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Determining Molarity through Acid-Base Titration Areli Jaimes Chemistry Lab 1251-048 October 31, 2013 Introduction This

experiment teaches how to use the technique of titration in order to determine molarity of unknown solutions. Titration is a quantitative technique for finding concentrations precisely. The titrations were done to standardize a known base sodium hydroxide by titrating it with the analyte potassium hydrogen phthalate. Monoprotic acids along with diprotic acids were also titrated in this experiment. Procedure This experiment consisted of three parts. First part the standardization of NaOH solution was done with the acid KHP. One gram of the acid KHP was weighed roughly and recorded. The KHP was dissolved in an Erlenmeyer flask using distilled water bringing the water level to about 70-75mL. Five drops of phenolphthalein indicator were added. Using directions from appendix 3 the base NaOH was added to the buret and the initial volume recorded with significant figures accounted for. The stopcock was opened and the flask was swirled as the base was added. At first signed of the solution turning pink the titration was stopped and the flask rinsed down with distilled water along its sides. Titration was allowed to continue due to the solution turning back clear, however, titration was continued at much slower pace. The end point is when the solution turned pink and the liquid level in the buret served as the final volume. The titration was done three times in order to minimize error due to the easy error of exceeding equivalence point by adding too much base. It was not necessary to refill buret as long as it did

not fall below 50mL. Using the first KHP sample as a basis on how much base to add the second sample was weighed and calculated how much NaOH was to be used based on the findings from first titration. Added that much NaOH minus a milliliter and titrated one drop at a time. Doing the same for the third titration and the average was calculated from the three titrations. Part 2 was measuring the molarity of acetic solution using the standardized NaOH. 2.0mL of acetic acid solution were measured out using 10mL graduated cylinder. It was diluted with about 50mL of distilled water in an Erlenmeyer flask. The graduated cylinder was rinsed out several times with distilled water and then added to the flask. Five drops of phenolphthalein were added as well. This solution was titrated to the end point and repeated only once. Part 3 consisted of measuring the molarity of sulfuric acid solution with standardized NaOH. 2.0mL of sulfuric acid solution were measured out using a 10mL graduated cylinder. The sample was poured into an Erlenmeyer flask and diluted with 50mL of distilled water. The graduated cylinder was rinsed out several times and added to the flask. The solution was titrated to end point and repeated only once. The buret was emptied and clean using tap water to rinse it for 3 minutes. The excess base was dumped in the waste container. Results For trials 1 through 3 in part 1 we used 1.01g, 1.02g, and 1.01g of KHP in that respective order. With the final volume of NaOH used being 23.3mL trial 1, 25.2mL trial 2, 25.2mL trial 3. Trials 1 through 3 molarity found were 0.21227M, 0.198214M, and 0.19626984M. With average molarity being 0.202M. The molarity of acetic acid in part 2 was found to be 0.9395M trial 1, and 0.788M trial 2. With an average molarity of 0.863M. Part 3 the molarity of sulfuric acid was found to be 0.5075M trial 1 and 0.487M trial 2. With average molarity being 0.500M. First formula used for finding molarity calculations:

M1 x V1 = M2 x V2 Where M and V stand for mass and volume of a solution. Formula can be manipulated to solve dilution solutions depending on what information you are given first. Second formula used to calculate molarity: M = Mols/L Where M is the molarity or concentration in a solution. Moles being the amount present of x chemical dissolved and L being liters or total volume of solution in liters. Table 1 Data Equation calculation Mass KHP used (g) Molar mass of KHP (g/mol) Moles of KHP used Acid:Base molar ration Moles of NaOH Initial Volume of NaOH (mL) Final volume of NaOH (mL) 44.2 32.3 33.6 .004946 20.9 .004995 7.10 .01421 8.40 1:1 1:1 1:1 .004946 mols .004995 mols .004946 mols 204.221g 204.221g 204.221g 1.01g 1.02g 1.01g Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3

Volume of NaOH used (mL, L) Molarity of NaOH (moles/L) Average molarity of NaOH (mol/L)

23.3mL .0233L

25.2mL .0252L

25.2mL .0252L

0.21227

0.198214

0.19626984

0.202

0.202

0.202

Table 2 Measuring molarity of Acetic acid solution using standardized NaOH Data Equation Calculations Molarity of NaOH Initial volume of NaOH (mL) Final volume of NaOH (mL) Volume of NaOH used (mL) Moles of NaOH used Acid:Base molar ratio Moles of acetic acid 0.001879 1:1 0.001879 0.001576 1:1 0.001576 9.3 7.8 19.5 27.3 0.2029 10.2 0.2029 19.5 Trial 1 Trial 2

Volume of acetic acid used (mL, L0 Molarity of acetic acid (moles/L) Average molarity

0.002mL 2L

0.002mL 2L

0.9395

0.788

0.86375

0.86375

Table 3 Measuring molarity of sulfuric acid using standardized NaOH Data Equation Calculation Molarity of NaOH (moles/L) Initial volume of NaOH (mL) Final volume of NaOH (mL) Volume of NaOH used (moles) Moles of NaOH used Acid:Base molar ration Moles of sulfuric acid Volume of sulfuric acid used (mL, L) 0.001015 0.002mL 2L 0.000974 0.002mL 2L 0.002029 2:1 0.001948 2:1 10.0 9.6 12.9 22.5 12.9 12.9 0.2029 0.2029 Trial 1 Trial 2

Molarity of sulfuric acid (moles/L) Average molarity (mol/L)

0.5075

0.487

0.50

0.50

Discussion From table 1 we can see that the end point was reached when 23.3mL, 25.2mL, and 25.2mL of NaOH were used in that respective order. With the molarity being 0.212M, 0.200M, 0.200M respective order 1 through 3 and average molarity being 0.202M. It was also seen that 1 mole of acid was need for every 1 mole of base in the titration. The percent error for this part was quite low at 0.3%, with the theoretical yield being 0.1992M and the actual 0.2022M. The standard used was Potassium hydrogen phthalate because of its high purity and stability in air. A standard is used to compare the secondary standard this case NaOH to determine its concentration. The equation for this reaction was KHC8H4O4 + NaOH ------ KNaC8H4O4 + H2O. From part 2 it was seen that the molarity of acetic acid was 0.9395M, and 0.788M with average molarity at 0.90M. The percent error was 7.4% the highest of the three parts but still quite low. With the theoretical being 0.8M and the actual 0.8637M. Again the molar ration was 1 to 1. With the volume of acetic acid used in both trials as 0.002mL. The equation for this reaction was HC2H3O2(aq) + NaOH(aq) ------ NaC2H3O2(aq) + H2O(l). Part 3 shows the molarity of sulfuric acid as 0.5075M and 0.487M. The percent error was calculated to be 0.55% with the theoretical yield being 0.5M and the actual yield 0.49725M. With acid base ratio at 2:1. With also volume of sulfuric acid used at .002mL both trials. The equation for this reaction was H2SO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) --------- Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l). The experimental end to this titration occurs at the end point, which was signaled by the indicator. This experiment phenolphthalein was used as the indicator. It changes to a light shade of pink to show when the titration is complete. The accuracy and precision of this technique is very high and reliable. The percent errors calculated were quite low and showed that his technique supported with data is both accurate and precise.

Equivalence point is when enough of the titrant is added to react completely with the analyte. While end point is the experimental end of the titration occurs.

Conclusion It was found with supporting evidence from the experiment that the acid base ratio in a titration is proportional and the wanted results were almost exactly achieved. There was a small percent error in our calculations. So it shows there was human error which can probably be correlated to inexperience doing titrations and the fact that NaOH readily absorbs much water as a solid, which could have happened before dissolving it in the distilled water. This technique is very precise and when done with an experience provides great accuracy.

Sample calculations 1. M = mols/L 0.0049molsNaOH/.0233L NaOH = 0.2122M 0.2(.034) = M2(.025) --- [0.0068 = M2(.025)]/.025 = 0.272 M2

2. M1 x V1 = M2 x V2