reports. These reports may be used for income tax computation and provident funds returns. The various outputs of payroll system are:(a) Payroll register and master filepayroll register and master file are one of the most useful outputs of the payroll system (b) Payroll deductions report-itemizes the total voluntary deductions for each employee by specific agency funds (c) Periodic payroll and summary deductions-is the summary of payroll activity for the month and year to date. (d) Cheque register-lists the cheques issues to employees to cover payroll liability. SALES ORDER PROCESSING SYSTEM

Sales order processing is an important transaction processing system which captures and processes customer orders and produces invoices for the customers and data required for sales analysis and inventory control. It can also keep track of the status of customer orders until goods are delivered. Computer based sales order processing systems provide a fast, accurate and efficient method of recording and screening customer orders and sales transactions. They also provide information to inventory control systems on accepted orders to ensure that they can be executed as quickly as possible. sales order processing system consists of Order entry system

Billing system Accounts receivable system Order entry system The purpose of order entry system is to Speed the processing of a customers purchase order Prepare the orders in a form that can be used by the business. The functions of order entry system are summarized in figure-

INPUT Customer order data

PROCESSSING Check inventory quantity Check customer credit

OUTPUT Sales orders

STORAGE Customer order data

As shown in the figure the input system is the customer order data, which would be received on an order entry form or over the telephone. The output of the system is the sales order. The customer orders may be entered into the systems as they are received, or orders may be collected and entered in batches periodically. The system involves two programs and a manual procedure. One program is needed for data entry, data validation and storage of customer order data. Another program is needed to access the inventory master data, the customer master data and the customer order data, and to produce the sales order. These programs are executed

in sequence. A manual procedure is needed to correct errors in the customer order. The figure below shows batch processing design of order entry system-

Customer order

Order entry edit program

Edit and balance report

Sort by customer number

Customer master file

Customer order entry program

Customer credit report

Sort by product number Product master file Product order entry posting program Updated suspense file

Missing product accounts

Picking slips Order entry packaging slip program

Order entry summary program

Packing slips

Approved invoice transactions

(a)order entry edit program-examines keyed input for correctness and produces

an edit and balance report. This keyed information is extracted from the customer purchase orders and consists of record code, customer account number, purchase order number, product numbers, specified delivery date. (b)customer order entry posting program-examines each edited customer purchase order to determine whether the customer account is new or is already existing in the customer master file. (c) product order entry posting programtransfers information from the product master file to the order entry transaction file. Processing is initiated by a sort operation, the transaction file is sorted by product number. (d)order entry picking program-consists of printing picking slips to instruct members

of warehouse staff regarding products which need to be packed and shipped to the customers. (e)order entry packing slip programincludes making adjustments to customer orders, adding freight charges to orders, printing packing slips to be included with shipped products. (f)order entry summary program-recaps order entry activities, writes back orders and future orders to a combined back order future order file and creates an approved invoice file

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