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International Workshop CA Systems And Technologies

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HIGH SPEED MACHINING (HSM) THE EFFECTIVE WAY
OF MODERN CUTTING
Pasko, R. - Pr!"!#sk$, %. & S#o'k$, (.
Rafal Pasko Eng., Research assistant.
Lucjan Przybylski Prof. Eng., Cracow University of Technology, Prouction Engineering !nstitute,
"l. #ana Pawla !! $%, $&'()* Cracow, Phone +*( &, )*( -& $-, .a/ +*( &, )*( ,- &-.
0ogan 1loki Ph.2 Eng., Cracow University of Technology, Prouction Engineering !nstitute.
Summary: In this study the idea of HSM (High Speed Machining) including some different
definitions, is presented. The requirements referred to the machine tools, tools and
machining data are defined. Some examples of milling caes are descri!ed. Some
economical adantages of productiity, accuracy in terms of tool and toolholder
un!alancing are d iscussed.
) I*+ro',-+$o*
Machining with high speeds (HSM) is one of the modern technologies, which in
comparison with conventional cutting enables to increase efficiency, accuracy and uality of
wor!pieces and at the some time to decrease costs and machining time "#$%
&ven though High Speed Machining is !nown for a long time (first tries were made in early
twenties of the past century) there are still a lot of uestions and less or more
complicated
definitions of HSM%
'he first definition of HSM was proposed by (arl Salomon in )#*)% He has assumed that at
a certain cutting speed which is + ,)- times higher then in conventional machining, the chip
tool interface temperature will start to decrease (.ig% ))%
"ig #. Temperature as a f unction of cutting speed $%, &'.
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International Workshop CA Systems And Technologies

/t is not possible to verify this theory to its full e0tent based on recent e0perimental
results% 'here is a relative decrease of the temperature at the cutting edge that starts at certain
cutting speeds for different materials% 1ctually there are many different ways to define HSM,
upon them HSM is said to be "2$2
high cutting speed machining (v
c
),
high rotational speed machining (n),
high feed machining (v
f
),
high speed and feed
machining, high productive
machining%
3ractically, it can be noted that HSM is not simply high cutting speed% /t should be
regarded as a process where the operations are performed with very specific methods and
production euipment "2$% HSM is not only machining with high spindle speed because many
applications are performed with conventional spindle speeds% HSM is often used in finishing in
hardened steels with both high speeds and feeds% HSM can be called rather the High 3roductive
Machining when machining components in roughing to finishing and also in finishing to
super-finishing in components of all si4es%
. A//#$-a+$o*s o0 H$12 S/33' Ma-2$*$*1
'he use of HSM allow us to shorten the production time and to increase the accuracy
of
machined parts% High Speed Machining is being mainly used in three industry sectors due to
their specific reuirements ")$%
= Manual
A) Traditional process. Non-hardened (soft) blank (1), roughing (2) and sei-
finishing (!). "ardening to the final ser#ice condition ($). %&M process '
achining of electrodes and %&M of sall radii and corners at big depths
((). )inishing of parts of the ca#it* +ith good accessabilit* (,). Manual
finishing (-).
.) /oe process as (A) +here the %&M-process has been replaced b* finish
achining of the entire ca#it* +ith "/M ((). 0eduction of one process
step.
1) The blank is hardened to the final ser#ice condition (1), roughing (2), sei-
finishing (!) and finishing ($). "/M ost often applied in all operations
(especiall* in sall si2ed tools). 0eduction of t+o process steps. Noral
tie
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International Workshop CA Systems And Technologies
reduction copared +ith process (A) b* appro3iatel* !4 ' (45.
"ig. %. Improement of production process (hen using HSM $%'.
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International Workshop CA Systems And Technologies

'he first category is industry which deals with machining aluminum to produce automotive
components, small computer parts or medical devices "), 5, )-, ))$% 'his industry needs fast metal
removal, because the technological process involves many machining operations%
'he second category which is aircraft industry involves machining of long aluminum parts,
often with thin walls "), 5, )-, ))$%
'he third industry sector is the die mould industry which reuires dealing with finishing
of
hard materials "2$% /n this category it is important to machine with high speed and to !eep
high accuracy% /n this industry HSM is used for machining such parts as "2$2
6ie casting dies% 'his is an area where HSM can be utili4ed in a productive way as
most castings dies are made of demanding tool steels and have a moderate or small si4e%
.orging dies% Most forging dies are suitable for HSM due to thir comple0 shape 'he surface
is
very hard and often prone
crac!s%
/n7ection moulds and blow moulds are also suitable for HSM, because of their small
si4es%
8hich ma!es it economical to perform all operations in one set
up%
Milling of electrodes in graphite and cooper% /t is an e0cellent area for HSM% 9raphite can be
machined in a productive way with 'i((,:), or diamond coated solid carbide endmills%
Modelling and prototyping of dies and moulds% is one of the earliest area for HSM% &asy
to machine materials such as non-ferrous, for e0ample aluminum are used% 'he cutting speeds
are often as high as )+ --- , +- --- "rpm$ and the feeds are also very high%
;sing of the HSM in the above mentioned regions can cause the reduction of
production process when electrode milling &(M and &6M % HSM ensres a dimensional tolerance
of -,-2 mm,
while the tolerance when using &(M is -,) , -,2 "mm$ and &6M -,-) , -,-2% <eplacing &(M with
machining causes the durability and tool life of the hardened die or mould is
increased considerably%
4 So53 r3-o553*'3' /ara53+3rs 0or HSM
'here are some critical parameters for HSM, as for instance the depth of cut% 'he
cutting tool manufacturers provide recommendations regarding the machining parameters that
should be used "7$% 'hose parameters are usually one of many operating windows "7$ (applicable sets of
parameters)%
1n increase of cutting speed to HSM values give several benefits such as enlarging of
the
removal rate and improving of the final surface (.ig%
*)%
) r35o6a# ra+3 7-5
4
85$*9
. s,r0a-3 ro,12*3ssRa 7? 59
4 /o#$s2$*1 +$53 729
.:
);
12 6
):
;
:
)
0,33
.
4
4,3
3,5
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International Workshop CA Systems And Technologies

16,5
C
o
*
6
3
*
+
$o*a# 5$##$*1, "a## 3*' 5$##, D-<.: 7559,
a/<:.= 7559, 6-<):: 7585$*9,
06

<:.) 7558+oo+29
HSM 5$##$*1, "a## 3*'5$##,
D-<.: 7559, a/<:.. 7559,
6-<>:: 7585$*9,
0

<:.:; 7558+oo+29
"ig. ). *omparison of production indexes during machining of a punch $), +, ,'.
>elow there is a comparison of speeds used during machining some selected materials
using conventional and HSM methods ('ab% ))%
Ta!le #. *onentional s. High Speed Machining $#'.
/olid Tools (end ills, drills)
3C, coate 3C, PC2, cera4ic
6nde3able Tools (shell ills,
face ills)
3C, cera4ic, sialon, C05,
PC2
7ork aterial T*pical cutting
speed 89in:
"igh cutting
speed 89in:
T*pical cutting
speed 8 9in:
"igh cutting
speed 89in:
aluinu
?!4( 63C,
PC27
?!4(4 63C,
PC27
?,14 ?!,(; 63C,
PC27
cast
iron
soft 1(2 !,, !,, 121< 6sialon,
cera4ic7
ductile 14- 2$$ 2$$ <1$ 6cera4ic7
steel
free ach.
steel
14- !,, !,, ,14
allo* -, 2$$ 21! !,,
stainless 14- 1(2 1(2 2-$
hardness
"01,(
2$ 122 !4 63C7
<1 6C05,
cera4ic7
$, 63C7
1;! 6C05,
cera4ic7
titaniu !; ,1 $, <1
superallo* $, -, ;$ 63C7
21! 6sialon7
!,, 6sialon,
cera4ic7
1s it was pointed out before HSM is mainly used in die mold industry% >elow some
typical cutting data for machining of die are selected in 'ables 2 and *%
Ta!le %. Typical cutting data for solid car!ide end mills (ith Ti(*,-) or Ti.l- / coating in
hardened steel0 (H1* 23 / 2,) $%'.
T*pe of
processing
#
c
89in: a
p
85: = a
e
85:= f
2
89tooth:
0oughing 144 , ' ; !( ' $4 4,4( ' 4,1
/ei '
finishing
1(4 ' 244 ! ' $ 24 ' $4 4,4( ' 4,1(
)inishing and
/uper-finishing
244 ' 2(4 4,1 ' 4,2== 4,1 ' 4,2== 4,42 ' 4,2
@ A of the cutter diameter, @@ "mm$
Ta!le ). HSM cutting data !y experience (1 / roughing, " / finishing) $%'.
#
c
89in:
Material= "ardness 1on#. "/M ' 0 "/M ' )
/teel 41.2 1(4 ". >!44 ?$44 ><44
/teel 42.192 !!4 ". >244 ?2(4 >,44
/teel 4!.11 !44 ". >144 ?244 >$44
/teel 4!.11 !< ' $; "01 >;4 ?1(4 >!(4
/teel 4$ $; ' (; "01 >$4 ?144 >2(4
@16 4;.1 1;4 ". >!44 ?(44 >!444
Aluinu ,4 ' -( ". >1444 ?2444 >(444
Non-ferr. 144 ". >!44 ?1444 >2444
@ acording to (oromant Material (lassification ((M()
A
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n

s
e
#
e
r
i
t
*

8

9
s
:
6uring dry milling with those machining parameters compressed air or oil mist under
high pressure is recommended%
? Too#2o#'3r a*' +oo# ,*"a#a*-$*1 /ro"#35
'he elements of the machine , tool subsystem that determine efficiency of high
speed
machining are2 spindles, a0es, motor drivers, toolholders and cutting tools% 'he spindle is
probably the most critical element ")$, so to maintain ma0imum productivity and accuracy it is
important to ensure the run-out as small as possible% 'he smaller the run-out is, the shorter is the
time between changing inserts in a milling cuter%
&specially in HSM applications the si4e of run-out is crucial for accuracy "), +$% 'he
'otal
/ndicator <eadout ('/< ) should be ma0imum )- microns at the cutting edge "2$% &very )-
microns in added run-out gives +-A reduction of tool life% &ven if the tool, toolholder, and
spindle are precisely balanced, there still can be several sources of instability% Bne of the sources
of instability is the fit between toolholder and spindle interface% 'here is often a measurable
clearance in this grip% Moreover, it also may be a chip or dirt inside the taper% /n practice, an
endmill run at 2-
--- rpm may not need to be balance to any better than 2- gmm, and + gmm is generally
appropriate for much higher speeds% 'he .ig% + refers to unbalance force relating to the tool and
adapter weight of )%2 !g% "2$
/pindle 6.A@ 1-4.2 Tooholderl +eight 1.2 kg
?
1,4 g
;4 g
$4 g
4
24 g
14 g
.
> 2 g
)
:
: ;::: ):::: );:::
0otational speed n 8rp:
"ig. 3. 4n!alance s. i!ration seerity at !earing $%'.
/t is very difficult to balance the tool perfectly, so for the optimal balance is usually
accepted the point beyond which further improvements in tool balance do not improve the
accuracy or surface finish of the wor!piece%
'he tool unbalance acceptable for the process is determined by the cutting forces in the
cut, the balance condition of the machine, and the range in which these two aspects of process
affect
each other%
; Ma-2$*3 +oo#s 0or HSM r3@,$r353*+s
&ven though high speed spindle options for conventional machining centers has been
available for some time, it is only recently that machine tool designers and engineers have
been developing the machines for HSM% 1s it was noted previously, HSM reuires fitting of
many parameters specified in 'able 5, which are connected with the machine tools% >elow are
some typical demands on the machine tool and the data transfer in HSM (/SBC>'5- or comparable
si4e, *
, a0is)%
Ta!le 3. 5emands on the machine tool and the data transfer $%'.
/pindle speed range
>= $4 444 rp
/pindle po+er ? 22 k7
Brograable feed rate $4 '
,4 9in
0apid tra#els > <4 9in
A3is dec.9acceleration
? 1g (faster +. linear otors)
.lock processing speed
1 ' 24 s
&ata flo+ #ia %thernet 2(4
kbit9s (1 s)
6ncreents (linear) ( ' 24
1ircular interpolation #ia
NC0./ (no linear increents)
"igh theral stabilit* and rigidit*
in spindle ' higher pretension
and cooling of spindle bearings
Air blast9coolant through spindle
0igid achine frae +ith high
#ibration absorbing capacit*
&ifferent error copensations '
teperature, Duadrant, ball
scre+ are ost iportant
Ad#anced look ahead function in
the 1N1
A Ma-2$*$*1 53+2o's 0or +23 '$3 a*' 5o,#' 5a*,0a-+,r$*1
3ractically, HSM is used to reduce the costs of wor!piece production% Such a case
ta!es place when machining press dies or moulds% 1s it is !nown dies consist of cavities in
various shapes, with the dimensions and numerous radii si4es of corners% 1s an e0ample
methods for machining of a cavity below are described%
>ased on e0perience, or other production information, the surface machined, can be split up
in segments% &ach segment can be machined with one set of insert edges% 'his techniue can
be used both for roughing and finishing% /t gives several benefits, namely "2$ 2
better machine tool utilisation , less interruptions, less manual tool
changing, higher productivity, i%e% easier to optimise cutting data,
better cost efficiency , optimisation vs% real machine tool cost per hour,
higher die or mould geometrical accuracy, which means the finishing tools can be
changed before getting e0cessive wear%
A.). M3+2o's 0or 5a-2$*$*1 a -a6$+!
'here are several methods used for machining the cavity%
Bne of them is to pre-drill of a starting hole% (orners can be pre-drilled as well% 'his
method is not recommendable, because a special tool is needed% 8hen the cutter brea!s through
the pre- drilled holes in the corner, the variations in the cutting forces and temperature appear
negative from a cutting point of view% 8hen using pre-drilled holes the re-cutting of chips also increases,
(.ig% +)%
"ig. 2. 6xample of machining a caity (ith
predrill a starting hole $%'.
"ig. +. 6xample of machining (ith a !all nose
endmill $%'.
/n the second method a ball nose end mill is applied% 'hus it is common to use a
pec!- drilling cycle to reach full a0ial depth of the cut and then mill the first layer of the cavity%
'his is repeated until the cavity is finished as shown in .ig% = "2$%
Bne of the best methods is linear ramping in DCE and F to reach a full a0ial depth of the
cut
"2$% 'he inclination can start both from in to out or from out to in% /t depends on the geometry of
the
die or mould% 'he main problem is how to evacuate of the chips in the best way% 6own
milling should be done with a continuous movement and continuous cutting% /t is important to
approach with ramping movement or even better with even circular interpolation, during changing
to a new radial depth of cut% (.ig% 7)
"ig. 7.6xample of machining (itch lin
ear ramping $%'.
"ig. ,. 6xample of machining (itch ramping
capacity $%'.
'he last method is effective when using round insert cutters or end mills with a ramping
capacity% 'he best choice it is to ta!e the first a0ial depth of cut using circular interpolation in
heli0 the rest of machining goes as in the previous point% (.ig% G)
B Co*-#,s$o*
Hard competition causes rapid development of the machining technology and design of new
solutions% High Speed Machining is proposed as an e0ample% HSM ensures high metal
removal rates, boost productivity, improve surface finish and eliminates the need of coolant% /n spite of
high reuirements of machining tools, HSM gives numerous benefits% /t allows to shorten the
production
time and eliminates some treatment (e%g% manual finishing) beside simultaneously retaining
the accuracy% 'hese advantages are decisive for the use of HSM for machining the press dies%
&ven though HSM has been !nown for a long time, the research are still being developed for further
improvement of uality and minimi4ation of costs%
= R303r3*-3s
")$ 1shley S%, High / speed machining goes mainstream, Mechanical &ngineering, May
)##+,
(+= , =))%
"2$ 5ie 8 Mould Ma9ing .pplication :uide, Sandvi! (oromant,
)###%
"*$ "raisage a grande itesse, "a!rication des outillages0 des resultats spectaculaires, HI;sine
:ouvelle, )##+, )=%-2, nr 25#-, (5= , 5G)%
"5$ 9r4esi! 8%, ;odsta(y s9ra(ania material<( metalo(ych, 8:', 8ars4awa,
)##G%
"+$ Mason .%, 5ie and mold finishing. Ho( fast=, Manuf% &ng% )##+, t% ))+, nr *, s% *+-*=,*#-
5-,
52, 5+, 57-5G%
"=$ Materialy > I?@go Sympo>Aum > cy9lu B"ormy (trys9o(e i odle(nic>eC, Miar!i, ma7
)##7%
"7$ 3la4a M%, The prons and cons of high@speed machining, (anadian Machinery
and
Metalwor!ing, Sep% )##+, (G , )-)%
"G$ 3r4ybyls!i H%, Monolityc>ne fre>y tr>pienio(e > (egli9<( spie9anych no(eA generacAi,
// BgJlno!ra7owa Konferenc7a :au!owo , 'echnic4na LMa!osc w budowie obrabiare! i
technologii mas4ynN, Kra!Jw, )##7, ())+ , )2))%
"#$ Schul4 H%, Moriwa!i '%, High / speed machining, 1nn% of the (/<3, )##2, t% 5), nr 2, s% =*7
,
=52%
")-$ S4ewc4y! 1%, Dy!rane >espoly i (yposa>enie o!ra!iare9 do o!r<!9i > (yso9imi
pred9osciami s9ra(ania, 3race /BS, seria Bpracowania 1nalityc4no-Syntetyc4ne, )##*, nr
*%
"))$ 'lusty M%, High / speed machining, 1nn% of the (/<3, )##*, t% 52, nr 2, s% 7** ,
7*G%