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Citation Management
Home ! Research Help ! Citation Management

APA Citation Style

A"A citation style re#ers to the rules and conventions established by the American "sychological Association #or documenting sources used in a research paper$ A"A style re uires both in%te&t citations and a re#erence list$ 'or every in%te&t citation there should be a #ull citation in the re#erence list and vice versa$ (he e&amples o# A"A styles and #ormats listed on this page include many o# the most common types o# sources used in academic research$ 'or additional e&amples and more detailed in#ormation about A"A citation style) re#er to the "ublication Manual o# the American "sychological Association and the A"A Style *uide to Electronic Re#erences$

Also) #or automatic generation o# citations in appropriate citation style) use a bibliographic citation management program such as Re#+orks or End,ote$ -ou can #ind more in#ormation on this in our Citation Management page$

Reference Citations in Text

.n A"A style) in%te&t citations are placed +ithin sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear +hat in#ormation is being uoted or paraphrased and +hose in#ormation is being cited$

Examples: Works by a single author

(he last name o# the author and the year o# publication are inserted in the te&t at the appropriate point$ #rom theory on bounded rationality /Simon) 01234 .# the name o# the author or the date appear as part o# the narrative) cite only missing in#ormation in parentheses$ Simon /01234 posited that

Works by multiple authors

5hen a +ork has t+o authors) al+ays cite both names every time the re#erence occurs in the te&t$ .n parenthetical material 6oin the names +ith an ampersand /74$ as has been sho+n /Leiter 7 Maslach) 01184 .n the narrative te&t) 6oin the names +ith the +ord 9and$9 as Leiter and Maslach /01184 demonstrated 5hen a +ork has three) #our) or #ive authors) cite all authors the #irst time the re#erence occurs$ :ahneman) :netsch) and (haler /01104 #ound .n all subse uent citations per paragraph) include only the surname o# the #irst author #ollo+ed by 9et al$9 /Latin #or 9and others94 and the year o# publication$ :ahneman et al$ /01104 #ound

Works by associations corporations go!ernment agencies etc"

(he names o# groups that serve as authors /corporate authors4 are usually +ritten out each time they appear in a te&t re#erence$ /,ational .nstitute o# Mental Health ;,.MH<) =>>?4 5hen appropriate) the names o# some corporate authors are spelled out in the #irst re#erence and abbreviated in all subse uent citations$ (he general rule #or abbreviating in this manner is to supply enough in#ormation in the te&t citation #or a reader to locate its source in the Re#erence List +ithout di##iculty$ /,.MH) =>>?4

Works #ith no author

5hen a +ork has no author) use the #irst t+o or three +ords o# the +ork@s title /omitting any initial articles4 as your te&t re#erence) capitaliAing each +ord$ "lace the title in uotation marks i# it re#ers to an article) chapter o# a book) or 5eb page$ .taliciAe the title i# it re#ers to a book) periodical) brochure) or report$ on climate change /9Climate and 5eather)9 011?4 Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices /01804 Anonymous authors should be listed as such #ollo+ed by a comma and the date$ on climate change /Anonymous) =>>84

Specific parts of a source

(o cite a speci#ic part o# a source /al+ays necessary #or uotations4) include the page) chapter) etc$ /+ith appropriate abbreviations4 in the in%te&t citation$ /Stigter 7 Bas) 0180) p$ 1C4 Be 5aal /011C4 overstated the case +hen he asserted that 9+e seem to be reaching $$$ #rom the hands o# philosophers9 /p$ =084$ .# page numbers are not included in electronic sources /such as 5eb%based 6ournals4) provide the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation 9para$9 or the heading and #ollo+ing paragraph$ /MDnnich 7 Spiering) =>>8) para$ 14

Reference $ist
Re#erences cited in the te&t o# a research paper must appear in a Re#erence List or bibliography$ (his list provides the in#ormation necessary to identi#y and retrieve each source$ %r&er: Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors@ last names$ Sources +ithout authors are arranged alphabetically by title +ithin the same list$ Authors: 5rite out the last name and initials #or all authors o# a particular +ork$ Use an ampersand /74 instead o# the +ord 9and9 +hen listing multiple authors o# a single +ork$ e$g$ Smith) E$ B$) 7 Eones) M$ Titles: CapitaliAe only the #irst +ord o# a title or subtitle) and any proper names that are part o# a title$ Pagination: Use the abbreviation p$ or pp$ to designate page numbers o# articles #rom periodicals that do not use volume numbers) especially ne+spapers$ (hese abbreviations are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters #rom edited books$ 'n&entation(: (he #irst line o# the entry is #lush +ith the le#t margin) and all subse uent lines are indented /3 to ? spaces4 to #orm a 9hanging indent9$ )n&erlining !s" 'talics(: .t is appropriate to use italics instead o# underlining #or

titles o# books and 6ournals$ (+o additional pieces o# in#ormation should be included #or +orks accessed online$ 'nternet A&&ress((: A stable .nternet address should be included and should direct the reader as close as possible to the actual +ork$ .# the +ork has a digital ob6ect identi#ier /BF.4) use this$ .# there is no BF. or similar handle) use a stable URL$ .# the URL is not stable) as is o#ten the case +ith online ne+spapers and some subscription%based databases) use the home page o# the site you retrieved the +ork #rom$ *ate: .# the +ork is a #inaliAed version published and dated) as in the case o# a 6ournal article) the date +ithin the main body o# the citation is enough$ Ho+ever) i# the +ork is not dated andGor is sub6ect to change) as in the case o# an online encyclopedia article) include the date that you retrieved the in#ormation$

( (he A"A has special #ormatting standards #or the use o# indentation and italics in manuscripts or papers that +ill be typeset or submitted #or o##icial publication$ 'or more detailed in#ormation on these publication standards) re#er to the "ublication Manual o# the American "sychological Association) or consult +ith your instructors or editors to determine their style pre#erences$ HH See the A"A Style *uide to Electronic Re#erences #or in#ormation on ho+ to #ormat URLs that take up more than one line$

Examples: Articles in +ournals maga,ines an& ne#spapers

Re#erences to periodical articles must include the #ollo+ing elements: author/s4) date o# publication) article title) 6ournal title) volume number) issue number /i# applicable4) and page numbers$ -ournal article one author accesse& online :u) *$ /=>>84$ Learning to de%escalate: (he e##ects o# regret in escalation o# commitment$ Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes) 105/=4) ==0%=I=$ doi:0>$0>0CG6$obhdp$=>>?$>8$>>= -ournal article t#o authors accesse& online SancheA) B$) 7 :ing%(oler) E$ /=>>?4$ Addressing disparities consultation and outreach strategies #or university settings$ Consulting Psychology ournal! Practice and "esearch) 5#/24) =8C%=13$ doi:0>$0>I?G0>C3% 1=1I$31$2$=8C -ournal article more than t#o authors accesse& online Jan Jugt) M$) Hogan) R$) 7 :aiser) R$ K$ /=>>84$ Leadership) #ollo+ership) and evolution: Some lessons #rom the past$ American Psychologist) $%/I4) 08=%01C$ doi:0>$0>I?G>>>I%>CCL$CI$I$08= Article from an 'nternet.only +ournal Hirtle) "$ K$ /=>>8) Euly%August4$ Copyright rene+al) copyright restoration) and the di##iculty o# determining copyright status$ D&'i( Magazine) 1)/?G84$ doi:0>$0>23G6uly=>>8%hirtle

-ournal article from a subscription &atabase /no *%'0 Colvin) *$ /=>>8) Euly =04$ .n#ormation +orth billions$ *ortune) 15+/=4) ?I%?1$ Retrieved #rom Kusiness Source Complete) EKSCF$ Retrieved #rom http:GGsearch$ebscohost$com Maga,ine article in print :luger) E$ /=>>8) Eanuary =84$ 5hy +e love$ ,ime) 1-1/24) 32%C>$ 1e#spaper article no author in print As prices surge) (hailand pitches F"EC%style rice cartel$ /=>>8) May 34$ ,he .all /treet ournal) p$ A1$ 1e#spaper article multiple authors &iscontinuous pages in print Belaney) :$ E$) :arnitschnig) M$) 7 *uth) R$ A$ /=>>8) May 34$ Microso#t ends pursuit o# -ahoo) reassesses its online options$ ,he .all /treet ournal) pp$ A0) A0=$

Re#erences to an entire book must include the #ollo+ing elements: author/s4 or editor/s4) date o# publication) title) place o# publication) and the name o# the publisher$ 1o Author or e&itor in print Merriam%5ebster@s collegiate dictionary /00th ed$4$ /=>>I4$ Spring#ield) MA: Merriam% 5ebster$ %ne author in print :idder) ($ /01804$ ,he soul o0 a ne1 machine$ Koston) MA: Little) Kro+n 7 Company$ T#o authors in print 'rank) R$ H$) 7 Kernanke) K$ /=>>?4$ Princi2les o0 macro&economics /Ird ed$4$ Koston) MA: Mc*ra+%HillG.r+in$ Corporate author author as publisher accesse& online Australian Kureau o# Statistics$ /=>>>4$ ,asmanian year (oo3 4000 /,o$ 0I>0$C4$ Canberra) Australian Capital (erritory: Author$ Retrieved #rom http:GG+++$ausstats$abs$gov$auGausstatsGsubscriber$ns#G>GCA=3C8?0>>>C181$$$ M'ileG0I>0CN=>>>$pd# E&ite& book *ibbs) E$ ($) 7 Huang) L$ ,$ /Eds$4$ /=>>04$ Children o0 color! Psychological interventions 1ith culturally diverse youth$ San 'rancisco) CA: Eossey%Kass$

Re#erences #or dissertations should include the #ollo+ing elements: author) date o# publication) title) and institution /i# you accessed the manuscript copy #rom the university collections4$ .# there is a UM. number or a database accession number) include it at the end o# the citation$ *issertation accesse& online -oung) R$ '$ /=>>?4$ Crossing (oundaries in ur(an ecology! Path1ays to sustaina(le cities /Boctoral dissertation4$ Available #rom "roOuest Bissertations 7 (heses database$

/UM. ,o$ I=?C804

Essays or chapters in e&ite& books

Re#erences to an essay or chapter in an edited book must include the #ollo+ing elements: essay or chapter authors) date o# publication) essay or chapter title) book editor/s4) book title) essay or chapter page numbers) place o# publication) and the name o# the publisher$ %ne author Laba6o) E$ /=>>I4$ Kody and voice: (he construction o# gender in #lamenco$ .n ($ Magrini /Ed$4) Music and gender! 2ers2ectives 0rom the Mediterranean /pp$ C?%8C4$ Chicago) .L: University o# Chicago "ress$ T#o e&itors Hammond) :$ R$) 7 Adelman) L$ /018C4$ Science) values) and human 6udgment$ .n H$ R$ Arkes 7 :$ R$ Hammond /Eds$4) udgement and decision ma3ing! An interdisci2linary reader /pp$ 0=?%02I4$ Cambridge) England: Cambridge University "ress$

Encyclope&ias or &ictionaries an& entries in an encyclope&ia

Re#erences #or encyclopedias must include the #ollo+ing elements: author/s4 or editor/s4) date o# publication) title) place o# publication) and the name o# the publisher$ 'or sources accessed online) include the retrieval date as the entry may be edited over time$ Encyclope&ia set or &ictionary Sadie) S$) 7 (yrrell) E$ /Eds$4$ /=>>=4$ ,he ne1 Grove dictionary o0 music and musicians /=nd ed$) Jols$ 0%=14$ ,e+ -ork) ,-: *rove$ Article from an online encyclope&ia ContaineriAation$ /=>>84$ .n 5ncyclo26dia Britannica$ Retrieved May C) =>>8) #rom http:GGsearch$eb$com Encyclope&ia article :inni) ($ K$ /=>>24$ Bisney) 5alt /01>0%01CC4: 'ounder o# the 5alt Bisney Company$ .n 5ncyclo2edia o0 'eadershi2 /Jol$ 0) pp$ I23%I214$ (housand Faks) CA: Sage "ublications$

Research reports an& papers

Re#erences to a report must include the #ollo+ing elements: author/s4) date o# publication) title) place o# publication) and name o# publisher$ .# the issuing organiAation assigned a number /e$g$) report number) contract number) or monograph number4 to the report) give that number in parentheses immediately a#ter the title$ .# it +as accessed online) include the URL$ 3o!ernment report accesse& online U$S$ Bepartment o# Health and Human Services$ /=>>34$ Medicaid drug 2rice com2arisons! Average manu0acturer 2rice to 2u(lished 2rices /F.* publication ,o$ FE.% >3%>3% >>=2>4$ 5ashington) BC: Author$ Retrieved #rom http:GG+++$oig$hhs$govGoeiGreportsGoei%>3%>3%>>=2>$pd# 3o!ernment reports 3P% publisher accesse& online

Congressional Kudget F##ice$ /=>>84$ 500ects o0 gasoline 2rices on driving (ehavior and vehicle mar3ets! A CBO study /CKF "ublication ,o$ =88I4$ 5ashington) BC: U$S$ *overnment "rinting F##ice$ Retrieved #rom http:GG+++$cbo$govG#tpdocsG88&&Gdoc881IG>0%02%*asoline"rices$pd# Technical an&4or research reports accesse& online Beming) B$) 7 Bynarski) S$ /=>>84$ ,he lengthening o0 childhood /,KER 5orking "aper 020=24$ Cambridge) MA: ,ational Kureau o# Economic Research$ Retrieved Euly =0) =>>8) #rom http:GG+++$nber$orgGpapersG+020=2 *ocument a!ailable on uni!ersity program or &epartment site Jictor) ,$ M$ /=>>84$ Gaz2rom! Gas giant under strain$ Retrieved #rom Stan#ord University) "rogram on Energy and Sustainable Bevelopment 5eb site: http:GGpesd$stan#ord$eduGpublicationsGgaApromNgasNgiantNunderNstrainG

Au&io.!isual me&ia
Re#erences to audio%visual media must include the #ollo+ing elements: name and #unction o# the primary contributors /e$g$) producer) director4) date) title) the medium in brackets) location or place o# production) and name o# the distributor$ .# the medium is indicated as part o# the retrieval .B) brackets are not needed$ 5i&eocassette4*5* Achbar) M$ /BirectorG"roducer4) Abbott) E$ /Birector4) Kakan) E$ /5riter4) 7 Simpson) K$ /"roducer4 /=>>24$ ,he cor2oration ;BJB<$ Canada: Kig "icture Media Corporation$ Au&io recor&ing ,hat Hanh) ($ /Speaker4$ /01184$ Mind0ul living! a collection o0 teachings on love7 mind0ulness7 and meditation ;Cassette Recording<$ Koulder) CF: Sounds (rue Audio$ Motion picture *ilbert) K$ /"roducer4) 7 Higgins) C$ /Screen+riterGBirector4$ /018>4$ 8ine to 0ive ;Motion "icture<$ United States: (+entieth Century 'o&$ Tele!ision broa&cast Anderson) R$) 7 Morgan) C$ /"roducers4$ /=>>8) Eune =>4$ $0 Minutes ;(elevision broadcast<$ 5ashington) BC: CKS ,e+s$ Tele!ision sho# from a series 5hedon) E$ /BirectorG5riter4$ /0111) Becember 024$ Hush ;(elevision series episode<$ .n 5hedon) E$) Kerman) *$) *allin) S$) :uAui) '$) 7 :uAui) :$ /E&ecutive "roducers4) Bu00y the 9am2ire /layer$ Kurbank) CA: 5arner Kros$$ Music recor&ing Eackson) M$ /018=4$ Keat it$ Fn ,hriller ;CB<$ ,e+ -ork) ,-: Sony Music$

)n&ate& Web site content blogs an& &ata

'or content that does not easily #it into categories such as 6ournal papers) books) and reports) keep in mind the goal o# a citation is to give the reader a clear path to the source material$ 'or electronic and online materials) include stable URL or database name$

.nclude the author) title) and date published +hen available$ 'or undated materials) include the date the resource +as accessed$ 2log entry Arrington) M$ /=>>8) August 34$ (he viral video guy gets M0 million in #unding$ Message posted to http:GG+++$techcrunch$com Professional Web site ,ational Rene+able Energy Laboratory$ /=>>84$ Bio0uels$ Retrieved May C) =>>8) #rom http:GG+++$nrel$govGlearningGreNbio#uels$html *ata set from a &atabase Kloomberg L$"$ /=>>84$ "eturn on ca2ital 0or He1itt Pac3ard 14:%1:#0 to 0#:%0:0+$ Retrieved Bec$ I) =>>8) #rom Kloomberg database$ Central Statistics F##ice o# the Republic o# Kots+ana$ /=>>84$ Gross domestic 2roduct 2er ca2ita 0$:01:1##) to 0$:01:400+ ;statistics<$ Available #rom CE.C Bata database$ Entire Web site 5hen citing an entire 5eb site /and not a speci#ic document on that site4) no Re#erence List entry is re uired i# the address #or the site is cited in the te&t o# your paper$ 5itchcra#t .n Europe and America is a site that presents the #ull te&t o# many essential +orks in the literature o# +itchcra#t and demonology /http:GG+++$+itchcra#t$psmedia$comG4$ 'or more detailed in#ormation on A"A citation style such as in#ormation on articles in press) 6ournal special issues and supplements) translations) et cetera) see the "ublication Manual o# the American "sychological Association and the A"A Style *uide to Electronic Re#erences$ Fther citation guides and use#ul 5eb sites: American "sychological Association@s Web site "urdue University Fnline 5riting Lab@s APA 6ormatting an& Style 3ui&e Biana Hacker@s Research an& *ocumentation %nline Landmark@s Son of Citation Machine "repared by Cornell University Library "SEC Bocumentation Committee ,ovember =>>=P Revised April =>00 Send 'eedback Q CU .n#o Q CU Home Q "rivacy Q (e&t%only Search Ko& Q Q 'ind us on 'acebook Q Sta## Login R=>0I Q Cornell University Library) .thaca ,- 0283I Q C>?%=33%2022