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Language for Study

LEVEL 3
Teachers Notes

Introduction

Underlying principles of the course


The importance of study skills for success in higher education is well established and is, perhaps, reflected in the large number of study skills publications which deal with the topic; most universities now offer, at the least, online study skills advice to their students. However, classroom experience has taught us that while many publications currently available give sound advice, relatively few offer accessible practice activities to help students develop their skills successfully. Thiscourse is designed, therefore, to help students develop the functional academic,reasoning and linguistic skills they need for success within an Englishmedium university. English for Academic Purposes is, by definition, not an area solely relevant to nonnative speakers. Native or near-native speakers making the transition to university or higher levels of study must also master modes of discourse and language use which are appropriate for academic purposes, and which may be unfamiliar to them in daily life. The course is therefore designed to provide discrete but complementary academic and linguistic skills, and it is for this reason that it is divided into separate Skills and Language texts. The Skills for Study books provide general academic skills such as library research, group work and essay planning, but they also touch upon aspects of academic language and discourse (such as hedging, and structuring arguments) which are as vital for native speakers as they are for nonnative speakers. The Language for Study books therefore concentrate on specific language items which present a challenge to non-native speakers but which would ordinarily fall outside the scope of a study skills text. This division allows teachers to provide skills or language support appropriate to the linguistic and skill level of their students.

Aims of the course


The course is intended for classroom use with students preparing for, or currently enrolled on, undergraduate or postgraduate courses. In general terms, the Skills and Language for Study course, when used in combination, is designed to take students from a language proficiency level of CEFR B2 (IELTS equivalent of 5.0) to a typical entry requirement of CEFR C1 (IELTS equivalent of 6.5). These books set out to help students develop confidence in their ability to understand and evaluate authoritative sources of information, and a greater awareness of, and ability to express, their own academic identity and position. At the same time, they are encouraged to consider who their audiences are, and produce appropriate academic texts. Attention is paid to the importance of drafting and revising work, but this course adopts a genre rather than a process approach overall. We have aimed to provide students with knowledge of the composition and features of typical spoken and written discourse in an academic context, somewhat following Ken Hylands view that it is both necessary and essential to provide students with the frames that will help them to function and communicate successfully in a higher education context (Hyland, 2004, p.3).

Teachers Notes Language for Study 3 Introduction

Introduction
The Skills and Language for Study course makes communicative activities central, with a view to helping students locate, understand, use and produce authentic written or spoken texts. Certain common features of generic study skills books are therefore not included here. There is, for instance, no specific treatment of skills subjects like organizing ones study space, or time management; no advice is given on how to boost memory or cope with exam stress. Rather, close attention is paid to functional performance in assessed academic contexts such as writing essays and reports, participating effectively in discussions, and giving presentations.

Organization of the course


The course is organized into three levels, with one Skills and one corresponding Language book at each level. There are four themed units in each level, with identical themes uniting each Skills and accompanying Language book. Source texts on the unit theme are provided in the Skills book, and language items are initially drawn from these texts and then analyzed and explored in additional contexts in the Language books, therefore helping students to understand and use the language they are studying in an authentic academic context. Each unit has five Parts (AE) based on different academic skill and language areas. For instance, in Level 3, Unit 1:

Theme: An electronic world


Part A Understanding spoken information Language for Study Identifying features of fluent speech Understanding how pauses, intonation and stress influence listeners Skills for Study Understanding disciplinary differences in listening aims Understanding the difference between informative and persuasive speech Reviewing your notes after listening Using Cornell notes B Understanding written information Identifying appropriate academic style Referring to different authors ideas Identifying persuasive language Recognizing types of text in different disciplines Understanding academic arguments Recognizing the development of arguments Identifying persuasion in texts

Teachers Notes Language for Study 3 Introduction

Introduction
C Investigating Identifying the grammatical structure of reporting verbs Identifying reporting verb collocations Defining critical thinking Using critical thinking in your studies Assessing your own criticalthinking skills Recognizing factors that can interfere with critical thinking Understanding how and why writers use citations D Reporting in speech Identifying rise and fall tones for checking and adding new information Identifying and using tones for authority and finishing a topic Identifying the purpose of a presentation Using software to create effective presentation visuals Making presentations with persuasive content Delivering presentations persuasively Creating and delivering a successful group presentation E Reporting in writing Identifying generalspecific structure in introductions Matching structure and purpose in writing

Identifying linking words used in Writing a suitable introduction introductions Using citations in writing Writing and paraphrasing Using citations in different definitions using academic nouns academic disciplines Within each Part, the initial sections explore specific functional skills or areas of academic language (e.g. Developing a thesis statement). These areas are explored in detail using a series of controlled tasks which develop students awareness, and give opportunities for discussion and practice of the skills and language used in that area. A further section within each Part (called the Unit Task in the Skills books, and the Lesson Task in the Language books) draws together the different skills or language areas covered in that Part to give opportunities for use within the context of authentic, frequently interactive, academic tasks. The Language books provide a further section at the end of each Part entitled Review and extension, which allows students to consolidate and develop their understanding of the language items studied.

Teachers Notes Language for Study 3 Introduction

Introduction

Features of the course


Texts and data It is important that students engage with authentic academic texts, yet the linguistic and cognitive difficulty of fully authentic academic texts can interfere with the development of key skills if students are expected to use them from the outset. For this reason, many of the texts which appear in the course have been purposefully written to suit specific learning aims. In some cases, fully authentic texts have been used, or slightly modified to allow a focus on specific language features. In most cases, even in texts which have been written by ourselves, we have tried to use authentic data; however, in some instances, particularly where the teaching aim involves critical evaluation of an argument, texts with artificial data and references have been used to avoid accidental misrepresentation of real writers work. Subject specificity The academic skills and language focused on in the course are largely non-subject specific, although they are intended to provide a wide enough range of activities and perspectives on different topics to allow teachers to plot programmes of study that target the specific needs of their students (e.g. tutors using books Language for Study 2 (LS2) and Skills for Study 2 (SS2) can plot different pathways for students in humanities and business courses on the one hand, and the natural sciences on the other). The topics in the course have been chosen for general interest, contemporary relevance, and overall accessibility to non-specialists. It is hoped that they will encourage students to question the nature of the world around them and that of the near future in which they will act during their studies and after graduation from university. Task authenticity As far as possible, the tasks that students are engaged in are designed to be academically authentic. Since most academic-related procedures (e.g. planning, researching and delivering an academic presentation) take place over an extended period of time, it is not always possible to replicate this fully in the classroom; however, many of the tasks should involve either academically authentic processing of information and/or provide opportunities for some authentic academically related interaction (either personperson or persontext). On the basis that even in academic contexts the overriding purpose is to communicate information and ideas, many tasks are designed to have a genuinely communicative element. Critical thinking The course is designed to promote and enhance students critical thinking abilities. Beginning with basic awareness of critical thinking in Level 1, there is a steady increase in the focus on critical thinking throughout the three levels, as well as an increase in the cognitive challenge that tasks present. Many activities are designed explicitly to teach critical thinking, while in other authentic academic tasks use of this skill is necessary for successful completion of the activity. Students learn not only to analyze logic and assess the validity of claims, but also to consider how language use can be used to shape claims.
Teachers Notes Language for Study 3 Introduction 5

Introduction
Recycling The course as a whole offers opportunities for self-analysis, and peer and teacher feedback. It also provides recycling of key targets throughout individual books and the course. We recognize that the split between skills and language is not always definitive, and therefore there are a number of features common to both (forinstance hedging and signposting language).

References Hyland, K. (2004). Genre and second language writing. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Note
Language for Study 3 (LS3) is divided into four units with the following themes: Unit 1: An electronic world Unit 2: New frontiers Unit 3: The individual in society Unit 4: Choices Students should be made aware that recordings used in class will be available online for them to listen to again as many times as they feel necessary after class. For easy reference, answers to activities are presented in these tutor notes in bold. Material in the blue information boxes introduces important points to be addressed. Tutors can choose to go over this material in different ways, according to the needs of their class. For example:

lect a student to read out the text in the information box, then discuss it as E aclass. sk students to note the main point or points in the information box, and then A compare answers as a class. sk students to read the text in the information box individually, then A summarize what they have understood to a partner.

Acknowledgements
Wed like to thank staff and teachers at Kaplan International Colleges who have been involved with the development of the course.

Teachers Notes Language for Study 3 Introduction

Unit 1
Unit overview
Part A

An electronic world
In LS3 by improving your ability to In SS3 by improving your ability to understand disciplinary differences in listening aims understand the difference between informative and persuasive speech review your notes after listening use Cornell notes. recognize types of text in different disciplines understand academic arguments recognize the development of arguments identify persuasion in texts. define critical thinking use critical thinking in your studies assess your own critical-thinking skills recognize factors that can interfere with critical thinking understand how and why writers use citations.

This Part will help you to

Listen more identify features of fluent effectively in lectures speech understand how pauses, intonation and stress influence listeners.

Become familiar with different types of written text

identify appropriate academic style refer to different authors ideas identify persuasive language.

Develop criticalthinking skills

identify the grammatical structure of reporting verbs identify reporting verb collocations.

Prepare effective oral identify rise and fall tones presentations for checking and adding new information identify and use tones for authority and finishing a topic.

identify the purpose of a presentation use software to create effective presentation visuals make presentations with persuasive content deliver presentations persuasively create and deliver a successful group presentation.

Develop essaywriting skills

identify generalspecific structure in introductions identify linking words used in introductions write and paraphrase definitions using academic nouns.

match structure and purpose in writing write a suitable introduction use citations in writing use citations in different academic disciplines.

Unit 1 An electronic world Overview

Unit 1
Part A

An electronic world
Understanding spoken information
The aim of this part is for students to improve their listening skills in lectures through: identifying features of fluent speech understanding how pauses, intonation and stress influence listeners.

1 Identifying features of fluent speech


1a
Suggested answers
1 Hard (or paradigmatic) subjects are considered to arise from a strong, common base of knowledge. There is usually also wide consensus about the way in which theories should properly be developed. Primary research uses proven methodologies. The overall focus is on problem-solving and verification of theories. Soft (or non-paradigmatic) subjects are often in areas where there is less agreement about key ideas and research methodologies. There may be many alternative and competing knowledge bases. Consensus is sought through debate and argument. The overall focus is on critical thinking as a way to assess others arguments. 2 Pure subjects are mainly concerned with the study of theories and concepts to satisfy the need to know. Applied subjects attempt to use theoretical discoveries outside academia for some practical purpose. 3 Life subjects involve the study of living things, e.g. biological or social science. Non-life subjects involve the study of the non-living physical world and some abstract concepts.

1b

Answers
1 economics or sociology 2 physics or chemistry

1c

Suggested answers
take a look at (4 final consonant links) differences (2 unstressed vowels) various academic (4) The most familiar (1 no final consonant sound) for a lot of (4) division of academic (4) soft subjects (1) does it (4)

Unit 1 An electronic world Part A

that a subject is (4) Does it have any implications (3 extra consonant sound) soft distinction (1) studied a number of different academic disciplines (4, 4, 2, 4) divided along three axes (4, 3) also a (3)

1d Students check their answers.


1.1

1e

Answers
Main areas for attention are underlined. 1 Its a simple enough distinction (final consonant links) 2 This is hopefully (final consonant links) 3 But lets look more closely at (extra consonant sound) 4 To an extent, (extra consonant sound; unstressed vowel; final consonant links) 5 in the course of (final consonant links; unstressed vowel) 6 This explains to some extent why (final consonant links) 7 on the other hand (extra consonant sound) 8 Theres a strong consensus about the way (final consonant links; final consonant links; no final consonant sound) 9 Its particularly important (extra consonant sound) 10 So we can see that there are clear differences between (final consonant links; unstressed vowel sound)

1f Students practise the phrases.


1.2

2  Understanding how pauses, intonation and stress influence listeners


2a
Answer
The main argument is that social and economic factors can prevent universal internet usage, which in turn makes social and economic inequalities even greater.

2b

Answers
Feature Pauses How each feature might be used to support an argument Helps give listeners chances to take in information. Can give listeners an expectation of what is coming; a long pause suggests something important might be coming. Can show the speaker is asking a question, or giving new or old information, changing topic, etc. Words in a sentence which are stressed are meant to be taken notice of by the listener.

Intonation Stress

2c Play again if necessary but emphasize that the main purpose of the exercise is to focus attention on the features used to persuade the listener.

Unit 1 An electronic world Part A

Answers
1.3

/ = pause; = intonation; underline = prominently stressed words Now / several studies / such as work by Chris Kelvin in 2003 / and Paul De Sotos / 2007 article / The Divided World/ have identified the digital divide / as being basically / a problem of technology / In essence / they claim that the internet digital divide / is similar to what was seen with TV / and other emergent / or new technologies / Such technologies / are first of all / adopted in certain leading-edge centres / and then, slowly / they spread themselves over time / until they become nearly universal /

2d

Answers
Feature Pauses Intonation Stress How the features are used by this lecturer Tends to pause to signal important words or ideas. Rising intonation suggests new information; falling intonation suggests the end of a sub-topic. Stressing to highlight key words.

2e Student discussion 2f Student discussion


1.4

2g

Answers
1 giving new information 2 signalling the end of an idea 3 checking 4 expressing authority 5 asking a question

2h
1.5

Answers
1 In essence 2 they claim that 3 the internet digital divide 4 is similar to what was seen 5 with TV 6 and other emergent 7 or new 8 technologies

Lesson task: 3 Preparing and presenting a short, persuasive talk


3a Student discussion

3b
1.6

Answers
1 T 2 F 3 F 4 F

Unit 1 An electronic world Part A

10

3c
1.5

Answers
1 Speakers main argument 2 Words or phrases used to persuade listener 3 Supporting information Now some of these things, like TV and radio, were previously delivered to the home using other devices, but since 2007 there has been an enormous rise in the number of people using the Internet to watch TV shows that they could have watched on their home TV set, or likewise listening to radio shows online rather than switching on a dedicated home radio. The evidence is clear that using the Internet for this kind of content actually requires more power consumption than if the user were to use a regular TV or radio. Looking at the figures for TV, we see here that average power consumption for a desktop computer is between 100 and 150 watts, with a laptop being rather less than half of that. By contrast, TVs stand at 74 watts.

3d Student discussion. Many variations are possible. 3e3h  Student presentations and discussion
3i Group discussion

4 Review and extension


4a
1.7

Answers
Reasons given are:  materials to supplement time in class  can communicate with other students  successful students tend to use it.

4b

Suggested answers
1 really should use 2 have just one 3 dont use it 4 understand its 5 also true that

4c

Answers
1 no final consonant sound 2 unstressed vowels 3 extra consonant sound 4 final consonant links 1  The past couple4 of years4 or so have seen4 increasing claims that the kind4 of content1 that people view4 on the3 Internet can cause4 excessive4 electricity consumption. 2 Clearly, with4 an4 increase4 in the number4 of users, there4 is also3 an increase4 in the3 energy which they consume while using the Net. 3  It is, in fact, almost1 certain that using the3 Internet to view this kind4 of content4 is more energy efficient than using a sep2arate, dedicated machine, and that this4 efficiency will continue to3 improve.

4d Students check their answers.


1.8

Unit 1 An electronic world Part A

11

Part B

Understanding written information


The aim of this part is for students to improve their reading and writing skills through: identifying appropriate academic style referring to different authors ideas identifying persuasive language.

1 Identifying appropriate academic style


1a
Note: There is a degree of speculation here, but at this level students should be noticing the more colourful, discursive language in A and the drier, more descriptive language in B. Other clues include key vocab in B (results/sample) and C (this paper will ...). Answers
A a soft discipline, e.g. cultural studies / essay or textbook / introduction B a soft discipline / dissertation or research article / introduction or main body C any discipline / essay or report / abstract or introduction

1b

Answers
Adjectives: rapid, creeping (spread), further (erosion), increasing (claims), excessive (electricity consumption) Comparisons: None Idioms: in some quarters Metaphors: erosion (of cultures), electricity drain Personalization: None Quotations: None

1c Student discussion 1d Group discussion

2 Referring to different authors ideas


2a
Note: We can see from the use of the verb note that the writer agrees with the idea being introduced. Note is more commonly used to introduce a point you agree with than one you dont, as it is synonymous with noticed and recorded. Verbs such as claim or assert would be more suitable if you disagree. Answers
1 The writer respects Bechers and Newmans opinions. 2 seminal studies, clearly demonstrated, notes 3&4 Extract A Sentence 1 the writers ideas and words Extract A Sentence 2 Bechers ideas / writers words Extract B Newmans ideas / writers words

Unit 1 An electronic world Part B

12

2b

Answers
1 Cohens ideas Note: the student has partly misread Cohens ideas. Cohen states that the Bretton Woods agreement was probably of more importance than the Federal Reserve System. 2 Paraphrased 3 Probably agrees (non-integral citations tend to indicate the writers acceptance of the information)

2c

Answers
Extract 1 1 Cohens ideas 2 Repeated from Cohen (as quotation) 3 Neutral (it depends how the quotation is being used) Extract 2 1 Cohens ideas 2 Paraphrased 3 Possibly agrees (due to choice of reporting verb argue) Extract 3 1 Cohens ideas 2 Paraphrased 3 Probably disagrees (due to choice of reporting verb claim) Extract 4 1 Cohens ideas 2 Repeated (as quotation) 3 Probably agrees (due to choice of reporting verb points out) Extract 5 1 Cohens ideas 2 Repeated (as quotation) 3 Probably agrees Extract 6 1 Cohens ideas 2 Repeated without citation (plagiarized) 3 Probably agrees

2d

Answers
It is necessary to reach a meaningful definition of high and low status within the workforce. Sieberts (1997, p. 203) classic distinction draws the line between high and low status staff, depending on executive decision-making privilege. Morena (2006), however, has offered a subtle alternative in which the status distinction is derived from staff intuitions. Therefore, the working definition of what it is to be a high status staff member is taken from the opinions of the staff in the workplace being studied. Sieberts definition has the advantage of being the commonly accepted one, having been used in a number of key studies into status effects. However, it suffers in our view from the necessity of further defining which decisions are executive; many lower ranking staff enjoy decision-making powers but would not be recognized as high status by their peers. In this regard, Morenas definition seems to offer aclearer view of the reality of status distinctions within any given organization.

Unit 1 An electronic world Part B

13

In the present study, we have chosen to follow Morenas definition. High-status staff are therefore defined as being those within the organization who the staff members themselves perceive as holding executive decision-making privileges.

2e

Answers
Positive Siebert (1997) classic distinction advantage commonly accepted a number of key studies subtle alternative aclearer view Negative suffers

Morena (2006)

2f

Suggested answers
Note: Variations are possible. a (As) Wu (2009) points out (that) / clearly demonstrates, b Wu (2009) claims that c (Wu, 2009) / Wu (2009) argues that

Note: The writers attitude towards the source will be expressed in the way it is reported, as above. The paraphrasing of the actual information in the source should remain the same, whatever the writers attitude.

3 Identifying persuasive language


3a
Answer
Analogy / comparison

3b Student discussion
Suggested answers
Presenting evidence and examples to support the authors claims Emphasizing consensus with other authors Using (large) numbers to demonstrate weight of evidence Using emotive vocabulary to convince the reader that something is true when, in fact, it may only be a theory Appealing to common sense and reason Extending easily acceptable propositions by applying to less acceptable claims Using analogy to show similarities between ideas

3c

Answers
The past two decades have seen an increasing awareness of the subtleties and diversity of expression in different fields of study. Seminal studies such as Becher (1989) have clearly demonstrated the way different academic disciplines build, shape and express meaning. The traditional division of fields of study into hard and soft disciplines is reflected in the types of media through which written information

Unit 1 An electronic world Part B

14

is presented to students or, more precisely, the types of media which students are expected to look to for knowledge. The following paper will briefly outline some of the key distinctions between written text types used in differing categories of discipline following Biglans (1973) framework, before making some tentative recommendations for use at an institutional level.

3d

Answers
Emphasizing consensus with other authors: such as Becher (1989), following Biglans (1973) framework Using emotive vocabulary to convince the reader that something is true when, in fact, it may only be a theory: clearly demonstrated, traditional Using analogy to show similarities between ideas: build, shape (meaning)

3e

Suggested answers
1  This would tend to support the view that email is perceived as being somewhat like a letter, with the expectation of proper politeness formalities. 2 Denmans study was particularly broad, gathering results from a total of 9,000 workers in 200 US businesses, which demonstrated an overwhelming feeling among US office staff that email was a primary workplace stressor. 3 Email is, of course, absolutely not an instantaneous form of communication, in the way that a phone conversation is. 4 Whereas Tycho (1997) considered only twelve cases, the current paper is based on findings from 143 interviews conducted with institute staff during the 19931997 period. 5 Other studies in Europe have echoed the results of Denmans work, and it now seems irrefutable that email, despite its many benefits, is also a cause of significant workplace stress, rather than a mere inconvenience. 6 The evidence overwhelmingly indicates that email is a significant cause, perhaps the primary cause, of modern workplace stress. It is important that the evident benefits of email do not cause us to overlook this fact, or minimize its impact on workplace well-being, job satisfaction, and the dreadful consequences of stress-related illness. 7 Numerous studies (Bergson, 1988; Calderon & Watts, 1991; Baranwal, 2001, 2003a, 2003b) have demonstrated the link between internet dependency and lower attention span. 8 We sincerely hope that this paper will be understood for what it is: a call to arms. It is vital that government and the private sector cooperate to ensure that those who suffer in economically deprived areas of our own cities are offered the same chances for success and happiness as their more fortunate peers. Emphasizing consensus: Other studies in Europe have echoed the results, Numerous studies ..., The evidence overwhelmingly indicates, Denmans study/work Using numbers: a total of 9,000 workers in 200 US businesses, is based on findings from 143 interviews  Using emotive vocabulary: particularly broad, of course, absolutely (not), overwhelming, seems irrefutable, overwhelmingly, significant, important, evident, dreadful, We sincerely hope, vital, suffer, deprived, fortunate Using analogy: somewhat like (a letter), in the way that a phone conversation is Using metaphor: have echoed, a call to arms

Unit 1 An electronic world Part B

15

Lesson task: 4 Recognizing persuasion in texts


4a Student discussion 4b Group reading and discussion
Note: If you intend to use this activity, it would be a good idea to read the texts beforehand and highlight any persuasive devices so that students can be fully supported. Suggested answers
Text A Heavily influenced; Not surprisingly; virtually all (94%); Perhaps most striking; Marc Prensky estimates; The life experiences that shaped todays students are quite different from those of previous eras. Students born in or after 1982 are likely to be different from previous generations of students because they have been exposed to IT from a very young age. This has affected their behaviour and learning preferences. Text B Significant developments; given the paucity of literature; Driver points out; has (also) been open to interpretation; The participation metaphor is useful A new approach to the teaching of fundamental scientific concepts that incorporates the idea of a mobile learner could increase scientific understanding among the population as a whole. Scientific understanding can be seen as an aspect of citizenship and not only as an isolated academic discipline.

4c & 4d Student discussion

5 Review and extension


5a
Suggested answers
Note: Variations are possible depending on agreement/disagreement. A  Lawson and Partridge (2010) argue that the US has unique strengths which have contributed further to its economic power. B  Lawson and Partridge (2010) claim that financiers seem to have ignored the unstable and poorly guaranteed loans that provided the basis for the boomingeconomy. C  As Lawson and Partridge (2010) correctly point out, the undermining ofAmerican economic power was not only due to the collapse of the USeconomy; it also coincided with the growth of other national economic powers. D  Lawson and Partridge (2010) suggest that the strength of the US economy will become increasingly threatened by emerging economies based on the manufacture of goods and new technology.

Unit 1 An electronic world Part B

16

5b

Answers
Note: Only the most common usages are given here. greatly important significant particularly complex critical important impressive interesting relevant significant sound suspect thorough useful valuable especially complex important impressive interesting relevant significant sound thorough useful valuable highly complex critical important impressive relevant significant suspect useful valuable extremely complex critical important interesting significant sound suspect thorough useful valuable

Unit 1 An electronic world Part B

17

Part C

Investigating
The aim of this part is for students to improve their researching skills through: identifying the grammatical structure of reporting verbs identifying reporting verb collocations.

1 Identifying the grammatical structure of reporting verbs


1a & 1b Student discussion 1c
Answers
1  Say tends to emphasize what is said and tends not to be followed by an object pronoun; it can be used for direct reports (quotations). Tell requires an object pronoun; it cannot be used for direct reports. For example: Then I said, Id prefer an earlier flight, if possible. Your brother told me you had gone out. 2  Say and tell are normally avoided in academic writing, as they are considered informal expressions.

1d

Answers
Claim most commonly followed by: that clause / verb infinitive / noun (e.g. success) Demonstrate followed by: noun phrase / that clause Identify followed by: noun phrase

1e

Suggested answers
Note: Many of the reporting verbs here can, of course, fit into other structure patterns too (see brackets). Reporting structure verb + noun phrase verb + that clause verb + wh- word verb + object + noun phrase verb + present participle verb + object + infinitive Example 2 1 3 6 5 4 Example reporting verb stress (reveal, propose) believe (stress, reveal, propose) reveal (stress, propose) consider (believe) propose (advise) advise

1f

Answers
Reporting structure verb + noun phrase verb + that clause Example 2 1 Example reporting verb cite, claim, demonstrate, investigate, note, offer, question argue, claim, demonstrate, find, note, report, show

Unit 1 An electronic world Part C

18

verb + wh- word verb + object + noun phrase verb + present participle verb + object + infinitive

3 6 5 4

investigate, question find report None

1g

Suggested answers
1 demonstrates / reveals / reports 2 claims / notes / argues 3 (any in that clause group) 4 (any in the noun phrase group, except offer) 5 investigates / questions 6 argues / claims 7 demonstrated / revealed / questioned 8 claims / reports / shows 9 investigates / notes / offers 10 find / consider / believe

1h

Answer
The main idea is that the risk from illegal spyware and phishing is less than the risk of the misuse of personal information, which may even be legal.

1i & 1j
Suggested answers
Note: Other alternatives are possible. 1 Recent studies / claimed 2 Ison and Roth / argue 3  Poor awareness (this is the grammatical subject, the agent here is not specified) / cited 4 Respondents / consider 5  Sensational media stories (this is the grammatical subject, the agent here isnot specified) / reported 6 Our paper / demonstrates 7 We / argue

2 Identifying reporting verb collocations


2a
Answers
Preceding word or phrase 1 2 3 4 5 often N/A one could defended the argument by to support this view, we Tense of keyword present perfect (passive) infinitive (of purpose) present tense present participle present tense Following word or phrase as a reason why as a reason for as an example (Elliss early) work (Palmers) claim

Unit 1 An electronic world Part C

19

2b

Answers
1 Words about texts / reasons / knowledge / peoples claims 2 Signpost expressions / phrases related to arguments 3 Followed by noun / noun phrase 4 Answer depends on student

2c Group discussion

Lesson task: 3 Reporting other peoples ideas


3a & 3b Group discussion 3c
Suggested answers
Note: Other alternatives are possible. 1  argues that, states that, notes that, observes that, confirms that, points outthat 2 argue that, suggest that, state that, claim that, hold that, point out that 3 argues that, observes that, states that, points out that, reveals that 4 note(d), establish(ed), examine(d), investigate(d), reveal(ed) 5  argues that, states that, observes that, suggests that, believes that, points outthat

3d Students make notes.


1.9

Answers
Lucy The Internet is not a force for good. It leads to domination of other cultures by  the West.  The majority of information on the Net is in English its too overwhelming.  People who want to use the Net must do so in English.  A lot of the Internet is pop culture stuff, which causes young people in nonWestern countries to forget their own cultures as they try to imitate Western trends.  Western culture and businesses are promoted at the expense of others.  People tend to think that good values, like law and human rights, are exclusively Western, but this is not the case. Simon The Internet is no bad thing.  Worldwide sharing of a global culture brings obvious benefits, such as agreement on common issues like human rights.  It is wrong to blame the Internet for unfairness in the world because such unfairness existed before the Internet. Sergei The Internet does not cause a one-way flow of culture from the West.  People in non-Western countries do not passively accept internet content from the West.  Many websites in other languages exist and continue to appear.  The Internet gives people in some minority communities a chance, for the first time, to express their own point of view online in their own languages.

Unit 1 An electronic world Part C

20

3e Student discussion. Many variations are possible.


Suggested answers
Lucy dislikes the Internets cultural impact. Simon thinks that unfairness is part of life. Sergei asks why Lucy thinks non-Westerners are less critical. Lucy suggests encouraging a wider range of languages. Simon tells Lucy to accept unfairness.

4 Review and extension


4a
Answers
Note: Some of the adjectives given here are in fact participles. Noun assumption citation contention declaration description discussion emphasis examination identification implication inference investigation maintenance proposal recommendation reference refinement revelation statement summary Verb assume cite contend declare describe discuss emphasize examine identify imply infer investigate maintain propose recommend refer / reference refine reveal state summarize Adjective assumed contentious declarative descriptive discursive emphatic examinable identifiable implied inferred investigative maintained proposed recommended referential refined revealing stated summarized

4b

Suggested answers
Note: Other possibilities in brackets (there are many other alternatives possible). 1 discovered that (found that, concluded that, revealed that) 2 suggests that (claims that, believes that, assumes that) 3 argues strongly that (contends that, maintains that, states that) 4 maintain that (claim that, argue that, state that) 5 finds that (reveals that, proposes that, indicates that)

Unit 1 An electronic world Part C

21

Part D

Reporting in speech
The aim of this part is for students to improve their speaking skills through: identifying rise and fall tones for checking and adding new information identifying and using tones for authority and finishing a topic.

1  Identifying rise and fall tones for checking and adding newinformation
1a
Answer
exCUSE me could you HELP me

1b

Answers
1 Stressed words 2 Pauses

1c & 1d
1.10

Answer
COULD you GIve me // some adVICE // on WHAT // I NEED to do // for my presenTAtion

1e
1.11

Answers
1 if the tutor can give him any advice on his presentation 2 advice about number of slides, slide layout and graphics

1f

Answers
1 fall 2 rise (for each item that the student checks, and a fall tone on the final item) 3 rise (for each item that the student checks, and a fall tone on the final item)

1g

Answers
1 fall 2 new 3 Rise 4 checking 5 fall

1h

Suggested answers
Note: There are many possible variations. Student: ExCUSE me | wheres the LIBrary from here? | Passer-by: Not TOO far | Keep WALKing | along this ROAD | Take the | let me SEE | the SECond turning | on the RIGHT | and the LIBrary | is a LARGE building | at the far END | of the STREET | I think its SMITH Street |

Unit 1 An electronic world Part D

22

Student: So I keep WALKing | Passer-by: YES | Student: Take the SECond right | Passer-by: YES | Student: And its at the END | of the STREET |

1i Students listen and compare.

2 Identifying and using tones for authority and finishing a topic


2a
1.12

Answers
1) Good 2) morning! Everyone OK? Last 3) lesson, we looked at the 4) growth of 5) electronic 6) mail. Did you remember to 7) read Chapter 8) 5?

2b

Answers
Good morning! Everyone OK? Last lesson , we looked at the growth of electronic mail . Did you remember to read Chapter 5?

2c
1.13

Answers
Today were going to discuss it // so if you didnt // you might find todays lesson // rather difficult // First of all // if you go into pairs // just quickly remind each other // of what Chapter 5 is about // Ill give you threeminutes /

2d

Answers
1 fall tones 2 rise tones

2e

Answers
1 fall 2 end 3 rise 4 authority

2f Student discussion 2g & 2h


1.14

Suggested answers
Italics indicates Authoritative tone Underlining indicates End of topic Computer ownership // is on the rise// with a recent survey// by the International // Telecommunications Union// suggesting that// there is one computer// for every 76 people// in the UK// I suppose that none of us// are surprised// that there is an attendant rise// in internet activity// with a 2009 study// by the Office // of National Statistics// indicating that about 70%// of all UK homes// have access to the Internet//

Unit 1 An electronic world Part D

23

Lesson task: 3 Identifying phrases used in a group presentation


3a Group discussion 3b Student discussion 3c & 3d Group discussion 3e & 3f Presentations and feedback

4 Review and extension


4a
Suggested answers
1  A straightforward request, emphasizing what the speaker wants from the other person (give + advice + needed action + presentation) 2  Emphasizing speaker (me, not another person), amount of advice (some, not a great deal or very small amount), and presenter (my presentation, not someone elses) 3  Emphasizing listeners action (you give advice, not someone else), nature of the action (what I need to do, not how, when or why I need to do it), and the circumstance (presentation, not some other activity)

4b4d Student discussion

Unit 1 An electronic world Part D

24

Part E

Reporting in writing
The aim of this part is for students to improve their writing skills through: identifying generalspecific structure in introductions identifying linking words used in introductions writing and paraphrasing definitions using academic nouns.

1 Identifying generalspecific structure in introductions


1a Student discussion 1b
Answers
1 structure of the essay 2 facts or ideas 3 background information to the topic 4 position 5 aims of the essay 6 key vocabulary or ideas

1c

Suggested answers
[2 Although email has been in existence since the 1970s (Naughton, 2002, p. 147),] [3 it is noticeable that there appears to be very little mention of email in contemporary English language course books. Even when they are included, the example emails given either resembling letters or short business models often seem very different from the emails which people actually send. Furthermore, course books give very little guidance on how to write effective emails. Perhaps this lack of attention towards emails is due to the perceived difficulty in establishing any rules;] [6 email has been described as a strange blend of writing and talking (Naughton, 2002, p. 143).] [5 This essay is concerned with the use of language in business and academic emails. It aims to outline the characteristic features of business email as it is actually written, and identify the differences between these and typical models of emails in course books.] [4 I suggest that the language used differs considerably, and in many different ways, depending on whether the writer is writing to a co-worker or somebody holding a more senior position.] [1 The essay begins with a summary of characteristics often cited in language course books, and then compares these formal characteristics with real emails sent between staff at a language school. Finally, possible reasons for the differences are discussed.] Note: The supporting facts and ideas (2) are also part of the topic background.

Unit 1 An electronic world Part E

25

1d

Suggested answers
Extracts Although email has been in existence since the 1970s (Naughton, 2002, p. 147), it is noticeable that there appears to be very little mention of email in contemporary English language course books. Even when they are included, the example emails given either resembling letters or short business models often seem very different from the emails which people actually send. Furthermore, course books give very little guidance on how to write effective emails. Perhaps this lack of attention towards emails is due to the perceived difficulty in establishing any rules; email has been described as a strange blend of writing and talking (Naughton, 2002, p. 143). This essay is concerned with the use of language in business and academic emails. It aims to outline the characteristic features of business email as it is actually written, and identify the differences between these and typical models of emails in course books. I suggest that the language used differs considerably, and in many different ways, depending on whether the writer is writing to a co-worker or somebody holding a more senior position. The essay begins with a summary of characteristics often cited in language course books, and then compares these formal characteristics with real emails sent between staff at a language school. Finally, possible reasons for the differences are discussed. Main point Email neglected by English language course books. General / specific General

When included, oversimplified or unrealistic because difficult to categorize.

General, but more specific than above

Essay aims to outline characteristics of business email.

Specific

Essay will compare course book email with real email and then discuss differences.

Very specific

Unit 1 An electronic world Part E

26

1e

Suggested answers
Extracts Since its introduction in the late 1970s, email has been so widely adopted as a medium for communication that it now plays an essential role in business and academia. It has been claimed that it would be impossible for most modern businesses to operate without it (Waldvogel, 2007). Electronic mail offers many advantages over other modes of communication, including speed, easy recovery of communication records, and task management. Email plays an important role in smooth interaction in the workplace, in customer relations and in academia. However, the position of email as a mode of communication is uncertain; email operates somewhere between written and spoken types of language and both can appear depending on the context in which it is used. In casual communication between friends, it is common for email to exhibit language features which are more characteristic of casual spoken communication, while in business or academic contexts there is an expectation that the mode of communication should be more formal. Interestingly, this can present problems when a casual modality is used inappropriately in a formal context. A study of reader reactions to apparently inappropriate emails can provide important insights into the formality levels that academic staff expect students to use in communication, and therefore help toreduce misunderstandings caused by language use. Stephens et al. (2009) have pointed out that academic staff may see casual language in out-of-class communication (OCC) asbeing problematic. Work by Badger et al. (2010) is typical of attempts byacademic staff to train students insuitable politeness levels for Main information Email / advantages of email in business General / specific General

The use of email and email language in specific situations

Still general (but more specific than above)

Unit 1 An electronic world Part E

27

email-mediated OCC. This expectation of formal language use from tutors, if not recognized by students, could damage studenttutor relations and reduce the students chance of academic success. OCC has been defined by Martin and Myers (2006) as any courserelated communication between students and tutors, both face-toface (e.g. office hours, pre- and post- class discussions, and informal meetings on campus) and remote contact for example by telephone. However, others, including Hassini (2006) and Stephens et al. (2007), have broadened this definition to include electronically-mediated communication such as email. In this essay, OCC will be used specifically to mean studenttutor interaction byemail. This essay investigates whether style and formality of language used in student emails to their tutors can have an effect on the tutors willingness to help with requests via email, and investigates claims by Stephens etal. (2009) that overly casual email communication can have a negative impact on studenttutor relations and even on educational outcomes for thestudent. This essay will first outline the different aspects of politeness and formality in email, then attempt to predict the effects of perceived impoliteness on the willingness of tutors to respond to requests for help from their students. The final section will discuss briefly the implications of overly casual email communication for studenttutor relations. Definition of OCC General > specific

Purpose / argument, stance

Specific

Structure

Very specific

2 Identifying linking words used in introductions


2a
Suggested answers
1 Using conjunctions to join ideas / clauses, e.g. although, even, which 2 Using repetition of key words, e.g. email 3 Using referent pronouns, e.g. they

Unit 1 An electronic world Part E

28

2b Group discussion 2c
Suggested answers
Note: Examples mainly from Paragraph 2. There are other examples throughout. Type of linking word/ phrase determiner repetition Example Para 2: both written and spoken email, mode of communication, casual (communication, modality, language), academic staff, etc. casual / informal, language use / mode of communication, academic staff / tutors, etc. However, while this can present problems refers back to the position of email with regard to modality Notes both refers back to types of language

synonyms

contrast reference

cause / effect

this can present problems when , therefore

3 Writing and paraphrasing definitions using academic nouns


3a
Suggested answer
Computer literacy is the understanding and skills which are needed to operate computers.

3b

Note: If you need to supply an example in order to highlight the meaning of the metalanguage here, you can use this: Relative clause: Computer literacy is the understanding and skills which are needed to operate computers. A participle clause: Computer literacy means having the skills and understanding necessary to operate computers. A verb in the passive voice: Computer literacy is the understanding and skills which are needed to operate computers.

Unit 1 An electronic world Part E

29

3c

Answers
A commonly defined to understand how computers work use software common definition the understanding computer operation using software B Grammatical difference adverb adjective verb noun verb noun verb noun verb noun (gerund)

3d

Suggested answers
1  Braine (1996) defines open source as software created from source codes freely available on the Internet. 2  According to Petit (2001), if success is taken to mean more than just doing ones job, computer literacy can be viewed as an injection of efficient work practices (Frampton, 2001). 3  Virtual conferences are extremely useful instruments for breaking down global barriers, by providing opportunities for simultaneous communication (Nagae, 2003).

3e Student discussion

Lesson task: 4 Organizing introductions


4a Student discussion 4b
Answer
The source would be relevant.

4c

Suggested answers
Russell (2005) defines westernization as a move by other societies towards a more Western way of living in order to gain its advantages. S/he suggests that this can be either imposed on or actively encouraged by the receiving society and could involve a whole range of aspects of culture, including lifestyle, technological, linguistic, economic and religious / philosophical areas.

4d Student discussion 4e & 4f


Answers
A essay structure B supporting facts or ideas C topic background D position and argument E essay purpose F key terms

Unit 1 An electronic world Part E

30

A and E are missing. [C The rapid spread of the Internet in the last years of the 20th century saw a renewal of the fear, in some quarters, that it would mean a creeping spread of westernization and the further erosion of local cultures around the world.] [F1) In this essay, Western is taken to mean, essentially, that culture originating in northern Europe, 2) including therefore the USA and AustraliaNew Zealand. 3) Although two of 4) these are geographically not western, few would dispute their rightful place in the Western club.] [B/C5) It seems easy to be sympathetic to the claim of a one-way flow of Western culture through the medium of the Internet when one considers the apparent evidence of this westernization: teenagers the world over drinking Coca-Cola, listening to global brand name bands from the US, Australia and Europe, 6) as well as mimicking dress styles and behaviours that are fundamentally alien in their own cultures; politicians and business leaders from all nations using common, often US-led, models of best practice.] [C/F7) However, it is important not to confuse globalization which is undoubtedly being assisted in its development by the Internet and other advanced communications technology with westernization.] [D8) In this essay I will attempt to show that the spread of globalization through the Internet is having a paradoxical effect: 9) far from being a vehicle for Western values which is overwhelming non-Western cultures, the Internet is 10) actually helping to strengthen 11) those local cultures and 12) indeed prevent globalization from being merely a westernizing phenomenon.]

4g

Suggested answer
The writer has helped to maintain cohesion by repetition (e.g. westernization / westernizing); reformulation; parallel structures (e.g. present participle used for all examples of apparent evidence of westernization).

4h Student discussion

5 Review and extension


5a
Answers
1 Although 2 Firstly 3 (both possible) 4 Indeed 5 in particular 6 As a matter of fact 7 After all

5b

Answers
Introduction 1 b  Online peer-to-peer communities allow people with shared interests to gather virtually. g  This offers benefits for healthcare workers, who can use peer-to-peer technology to help patients with similar needs share their experiences, give advice, get answers to questions and offer practical and emotional support (Waller, 2004).

Unit 1 An electronic world Part E

31

a  Internet-based virtual e-health communities, which some estimates put as high as 30,000 in the UK (ibid.), can now be seen as a kind of mental-health support tool. h  This paper will consider how effective these virtual communities are in supporting patients and their ultimate impact on health outcomes. Introduction 2 e  The Pioneer 10 and 11 space probes have long been known to report anomalous data (commonly known as the Pioneer Anomaly). f  This anomalous signal from the spacecraft is widely accepted (Low, 2006), butthere is considerable disagreement about its cause. c  Possible explanations include gas leaks on board the spacecraft, as well as the distorting effects of heat radiation from several separate components within the craft. d  The current paper investigates the strength of the existing claims and aims to demonstrate that the anomaly is not sufficiently explained by existing theories. i  The paper concludes by presenting some brief ideas about areas for further investigation of the phenomenon.

5c Individual student work 5d Group discussion

Unit 1 An electronic world Part E

32

Unit 2
Unit overview
Part A

New frontiers
In LS3 by improving your ability to In SS3 by improving your ability to

This Part will help you to Follow lectures in English

recognize and use stressed and identify the speakers stance on unstressed syllables in tone units a topic identify lead-in and question structures. recognize and respond to bias be an active audience member in a presentation. identify arguments in texts evaluate arguments recognize assumptions develop a response to arguments.

Understand written arguments

identify signposting for written arguments and counterarguments identify assumptions identify and use word-order inversion.

Clearly express and support your own stance on a topic

develop your own stance on atopic identify vocabulary and grammar used in stating premises. use logic and reasoning evaluate and select sources. refer to graphics and visual data refer to other sources in a presentation. incorporate graphics into a presentation improve the quality of your graphics acknowledge sources in a presentation.

identify and use hedging devices

Participate in academic presentations / discussions

Write an academic essay

use it and this to link between sentences

structure an argument-based essay

use it phrases to convey opinion. structure an essay to incorporate counter-arguments support your argument effectively.

Unit 2 New frontiers Overview

33

Unit 2
Part A

New frontiers
Understanding spoken information
The aim of this part is for students to improve their listening skills in lectures through: recognizing and using stressed and unstressed syllables in tone units identifying lead-in and question structures.

1  Recognizing and using stressed and unstressed syllables in tone units


1a
Answers
O Oo Ooo Mars Earth Venus Saturn Neptune Mercury Jupiter Uranus

1b Student discussion 1c
2.1

Suggested answers
Costs / Risks: Space is a region of great risk. Human and financial costs. History: Yuri Gagarin first manned space flight in 1961. Control: National government / military space agencies. Private enterprise in space has been limited to unmanned satellites and flights by individual space enthusiasts. Recent changes: Development of fully private space vehicles; the rise of private companies designing spacecraft (e.g. Virgin Galactic / XCOR).

1d

Answers
/ SPAce / has OFten been CALLED / a NEW frontIER / for HUManKIND / It is a REgion / of GREAT risk / and both HUman and financial COST / BUT it is ALso a region / of GREAT opportUNity / The HIStory / of HUman space exploRAtion / began very REcently / in SPACE terms ANyway / with YUri gaGARins / ORbit of the EARth / in 1961 / Since THEN / its LARGEly been / the SOLE preSERVE / of VARious / NAtional government Agencies / often inVOLving the MIlitary /

1e Students listen to the recording.


2.2

1f

Answers
1 It is a region // of great risk // and both human and financial cost // 2  Space is certainly // a region of great risks // and costs both human // and financial //

1g Students practise the tone units.


Unit 2 New frontiers Part A 34

2 Identifying lead-in and question structures


2a Student discussion 2b
Answers
1  I wonder if you could comment on how long periods in space would affect family life. 2  How does common access to space affect your claim that only trained military pilots are suitable astronauts? 3  Dont you think it will be impossible for most people to go into space if the cost is so high? 4  Are you suggesting that costs of space travel will be about twenty times lower within a decade? 5 Do you know of any further research in this area that might be useful?

2c Students check their answers.


2.3

2d

Suggested answers
The questioner can locate the part of the talk that is relevant for the speakers answer. It provides a context for other members of the audience.

2e

Answers
1  The 2003 UN report on the development of space says that no military activity should be allowed there. How does this affect your claim that only trained military pilots are suitable astronauts? this = no military activity should be allowed 2  You mentioned that space travel is enormously expensive, but then you said that you still think its possible for private companies. Dont you think it will be impossible for most people if the cost is so high? it = space travel 3  Im sorry, I didnt understand your point about travel costs in space. Are you suggesting that they will be about twenty times lower within a decade? they = travel costs 4  Im not sure I fully agree with your point on the negative impact of humankind in space. Do you know of any further research in this area that might be useful? inthis area = the impact of humankind in space

2f

Answers
Lead-in 1 Statement 2  You mentioned that + clause 3  I didnt understand your point about 4  Im not sure I fully agree with your point on Question structure Wh question structure + that clause Negative non-wh question structure + if clause Non-wh question structure (continuous) + that clause Non-wh question structure + that clause Type of question synthesis disputation clarification

decision aid

Unit 2 New frontiers Part A

35

Lesson task: 3 Forming questions after listening


3a Student discussion 3b
2.4

Answers
100150 communities which resist or have never had contact with the outsideworld Live in jungles / remote islands Centuries without contact, play no part in modern society Some are actively hostile to modern world (e.g. Yanomami in Venezuela used to welcome contact but no longer do so; those on Sentinel Island in the Indian Ocean have always been hostile to attempts at contact by outsiders)

3c Student discussion 3d
2.5

Answers
1 You mentioned that there are tribes who have never had recorded contact with outsiders. Dont 2 you think it would be impossible to have no contact with the modern world?

3e Student discussion
Answer
The questioner is challenging a claim made by the speaker, so this is arguably a disputation question.

3f Student discussion. Many variations are possible. 3g


2.6

Answers
Benefits Maintain freedom; keep culture/traditions; have no need of trappings of modernlife Problems Miss out on benefits of modern life: no access to modern education or healthcare

3h
2.7

Answer
A recent UN report on tribal groups says that they are vulnerable to disease. How does this correspond with what you said about modernity bringing advanced medical care?

3i Student discussion
Answer
Enquiry

3j Student discussion. Many variations are possible. 3k Group discussion

Unit 2 New frontiers Part A

36

3l
2.8

Suggested answers
Specific ways that tribal groups can benefit from the profits of ethno-tourism: Use profits from tour activities for hospitals, schools, public transport Specific ways that tourists can benefit from contact with local tribes: Meet other cultures, makes people more sensitive to own culture, helps to respect / preserve diversity How ethno-tourism companies should behave towards tribal groups: Involve local people in planning, permission to access land, share profits

3m & 3n Student discussion

4 Review and extension


4a
Suggested answers
Note: Many variations are possible. 1  You mentioned being sick. Do you think that this would be more of a problem when travelling further into space? 2  Lack of sleep has been shown to affect decisions at work. To what extent did you experience this? 3  Im sorry, I didnt quite understand your point about the Earths atmosphere. Are you suggesting that its possible to see the effects of global warming there? 4  Im not sure I fully agree with your claim that private companies will achieve amazing things in space. Unless governments are involved, do you think these companies will have enough money to do proper scientific exploration? 5  With regard to the sense of community among the crew, do you think this was to do with the ability to speak each others language, or more to do with the situation you were in?

4b

Answers
1 You mentioned before that you would never go back into space. Why is that? 2  You mentioned earlier how Earth looked from space. Do you think its appearance has changed since global warming started? 3  You mentioned plans by NASA to return to the Moon. Dont you think that would be too expensive in this time of economic crisis? 4  You suggested humans would live on Mars one day. Will that be within our lifetime? 5  There have been many discoveries in space, havent there? Which do you think has been the most important? 6  Many people in this hall believe in UFOs and extraterrestrials. Dont you think they would already be here if there were any? 7  You mentioned not being afraid of going into space. Was there anything you were worried about? 8  You touched upon retirement. Is there anything you would like to be rememberedfor?

4c Students check their answers.


2.9

Unit 2 New frontiers Part A

37

Part B

Understanding written information


The aim of this part is for students to improve their reading and writing skills through: identifying signposting for written arguments and counter-arguments identifying assumptions identifying and using word-order inversion.

1  Identifying signposting for written arguments and counter-arguments


1a
Answers
1 Main position / argument:  Ethno-tourism should benefit both the visitors and the contacted tribal communities. + (others) claims actually exaggerate the negative consequences of contact with tourists and the tourism industry 2 Possible counter-arguments: However, many recent studies strongly assert the negative impact of ethnotourism on the subject communities.

1b

Suggested answers
However these claims actually without fully considering

1c

Answers
1 (CA) Critics of ... oppose 2 (CA) A further complaint aimed at ... 3 (CA) Pedersen (2009) has argued that 4 (AP) Some supporters of ... argue that ... 5 (AP) This paper seeks to address ... 6 (AP) while it is undeniable that nevertheless, I will argue that 7 (AP) has been strongly challenged by a number of writers ...

1d

Suggested answers
While we do not dispute claims that some instances exist where tribal groups have lost land rights, the extent to which this has occurred remains relatively insignificant. Counter-argument: Tribal groups have lost land rights. Rebuttal: This is insignificant. None of this is to deny that there are many examples of the negative consequences resulting from contact between developed world tourists and isolated tribal communities. Nevertheless, the examples presented in this paper suggest that the experience is overwhelmingly positive for both parties in the majority of instances. Counter-argument: There are some negative consequences of contact. Rebuttal: The overall experience is positive.

Unit 2 New frontiers Part B

38

However, far from the popular perception that this money is well spent on exciting and innovative space research, this investment provides little return in benefits and would almost certainly be put to better use dealing with more important issues onEarth. Counter-argument: Investment in space is beneficial. Rebuttal: There are few benefits and money could be better spent on problems on Earth.

1e Students own ideas 1f


Suggested answers
Note: Many alternatives are possible. 1 I would argue 2 The public perception is 3 Nevertheless

2 Identifying assumptions
2a
Suggested answers
People may make assumptions about someone depending on their age because: they may have little knowledge / experience of being that age  they may make assumptions about others based on their own experiences, even though these may not be typical

2b

Suggested answers
Note: Other alternatives are possible. 1 The ice cover over the Arctic will have totally disappeared in 20 years time. That the situation causing the ice to disappear will carry on unchanged. That there is no solution to the problem. 2  Young people are growing up with poor eyesight because of the availability of TV and video games in the home. That TV / video games cause poor eyesight. That all young people make use of TV and video games. 3 Space exploration is too expensive. Each rocket costs a huge amount of money. That value can be measured only in terms of low cost. That space exploration can only be carried out with rockets. 4 The Internet is probably the easiest way of obtaining information. That everybody has access to the Internet. That everybody knows how to use the Internet to get information.

2c Student discussion 2d
Suggested answer
The assumption is that video games have a negative influence.

2e

Answers
Increase in video game revenue will continue. That increased use of video games is linked to rise in revenue (rather than other possible explanations such as increased cost). That Ron Kriceks claims are justified.
39

Unit 2 New frontiers Part B

2f

Answers
Possible assumptions are underlined. But thats not the end of the story: at the most recent Games Designers Conference, delighted fans and developers were able to get a taste of the future of gaming [lack of caution] headsets which can read the brainwaves of players and translate them into actions on the screen; cameras which can be mounted on top of screens and perfectly capture your movements as you play [over-emphasis: perfectly] no need for a Wii remote when the games console can simply capture your movements; even goggles which give the player complete or near enough immersion in a hyper-realistic game environment [over-emphasis] which only they can see. All of this is great news for the army of gaming fans around the world an army which is growing rapidly. Gone are the days when video games were the sole preserve of teenage boys the popularity of the Wii, and its relatively simple games, demonstrated that just about everyone likes to play games of some sort [lack ofcaution], if given the chance. A large part of the growing games market is women, young children, and the elderly, and the industry is responding by creating more games tailored to their interests. When you couple this with the revolution in mobile technology, its possible to glimpse the future and its not a nice one [lack ofcaution].

2g

Answers
absolutes: complete or near enough (immersion); just about everyone lack of caution: its not a nice one use of adverbs: perfectly capture

2h

Suggested answers
As games platforms improve, people will be exposed to a more realistic, and more satisfying, gaming experience, and will inevitably want to spend more time in the fantasy worlds that the games offer. The result can only be the weakening of our societies, as real-world social bonds are ignored in favour of the imaginary pleasures of the game. In a world in which everyone is wrapped up in their own reality, real criminals will find it easier to prey on distracted people. When the temptation to play games is so strong that we all kids, parents, the elderly want to spend our time in them, what happens to family life? What happens to exercise? We risk sacrificing a better future for humanity by allowing ourselves to be hypnotized by a make-believe world.

2i

Suggested answers
As games platforms improve lack of caution people will be exposed to a more realistic, and more satisfying, gaming experience lack of caution The result can only be the weakening of our societies absolute (only) will inevitably want to spend more time lack of caution / use of adverb (inevitably) real criminals will find it easier to prey on distracted people lack of caution we all kids, parents, the elderly absolute

Unit 2 New frontiers Part B

40

3 Identifying and using word-order inversion


3a
Answer
Does not follow typical SVO English sentence word order as verb is first and the auxiliary verb (are) comes after main verb (gone).

3b

Suggested answer
The days when video games were the sole preserve of teenage boys are gone.

3c

Suggested answer
Purpose is to emphasize information by placing it in a prominent position at the beginning of the sentence.

3d

Answer
under no circumstances

3e

Suggested answer
The interviewees were not asked for their name under any circumstances.

3f

Answers
1 were 2 did 3 had 4 were

3g

Suggested answers
1 The mice were not under stress at any time. 2 The results didnt appear to confirm this until much later. 3 The results had only just arrived when it was discovered there was a flaw. 4  The results were not only what we predicted, but they correlated with other studies.

Lesson task: 4 Evaluating the basis of an argument


4a Group discussion 4b & 4c Student discussion 4d4f  Group discussion

Unit 2 New frontiers Part B

41

5 Review and extension


5a
Suggested answers
Note: Alternatives are possible. Not until the creation of small robots in the field of nanotechnology will we see remarkable improvements in healthcare. Only after we have colonized space will climate change cause environmental damage to threaten society on Earth. Not only does ethno-tourism bring benefits to tribes such as modern hospitals, education and housing, it also gives their children the opportunity to participate in the world.

5b

Answers
Video gaming is now a multi-billion dollar-a year industry (Abbot, 2009), yet the negative stereotype of the typical video-games player a lone (and possibly lonely) teenage boy remains in many quarters [lack of caution]. This prejudice is changing only slowly as gaming becomes more popular with a broader audience, and many people are still resistant to the idea of gaming as a respectable activity [lack of caution] for all ages and levels of society. However, within a decade, and possibly even sooner (Johanssen, 2010, p.12) we will see [lack of caution] gaming become a mainstream activity, with broad social appeal. This will be a true revolution [lack of caution] not unlike the mobile revolution of the early 2000s, unlocking a powerful range of human potentials [over-emphasis] which well-designed games can capture and enhance. The key to this is, as Shales et al. (2004) point out, redefining our view of games. Whereas in the past we have often dismissed games as mere recreation, we will increasingly come to see gaming asa powerful learning tool and it is this that will be the secret of its appeal [lackof caution].

Unit 2 New frontiers Part B

42

Part C

Investigating
The aim of this part is for students to improve their researching skills through: identifying and using hedging devices identifying vocabulary and grammar used in stating premises.

1 Identifying and using hedging devices


1a
Note: Students at this level should be familiar enough with grammatical terms to understand the metalanguage required to complete this task. However, if need be, you may like to explain that modals are words used to express a judgement regarding the likelihood of an action or event. Modal language includes verbs (e.g.might, could), modal adverbs (e.g. possibly) and modal nouns (e.g. probability). Answers
Hedging device tentative verbs reporting verbs modal verbs modal nouns modal adjectives modal adverbs adverbs of frequency it phrases there phrases Example word / phrase seem suggest may certainty certain certainly often It is likely that There is a possibility that

1b

Answers
In-vitro cultured meat could soon be an everyday reality for millions of consumers. In-vitro meat is grown in a tank by culturing muscle cells from a living animal and enhancing them with artificial proteins. This is essentially the same technique as is already used for the production of yoghurt cultures. The ability to produce artificial meat in this way offers benefits to human health, the environment, and the welfare of animals currently bred for slaughter. However, it is a technology in its infancy, and though such meat has been successfully created in a number of experiments, no in-vitro meat is currently approved for human consumption. Important questions remain to be answered before it becomes a commonly accepted human food resource. This essay will consider arguments supporting the production of in-vitro meat, as well as those that maintain that such a method of meat production should not be pursued. The essay will conclude with this authors own view on the topic.

Unit 2 New frontiers Part C

43

1c

Suggested answers
Note: Other answers are also possible. Experiments in the culturing of artificial meat have been continuing since the early 1990s, originally derived from NASA interest in a source of artificial protein for long-term space flights. In-vitro cultured meat offers a 1) number of benefits: it is 2)claimed that it is healthier than animal-grown meat, as food developers 3) can control the nutritional content, in particular the fat content. A recent experiment (Olson,2010, pp. 4344) showed that tank-grown in-vitro chicken was 80% leaner than its animal equivalent. Also, in-vitro meat is 4) arguably kinder to animals. Scientists researching the possibilities of growing artificial meat find themselves in the rather odd position of being supported by vegetarian and vegan groups, as well as animal rights campaigners who 5) normally focus on arguing against meat consumption. In a statement to the UK Food and Biotechnology Council, a leading in-vitro researcher 6) noted that current methods of intensive farming of live animals for meat production 7) clearly caused pain and distress for the animals involved. It was further 8) noted that the culturing of completely artificial meat 9) would be an effective answer to this, as the meat is grown without a nervous system, and therefore manufacturers are not faced with the ethical problem of causing pain (Chavez, 2009, p. 108).

2 Identifying vocabulary and grammar used in stating premises


2a Student discussion 2b
Answers
1 Nearly but not quite. 2 By being injected into the body to fight diseases such as cancer.

2c

Suggested answers
All these phrases tend to have a positive impact on the reader, probably to help the writer convince/persuade the reader of their argument. Specifically: 1 incredibly small therefore remarkable 2 nearly a reality they practically exist 3  predict that will be commonplace within five years their creation is certain, and they will be widely accepted and used 4 potential use many possible uses 5 we can expect to see there is little doubt 6 as a result of there will be direct and important consequences

2d

Answers
1a believe / be 1bpresent simple 1c Be is modified by the modal verb may, which suggests that it is not certain, only a belief. 2a That it is not certain. 2b With the size of the reserve in Saudi Arabia. It may suggest certainty by association. 3a prevent / melt / expect / disappear 3b present perfect / present continuous / present simple passive / present perfect 3c Quite certain. Present tenses with no modals / caution suggest certainty. The use of the passive for expected also suggests many people think this, indicating objectivity.
Unit 2 New frontiers Part C 44

2e Student discussion 2f
Answers
Premises Internet accessibility is expanding rapidly around the globe. It is now commonplace for students to have their own internet-accessible laptops, used for research as well as writing assignments. At the same time, universities and academic publishers are increasingly making digital versions of their texts available online. Argument As a result, higher education libraries, the actual buildings where hard copies of books and journals are stored, will see fewer and fewer visitors walking through their doors and will eventually become obsolete.

2g & 2h
Suggested answers
There are many possible alternatives. Premises Internet accessibility is expanding in many countries. It is now possible for students to have their own internet-accessible laptops, used for research as well as writing assignments. At the same time, many universities and academic publishers are deciding to make digital versions of their texts available online. Argument One possible result of this may be that higher education libraries, the actual buildings where hard copies of books and journals are stored, could see fewer visitors using them and may play a less significant role in academic research than in the past.

Lesson task 3: Hedging an argument


3a & 3b
Suggested answers
1 True 2 False 3 True

3c

Answers
The number of students graduating each year from universities with degrees in the hard sciences and applied subjects like engineering is dwarfed by comparison with the number of enthusiastic players of modern online video games such as Lineage or Civilization. While these games have entertainment as their explicit purpose, there is evidence that games with a deliberate instructive aim are also highly popular. Food Force, for instance, a game produced by the UN to teach players about food aid distribution, has several million players. A growing body of scholarly work suggests that the future of education lies in gaming. Gaming offers a singularly effective way to improve the student learning experience.

3d

Suggested answers
1 Disagree 2 Agree 3 Disagree
Unit 2 New frontiers Part C 45

3e Group discussion 3f
Answers
Firstly, it is important to realize that gaming-as-educational-tool is not some possibility which lies only in the distant future; a number of popular educational games designed for students in the sciences and engineering already exist. Initial studies investigating the effectiveness of these games show 1) a clear improvement in assessment marks from students who were taught using the games compared with others who received courses by attending conventional lectures. One study recorded an average increase of over 40% on test scores in the groups learning through interactive games. However, 2) not all results have been as positive as this, 3) depending on how well the games are designed. A poorly designed game 4) can still clearly inhibit learning in the way that a dull series of lectures can. Learning benefits 5) appear to have resulted from games that incorporated effective learning practices and situations. 6) Possible reasons for the 7) apparent superiority of games when compared to learning from a series of lectures are various. Information in a lecture is delivered in an 8) almost entirely aural mode, while in a game the players/students receive input through both listening to speech or sounds in the game environment, as well as visually. An increase in the modes by which information is received has long beenacknowledged to have clear learning benefits. There is more input and feedback available in a game than a lecture. Something new happens 9) almost every time a player presses a button during a game, giving the player feedback and new information about their environment, while students in lectures have 10) perhaps only one or two opportunities to interact with the information by asking questions. Literacy professor Paul Gee, a strong proponent of learning through video gaming, also points out that the challenges or tasks in many games need players to develop skills in thinking logically the formation of hypotheses, experimentation, and reflecting on their performance if they fail at first. Games, far from being superficial or childish entertainment, are loaded with a variety of learning experiences.

3g

Suggested answers
Hislop (2006) reports that video games used with science and engineering students may be 40% more effective than lectures for learning, although the design of the games is likely to be a crucial factor in determining this. He also suggests that this is because games can help to provide many different ways for students to gain information and feedback compared to those in lectures, and that gaming can provide opportunities for hypothesis forming, experimenting with ideas and thinking about how well they have done all essential aspects of learning.

3h Group discussion
Suggested answers
Premises There is currently an enormous gap in the experience and quality of socalled entertainment games and deliberately educational ones. Commercial entertainment-focused games boast visually stunning graphics and exciting, often violent, scenarios, alongside pulse-raising soundtracks, often created by tie-ins with the movie and record industries. It is to this that they owe their enduring popularity and market success. Argument Educational games will never become as popular or as exciting to use as entertainment ones.

Unit 2 New frontiers Part C

46

Premises No standard test exists which can be applied to measure the educational effectiveness of video games. Without guarantees of the quality of the games, how will educators ever be convinced to begin using them with their students? Argument Educational video games are highly unlikely to replace other kinds of education. Premises Entertainment games released for commercial profit are backed by enormous, financially powerful, software development companies which are willing to invest in future games that they know will turn profits. Educational games, on the other hand, are generally produced and distributed by interested researchers relying on higher education research funding. Argument Educational games will never develop to their potential due to lack of funds.

3i Student discussion 3j Individual student work

4 Review and extension


4a
Suggested answer
The reasons for this increase in gaming need to be examined. Note: Direct or rhetorical questions are often avoided in academic writing.

4b

Suggested answer
Kricek suggests that there may be three main factors that have contributed tothis.

4c

Answers
an explosion the end of the story get a taste

4d Student discussion and individual work


Suggested answers
Note: There are many variations possible. The video games industry earns approximately US$48 billion (30 billion) a year, similar to the revenue earned by Hollywood. One interesting aspect of this is that games industry revenues have increased 50% in the last three years and forecasts suggest that this trend may continue. The reasons for this increase in gaming need to be examined. Kricek (n.d.) suggests that there may be three main factors that have contributed to this. Firstly, improvements in the quality and speed of games platforms; secondly, the spread of high-tech mobile technology; and finally, a widening section of the population who have begun to play games for the first time. Experts predict a large increase in processing power in the next decade, possibly systems with between 10- and 100-gig power available, with software to match. However, there are also other factors to consider. At the most recent Games Designers Conference, both games users and developers were able to witness some of the other possible future developments.
47

Unit 2 New frontiers Part C

Part D

Reporting in speech
The aim of this part is for students to improve their speaking skills through: referring to graphics and visual data referring to other sources in a presentation.

1 Referring to graphics and visual data


1a Student discussion 1b
Answers
Total budget nearly 4000M . Most: Launchers, Earth Observation, Navigation Least: ECSA, Space Situational Awareness, Technology

1c
2.10

Answers
1 She gives the total budget and compares it to UK health spending. 2 Technology, Earth Observation.

1d Student discussion
Note: This should help revise terms from earlier in the course. No answers are given here as this is a brainstorming activity.

1e & 1f  Student discussion, then students listen to Audio 2.10 again and make notes of expressions the speaker uses.
Answers
Words and phrases  as I mentioned at the beginning of thetalk  Id like to explore in some detail But before I move on to that  This next slide  as you can see, this next slide  as were going to see in this next slide  Now, as you can see, this chart is quite detailed, so Im just going to talk you through a couple of key points.  Anyway, back to the chart here as you see here Function Referring back to earlier parts of the presentation Referring to parts of the presentation which will come later Referring to a slide / to a visual display Referring to details within a slide/ a visual

Unit 2 New frontiers Part D

48

1g

Suggested answers
1 That early space exploration was unreliable and unsafe. 2 No, too much information, too much detail for audience to take in. 3  Results could be classified / grouped e.g. by different types of failure, different nationalities totalled, and a new table / graph drawn up summarizing these totals.

1h

Suggested answer
9 USSR, 4 USA: highlight dominance of USSR with pie chart or coloured diagram. 2 successful, 11 failed: highlight danger / unreliability and could provide detail of types of failure. 6 Mars, 7 Venus: highlight even split between Mars and Venus (significance?). 1 in '61, 8 in '62, 4 in '64: highlight peak in 1962 with graph.

1i Students make notes for their presentation 1j Student discussion

2 Referring to other sources in a presentation (1)


2a Student discussion 2b
2.11

Answers
1 Famous examples include 2 There are arguable benefits 3 Yet many argue that

2c

Answer
They refer to other sources / support, or suggest debate.

2d

Answers
which claims is commonly referred to

2e

Answers
1 heated debate 2 For instance 3 such as 4 claim that 5 and others 6 makes similar claims 7 undeniable 8 there is evidence

2f Students check their ideas.


2.12

Unit 2 New frontiers Part D

49

2g

Answers
Referring to Specific examples Specific peoples opinions General ideas General supporting information Phrase famous examples include, for instance, such as claim that, makes similar claims heated debate, undeniable, is commonly referred to, yet many argue that and others, there is evidence, there are arguable benefits

Lesson task: 3 Referring to other sources in a presentation (2)


3a Group discussion 3b
2.13

Answers
1 There is also evidence 2 highly contentious issue 3 to opponents 4 much of the evidence 5 For example 6 Such figures 7 fierce debate 8 drew widespread criticism 9 argued that 10 and others 11 strongly criticized

3c

Suggested answers
Needs a key to show meaning of different colours Axes need to be labelled Capitals needed for Fijian, Tongan Needs a label underneath beginning Figure ...

3d Student discussion

4 Review and extension


4a
Answers
These claims of the positive benefits of cultured in-vitro meat have been challenged by economists, however. According to Keirle (2000, p. 120), any environmental benefits from this method will be outweighed by the fact that it is economically uncompetitive when compared to traditional animal rearing. Farms are geared towards animal rearing, and the creation of enough of the right facilities to develop cultured meat would not only be enormously expensive in itself, but would mean the end of animal farming and consequent mass unemployment in that sector, with knock-on effects in the economy at large. Added to this is the problem of funding the further research needed to bring in-vitro meat to the point where it will beready for commercial sale. Studies by Keirle (2000) as well as Monk (2000)

Unit 2 New frontiers Part D

50

estimate the investment of 3 to 4 billion dollars a year over the next decade in order to finish research and begin production of even a modest in-vitro meat operation. The view that cultured meat will be economically unviable is echoed by Aagard (2007, p. 98), who believes that the consequences to the economy of the failure of the existing farming and associated industries will make cultured meat production entirely unviable, at least in the medium term.

4b

Answers
Similarities some ethnic groups use of English as official language Differences geographical extent / size of island group ethnic make-up languages used urban population and rate of urbanization

4c Student discussion or individual work 4d Student discussion

Unit 2 New frontiers Part D

51

Part E

Reporting in writing
The aim of this part is for students to improve their writing skills through: using it and this to link between sentences using it phrases to convey opinion.

1 Using it and this to link between sentences


1a
Answers
 This type of meat refers to in-vitro meat, a cultured meat grown artificially in a biotank.  it (in it seems and it is highly unlikely) is a dummy subject / anticipatory it, and doesnt refer to other phrases here.  this type of food refers to commercial-grade in-vitro meat.

1b

Answers
 this refers to the current aim of researchers  it refers to IVM  This refers to a widespread dislike

1c Student discussion 1d
Suggested answers
1 it 2 this 3 this 4 this 5 it 6 this 7 this 8 It 9 This

1e Student discussion and individual work 1f


Answers
1 fixed phrase 2 substitute (for modern business) 3 fixed phrase 4 substitute (for ones personal data) 5 substitute (for selling on bulk client data ) 6 fixed phrase 7 fixed phrase

1g

Suggested answers
1 it is important fixed phrase 2 It is clear fixed phrase 3 where it will be ready substitute for in-vitro meat 4 It is impossible fixed phrase

1h Student discussion
Unit 2 New frontiers Part E 52

2 Using it phrases to convey opinion


2a
Answers
it is instructive fixed phrase advances it has enabled substitute (for space exploration)

2b

Answers
1 adjective 2 b

2c

Answers
Importance significant important noteworthy Attitude interesting surprising astonishing clear evident manifest obvious plain apparent noticeable Probability likely unlikely possible probable doubtful

2d & 2e
Answers
It phrase + to + verb (infinitive) + relative clause: 1, 4, 5 It phrase + that + noun (subject): 2, 3, 6, 7, 8

2f

Answer
Those with a that clause are not directly followed by a verb.

2g Student discussion

Lesson task: 3 Identifying cohesion in texts


3a & 3b  Group discussion 3c
Suggested answers
1 Benefits mentioned: health can control nutrients and fat animal welfare saves slaughter of animals, no pain (environment no detail given in extract) Drawbacks mentioned: No IVM yet available, so unknown effects 2  Depends on student opinion (though it should be noted that the writer gives clear support in the text). 3 Writer seems to take a balanced approach, but probably more positive.

Unit 2 New frontiers Part E

53

3d & 3e
Suggested answers
In-vitro cultured meat could soon be an everyday reality for millions of consumers. In-vitro meat is grown in a tank by culturing muscle cells from a living animal and enhancing them with artificial proteins. 1) This is essentially the same technique as is already used for the production of yoghurt cultures. The ability to produce artificial meat in 2) this way offers benefits to human health, the environment, and the welfare of animals currently bred for slaughter. However, 3) it is a technology in its infancy, and though such meat has been successfully created in a number of experiments, no in-vitro meat is currently approved for human consumption. Important questions remain to be answered before 4) it becomes a commonly accepted human food resource. 5) This essay will consider arguments supporting the production of in-vitro meat as well as those that maintain that such a method of meat production should not be pursued. The essay will conclude with 6) this authors own view on the topic. Experiments in the culturing of artificial meat have been continuing since the early 1990s, originally derived from NASA interest in a source of artificial protein for longterm space flights. In-vitro cultured meat offers a number of benefits; 7) it is claimed (fixed phrase) that 8) this / it is healthier than animal-grown meat, as food developers can control the nutritional content, in particular the fat content. A recent experiment (Olson, 2010, pp. 4344) showed that tank-grown in-vitro chicken was 80% leaner than its animal equivalent. Also, in-vitro meat is arguably kinder to animals. Scientists researching the possibilities of growing artificial meat find themselves in the rather odd position of being supported by vegetarian and vegan groups, as well as animal rights campaigners who normally focus on arguing against meat consumption. In a statement to the UK Food and Biotechnology Council, a leading in-vitro researcher noted that current methods of intensive farming of live animals for meat production clearly caused pain and distress for the animals involved. 9) It was further noted (fixed phrase) that the culturing of completely artificial meat would be an effective answer to 10) this, as the meat is grown without a nervous system, and therefore manufacturers are not faced with the ethical problem of causing pain (Chavez, 2009, p. 108).

3f

Answers
1 They all refer to the same thing (but in different ways). 2 They keep reminding the reader of the key topic, but avoid repetition.

3g

Answers
The current aim of researchers involved in the development of IVM is to produce an artificial meat which is equal in protein and calorific content to animal reared meats (Naes, 2008, p. 317). However, this ignores the fact that animal-reared meat is a much richer source of dietary nutrition than simple calories and protein. According to Sands (2007), all IVM samples so far created lack the range of nutrients which natural meats can provide, including irreplaceable vitamins and minerals. The true test of IVMs suitability as a commercial meat substitute is whether it sells well. Commercial IVM is unlikely to be readily adopted by consumers for two key reasons. Firstly, among the public at large there is a widespread dislike of highly artificial foodstuffs. This is evident in the suspicion with which genetically modified (GM) foodstuffs such as vegetables are treated. Sands (ibid.) argues that this is more likely to be the case with animal flesh, as the thought of creating artificial flesh strikes many people as particularly revolting.

Unit 2 New frontiers Part E

54

3h

Answers
Natural animal-reared meats natural meats animal flesh Artificial IVM an artificial meat IVM samples a commercial meat substitute commercial IVM artificial flesh

3i

Answers
1however 2however 3order 4only 5but 6this / that 7no 8Despite 9this 10 even 11 indeed 12 such 13 well 14 also

3j

Answers
Note: Some answers can appear in more than one category. a addition but (also), (as) well (as), also b example such (as) c support also d emphasis (not) only, even, indeed e determiner this, that f contrast however, despite g idiom no (matter) h cause in order, this (is due to)

4 Revision and extension


4a & 4b Individual student work

Unit 2 New frontiers Part E

55

Unit 3
Unit overview
Part A

The individual in society


In LS3 by improving your ability to identify the language of speculation identify the language of past speculation identify consonants and intrusive sounds. In SS3 by improving your ability to evaluate the strength of a speakers claim recognize speculative claims and why people use them judge speculations as you listen investigate claims through questions. identify logical flaws in the relationship of ideas understand necessary and sufficient conditions understand correlation and causation.

This Part will help you to Evaluate strong and speculative claims in speech

Identify claims in a reading text

understand the way claims are framed evaluate claims in context.

Reconstruct notes and synthesize information

reconstruct information from notes write when synthesizing information from two or more sources.

take notes which are relevant to an assignment synthesize information from your notes reference sources correctly in synthesized notes reflect on notes to help clarify your ideas.

summarize key aspects of research identify your purpose in giving a Refer to other presentation in a presentation writers and research and present an oral summary of present an oral argument with present alternative research alternative viewpoints. arguments in include alternative points of view presentations in a presentation. Paraphrase and punctuate academic texts identify and use substitution and ellipsis identify and use different ways of paraphrasing. synthesize sources in writing incorporate quotations into writing incorporate paraphrase into writing understand plagiarism and patchwriting use hedging.

Unit 3 The individual in society Overview

56

Unit 3
Part A

The individual in society


Understanding spoken information
The aim of this part is for students to improve their listening skills in lectures through: identifying the language of speculation identifying the language of past speculation identifying consonants and intrusive sounds.

1 Identifying the language of speculation


1a
Answers
Verb: identify Adjective(s): identifiable, identical Noun(s): identity, identification

1b Student discussion 1c Group discussion

1d

Suggested answer
Hedged speculative claims are more appropriate: they acknowledge the speakers uncertainty and remind the audience that the speaker is not making a strong claim. Pure speculative claims are less appropriate for this reason (they lack caution) and also because they are relatively easy to attack.

1e
3.1

Answer
The first is hedged, the second is pure.

1f & 1g
3.2

Answers
All of us have at one time or another changed some aspect of our physical identity. Weve all 1) probably changed our hairstyles or clothing fashions at one point or another. 2) Maybe you have had the experience of looking at an old passport photo of yourself and thinking that the person there is somehow no longer you because your appearance has changed so much. But these days we can take physical changes much further, changing ourselves in ways that were impossible for earlier generations. 3) Maybe some of you have changed your eye colour with coloured contact lenses, for instance. 4) Some people choose plastic surgery in an effort to remake themselves, while others who are profoundly uncomfortable with their identity at birth 5) may choose a sex change 6) perhaps one of the most fundamental physical, and emotional, changes of the self. Technological advances, and also ideaswithin society about what is acceptable, offer us increasingly profound ways

Unit 3 The individual in society Overview

57

tochange who we appear to be to the rest of the world. In the future we 7) are likely to see even more extreme forms of self-expression become normal. Plastic surgery 8) will probably become more widespread. According to figures from consumer attitude surveys published by the Hughes Institute in the USA, the percentage of adults who would be prepared to have some form of plastic surgery has risen from 12% in 1995, to around 35% today, and it 9) seems likely that this trend towards seeing such surgery as a positive thing will continue ever upwards. As the technology develops, and such surgical procedures become cheaper, more socially acceptable and routine, it 10) is possible that we might change between several radically different appearances throughout the course of ourlives.

1h Student discussion 1i
3.3

Answers
For the police and border control agencies who rely on each of us having a constant physical identity, this 1) will present incredible challenges. DNA testing 2) will become a more important method of identification than photographs, and so we 3) will see a greater social acceptance of the idea of national databases, where all citizens DNA is stored. Passports 4) will include DNA samples rather than photographs. From the point of view of security, think of how this 5) will affect the use of Closed Circuit TV, or CCTV, cameras, that we see in buildings and all over our towns these days. Will these become useless if everyone is able to make radical changes to their appearance? Not so: in the future, CCTV 6) will be combined with sophisticated computer software which will recognize people caught on camera, not by their facial features, but by the unique way in which each of us walks, and extremely accurate measurements of things like height, shoulder width, the shape ofyour cheekbones, and so on. So, from a physical point of view, the future 7) will see us able to change ourselves beyond all recognition, while at the same time 8)we will be scrutinized more closely than ever before by security technologies.

1j Student discussion
Answer
The speculations in Audio 3.2 are hedged; those in Audio 3.3 are mainly pure.

1k Individual student work 1l Group discussion

2 Identifying the language of past speculation


2a
Answers
1P 2H 3H 4P 5H 6P

2b

Answer
Many of us may have changed our hair, or even our eye colour.

Unit 3 The individual in society Part A

58

2c Student discussion
Suggested answer
The phenomenon is that there has been a decrease in the number of Americans identifying themselves as being of Mexican origin, and it has not been caused by mortality or emigration.

2d
3.4

Answers
Mexicans may have been assimilated and may have decided to start calling themselves Americans. Mexicans may have married Americans from other ethnic groups, so this could also have changed their perception of their ancestry.

2e & 2f
3.5

Answers
1 the people could have seen themselves just as Americans their Mexican heritage might not have been so important to them 2 marriage might have reduced the number of people The claims are hedged speculations.

2g
3.6

Answer
The claim made is that the changes in wording of the question might have caused this phenomenon.

2h

Answer
This claim is a hedged speculation.

2i Group discussion 2j & 2k Student discussion

3 Identifying consonants and intrusive sounds


3a Student discussion
Answers
Vowel sounds in bold Consonants in italics What are the components of ones identity as a human? Well I suppose most people would accept the idea that we can think of identity in three ways. Firstly, there are the external, physical characteristics, such as height and weight ...

3b Student discussion

3c

Suggested answers
 The first sound in each pair is unvoiced (no movement of vocal cords, strong emission of air onto hand in front of lips)  The second sound in each pair is voiced (trembling of vocal cords, weak emission of air onto hand in front of lips)

Unit 3 The individual in society Part A

59

3d

Answers
Unvoiced Voiced /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/ /f/ /v/ // // /s/ /z/ // //

The following cannot be paired: /m//h//w//r/

3e Student discussion 3f
3.7

Answers
A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 pin tear tune crane fast think they sue sheet came pin hurl light what B

bin dear June grain vast sink

say zoo gte cane ping earl

right yacht

3g & 3h Student discussion 3i


Answers
Humans are essentially like other living creatures: we are made of cells, we have a similar chemical composition, we have a system of organs inside our bodies, and we reproduce. We also carry basic genetic information inside our bodies. But one* of the things that makes us distinct from other animals is that each of us has a clear sense of our own, individual, identity. Note: * the first consonant sound here is /w/.

3j

Suggested answers
/h/ humans /s/ essentially cells similar // other /k/ chemical clear /g/ organs

Unit 3 The individual in society Part A

60

/b/ bodies /z/ composition

/r/ reproduce /t/ distinct

/l/ also (t) each

/n/ own individual /d/ identity

/m/ makes information /w/ one

There are many variations on the words students use as their own examples.

3k Student discussion
3.8

3l

Answers
a /r/ b /w/ c /j/

3m

Suggested answers
All come at word boundaries to ease the joining of two vowel sounds. /r/ between a word ending with /r/ and another beginning with a vowel /j/ between a word ending in the vowel sound // and another beginning with any vowel sound /w/ between a word ending with // or // and another beginning with any vowel sound

3n
3.9

Suggested answers
What are the components of ones identity as a human? Well I suppose most people would accept 1) the /j/ idea that we can think of identity in three ways. Firstly, 2) there /r/ are the external, physical characteristics, such as height and weight; 3) the colour /r/ of 4) your /r/ eyes, your hair and skin; as well as any particular physical characteristics which mark 5) you /w/ as different 6) to /w/ others a bigger than average nose, maybe, 7) curly /j/ as opposed to straight hair. These are the physical characteristics that, in the popular view, 8) you /w/ are stuck with throughout your life.

Lesson task: 4 Speculating on a topic


4a & 4b Student discussion 4c
3.10

Answers
1 certain 2 life 3 measure 4 measurement 5 face 6 signature 7 wrists 8 characteristics

Unit 3 The individual in society Part A

61

4d Group discussion
Suggested answers
1 to catch criminals to control access to buildings to authenticate documents to access bank accounts 2 ID cards, passports, PINs, signatures 3 Appearance changes, unreliable, easy to counterfeit 4 Physiological fingerprints retina blood vessel recognition hand geometry facial structure DNA breath analysis body odour analysis shoe size height hair colour iris recognition 5 Students own answers Behavioural timing of 100 metres run voice recognition signature scans reading speed keystroke dynamics typing speed gait measurement personal vocabulary analysis

4e Students check their ideas.


3.11

4f Student discussion 4g
Suggested answers
Factors to make biometric system effective and workable: Secure, unique, permanent, not intrusive, reliable, fast, easy to use, not too expensive, not able to be got around or tricked

3.12

4h

Suggested answers
1 By 2030, palm prints might be / wont be used to open house doors. 2  By 2040, all passports will (probably / almost certainly) have biometric data stored inside. 3 In ten years time, eye scans might be used while shopping in supermarkets. 4 Students wont use / might use / will use voice recognition to write essays. 5 In the next five years, cars will (be able to) test your breath before starting. 6 There might be / is likely to be less crime than there is now. 7  In the future, the use of biometric data will almost certainly make the use of passports redundant.

4i Student discussion

Unit 3 The individual in society Part A

62

5 Review and extension


5a
3.13

Answers
A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 bear dawn tune crate vet these thank sane sing haul long wet B

pear torn June grate fte

seize sank same sin all wrong yet

5b

Suggested answers
1  In the past, it must have been easier / harder to write essays in higher education without computers. 2  20 years ago it would have been harder / easier to travel for people from my country. 3 There would / must / could / might have been more / less crime than today due to the introduction of CCTV. 4 Life would / must have been more / less private in the past without the technological surveillance.

5c

Answers
1 /w/ 2 /j/ 3 /j/ 4 /r/

5d

Suggested answers
You have an identity at work, we can say, if you love your job enough that you identify with your job or company. But do you behave in the same way when you are at home with your family? Are you, literally, the same person? When, at the weekend, you throw off your work identity and go to meet some friends, are you the same person then? And when in the evening you change your hairstyle and clothes and go and dance at a nightclub, or go to pray at a place of worship? When you are angry, are you the same person as when you are calm? If we could track the way you behave in cyberspace your web-surfing habits, or maybe an online game which you are involved in, and in which you assume a completely different character would we recognize you as the same person that we see in real life?

Unit 3 The individual in society Part A

63

Part B

Understanding written information


The aim of this part is for students to improve their reading and writing skills through: understanding the way claims are framed evaluating claims in context.

1 Understanding the way claims are framed


1a
Answer
A is largely factual, B contains opinions and claims.

1b

Answer
All of B can be considered as claims, apart from the second sentence.

1c

Answers
2 it has been argued that 3 pointed out that 4 There seems to be a general agreement (among ) that ... 5 critics have questioned this (position) ...

1d

Answers
a have challenged b makes a valid point c concur d has suggested

2 Evaluating claims in context


2a Student discussion 2b
Answer
The writer doesnt support the use of biometric ID cards because it presumes people are guilty (and it is expensive).

2c

Answers
a: persuasion (using metaphor, implying consensus, weight of authority, emphatic vocabulary or analogy, personalization) b:  own opinion (for this exercise, own opinion is taken to mean plainly stated claims) c: supporting evidence (evidence supporting the writers arguments) d: conclusion Can you support Britains current DNA database, yet oppose plans for biometric ID cards? Its a difficult issue. The past week has seen three men convicted of murder, and all three were either convicted or suspected of multiple killings. In two cases, DNA evidence proved vital: their DNA had been acquired through the current procedure whereby if someone is arrested his or her DNA is taken and recorded (as a set of 20 numbers) on the national database. Previous crimes where DNA has been recovered but no other match found are then checked against new entries.

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It is beyond argument that the database is a fantastic tool for solving crime. I think it is also right that arrest should be the trigger for taking a sample, since its logical that someone who has committed a serious crime will probably commit smaller ones too. For this reason Im against the case currently being brought by two people who were arrested but not charged and want their DNA details removed from the database. Arrest may be a weak indicator, but its still an indicator. Equally, Im against widening DNA collection to the whole population. The reasons were elegantly spelt out in The Guardian on Thursday by Professor Allan Jamieson: The larger [the database] becomes, the greater the chance is of a fortuitous hit, false conviction, and unnecessary stress on individuals and resource deployment by the police. And since the Home Office minister Tony McNulty agrees, I dont think theres much risk of the DNA database encompassing all of us. OK, but what about biometrics iris scans, fingerprints, facial recognition for ID cards? After all, consider benefit fraud, which is estimated to have cost the taxpayer 2.5bn in 2006/7. In one article, a minister for the Department for Work and Pensions said that the introduction of identity verification services, to be provided by the Identity and Passport Service as part of the National Identity Card scheme, will have a significant impact on the ability of fraudsters to make claims for social security benefits using more than one identity. However, in the same article, the minister admitted that no estimate has been made of the value of fraudulent claims which could be detected annually simply by keeping accurate records of addresses. Clearly, its a case of selective information. More to the point, an ID card would be used to prevent benefit fraud not to prove who committed the crime after the fact. If you had to give an iris scan when making each benefit application, that would make multiple fraudulent applications harder. But the fact that one woman could claim for an amazing 18 non-existent children doesnt suggest that the system for detecting unusual claims is very robust at the moment. Introducing iris scans and fingerprinting all parents and children before they can get child benefit would create a ludicrous, expensive system that could still be gamed. It is that presumption of guilt, though the thinking that youre only out to cheat the system that seems so wrong about the national biometric database. Leave aside the issue of how secure it might be. Nobody can change your biometrics, just as they cant change your DNA. The key is that it assumes youre guilty. And thats whats so unacceptable. The point about the DNA database is that it only comes into play after a crime has been committed, and when someone is suspected of it. At that point, you become a suspect in all unsolved crimes with DNA evidence. But in claiming benefit, or trying to board an aeroplane, were not committing a crime. And in a society that likes to call itself free, the presumption of innocence is surely the most important title we can give everyone, even if it is disappointed by fraudsters and killers. It has been the bedrock of our legal system for centuries. And that, in short, is why I support the DNA database, even for suspected criminals, but do not support a nationwide biometric database. Innocent unless proven guilty is an important freedom. Lets stick with it.

2d

Answers
a1 b2 c4 d 3 e5 f6

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2e

Answer
Because of the opinionated nature of this text, probably the only really useful idea would be to do an internet search on Professor Allan Jamieson to go directly to his research.

Lesson task: 3 Identifying and assessing claims


3a & 3b  Group discussion 3c
Answers
Essay titles The collection of data on children needs to be more strongly regulated than that on adults. Discuss. To what extent do children hold the same set of individual rights as adults? Discuss the extent to which child protection measures should override the individual rights of a child. Text(s) C, D A, C, D B, D

3d Student discussion 3e
Answers
1 Text B 2 Text A 3 Text C 4 Text B 5 Text B 6 Text D 7 Text D 8 Text A

3f & 3g  Student discussion

4 Review and extension


4a
Answers
1e 2c 3 d 4 a 5b

4b

Suggested answers
1 I think the researchers have found something statistically significant. 2 Obviously, poverty corresponds to bad health. 3 Professor Brown took issue with the researchers. 4 There may be no correlation between child harm and keeping their information on databases. 5 I concur with Dr Clarkes criticism of these views.

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Part C

Investigating
The aim of this part is for students to improve their researching skills through: reconstructing information from notes writing when synthesizing information from two or more sources.

1 Reconstructing information from notes


1a
Answers
The UK has seen a tremendous growth in the use of CCTV, with over 170 million being spent on installation from 1999 to 2001 (Welsh & Farrington, 2007) and it is important to ask whether this has been an effective use of money. CCTV can benefit the fight against crime in a number of different ways. Firstly, Welsh and Farrington (ibid.) argue that CCTV helps prevent both personal crime (such as mugging and rape) and property crime (e.g. shoplifting, the theft and damage of cars and buildings, and burglary). Secondly, once a crime has been committed, CCTV can help detection rates by providing sightings of those responsible. Finally, CCTV appears to increase public confidence in the authorities, that crime is being taken seriously (Welsh & Farrington, 2007). However, in terms of cost effectiveness, there may be other strategies (e.g. security paint, better lighting in unlit areas and increased police presence) that could give the same benefits as CCTV, but at a lower economic cost.

1b

Answers
Language features Articles and determiners Hedging language Linking words and phrases Noun phrases Example(s) a; an; the; this; those; other; the same may be; can; could; However; and; that; firstly; secondly; finally use of money; the fight against crime; cost effectiveness; increased police presence; lower economic cost argue that such as; e.g.; for example

Reporting verbs Words and phrases for introducing examples

1c

Answers
A T B T C T D T E F F T G T

1d Individual student work

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2  Writing when synthesizing information from two or moresources


2a & 2b  Student discussion


2d

Note: Do not give students the key for these until after the reading see 2d

2c Group discussion
Note: The information in 2b does not appear in the passage in 2d. Instead, students are supposed to compare the overall trend in the information and see if the information in 2b appears to indicate the same trend as in 2d (e.g. 2b item E says that: Identity theft is one of the fastest growing crimes in the UK, increasing at 500% year-on-year; the passage in 2d seems to echo this, noting that identity theft is one of the fastest growing crimes, though it doesnt specify the extent). All of the sentences in 2b are in fact derived from a government website. Answers
Point made by report writer Typical victim of identity theft likely to be young males Where a typical victim comes from Amount of time needed for victims to clear their name Sources used Davis (2007) Benson and Foulden (2008) Henson (2006) Francis (2007) Davis (2007) Grebe & Holden (2007) Davis (2007) Henson (2006) Source agreement/ disagreement Agree

2e

Disagree Agree

2f

Answers
likewise, similarly, both

2g

Answer
Likewise / Similarly

2h

Suggested answers
Either: Research by Benson and Foulden (2008) (likewise/similarly) shows that those in the younger age groups (aged 31 to 40) are (likewise/similarly) more liable to become victims and that this is more likely of males than females.

2i

Answers
1  With respect to the importance of long-term effects, Creed (2007) and Farndale (2009) are in agreement. 2  Creed (2007) and Farndale (2009) take a similar position with regard to the importance of long-term effects.

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3  As far as the importance of long-term effects is concerned, Creed (2007) and Farndale (2009) have corresponding views. 4  Similar views regarding the importance of long-term effects are held by Creed (2007) and Farndale (2009).

2j

Suggested answers
2)  Creed (2007) and Farndale (2009) take a similar position with regard to the importance of long-term effects. 3)  As far as the importance of long-term effects is concerned, Creed (2007) and Farndale (2009) have corresponding views. 4)  Similar views regarding the importance of long-term effects are held by Creed (2007) and Farndale (2009).

2k

Answers
Point made by report writer Total cost of identity theft to individuals Average loss of identity theft to individuals Losses of identity theft to businesses, etc. Sources used Benson & Foulden (2008) Lamont (2009) Benson & Foulden (2008) Lamont (2009) Henson (2006) Davis (2005) Medway (2009) Source agreement/ disagreement Disagree Disagree Partially agree Disagree

2l

Answer
whereas, while, On the other hand

2m

Answers
1  With respect to how to solve the problem, Crane (2007) and Friedle (2009) are in complete disagreement. 2  Crane (2007) and Friedle (2009) take different positions with regard to solving the problem. 3  As far as the solution to the problem is concerned, Crane (2007) and Friedle (2009) have opposing views. 4  Different views regarding the solution to the problem are held by Crane (2007) and Friedle (2009). 5  There appear to be differing approaches to solving the problem (e.g. Crane (2007) and Friedle (2009)).

2n

Suggested answers
Note: Other variations are possible. 1 are in agreement / hold similar views 2 On the other hand, / However, 3 both 4 Similarly / Likewise 5 while / whereas 6 while / whereas
Unit 3 The individual in society Part C 69

Lesson task: 3 Using synthesis in writing


3a Group discussion 3b
Answers
1 S1 2 S1 & S2 3 S2 4 S1 5 S1 6 S2

3c & 3d Student discussion


Sample paragraph It is not clear exactly to what extent children are influenced by violence in video games. Munning (2002) and Best & Green (2003) agree that media aimed at children often contains higher levels of violence than that which they might encounter in the real world. However, Munning (2002) claims that both parents and teenagers are able to separate this kind of violence from real-world violence, suggesting that it therefore has little effect. Best & Green (2003) disagree, arguing that the increasingly realistic nature and images of more modern games make it very hard for children especially to distinguish the dividing line between gaming and real-world violence.

4 Review and extension


4a
Answers
1  In contrast to Greig (2005), Mallard (2007) maintains that it is very difficult for parents to completely prevent children from accessing violence online. 2  Greig (2005) argues strongly that parents should play a major role in preventing their childrens online access to violence, while Needham and Chetwin (2009) suggest that online filters are usually more effective. 3  Greig (2005) claims it is relatively easy for parents to prevent children visiting unsuitable websites. By contrast, research by Dunbar (2009) suggests that parents are very unsure of their role in this respect. 4  Greigs view therefore contrasts with that of Knowles (2006), who argues that children need to learn to be more independent about making choices about what they access online. 5  Research by Greig (2005) shows that many teenagers are prevented from accessing unsuitable websites by their parents. On the other hand, Mallard (2007) suggests that in fact children often find a way round the restrictions placed on them by their parents. 6  Compared with Greig (2005), Dalton (2007) takes a more critical view of parent involvement in online access. 7  Knowles (2006) argues that children need to learn to be more independent when making choices about what they access online. Similarly, Dalton (2007) highlights the role of the child rather than the parent when selecting online material. 8  According to Greig (2005), teenagers are less likely to access unsuitable onlinesites after intervention from a parent. A similar idea is put forward by Crowe (2006). 9  Greig (2005) suggests that parents should be more active in preventing online access to violence, whereas Knowles (2006) argues that children need to learn to be more independent about making choices about what they access.
Unit 3 The individual in society Part C 70

4b

Answers
Compare / contrast in one sentence At the beginning of the sentence: In contrast to ... Compared with ... Between the two clauses in the sentence: ... while ... ... contrasts with ... ... whereas ... Compare / contrast over two sentences By contrast ... On the other hand ... Similarly ... A similar idea is put forward by ...

4c

Suggested answers
1 By contrast / On the other hand 2 Compared with 3 A similar idea / view / opinion 4 while / whereas 5 By contrast / On the other hand

4d

Answers
Similarities Differences Source A A number of major adult clothing brands are now producing childrens or even infant versions of typically adult items, ranging from logo-branded wallets, purses and jewellery to underwear items. From our research, we discovered that over 200 companies which had previously produced adult-only fashions had introduced childrens versions of their products between the years 2004 and 2006. What is notable about this is that the items were not, strictly speaking, childrens clothing, but were simply smaller-sized copies (or imitations) of products available in their adult ranges. We suggest that this marks a change in the concept of childhood, which has several implications for the advertising industry. Source B Over the past decade, there has been a huge increase in the number of wellknown clothing companies marketing products to children. Companies such as Marks & Spencer and Mothercare, traditionally associated with childrens clothes, are now in competition with a number of common high-street brands formerly seen only as sellers of adult clothing. Many of these have completely rethought the design of childrens clothes, bringing in fresh designers to market innovative products that will appeal specifically to this particular market. Instead of simply making smaller versions of clothes worn by adults, these designers have started tobring out clothes that identify children as individuals and fit the needs of childrens lives, which can be seen as significantly different from those of most working adults.

4e Individual student work

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Part D

Reporting in speech
The aim of this part is for students to improve their speaking skills through: summarizing key aspects of research in a presentation presenting an oral argument with alternative viewpoints.

1 Summarizing key aspects of research in a presentation


1a
Suggested answers
To give the audience an understanding of how the results were obtained To provide information for the audience to make their own critical evaluation ofthe research as a whole

1b

Answers
1 c 2 a 3 e 4 b 5 d

1c
3.14

Answers
Part of research process Sample size Sample population Type of sampling used Method of data collection Research purpose Speaker 1 Speaker 2

1d

Answers
Verbs which describe the research process and sample are underlined. The purpose of the research is in bold. Speaker 1 On the other hand, a study in 2004 by Waldorf suggests that there is a significant link between real-life violence and video game violence. To find out if video games desensitized children towards real-life violence, 150 US teenagers aged 1416 were asked a series of interview questions relating to their attitudes towards violence. The results suggested that video game playing was associated with more violent attitudes. However, Waldorf notes that some care needs to be taken with the result because children at this age have little experience of real-life violence.

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Speaker 2 One of the most interesting pieces of evidence showing that facial recognition is indeed reliable comes from a study of eight commercially available facial recognition systems by Bowers and Seymour in 2006. In order to find out how the technology had improved, this research compared each system on its ability to recognize three-dimensional facial images under both controlled and uncontrolled lighting, and compared these to an earlier evaluation done in 2002. The results suggest that face recognition technology appears to have improved dramatically. False recognition rates dropped by 90 per cent and facial recognition technology in the best systems was better than human identification of faces, with accuracy rates near 99 per cent.

1e

Suggested answers
When describing the research process and research sample speakers often use verbs in the past passive. When explaining the purpose of a piece of research, speakers often use to + verb, i.e. the infinitive of purpose.

1f & 1g
Suggested answers
analyze calculate take analyze take data average scores carry out conduct perform perform conduct carry out conduct carry out conduct distribute carry out analyze choose take samples a questionnaire an interview ask choose ask choose questions participants an experiment calculations

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1h

Suggested answers
Source A: Bright and Thirkettle (2005) conducted a study into the use of fingerprints for identification in airports. A questionnaire was distributed to a large sample consisting of 3000 US domestic air travellers from a balanced range of countries. They were asked questions regarding passenger attitudes to using fingerprints as a form of passenger identification instead of boarding cards.

2 Presenting an oral argument with alternative viewpoints


2a
3.15

Answer
The speakers position is fairly balanced but leans towards the idea that video games may encourage violence.

2b
3.16

Answers
1 While 2 possible 3 a fact 4 not 5 conclusively 6 Nevertheless 7 exists

2c

Suggested answers
1  there are some suggestive studies which do lead me to believe that such a link exists, and Id like to offer two reasons to explain that link. 2  it is a fact that the link between them has not been conclusively proven yet. 3  The alternative viewpoint. Probably because what is heard last is more likely to remain with the listener. 4 nevertheless 5 possible / not conclusively (proven) 6  To strengthen their own position by acknowledging other positions / arguments. 7 Although

2d

Suggested answers
Note: There are many possible variations. Function Presenting your own position Examples of language I will argue (that) ... I will show / suggest that I will explore to what extent Nevertheless ... However, Although Even though Despite this, ...

Linking your position with an alternative viewpoint

Unit 3 The individual in society Part D

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Showing doubt about the alternative viewpoint

possible not conclusive, may, might, could, etc. possibly, unlikely, etc.

2e2i Student discussion 2j Group discussion

Lesson task: 3 Including alternative views in a presentation


3a Group discussion 3b & 3c Individual student work followed by student discussion 3d & 3e Student discussion 3f & 3g Group discussion

4 Review and extension


4a
Answers
1 to measure 2 For the purpose of 3 To see (if) 4 in order that 5 so that 6  For 7 so that 8 for the purpose of 9 in order that 10 for

4b & 4c
Answers
Note: The pairs can be in any order. Pair 1&3 4&9 2&8 6 & 10 5&7 Structure to express purpose in research to + verb (infinitive) in order that + (subject) + (modal verb)* for the purpose of + noun (or noun phrase) for + noun phrase so that + (subject) + (modal verb)*

Note: *Although a modal verb is not necessary, it is often used in these structures.

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4d

Answers
1 was carried out / was conducted 2 were distributed 3 were carried out / were conducted 4 were asked; was conducted / was carried out 5 was analyzed 6 were taken 7 were calculated

4e
3.17

Answer
The speaker is clearly in favour of biometric systems.

4f Students listen to Audio 3.17 again.


Answers
Source Treeth & Ainscough, 2006 Jewel, Cross & Prabar, 2004 Seaman, 2010 Extra information given by speaker Online study 500 internet shoppers N/A Glasgow Two years long

4g & 4h Student discussion

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Part E

Reporting in writing
The aim of this part is for students to improve their writing skills through: identifying and using substitution and ellipsis identifying and using different ways of paraphrasing.

1 Identifying and using substitution and ellipsis


1a
Answers
All = retina and iris of the eye, hand and fingerprints, the shape of the head or hands, the spacing between features of the face; an individuals posture and style of walking This = biometric identification does = guarantee the identity of the individual

1b

Answer
The writer may have substituted / elided certain phrases in order to make their writing more concise.

1c

Answers
all indefinite pronoun this definite pronoun does auxiliary verb

1d & 1f
Suggested answers
Indefinite pronoun one none some all half, few, both, several, most, neither, less, either Definite pronoun she it those this he, they, these Auxiliary verb have can do will, might, may, should, must, could

1e

Answers
1 this 2 ones 3 half 4 few 5 do

Unit 3 The individual in society Part E

77

1g

Answers
biometric identification systems many of them several systems All of them each one less information

1h Student discussion 1i
Answers
Paragraph 1 Banks, petrol stations, chain stores, transportation centres, public and private office buildings, shopping malls, universities, schools, hospitals, museums, sports arenas, residential areas have one thing in common: all have CCTV surveillance systems. However, the extent of CCTV differs from country to country. Our findings suggest that its diffusion in semi-public space is most advanced in Britain, where we found 40% of the studied publicly accessible locations under surveillance. Paragraph 2 In Sheffield, for example, the Sheffield Wide Image Switching System, or SWISS, which was launched in 2003, has a control room staffed 24 hours a day and can now control around 150 publicly funded cameras covering the city centre streets. However, SWISS has also integrated other public and privately owned camera systems, including those of an out-of-town shopping mall, tram system and university. In doing so, the system is much more efficient than each organization running its own system.

1j

Suggested answers
Note: There are other possible variations. A High value consumer items such as laptops, mobile phones and cars They by securely locking the biometrics this (presents) Locking biometrics This B Tax returns, applications for driving licences, passports and so on These (things) In inviting citizens to enrol biometric data such as fingerprints or DNA In doing so

1k Student discussion

2 Identifying and using different ways of paraphrasing


2a
Answers
Information in Source B coming from Source A is underlined. CCTV is increasingly becoming a common feature of public life. However, many people are suspicious of the idea that the police or security guards can monitor the general public 24 hours a day. However, Clarkson (2009, p. 37) suggests that even though civil rights campaigners argue that CCTV is a major and intentional assault on the right to privacy by governments which want to control their populations, the use of CCTV technology is simply a logical thing for the police to do because of the fact that globalization and urbanization make it more difficult for them to recognize people.

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2b & 2c
Answers
Text A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CCTV technology is being used widening number public spaces Despite claims serious and deliberate attack authoritarian governments a natural response law enforcement agencies the problem of anonymity globalized, urbanized Text B CCTV is becoming a common feature public life Even though (civil rights campaigners) argue major and intentional assault governments which want to control their populations a logical thing the police more difficult for them to recognize people globalization, urbanization Type of Paraphrase ellipsis synonym; passive / active synonym synonym different linking words synonym (word class) synonyms synonym word definitions; adjective / clause synonyms synonyms word definitions; noun / clause word class

10 11 12

13

Lesson task: 3 Paraphrasing a text


3a
Answers
The authors claims are: population is growing population growth makes policing more difficult CCTV can help the police

3b Student discussion 3c
Suggested answer
The use of CCTV may be beneficial, especially in urban environments. For instance, Humbert and Manson (2005) claim that with increasing urban populations and travel opportunities for people both at home and abroad, police authorities find it difficult to identify specific individuals. CCTV is one of the tools that can be used to do this more effectively.

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3d Student discussion. Many variations are possible. 3e Group discussion

4 Review and extension


4a
Answers
The writers main idea is that CCTV coverage in the UK is more extensive and operates differently from that in Europe.

4b

Suggested answers
none = no CCTV systems it = CCTV monitoring these = separate CCTV systems them all = separate CCTV systems

4c

Answers
1 done so 2 do likewise (do so also possible) 3 do so

4d

Suggested answer
The increasing anonymity and swelling populations of large modern cities make efficient policing ever more difficult. It is unsurprising, then, that many nations are increasingly looking towards adopting CCTV and biometric technologies to support policing. Some nations such as the UK and France have already done so extensively, while other nations such as Germany have introduced more limited systems. Given obvious cost and efficiency benefits, it is likely that many other nations will do likewise in future. However, while CCTV technology is popular and widely used in some nations, in other nations it is not popular or widely used. Despite the possible attractions of CCTV and biometric technologies from the point of view of the authorities, some nations may find themselves unable to install widespread public CCTV systems due to cultural attitudes to privacy. Any attempt to do so might meet with stiff public resistance.

4e

Suggested answer
With an eye to the future of biometric identification, we can predict that technological improvements will continue to propel growth in the this area of biometric identification, despite claims from some critics that biometric identification many systems are not reliable enough. The reliability of biometrics scanning is in fact already very high, though it remains true that any current biometric scanning system will incorrectly recognize a proportion of unauthorized users (or reject legitimate users ones). Incorrect recognition of unauthorized users and rejection of legitimate users This is due to environmental and physical factors. For instance, with face recognition technology, light or darkness can impact the quality of the reading, as can the angle at which the individual stands in response to the reader. Scans of the iris or retina currently require the subject individual to position themselves precisely in relation to the scanner and can also be confounded by people wearing dark

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glasses or contact lenses. Even fingerprint scans are not currently foolproof. However, as biometric scanning technology improves we can expect to see biometric these systems having consistently better recognition rates, which will encourage consumer and business confidence in using the technology them to secure financial transactions (and companies which use the technology to secure financial transactions do so will enjoy a better reputation for security with customers). It is likely that, as we move towards a cashless economy in which all goods and services are bought and paid for electronically, biometric systems will come to replace PINS, passwords and signatures entirely.

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Unit 4
Unit overview
Part A

Choices
In LS3 by improving your ability to identify and understand reformulation identify stance markers. In SS3 by improving your ability to listen for logical conclusions review your active listening skills. identify arguments against the person identify you too arguments recognize circular arguments identify weak analogies identify the use of limited options.

This Part will help you to Listen critically

identify and understand repetition listen for logical flaws

Critically evaluate logic in texts

identify emphasis in academic texts identify and understand analogy in academic texts.

Develop as an independent learner

identify common errors in formality levels of academic emails understand appropriate features of emails in different situations identify formal and informal language in written communication.

understand more about independent learning analyze your own independence as a learner.

Conclude a presentation

conclude an oral presentation speculate about research results in conclusions.

draw suitable conclusions in a presentation speculate on findings make recommendations prepare and rehearse for a presentation.

Conclude, review and edit an essay

develop language for writing conclusions refer to previous sections of an academic text in the conclusion express importance, desirability and necessity.

write a suitable conclusion proofread written work review written work for logical flaws edit written work for logical flaws reflect on completed work.

Unit 4 Choices Overview

82

Unit 4
Part A

Choices
Understanding spoken information
The aim of this part is for students to improve their listening skills in lectures through: identifying and understanding repetition identifying and understanding reformulation identifying stance markers.

1 Identifying and understanding repetition


1a & 1b Student discussion 1c
4.1

Answers
1 Eleven different 2 a whole bunch of 3 ten different 4 any number

1d

Answer
The underlined phrases are all different ways to refer to the same thing, the choices available. They consistently repeat numbers or quantities.

1e

Suggested answers
Advantages:  Gives listeners a chance to take notes / time to make sense of information Helps clarify / give a clearer explanation Helps listeners get back on track after a deviation, joke, etc. Helps summarize what has been said previously Potential problems: Listeners may make notes on the same information again Might be confusing if reformulation is not well signposted Can be repetitive / boring if overused

1f Student discussion 1g
4.2

Answers
1 e 2 c 3 a 4 b 5 d

Unit 4 Choices Part A

83

1h

Answers
Function of repetition / reformulation To emphasize a particular situation To make reasons / explanations clearer To summarize previous information Example (ae) a, b, d c e

1i & 1j Student discussion 1k


4.3

Answers
1 the most 2 the most 3 goal 4 the situation 5 thats the situation affecting the goal 6  successful 7 to consider 8 experience 9 to consider 10 experience of the situation in which youre choosing is important too

2 Identifying and understanding reformulation


2a Students own answers 2b
4.4

Answer
Thats to say

2c Group discussion 2d
4.5

Note: After a few minutes, work as a class and collect all the ideas together (suggestions could include those given in 2d below). Answers
1 in other words 2 if you like 3 in other words 4 To put it another way 5 that is 6 so to speak

2e
4.6

Answers
Maximizers those people who try to maximize the benefits they get from a decision. In other words, maximizers always try to get the best possible outcome in every choice that they have to make. Satisficers as the name might suggest, people who make their decisions based on aiming to get what is good enough to satisfy them not to get the very best, that is, but just good enough.

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84

The speaker then reformulates these again: So basically what you have is people who have very high standards and are never really happy with the choices they make the maximizers and on the other hand, there are those who are pretty easily satisfied as long as somethings good enough and those are the satisficers.

3 Identifying stance markers


3a
Answers
Expressing an emotional response regrettably unsurprisingly understandably Making claims less assertive to be honest basically I must say Making claims stronger naturally obviously in fact

3b
4.7

Answers
1 basically 2 obviously 3 unsurprisingly 4 understandable 5 surprising 6 in fact 7 I must say

3c Student discussion 3d
4.8

Answers
1 easier / more convenient 2 easier, but takes more time because of information / choice overload

Lesson task: 4 Identifying a speakers stance on the topic


4a Group discussion 4b & 4c Student discussion 4d
4.9

Answers
The speakers position is Choosing a university course is quite simple. The huge choice of universities and courses is advantageous to would-be students. All school leavers should consider going to university. Choosing a university course is very difficult. The huge choice of universities and courses is disadvantageous to would-be students. University is often a waste of time for many school leavers.

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|-------------------------------------------------------------X----------------------------------|

|-------------------------------------------X----------------------------------------------------|
Unit 4 Choices Part A 85

4e Student discussion 4f & 4g Student discussion


Suggested answers
4.9

1 wealth 2 make a choice / the choices / ones 3 leave school 4 choice at every step / difficulty in making a good choice 5 in education / find a job 6 leaving school / on to higher education 7 go on to higher education 8 careful decisions

4h Individual student work, student discussion 4i Group discussion

5 Review and extension


5a & 5b Student discussion
Answers
4.10

We live in a very complex world, and each of us faces a number of situations in which we have to make decisions every day. In fact, its probably no exaggeration to say that the sheer number of choices we face every day is increasing, with the growing 1) complexity of life in the 21st century. The question is, how do we go about making these decisions? Do 2) you make decisions, even the most complex and serious ones, on gut feeling, or do you have a system, 3) a process of some sort, that allows you to think through all the factors involved 4) in each decision and be sure that you have made the best choice? Are there rules that govern the way we 5) make our choices? And if so, what are they?

5c
4.11

Answers
1 On the face of it 2 obviously 3 Whats interesting, (though)

5d

Answer
3 The tyranny of choice problem affects everyone.

5e
4.12

Suggested answers
The speakers opinions include: There should be freedom of choice in general. There should be some regulation to restrict choice in some situations.

5f Individual student work

Unit 4 Choices Part A

86

Part B

Understanding written information


The aim of this part is for students to improve their reading and writing skills through: identifying emphasis in academic texts identifying and understanding analogy in academic texts.

1 Identifying emphasis in academic texts


1a
Answers
1 Barlow thinks climate change is happening. 2 Hollis does not agree that this is so. 3  Because Barlow feels that Hollis has also used extreme models in his own arguments.

1b

Answer
himself

1c

Answers
1 themselves 2 himself 3 themselves

1d

Answers
1 achieving wealth through oil exploration 2 that people engaged in risky sports should pay higher insurance 3 this phenomenon (presumably an aspect of decision-making)

1e

Suggested answers
1 themselves / itself 2 itself 3 themselves 4 ourselves

1f

Suggested answers
By using: what phrases even and only it + to be phrases adjectives / adverbs, e.g. increasingly, widely, ever, etc. modal verbs like must

Unit 4 Choices Part B

87

1g

Answers
A Some of these claims may rightly be dismissed as speculation, but what is undeniable is that biometrics is here to stay, and that its use is only likely to become more widespread. It will increasingly impact our lives in the years to come. B Climate change presents an almost unimaginable challenge to the prosperity, comfort, health and even survival of our societies. It is now perfectly clear that this is a threat unlike any our species has ever faced before, bringing the risk of nations disappearing under the seas, mass dislocation of refugees, food shortages and the destruction of our precious ecosystem. The evidence shows conclusively that if we do not wish to see a world changed beyond all recognition and one in which humankind will undergo huge suffering, then we must all act now. The choices we make today, such as immediately replacing dirty carbon fuels (for example, oil and coal) with nuclear energy and the development of non-carbon transport systems, are essential if we are not to suffer a similar fate to that of the dinosaurs who became extinct millions of years ago.

1h

Answers
A Recent behavioural studies have demonstrated plainly that individuals tend to underestimate risk. This is certainly apparent in situations where the risks are remote in time or space. B Without doubt, industrial design which pays attention to decision-making ease by operators can help to reduce time spent on decisions. There is obviously a need, therefore, for better design of aircraft and machinery control systems to reduce the danger of accidents caused by so-called choice overload. C Accurate decision-making abilities are indisputably critical for emergency service personnel. As a consequence, we advise that frontline fire, police and ambulance teams receive decision-making training. We argue that such training will inevitably result in better performance by emergency workers. D The number of options which a consumer faces affects their ability to feel satisfied with their purchasing decisions (see, for instance, Iyengar and Lepper, 2000). However, questions definitely remain about whether an optimum number of choices exists. E It is often assumed that individuals making decisions do so by rationally evaluating all of the factors involved in the decision. In some situations this is no doubt the case, though it is unlikely to be true with all decision situations. What is certain, however, is that most individuals tend to rely on gut-feeling to help them make decisions. F The evidence presented above suggests that we are faced with serious questions about the best way to manage our natural resources in the coming half century. Increasing population will put more stress on existing water, food, energy and industrial supplies. While these problems are undoubtedly significant, they can nevertheless be overcome through planning, preparation and coordination of government with industry and local communities.

Unit 4 Choices Part B

88

1i Student discussion 1j
Answers
A 1 The writer claims that individuals do not make decisions in a rational way. 2 The writer appears to be neutral on this topic. B 1  The writer claims that individuals tend not to make decisions using solely rational techniques. The writer also suggests that rational decision-making methods are useful in improving decision-making. 2  The use of clearly suggests confidence in the first claim. The use of indisputable suggests a high degree of confidence in the second claim.

1k

Answers
1 The number of managers and companies involved in the research 2 Who carried out the research and when 3 The focus of the research

Note: It may be useful to explain that, in English, the focus of importance in ordinary sentences tends to be at the end of the sentence (following the so-called end-weight or given-new principles). However, sometimes, information can be emphasized by deliberately changing the structure of the sentence to place the information at the beginning, using less common grammatical structures such as it-clefts to mark the change, e.g. It was Professor Dillons team that carried out the research in 2008. Suggested answers
Note: There are possible variations. 1 It is by trusting their instincts that most people make choices. 2 It is having too many choices which makes decision-making difficult. 3 It was Carl Marston who first claimed that climate change was a myth.

1l

2 Identifying and understanding analogy in academic texts


2a
Answers
A the human mind, like the CPU on a computer, can be overloaded by tasks and fail to reach a timely decision about what to do. B Making decisions in a crisis is something like driving a car. The driver must handle a large amount of information about the world around them while simultaneously operating a number of controls to guide the car to where they want to go.

2b

Suggested answers
You could draw students attention to the similarity of both structures, i.e. use of noun phrase / gerund + like + noun phrase / gerund, followed by further explanation / extension. The main difference here is in the use of noun phrases or gerunds.

Unit 4 Choices Part B

89

2c

Answers
A Analogy: management decisions are made in the same way as a tennis player makes a shot. Management decisions are often made in the same way that a tennis player plays a tennis shot. Every decision is the last part of a series of actions, although many decision makers, similar to tennis players, are unaware of the steps that precede the final decision. B Analogy: decision-making is like a never-ending computer game. One way of viewing decision-making is as a computer game with no end. However many characters you kill with each decision, there are always more waiting to be disposed of in a never-ending stream. C Analogy: choosing which university to go to is like walking into a dark room and bumping into something which you cant see. Making the choice about which university to go to can be compared to walking in a dark room. Most school leavers stumble around not knowing or seeing very much, bump into something that does not hurt too much and are then horrified to find out what they have chosen when the lights go on. D Analogy: managers are like football coaches. Managers can be seen as football coaches. They help players understand what decisions need to be made and when, and, by doing this, help to realize an individuals full potential to play an integral part in the company team.

2d & 2e Student discussion 2f


Suggested answers
Potential students are a pool (of water). The decision-making process is a short walk the goal is reached one step at a time. The number of options explode they increase many times in a short space of time.

2g

Answers
1  One definition of success might be climbing up the corporate ladder, but sometimes those at the top may be neither the best nor the most successful in terms of decision-making. Career success is a ladder. 2  This research has shone much light on the process of decision-making, highlighting the role of intuition and irrationality. However, more research will be needed to illuminate the shadowy area of the role played by emotion. Research is light. 3 Perhaps the root of understanding of how people make consumer choices is being aware of how perception can grow with experience. This seems to be fertile ground for more research. Understanding is a tree / plant. 4  The foundations of the research appear to be extremely solid, and this has enabled the writers to construct a sound theory of decision-making. Research is a building.

Unit 4 Choices Part B

90

Lesson task: 3 Reading to recognize emphasis in texts


Note: The tutor should put students into groups of three (or four) which they will work in throughout this Lesson Task. These will be their study groups mentioned in the following activities. 3a3c Group discussion Note: Vegetarian does not eat flesh (red meat, poultry or seafood). Vegetarians may also refuse to use / wear products made directly from animals (e.g. leather). Vegan does not use any animal product, e.g. meat, leather, milk, eggs, etc. Fruitarian eats only fruit (although some fruitarians also eat beans, seeds and grains). 3d3f Group discussion Notes: 1 Texts for this activity are in Appendix 1 of these Tutors Notes. 2 Suggested procedure:  Take one (or two, if more than three in a group) students from each study group and put them together in three large groups (i.e. study groups ABC, ABC, ABC move to AAA, BBB, CCC).  Give two different sources to each group. Ask them to work together (or in pairs in the group) and complete steps 14.  After this (3e & 3f) send them back into their original study groups (ABC) to report on their sources.

3g Student discussion

4 Review and extension


4a & 4b
Answers
Function 1 to show desire 2 to show enjoyment or pleasure 3 to show or suggest similarity 4 to suggest a high degree of probability Extract(s) B (Id like to think about) C (if you dont like plain coffee) A (more like holiday brochures), C (if youre like me) D (youre likely ... to be)

4c

Answers
a 1 b 2 c 3 d 4 (note that this is in fact a high degree of improbability) e 3 f 3 g 3 h 1 i 3 j 4 (note that this is in fact a high degree of improbability)
Unit 4 Choices Part B 91

4d

Answer
All 3s above are analogies.

4e

Answers
1 buildings 2 light and darkness 3 computers 4 war and conflict 5 vegetation

4f

Suggested answers
Note: There are possible variations. 1  As dementia progresses in old age, the information stored by the brain as memories is gradually erased until few of them remain. 2 The roots of the problem go deeper than we first thought, and largely stem / grow from the inability of people to make rational decisions. 3  The data we collected highlighted a number of issues which had not been seen in detail before the idea that emotion plays an important role really shone / shines through. 4  Despite the initial groundwork by researchers like Simon (1956), the whole argument that people can think and make rational decisions under time constraints has completely collapsed. 5  A number of critics have attacked the rational argument, but there is little opposition to the idea that this way of decision-making represents an ideal or model of how it could most effectively be done.

Unit 4 Choices Part B

92

Part C Investigating
The aim of this part is for students to improve their researching skills through: identifying common errors in formality levels of academic emails understanding appropriate features of emails in different situations identifying formal and informal language in written communication.

1  Identifying common errors in formality levels of academic emails


1a Student discussion 1b Individual work 1c Group discussion 1d
Answers
1 g 2 a 3 i 4 j 5 l 6 k

1e

Suggested answers
1 a friend informal use of language (may be unformed sentences, no paragraphing, lack of capitals / punctuation, use of abbreviations, slang, symbols, informal greetings, etc.) 2 a stranger formal greeting and ending, use of Mr / Ms / Dr, etc., complete sentences / word forms, correct punctuation, some attempt at paragraphing (depending on length) 3 an academic tutor similar to stranger, although formality may be influenced by style of tutor reply (e.g. greeting, use of names, etc.)

1f1h

Student discussion

Suggested answers
Note: There are many possible variations. 1 Dear Faye,  Please find my essay attached. Would it be possible to ask you some questions about it today? Regards 2 Dear Sylvie,  I was waiting for you between 3:15 and 3:45 pm in Interview Room 4 and then I went to your office. I also went to Reception, but I was unable to find you. The receptionist suggested I send you an email, so I would be grateful if you could tell me about the exact times for our next tutorial. Many thanks,

Unit 4 Choices Part C

93

3 Dear Alistair,  I am sorry to bother you but last week I did not get the application form for changing my postgraduate major. I would be very grateful if you could send me a copy of the form by email. Thank you very much. Regards 4 Dear (tutor name)  I am very sorry I missed my lesson. I would be happy to meet you next Tuesday after my classes finish at 4.30. Best wishes 5 Dear Mr (family name),  I am sorry to disturb your holiday, but I would really like your help. I am applying for a work placement position now and I would like you to write me a reference. I would be very grateful if you could send this as soon as possible, so as not to affect my application. Thank you very much indeed. Yours sincerely 6 Dear Kim,  I would be grateful if you could answer the following questions for me. Firstly, did you receive my essay which I sent yesterday? Secondly, could you tell me the exact date of the end of term? Thank you Regards

2  Understanding appropriate features of emails in different situations


2a
Answers
abbreviations: u, plz contractions: Im emoticons: J exclamation marks: !! use of first names: Olive use of opening and closing expressions: Hi, take care

2b

Suggested answers
1 Mostly inappropriate (though contractions may be considered acceptable) 2  Inappropriacies include: opening, use of need, use of u and plz, use of emoticons, double exclamation marks, closing. (It might also be pointed out that a request of this sort without an explanation of the reason may be considered impolite.) 3 Depends on context, but most of the above would apply.

2c

Answers
1 Giving an apology 2 Making an arrangement for a tutorial 3 Making a request (that somebody read something)

2d Student discussion

Unit 4 Choices Part C

94

2e

Suggested answers
Function Introduce the email / the purpose of the email Make a request Email 1 3 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 3 Example word(s) or phrase(s) I apologize for + -ing Please find attached Would it be possible to ? Could we ? Could you ? I apologize for + -ing Im sorry once again for + -ing Best wishes Best regards Best wishes

Make an apology Conclude the email

2f Student discussion 2g
Suggested answers
Note: There are many possible variations. 1 Always begin your email with Dear. 2 Keep your email short. 4 Be polite. Use phrases such as Could you or Would you. 5 Check your spelling and punctuation. 6 Always end your email with, for example, Yours sincerely or Best wishes. 7 Read your email before sending it.

3  Identifying formal and informal language in written communication


3a Student discussion 3b
Answers
Example phrase 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Dear Mr Smith, / Mrs Smith, / Ms Smith, Dear Geoff, Hi Margaret! I am writing with reference to ... Im writing to ... Just a quick note to ... I look forward to hearing from you soon. Look forward to hearing from you soon. Hope to hear from you soon. Formal Neutral Informal

Unit 4 Choices Part C

95

10 11 12

Yours sincerely, Best wishes / regards, Best, All the best, Bye, Bye for now

3c

Suggested answer
Dear Mark, My economics lecturer has suggested that I need to improve my writing. I wonder if it would be possible to spend some time looking at paragraph organization in our next tutorial? Thank you. Regards

3d Student discussion 3e
Answers
1 Making a request (that somebody read something) 2 Checking that corrections made are appropriate 3 Checking which sources are most useful

3f

Answers
Function Introduction Example features Thank you for Following on from our meeting yesterday, This is just to let you know that I shall be heading home on Im already looking forward to Apart from that, all is well. Contractions (Im, Ive, its, isnt) Use of first names Inclusion of personal details Expressions such as Hope you are well and Apart from that, all is well. When would be convenient ? Does that make sense of ? Is it a must to ? If (not) , are there ? Best wishes, Hope you are well, Apart from that, all is well.

Personalization

Informal features

Question forms

Concluding remarks

3g

Answers
The emails are semi-formal. Although there are quite formal greetings and clear text organization (sentences, paragraphs), first names are used and the tone is quite personal.

Unit 4 Choices Part C

96

Lesson task: 4 Writing a formal email


4b
Answer
Dear Tim

Note: Point out to students that with a tutor who you already know, its likely that you will be able to address them with their first name. However, other possible answers include the lecturers title and family name (e.g. Dear Dr Simmonds). Suggested answers
 Im writing to let you know that Ive successfully arranged a work placement with a local business.  Ive been offered a placement at a local IT business, and Im writing to ask if you could let me know your thoughts on the offer. Im writing about the work placement.

4c

4d

Suggested answer
Ill be working at EyeSoft. The work placement runs from June 14th to July 25th. As you know, Im interested in IT development, and I think this placement will be very useful. Ill be learning about software development, and assisting the designers with the actual project, so Ill be able to get a good idea of what IT project management is like.

4e

Suggested answers
Would you be able to let me know whether this is an appropriate placement? Could you confirm whether this placement seems suitable?

4f

Suggested answers
In an email with a tutor who you already know, any of the suggested closings could be acceptable. However, there are some formality differences between them. From most to least formal they are: I look forward to hearing from you Yours Thank you Best wishes

4g

Suggested answer
Dear Tim, Im writing to let you know that Ive successfully arranged a work placement with a local business. Ill be working at EyeSoft. The work placement runs from June 14th to July 25th. As you know, Im interested in IT development, and I think this placement will be very useful. Ill be learning about software development, and assisting the designers with the actual project, so Ill be able to get a good idea of what IT project management is like. Would you be able to let me know whether this is an appropriate placement? Best wishes, John

Unit 4 Choices Part C

97

5 Review and extension


5a
Suggested answers
1  Evaluate the implications might be tricky for some students. The reasons for consumer behaviour are notoriously complex and an investigation might involve primary research. 2  Need to have some background knowledge of the concept of Paradox of choice. Also very difficult for those without experience of creating art projects or installations. 3 User friendly is the key phrase here and needs to be fully understood. 4  This task requires a systematic review of current research into health risks associated with RF energy from mobile-phone base stations. A systematic review is a potentially highly involved and sophisticated task requiring good analytical and critical skills.

5b Individual student work

Unit 4 Choices Part C

98

Part D

Reporting in speech
The aim of this part is for students to improve their speaking skills through: concluding an oral presentation speculating about research results in conclusions.

1 Concluding an oral presentation


1a
Suggested answers
1  Signal the start of the conclusion, give a summary of main points, restate argument (if used), suggest implications of argument, give recommendations for further research, future predictions / warnings / suggestions, invite questions from audience 2  In conclusion, so, in summary, then, to conclude, to recap, to summarize, this has important implications, possible future research could, to round things off then, are there any questions, etc.

1b Student discussion
Suggested answers
In summary / to recap / to summarize = To repeat key points from main body. In conclusion / to conclude / to round things off then = To signpost / signal the conclusion. This has important implications = To highlight the significance of main argument or key point. Possible future research could = To indicate predicted developments / gaps in current knowledge. Are there any questions = To invite questions from the audience.

1c

Answers
The link between consumer behaviour and the number of choices That sales will increase if choice is limited more

1d

Suggested answers
In conclusion There appears to be a strong relationship between consumer behaviour and number of choices, i.e. sales rise if choice is limited. This relationship could have serious implications for both marketing and retailers. However, not all choice should be restricted freedom is still necessary. Suggest limited number of options.

1e Student discussion

Unit 4 Choices Part D

99

1f
4.13

Answers
So in conclusion we can see, pretty clearly, I think, that ... I wouldnt want to claim that all choice but there is a very strong argument that sales can be ...

1g
4.14

Answers
Speaker A 1 signal the beginning of the conclusion? 2 identify and refer to their main argument? 3 suggest possible implications of their argument? 4 identify potential future research? 5 invite questions from the audience? Speaker B Speaker C

1h & 1i Students listen to Audio 4.14 again, then use the transcripts.
Answers
Function To signal the beginning of the conclusion To identify and refer to their main argument To suggest possible implications of their argument To identify potential future research To invite questions from the audience Words or phrases used So, to conclude In conclusion So, in summary as Ive shown I would argue that Im (not) suggesting that I would conclude by arguing for What is needed now is more research into This could be supported by studies of Are there any questions, anyone? if there are any questions, wed be happy to answer them now.

2 Speculating about research results in conclusions


2a
4.15

Answers
1 Student choices between work and leisure 2 Speaker speculates about: whether results might differ with a larger sample  the effect of part-time work.

Unit 4 Choices Part D

100

2b

Answers
In conclusion, the results of our study appear to show that, contrary to the complaints of parents and teachers, most students are capable of making adequate decisions by themselves about the best way to divide their time between study and leisure. We would suggest, however, that more time and energy is given towards making the study time itself more efficient, since many students claimed that some study tasks were taking far too long. Its also important to note that our study is based on only a very small number of questionnaires given to students on this course, so it would be interesting to see if the same results could be obtained in a wider study involving more students. There is also the question of part-time work, which we didnt consider here as its neither study, nor leisure. With increasing financial pressure on students, future decisions are more likely to involve this as a crucial factor in the time management of student life, and this might prove a rich area for future research.

2c

Suggested answer
Note: Many variations are possible. However, as Ive discussed, the results do also seem to confirm that many lowachieving students appear to spend an equal amount of time on study as their more successful peers. Causes for this may include differences in the approach taken while studying, as well, possibly, as the time when such study is done. However, it is difficult to generalize from the limited sample I have looked at and I strongly urge that further research is needed in order to shed more light on these aspects.

2d Students use the transcript to compare with their version.


4.16

2e

Answers
1 This is far from clear 2 Further research is needed 3 shed light on 4 It would be interesting to see 5 It is interesting to speculate on 6 It might be the case that 7 An interesting question that this raises is

2f Student discussion 2g
4.17

Answers
1) In conclusion, we 2) can see that there are a number of general factors that need to be taken into account when making a decision about how to allocate resources such as money. 3) These include estimations of the risks and benefits involved in any choice, as well as considerations of the amount of the resource available, and also the priorities with which it might be needed. However, there are a number of external factors, such as bias and time pressure, which 4) can influence this decision. The research evidence which 5) Ive presented here suggests that many people do not make such choices by rationally considering every factor. An interesting question that 6) this raises is whether people who rationally consider all the alternatives actually make better decisions than those whose decision-making process is irrational, or intuitive. It 7) might be the case that people do not need to consider every possible factor in order to make a good decision about how to allocate the resources available to them. However, the answer to that question is outside 8) the scope of my presentation. 9) Thank you very much for listening. Are there 10) any questions?
Unit 4 Choices Part D 101

Lesson task: 3 Presenting results of research


3a Group discussion 3b3g Follow procedure in the Students Book. This would probably work best if there were several different research questions or topics, so that different groups of students found out different things from each other, not just the question given in the Students Book. The reporting of the results to each other at the end would then be much more authentic and hopefully of genuine interest to the listeners. Some suggestions for other research questions: hat decisions have students at this institution made about their mobile phones W  and what factors have influenced these decisions? hat decisions have students at this institution made about their daily spending W  budgets and what factors have influenced these decisions? hat decisions have students at this institution made about their drinking and/ W  orsmoking habits and what factors have influenced these decisions? hat decisions have students at this institution made about their eating W patterns and what factors have influenced these decisions?
Notes: This is not an activity where questionnaire writing and result interpretation are the main focuses, so do not worry too much if there are some relatively poor questions or interpretation encourage students to work from and adapt the examples / questions given. It might be a good idea for students to rehearse their conclusions before presenting them to members of a different group.

4 Review and extension


4a
Answers
1 In summary, / conclusion, 2 In summary, / conclusion, 3 I have argued that 4 There seems to be a strong relationship between 5 More research would be necessary in order to 6 The research evidence which Ive presented here 7 Thank you very much for listening. 8 Are there any questions?

4b Student discussion 4c
4.18

Answers
1) In conclusion, the world is facing serious resource challenges in the coming years. Supplies of oil and gas, vital minerals, fish stocks, agricultural land, wood, and fresh water, among other things, are finite, and as the examples I have shown 2) in this presentation indicate, they are under growing pressure from a combination of rising population, the desire for unlimited economic growth, and existing patterns of overuse. In the coming century, governments, businesses and ordinary citizens will 3) have to make increasingly difficult choices about how to allocate the resources available to them. Stricter laws will become necessary, and certain items will need to be restricted. However, it is not all 4) bad news: continued increases in the population will force us to develop creative new solutions to the resource problem in order to accommodate everyone. Thank you 5) for listening. Are there 6) any questions?

Unit 4 Choices Part D

102

4d Student discussion 4e Students read the transcript to compare with their own answers.
4.19

Answers
In summary, then, its probably misleading to talk about a single gender gap when it comes to making career choices. And it may be too simplistic to state that this gap is a simple case of mens advantage at womens expense. Instead, it would be more correct to view it as a number of different gaps, in some cases disproportionately in womens favour, while in others favouring men. An interesting question, which is unfortunately outside the scope of this talk, is what are the likely effects of these gaps? For instance, the effects of such a large, and growing, number of female university students could lead to changes in subjects offered, studied and even possibly the ways they are assessed. And when it comes to the jobs market, it is probable that the present situation, where women are paid less and often struggle more than men to be promoted at work, may not last much longer. I would suggest that these are areas where more research is needed. Thank you.

Unit 4 Choices Part D

103

Part E

Reporting in writing
The aim of this part is for students to improve their writing skills through: developing language for writing conclusions referring to previous sections of an academic text in the conclusion expressing importance, desirability and necessity.

1 Developing language for writing conclusions


1a
Answers
1 a 2 b 3 a

1b

Answers
Conclusion 1 Lines 14: A restatement of the original thesis Lines 410: Summary of key points Lines 1013: Suggesting broader applications of the thesis or findings Conclusion 2 Lines 12: A restatement of the original thesis Lines 24: Summary of key points Lines 410: Weaknesses of the research Lines 1012: Recommendations for further research Conclusion 3 Lines 12: (Possibly answering a question raised in the introduction) Lines 24: Summary of key points Lines 47: Discussion of implications from key points

1c & 1d
Answers
The direct statements are in bold The emphasis is underlined The hedging expressions are in dark grey The general statements (it / there) are in italics 1 Precise information on the state of resources is vital for effective ecosystem management. Ecosystems are complex and constantly changing environments and, though their effective management depends on accurate and reliable decision-making, their complexity, paradoxically, makes reliable decision-making very difficult. Resource allocation is a particular issue, and decision makers involved in this process have previously relied on professional experience alone to help them make resource decisions. This paper has compared a number of computerized decision-making systems which can support this process and lead to greater decision reliability. Though both GIS and DSS decision support software seem to be effective, their combination into an integrated system helps the decision maker to best allocate resources, where the goal-function of the software is to optimize resource allocation and reduce wastage. This combination of

Unit 4 Choices Part E

104

software has other applications outside the field of ecosystem management, including emergency relief and government environmental policy. 2 The results presented here suggest that resource allocation decisions made by consumers are influenced strongly by considerations of value, cost and prestige. Shoppers appear to allocate financial resources based on intuitive feelings about whether an item is positive, rather than a careful consideration of the benefits involved. Because of the exploratory nature of this study, we were unable to collect data from multiple respondents, therefore a number of variables have been derived from only a single respondent. Though the reliability of these answers from a single source is uncertain, the results provide some evidence that shopping behaviour follows other types of affect-based decision-making. The model of shopping behaviour used in our study does not incorporate considerations of opportunity costs, which is a factor that has a significant impact on the resource allocation decisions studied here. Further research needs to be done on developing a more complete model of shoppers financial resource allocation behaviour. It would also be beneficial to try to apply approaches from cognitive psychology to understanding how incentives affect allocation decisions. 3 In conclusion, it is apparent that difficult resource allocation decisions are as common in the provision of medical care as in any other type of field. Resources, such as medical supplies, staff and money for investment or purchase of equipment, are finite, so decisions must be made about how to distribute these for the care of needy patients. There are obvious ethical dilemmas involved in how to allocate scarce medical resources and, though cost-effectiveness is an unpalatable issue in medicine, with competition between medical departments for available resources, many medical authorities argue that it must nevertheless be considered.

1e

Answers
1 Conclusion 2 has the most hedging, Conclusion 3 the least. 2 Function Hedging language (Y/N)? Summary of key points Suggesting broader implications of the thesis or findings Discussion of implications from key points A restatement of the original thesis Weaknesses of the research Recommendations for further research N Y Y N Y Y

3  Reasons for the differences lie in the strength / weakness of the conclusions / results, depending on the evidence given.

2  Referring to previous sections of an academic text in the conclusion


2a & 2b
Answers
Concerning hypothesis 1 (see Section 4.1), that decision-making under stress can be improved through training, it seems clear that Strategies in order above (1, 2, 3)
Unit 4 Choices Part E 105

2c

Answers
Regarding hypothesis 2 (see Section 4.2), the results both agree and disagree with the statement that time stress affects the ability to make decisions. For example, more than half of the respondents Strategies in order above (1, 2, 3)

2d

Answers
The results presented here suggest that 2resource allocation decisions made by consumers are influenced strongly by considerations of value, cost and prestige. Shoppers appear to allocate financial resources based on intuitive feelings about whether an item is positive, rather than a careful consideration of the benefits involved. Because of 1the exploratory nature of this study, we were 4unable to collect data from multiple respondents, therefore a number of variables have been derived from only a single respondent. Though 6the reliability of these answers from a single source is uncertain, 5the results provide some evidence that shopping behaviour follows 3other types of affect-based decision-making. 6 The model of shopping behaviour used in our study does not incorporate considerations of opportunity costs, which is a factor that has a significant impact on the resource allocation decisions studied here. Further research needs to be done on developing a more complete model of shoppers financial resource allocation behaviour. It would also be beneficial to try to apply approaches from cognitive psychology to understanding how incentives affect allocation decisions.
5

2e

Answers
1 Hypotheses were: that consumers prefer a limited number of choices that more choices produce more post-decision regret 2  Hypothesis 1 generally supported, but depends on whether consumer is satisficer or maximizer. Hypothesis 2 fully supported. 3  Yes, that maximizers seem to like more choice even though this may be more stressful for decision-making.

2f & 2g
Answers
Function Describing the study / research as a whole Referring to other researchers results in general Generalizing from your own results Linking results to the research question / hypothesis Referring to specific details of your own results Tense(s) generally used Present Perfect / Present Simple Present Simple Present Simple Present Simple Past (Simple)

Unit 4 Choices Part E

106

2h

Answers
1 gives / has given 2 prevents 3 expected 4 chose 5 behave 6 make 7 were / are

3 Expressing importance, desirability and necessity


3a
Answers
Necessary: a more complete model of shoppers financial resource allocation behaviour Desirable: applying approaches from cognitive psychology to understanding how incentives affect allocation decisions

3b

Answers
1 F 2 C 3 C 4 F 5 C 6 F

3c

Answers
1  Further applied research is necessary to test the 3-stage Resource Planning model presented here in a real-life resource allocation situation. 2  Further work needs to be done to establish whether a rational approach to consumer behaviour really is more effective in terms of consumer satisfaction. 3  It is recommended that subsequent research be undertaken in the areas of resource allocation and systems management, especially with regard to long-term environmental factors. 4  Further investigation is needed to confirm whether or not this type of software can effectively replace human decision-making in this field. 5  Future research might explore the extent of psychological factors in the choice of university by overseas students. 6  More information on the factors affecting consumer choice would establish if the role of family and friends is indeed as important as these results suggest. 7 We must focus more attention on so-called irrational decision-making processes.

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3d

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Key phrase We need to must is necessary is needed Further research needs to be done might would Following verb form verb without to to + verb if ... / to + verb verb without to

3e

Suggested answers
1 Could be another verb, e.g. suggested, or an adjectives e.g. vital, important 2 that 3  A modal verb, e.g. should, must. The modal can be omitted if the main verb (here recommend in the passive form) duplicates the meaning. 4 passive (infinitive)

3f

Suggested answers
Note: There are many possible variations. It is suggested that further investigation be carried out into the role of economic factors in educational decision-making. It is also desirable that further study be conducted in the area of educational resource allocation to see if more effective use of scarce resources is possible.

Lesson task: 4 Writing a conclusion


4a Group discussion 4b Individual student work, followed by student discussion 4c Group discussion 4d4f Student discussion

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5 Review and extension


5a
Suggested answers
Sentence Further applied research is necessary to test the 3-stage Resource Planning model presented here in a real-life resource allocation situation. While these problems are undoubtedly significant, they can nevertheless be overcome through planning, preparation and coordination of government with industry and local communities. The model potentially offers an invaluable tool for government and business decision-makers faced with the problem of how to handle increasingly scarce resources. The evidence presented above suggests that we are faced with serious questions about the best way to manage our natural resources in the coming half century. Increasing population will put more stress on existing water, food, energy and industrial supplies. Order 4 Function Weaknesses of the research / Recommendations for further research A restatement of the original thesis

Discussion of implications from key points

Summary of key points

Broader implications

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5b

Answers
Text The results 1) presented here suggest that resource allocation decisions 2) made by consumers are influenced strongly by considerations of value, cost and prestige. Shoppers 3) appear to allocate financial resources based on intuitive feelings about whether an item is positive, rather than a careful consideration of the benefits involved. Because of the exploratory nature of this study, we 4) were / have been unable to collect data from multiple respondents, therefore a number of variables 5) derive / have been derived from only a single respondent. Though the reliability of these answers from a single source is uncertain, the results 6) provide some evidence that shopping behaviour follows other types of affect-based decision-making. The model of shopping behaviour 7) used in our study does not incorporate considerations of opportunity costs, which is a factor that 8) has a significant impact on the resource allocation decisions studied here. Further research 9) needs to be done on developing a more complete model of shoppers financial resource allocation behaviour. It 10) would also be beneficial to try to apply approaches from cognitive psychology to understanding how incentives affect allocation decisions. Function Answering a question raised in the introduction

Summary of key points

Weaknesses of the research

Recommendations for further research Suggesting broader applications of the thesis or findings

5c Individual student work

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Additional resources
Appendix 1

Text A How to win an argument with a vegetarian


In the war between vegetarians and meat eaters, undeniably vegetarians have a strong ethical argument for not eating meat: basically to eat meat you have to kill an animal, and all things considered, its probably best that no animals die just to feed us. However, even the argument against killing doesnt convince me that going vegetarian is best. There are strong arguments which prove, I feel, that a meatbased diet is superior in almost every way to a vegetarian one. In fact, even the vegetarians favourite argument that killing animals for meat is cruel isnt correct. So here are the key arguments in favour of eating meat (and incidentally showing why vegetarianism is just wrong!!).

1 We are natural omnivores


Im not saying that killing animals is a great thing in itself, of course. Ill say it again, its best if we dont kill animals for food, but, at the same time, we have to be realistic and face facts! Its IN OUR NATURE TO EAT MEAT. Humans are natural omnivores were evolved to eat just about anything, including meat. Any dentist can tell you that a human mouth contains teeth which are designed for cutting through tough meat we share that in common with other large carnivores. Now why would we have teeth like that if it wasnt natural for us to eat meat, at least as part of our diet? We are designed to be adaptable and that includes eating meat. Many other primates do it, so why do we think its not natural for humans too?

2 Meat is a superb source of nutrients


This is an obvious point. Meat is an excellent source of nutrients which are vital for maintaining health, providing energy, and helping the body to grow and repair itself. As proof of how healthy meat is, just look at Inuit people in Greenland: they live on a diet which is almost purely meat and seafood, with hardly any vegetables at all, and yet they somehow manage to stay perfectly healthy. Now why is that? Because MEAT IS GOOD FOR YOU!! There is no other source of food on the planet which contains such a concentration of valuable carbohydrates, protein, fats, amino acids, minerals and vitamins. Meat is the original superfood.

3 Eating meat is healthier



A lot of vegetarians like to claim that meat-based diets are unhealthy and that vegetarian ones, by implication, must be a lot healthier. But this is confusing vegetarianism with eating a balanced diet. Im not saying that just because you eat meat you should ONLY eat meat, but thats what a lot of vegetarians try

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to claim. Of course I eat meat but I also enjoy fruit, vegetables, wholegrains and pulses, too, and the more the better. My main interest is in staying fit and healthy. The question is, how healthy is your diet if, as vegetarians do, you take meat out of it? And equally importantly, what do vegetarians use as a substitute for meat in their diets? To come back to my first point, its well known that meat is an excellent source of nutrients, containing essential fats and proteins, minerals and even vitamins. As I pointed out above, we evolved as meat eaters, so WE ARE EVOLVED TO NEED MEAT. Its that simple. Take those valuable nutrients out of your diet by refusing to eat meat, and youve suddenly got a big problem for getting adequate nutrition, because beans and nuts and vegetables wont be able to keep you healthy. But lets come to my second question: how healthy are the substitutes for meat that vegetarians choose? Have you ever looked at a vegetarian cookbook? Its full of recipes containing dairy and eggs of course they need these to replace the protein that they ought to be getting from meat in the first place (and dont even mention that vegetarians shouldnt be eating eggs! Of course they shouldnt, but thats typical of their poor logic I think animals are cute I wont eat animals because killing is wrong Ill still eat eggs, though!). So, in fact, vegetarian diets are often far, far more unhealthy than meat-based ones, due to the large amounts of cream, milk, eggs and so on, all full of cholesterol, that they eat.

4 Eating meat is not cruel


Of course, the argument that all vegetarians come back to sooner or later is that eating meat is in some way cruel. Maybe youre thinking, yes, he admitted that himself because he said its better not to have to kill things for food. Well, no, youd be wrong. I do think that its a shame to have to kill things for food because then were depriving another creature of its life, and of course its best if that doesnt happen, but that DOESNT automatically mean that its cruel. Modern farming and slaughtering methods help to ensure that the animals raised for food are happy and dont suffer any pain at all when theyre slaughtered. So how can we call that cruel? Recent years have seen an explosion in the popularity of free-range and organic meats, which prove that the animals are well cared for and can live a decent life before theyre slaughtered. In fact, raising animals for meat is MORE humane than not doing it, because if youre a meat farmer you have an interest in looking after those animals to make sure that they are healthy and happy. This is an old argument called the Logic of the Larder and vegetarians always try to avoid it because they know its true: if we didnt raise animals for meat, fewer of those animals would be born, and wed have no incentive to look after them; theyd just be stray wild animals and you can bet that their lives would be pretty brutal and short in the wild. Ill say it again: human animal husbandry helps more animals to live a comfortable, protected life well fed, and well cared-for.

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Text B Three key arguments in favour of vegetarianism


Ive been a vegetarian for 27 years now. I look back on the time when I ate meat and know that I enjoyed eating it. Meat tasted great. I still think that. However, that hasnt made me ever want to reconsider my decision to become a vegetarian. For all that meat is tasty, that shouldnt be the basis on which we decide whether its right to eat it or not. Over the years Ive had this discussion on so many occasions with my meat-eating friends, and I think Ive become pretty good at explaining the most convincing arguments for vegetarianism. In fact, when you compare the arguments for and against vegetarianism, you quickly realize that meat-eaters / anti-vegetarians have few strong arguments at all. The arguments all stack up strongly in favour of vegetarianism. During my discussions with meat-eaters, Ive realized that these are the most compelling arguments:

1 Going vegetarian is healthier


Many meat-eaters will claim that a vegetarian diet is somehow unhealthy or is deficient in nutrition. While I dont doubt that meat contains a lot of useful protein, fats and minerals, that doesnt mean that its a healthier option. In the first place, evidence from studies demonstrates that vegetarians live up to ten years longer than people who include meat in their diet. Reasons for this include the increased risks of some kinds of cancers, and a greater chance of contracting life-threatening heart disease as a consequence of a meat-rich diet. Of course, not all meats are equal, with white meat being slightly healthier than red, but overall meat-based diets are linked to a number of serious diet-related health problems. Secondly, all of the nutrients available in meat can easily be found in other foods: rich proteins and fats can be obtained from nuts, pulses and legumes, and fruits and vegetables are the richest sources of vitamins, not to mention the fact that a vegetarian diet is much higher in natural fibre than a meat-rich diet can ever claim to be.

2 Going vegetarian is better for the environment


Another compelling reason to go veggie is that its better for the environment. We live in an age of increasing sensitivity to environmental issues, and the choice of a vegetarian lifestyle is surely one of the most useful things one can do to prevent environmental damage. Industrial-scale farming of animals for food requires large areas of land; the use of land for raising otherwise unproductive animals directly causes the destruction of natural habitats for other wildlife. A moving example of this can be seen in deforestation of the Amazon rainforest to provide space for raising cattle intended as filling for hamburgers; approximately 70% of all deforested land in the Amazon is now used for raising livestock intended for meat production. Livestock production also harms the environment in other ways: vast amounts of fossil fuels are used in raising, feeding, transporting and processing meat, which besides damaging the environment also helps to push the world closer to resource scarcity (not to mention the cost of oil and its knock-on effects on other commodities). The burning of fossil fuels also contributes, of course, to global warming, yet animals reared on an industrial scale for meat production are now known to make another significant contribution of their own to global warming: production of methane. One source estimates that nearly 10% of all greenhouse gas emissions are caused by rearing livestock for meat.
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3 Killing animals for food is immoral


The final and strongest argument in favour of a vegetarian diet is the moral one: rearing and killing animals for the luxury of their meat is an act of cruelty. I say that this is the strongest argument because my first two arguments are basically for human benefit: healthier diets and protection of our own living environment, and as such theyre somewhat selfish. The final argument, though, is wholly moral, and puts the rights of the animal to the fore. The deliberate slaughter of animals for meat involves two types of cruelty: firstly, it obviously deprives the animals of life, and there is simply no good reason to do that when we have other food sources available to us. It is a mark of great arrogance that humans feel that their right to enjoy meat entitles them to kill other conscious creatures. Secondly, the animals we consume suffer psychological and physical pain during their lives before slaughter: the beaks and wings of chickens are frequently clipped off; cows and pigs may be castrated without anaesthetic; farmed animals are frequently kept in cramped, dirty conditions and may spend their whole lives indoors in narrow or ill-lit pens. Studies also show that even supposedly humane methods of killing are frequently painful and terrifying for the animal at the moment of its death. As a species, we have a duty to be better than this in the way that we treat other forms of life.

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Text C
It is undeniable that the consumption of meat is beneficial in terms of nutrition and psychological well-being. While there are also many strong moral and health arguments against the consumption of meat, some of which have been with us since the medieval period, perhaps the most compelling argument against the consumption of meat is what was described only 20 years ago as the recently popularized argument that eating meat is simply wasteful (Gussow, 1994, p.1110). In an age of concern about humanitys impact on the environment, and our treatment of the natural resources that sustain us, the argument of wastefulness is surely one on which both vegetarians and meat-eaters may agree, given that its focus is environmental rather than moral. The argument against meat on environmental / resource grounds has its root in concerns about overpopulation and the problem of world food supply. At the time of writing, the human population of the planet is approximately 7 billion (UN, 2011) and there are serious and growing concerns about whether the natural resources available to us are sufficient to sustain populations of this or even greater size in the future. Recent climate events and natural disasters ranging from floods to extensive wildfires in prime wheat-growing areas, combined with the effects of regional conflict and market instability, have pushed up food prices around the world. At the same time, a burgeoning middle class in India and China are, it is claimed, demanding ever more luxury food items, including meat and milk, thus helping to increase both demand and costs. There are serious questions, then, about whether existing food supplies are reliable. Against this background comes the claim that vegetarian diets are environmentally friendly and more sustainable, while the choice of eating meat is increasingly identified as a waste of otherwise useful resources. Indeed, an evaluation of the resources needed to produce meat, when compared with a similar nutritional yield from grain or other non-meat products, clearly demonstrates that the meat production makes great demands upon a variety of natural resources; if those same resources were used to grow crops instead, it is estimated that far more people could be fed from the same total of resources used. The production of a relatively small amount of meat, therefore, can be said to cause both direct losses of other foodstuffs, and indirect losses of natural resources that could otherwise be used for the production of greater quantities of non-animal foodstuffs. Direct losses are those incurred in feeding and watering farmed animals. Grain, corn and soy, which are used to feed livestock for meat consumption, could instead be eaten directly, arguably a more efficient use of the nutritional value of the grain. Approximately 13 kilograms of grain are required for each kilogram of beef produced, and as much as 21 kilos of grain for each kilo of lamb (Pimentel and Pimentel, 2003). This accords with Naylor et al.s estimate that two to five times more grain is needed in order to produce the same number of calories from meat as could be obtained by eating the grain directly (2005). Raising livestock also demands huge inputs of water, with livestock-related water demands described as high and growing (FAO, 2005, p. 128). Animals require water both for drinking and for servicing (washing, cleaning of equipment, cooling and waste disposal). Depending on the type of animal and other factors such as temperature, these quantities can be prodigious. According to Hoffman et al. (1994)

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a cow can require up to 102 litres of drinking water a day in high temperatures, anda further 16 litres for servicing. When water used for feed-crop irrigation is included in the calculation, the production of a single kilogram of meat may require 100 times more water than that of a kilogram of grain. Direct losses of valuable foodstuffs are accompanied by indirect losses caused by demands on natural resources made by the meat industry. As mentioned above, water is used both directly (drinking and servicing water for animals) and indirectly (irrigation of feed crops for animal feed). The indirect impacts of raising animals for meat make claims of the wastefulness of this type of diet significant. Increased demand for meat requires increased feed crops of corn, soy, grains and other cereals, which in turn puts pressure on land which could be used for other purposes such as growing crops for direct human consumption. Approximately 30% of the worlds ice-free land is currently associated with livestock production. Linked with this is the destruction of areas of prime forest in order to clear space for pasturing animals. Bittman (2008) notes that rising feed-crop prices caused by increasing demand for meat are causing many farmers to divert production from human food crops into animal feed, thus contributing to rising direct food prices, world hunger, and consequent negative effects of livestock farming. One of the most significant indirect resource losses from meat production is fossil fuels. Fuel required for transportation and farm machinery, and other energy demands for irrigation and other production equipment make meat production a wastefully energy-hungry activity. Consumption of fossil fuels in the production of food may be far higher than that used in personal transportation an area which is commonly criticized for excessive fossil fuel consumption (Eshel & Martin, 2005). The vast body of evidence available on the topic allows us to confidently state that growing consumption of meat is damagingly wasteful, both in terms of direct losses of otherwise consumable grain and water, and in indirect losses of water, land, feed-crops and fossil fuels. With approximately 800 million people around the world suffering from malnutrition or starvation, calls for consumers to shun meat in favour of vegetarian diets increasingly have more than just a moral appeal.

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